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Torque is a measure of how much a force is acting on an object causes that object to rotate

and he second condition of equilibrium is simplified as the net torque which is acting on the body is zero.

This could be achieved by equating the sum of all counter clockwise torques to the sum of all clockwise

torques. The objectives of the study are to analyze the systems that are in equilibrium using the second

condition and to distinguish some of the second condition of equilibriums use and significance. In the

three parts of experiment which finds the weight of the pan, force exerted and weight of the beam

respectively, we noticed how torque is affected by the forces acting on the system and their radial

distance from the axis and also, how the rotational equilibrium is applied. We have come up to the

conclusion when second condition of equilibrium is satisfied, there is no angular acceleration and body will

not be moving and will be in rotational equilibrium.

Introduction

Torque is a measure of how much a force is

acting on an object causes that object to

rotate. It is also called as the moment of force.

The object rotates about an axis, which we call

the pivot point. As the force applied increases,

torque also increases. Therefore, torque is

directly proportional with the force applied on the

object. Furthermore, we must note that the force

applied on the object should be perpendicular to

its axis of rotation.

An example would be pushing a door to open it.

The force of your push (F) causes the door to

rotate about its hinges (the pivot point). How

hard you need to push depends on the distance

you are from the hinges (r). The closer you are to

the hinges (the smaller r is), the harder it is to

push. This is what happens when you try to push

open a door on the wrong side. The torque you

created on the door is smaller than it would have

been had you pushed the correct side (away from

its hinges).

Equilibrium simply implies a state of balance. Its

first condition of equilibrium states that the

vector sum of all forces acting on it must be zero.

It is when a body at rest or moving with uniform

velocity has zero acceleration.

Meanwhile, the second condition of equilibrium

states that the net torque acting on the body

should be zero for angular acceleration to be

zero. Thus for a body in equilibrium, the vector

sum of all the torques acting on it about any

arbitrary axis should be zero.

By convention, the sum of all counter clockwise

torques is equated to the sum of all clockwise

torques.

In the first part of the experiment, we are trying

to determine the weight of the pans using the

second condition of equilibrium. By equating the

forces that will make the system rotate clockwise

to the forces that will make the system rotate

counter clockwise, we can derive the formula

needed:

= (

For the second part of the experiment, we are

trying to determine the force needed to be in

equilibrium using the second condition of

equilibrium. By equating the forces that will make

the system rotate clockwise to the forces that will

make the system rotate counter clockwise, we

can derive the formula needed:

= (

)

(

)(

)(

)

(

)

For the third part of the experiment, we are

trying to determine the weight of the beam using

the second condition of equilibrium. By equating

the forces that will make the system rotate

clockwise to the forces that will make the system

rotate counter clockwise, we can derive the

formula needed:

= (

)(

)

(

)

Methodology

For this experiment

which is about

torque: the second

condition of

equilibrium, we

were given a set of

a model balance, a

set of weights, 1

piece of meter stick,

a protractor, 2

pieces of weight

pans, a spring

balance and a

digital weighing

scale.

In the first part of the experiment which is

determining the weights of the pans, we set up

the model balance in a levelled table top and

make sure that the axis of rotation is passing

through the center of gravity of the beam. We

then hang the two pans on the beam. We place a

10 gram (W

1

) weight on the first pan and try to

make a state of equilibrium to the system. We

can know if the state of equilibrium is achieved if

the beam is perfectly horizontal even though

there are unequal masses on the pans and we

can do this by placing the pans on farther and

closer to the axis of rotation. If the state of

equilibrium is now achieved, we now measure the

distance of the two pans from the axis of rotation

and record there as L

1

and L

2

. After measuring,

we now reset the system and place a 5 gram

(W

2

) weight on the second pan making sure that

we remove the 10 gram weight on the earlier

part of the experiment. We again try to create a

state of equilibrium to the system and record the

distances of the pan as L

3

and L

4

. After recording,

we again reset the system and make the second

trial with W

1

as 15 grams and W

2

as 25 grams

and the third trial with W

1

as 30 grams and W

2

as

20 grams with the same procedures as the first

trial. Using the values got, we can compute for

the weight of the pan using the formulas

provided.

For the second

part of the

experiment

which is

determining the

force needed to

be in

equilibrium, we

use the same

set up as the

first part of the

experiment but

now, we will

make use of

the spring

balance. First,

we place 50

grams (W

1

) on

the first pan on

the left side of

the beam and

use the spring balance to achieve the state of

equilibrium. We must make sure that the spring

balance makes an acute angle or an angle that is

less than 90 with the beam that is in horizontal

position. After achieving the state of equilibrium,

we record the reading of the spring balance as

F

measured

. We also measure the angle of inclination

of the spring balance from the beam and the

distance of the pan and the spring balance from

the axis of rotation and mark it as L

1

and L

2

respectively. After which, we can now compute

for the force exerted on the system. For the

second trial of the second part of the experiment,

we still use the same set up of the system but

this time, we now place the spring balance on the

right side of the beam. Afterwards, the same

procedure applies as the first trial of this

experiment. Using the values got, we can

compute for the force applied to the system.

For the third part of the experiment which is

determining the weight of the beam, we now

place the axis of rotation in the other hole

provided. We now hang the first pan on the right

side of the beam and place 50 grams (W

1

) on it

and adjust its position until the state of

equilibrium is acquired. We then measure the

distance of the pan from the new axis of rotation

(L

1

) and the distance of the former axis of

rotation and the new axis of rotation (L

2

). After

which, we now use 60 grams and 70 grams as W

1

for the second and third trials and the same

procedures applies as the first trial. Using the

values got, we can compute for the weight of the

beam using the formulas provided.

Results and Discussion

In conducting the experiment, we had a bit of

trouble in making the system in the state of

equilibrium since the beam is very unstable

especially when weights are added. When our

group have finally achieved the state of

equilibrium, the problem facing us is measuring

the distances of the pans from the axis of

rotation without compromising the state of

equilibrium of the beam. The group also had a bit

of trouble in measuring the angle that the spring

balance makes with the beam in the second part

of the experiment. Finally, the last part of the

experiment is the trickiest of the all parts since

the axis of rotation is not on the center, rather

its just close to the center but the group has

managed to still put it in its state of equilibrium.

In the first part of the experiment, we

determined the weight of the pans using the

second condition of equilibrium. The following is a

sample computation of weight of the pans for the

first trial.

()()() ()()()

()() ()()

()

The table below shows the weights added on the

pans and the distances of the pans from the axis

of rotation.

T W (g)

L1

(cm)

L2

(cm)

L3

(cm)

L4

(cm)

P1

(g)

P2

(g)

1

W

1

= 10

12.5 17.8 23.2 19.5 25.53 24.96

W

2

= 5

2

W

1

= 15

13 20.7 15.5 7.6 24.38 24.73

W

2

= 25

3

W

1

= 30

10.7 23.5 23.9 13.4 25.34 25.19

W

2

= 20

ave. W of P1

25.08g

%diff of P1

1.12%

ave. W of P2

24.96g

%diff of P2

0.64%

With the tabulated results of the experiment, we

can notice that when one side of the beam with a

pan has added weights, the other side of the

beam with a pan without added weights tend to

be father away to balance the system. This is

important since to balance the system, the forces

making the system to rotate clockwise needs to

be equal to the forces that makes the system to

rotate counter clockwise and since torque is

computed by multiplying the force and its

distance from the axis of rotation, the only way

for the other side of the beam to be equal to the

other since that has a greater force, it needs a

greater distance.

In the second part of the experiment, we

determined the force applied needed to be in

equilibrium using the second condition of

equilibrium. The following is a sample

computation of force applied needed to be in

equilibrium for the first trial.

)(

)

(

()()

( ())

The table below shows the force applied needed

to be in equilibrium and the distances of the pans

from the axis of rotation.

Trial

L1

(cm)

L2

(cm)

W1 + P1

(g)

F

computed

(g)

F

measured

(g)

%diff

(%)

1 20.7 9.4 74.8 195.83 200 2.11

2 18.8 9 74.8 203.97 200 1.97

With the tabulated results of the experiment, we

can notice that in the second trial, the side with

the pan and the weights tend to be farther than

the spring balance on the other side. This is

because the pan with weights tends to have less

force compared to the force that the spring

balance applies, so to make the system in

equilibrium, the pan with weights needs to have

a greater distance to make the system

equilibrium. With regards to the first trial when

both pan and spring balance is on the left side,

the spring balance just cancels the force exerted

by the pan with weights which makes the

system, in equilibrium.

In the third part of the experiment, we

determined the weight of the beam using the

second condition of equilibrium. The following is a

sample computation of weight of the beam for

the first trial.

)(

)

(

( )()

()

The table below shows the weights added on the

pans and the distances of the pans from the axis

of rotation.

Trial

L1

(cm)

L2

(cm)

W1 + P1

(g)

W

computed

(g)

W

measured

(g)

1 14.5 8 50 135.58

136.8 2 12.8 8 60 135.46

3 11.9 8 70 141.57

ave. W of beam 137.54g

%diff 0.54%

We can notice that the pan with weights is in

equilibrium with the weight of the beam itself.

With regards to the tabulated results, we can

notice that as we increase the weight added to

the pan, the shorter the distance needed to make

the system in equilibrium. This is notable since

again, the weight of the beam itself (clockwise

motion) which is placed on its center of gravity

needs to be equal in magnitude to the weight of

the pan with weights (counter clockwise motion)

to have equilibrium.

Conclusion

The objectives of the study are to analyze the

systems that are in equilibrium using the second

condition and to distinguish some of the second

condition of equilibriums use and significance. In

this experiment, we saw how torque is affected

by the forces acting on the system and their

radial distance from the axis and also, how the

equilibrium is applied.

In this experiment, second condition of

equilibrium or rotational equilibrium has been

applied in all parts of the experiment. We know

that torque is a measure of how much a force is

acting on an object causes that object to rotate

and that it is the product of the force and its

distance from its axis. In analyzing systems in

rotational equilibrium, we need to equate the

sum of all torques that will make the system

rotate clockwise to sum of all the torques that

will make the system rotate counter clockwise.

We must take note that the torque is directly

proportional (the greater the force, the greater

the torque) to the force applied and that every

force applied in the system may or may not have

equal distance from its axis since when the force

is great, it will need less distance from the axis

and vice versa for it to be a rotational

equilibrium. Therefore, when second condition of

equilibrium is satisfied, there is no angular

acceleration and body will not be moving and will

be in rotational equilibrium.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank my group mates for a job

well done in performing this experiment.

Although this is our first time to work together

since this is the first time we became classmates,

we still work well and I thank them for that. I

would not have done this experiment by myself

I would also like to thank Facebook and Tumblr

for keeping me entertained while writing this

laboratory report. Because of all the amusing

blogs and games, it kept me awake while I am

writing this laboratory report.

I would also like to thank my brother Joash, for

patiently waiting for his turn to use the computer

while I was writing this report.

And especially, I would like to thank Almighty

God for giving me the knowledge, and the

wisdom I need to write this laboratory report.

References

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

[2] http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/

torque/Q.torque.intro.html

[3] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/

towing/towing-capacity/information/fpte4.htm

[4] http://www.blurtit.com/q700116.html

[5] Young, H., Freedman, R., Ford, L., University

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