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this with the theoretical vale obtained from the mass and dimensions of the object!

T"EO#$: %hen an object at rest is set into rotation abot some axis& it has a tendency to 'eep

rotatin( at some an(lar speed& , measred in radians)sec! This tendency is called the

rotational inertia and is characteri*ed by a physical +antity called the moment of inertia& I& of

the object! ,oment of inertia is the rotational conterpart of inertial mass in linear motion!

"ence the 'inetic ener(y of a rotatin( object is:

KE - I

.

/01

In the experiment we set the object rotatin( by attachin( it to a han(in( wei(ht and allowin( the

wei(ht to fall! Before droppin( the wei(ht& the ener(y is all potential ener(y& that of the han(in(

wei(ht! 2t the instant the wei(ht hits the floor the ener(y is all 'inetic ener(y& both in the

rotatin( body and in the fallin( object! I(norin( friction and the rotational 'inetic ener(y of the

plley /which is reasonable to do since both the object and plley rotate with little friction and

the plley3s moment of inertia is extremely small compared to that of the object1& we can apply

the 4aw of Conservation of Ener(y:

mgh - mv

f

.

5 I

f

.

! /.1

The velocity /v1 of the han(in( wei(ht is related to the an(lar velocity /1 of the rotatin( object

by v - r where r is the radis of the drm on the object! The final velocity is related to the

avera(e velocity& and the avera(e velocity can be fond from the distance dropped /h1 and the

time /t1 for the drop: v

avg

- /v

f

5 v

i

1 ) . & and v

avg

- h ) t& so that /with v

i

- 6& i!e!& startin( from

rest1 v

f

- .h ) t! %e can now sbstitte for both v

f

and

f

in E+! /.1 and solve for I in terms of

the measrable +antities m, g, h, t

and r :

I - mr

.

7 /gt

.

) .h1 8 0 9 /:1

The above e+ation will allow s to find the moment of inertia experimentally for any object!

%e will compare or reslts for a niform& solid dis' and a niform rin( with those derived from

theory! ;sin( the definition of moment of inertia& I - r

.

dm & one can show that theory predicts

I

disk

- MR

.

/<1

I

ring

- M/R

IN

.

5 R

OUT

.

1 /=1

where M is the mass of the dis' or rin(& R is the radis of the dis'& R

IN

is the inner radis of the

dis'& and R

OUT

is the oter radis of the dis'! />ote: the ?5@ si(n is correct in E+! /=1A1

,oment of Inertia

B#OCEC;#E:

01 Be(in with the empty apparats as the rotatin( object! [CAUTION: 2djst the hei(ht of the

plley so that the strin( will wind and nwind from the apparats strai(ht withot (ettin( tan(led

p in the bearin(sA DTOB the rotation of the drm once the wei(ht hits the floor to prevent

possible tan(lin(A] #ecord the hei(ht h! In selectin( a mass to start the apparats rotatin(&

experiment with different masses ntil yo find one that will (ive a time of fall between : and E

seconds! %hyF /"I>T: consider sorces of error!1 Once an acceptable mass has been fond&

time at least three falls and then determine an avera(e time to se in E+! /:1! %hyF >ow

measre r& the radis of the rotatin( drm& with a pair of calipers and se E+! /:1 to calclate I!

Call this moment of inertia I

app

& the moment of inertia of the apparats!

.1 >ow place the rin( in the apparats and find the moment of inertia as yo did in Dtep 0

sin( E+! /:1! The moment of inertia that yo find is the moment of inertia of the apparats

B4;D the moment of inertia of the rin(! Dbtract yor vale of I

app

from this I to find the

moment of inertia of the rin(& I

ring

!

:1 #emove the rin( and place the dis' in the apparats and find the moment of inertia!

Dbtract the vale of I

app

from yor vale of I to find the moment of inertia of the dis'& I

disk

!

<1 >ow place the rin( on top of the dis' so that both are in the apparats and find the moment

of inertia! Dbtract the vale of I

app

from yor vale of I to find the moment of inertia of the

dis')rin( combination& I

comb

!

=1 ,easre the radis of the dis' and the inner and oter radii of the rin(! #ecord the masses

of the rin( and dis' which shold be painted on the rin( and dis'! >ow se E+s! /<8=1 to

calclate the theoretical moments of inertia of the rin( and dis'!

#EBO#T:

0! ,a'e a s'etch of the experimental set8p! Indicate the +antities m, r, and h on the s'etch!

.! Compare yor experimental and theoretical moments of inertia for the rin(! 2re they close&

within 06GF Can yo explain any discrepancyF

:! Compare yor experimental and theoretical moments of inertia for the dis'! 2re they close&

within 06GF Can yo explain any discrepancyF

<! Compare yor experimental and theoretical moments of inertia for rin()dis' combination!

2ccordin( to theory& the two moments of inertia simply add to (ive the moment of the

combination! 2re they closeF Can yo explain any discrepancyF

=! Compare the masses and the moments of inertia of the rin( and dis'! %hich mass is

bi((erF By how mchF %hich moment of inertia is bi((erF By how mchF Explain these

resltsA

Check ith !o"r instr"ctor on the ne#t to steps$ the! ma! be optiona% for an in&c%ass report'

H! ;sin( al(ebra& derive E+! /=1 by considerin( a rin( to be a cylinder with an inner cylinder ct

ot of it! /"I>T: The rin( is of niform density! Be carefl abot sin( the appropriate masses!1

I! Dhow that E+! /:1 can be derived startin( with - I& instead of the 4aw of Conservation of

Ener(y as was done here!

.

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