Zhu YiChao

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Zhu YiChao

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Yichao Zhu

Department of Mathematics, HKUST

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Targets

Exponential, logarithm, trigonometric and inverse

trigonometric functions

their graphs

Acquaintance with an important irrational number - the

natural exponential e

Ideas of the inverse functions

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

Exponential Function

In general, an exponential function is a function of the form

f (x) = a

x

, a > 0.

For what types of x, you know the outcomes?

If x = n, a positive integer, then

If x = 0, then a

0

= 1.

If x = n, where n is a positive integer, then a

n

= 1/a

n

.

If x is a rational number, x = p/q, where p and q are integers

and q > 0, then a

x

= a

p/q

=

q

a

p

= (

q

a)

p

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

Question

What if x is an irrational number?

For example, for y = 2

x

, where x is rational.

We want to enlarge the domain of y = 2

x

to include both

rational and irrational numbers. That means we need to

naturally ll in the holes in the graph.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

Example when x =

We can approximate for

decimal approximation

Literally, there is one number which is greater than 2

1.7

, 2

1.73

,

2

1.732

, 2

1.7320

, 2

1.73205

, . . . and less than all of the numbers:

2

1.8

, 2

1.74

, 2

1.733

, 2

1.7321

, 2

1.73206

, . . .

We dene 2

3

to be this number.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

The graphs of members of the family of functions y = a

x

are

shown in the following gure.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

Exponential Function

There are basically three kinds of exponential functions y = a

x

:

If 0 < a < 1, the exponential function decreases;

If a = 1, it is a constant;

If a > 1, it increases.

Law of Exponents (a

x

)

a

x+y

= a

x

a

y

; a

xy

=

a

x

a

y

;

(a

x

)

y

= a

xy

;

(ab)

x

= a

x

b

x

.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 1

Example

A 20-day internship oers two ways in your payment.

1. You get paid each day for $ 100.

2. After day 1, you would get $0.01; after day 2, you would

totally receive twice of the amount oered for completing

work at the previous day, i.e. you would get a total amount of

$0.02 after day 2, etc.

Which oer would you receive in terms of money?

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 1

Solution

If t denotes time, then by method 1 you will receive P = 100t.

By method 2, you will receive P = 0.01 2

t1

.

It is calculated that P

1

= 100 20 = 2000 and

P

2

= 0.01 2

19

5242. P

1

< P

2

.

Exponential functions grow much faster than ANY polynomials

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

Applications of Exponential Functions

Consider a population of of bacteria in a homogeneous nutrient

medium. Suppose the population of the bacteria doubles every

hour. If the number of bacteria at time t is p(t), where t is

measured in hours, and the initial population is p(0) = 1000, then

we have

p(1) = 2p(0) = 2 1000

p(2) = 2p(1) = 2

2

1000

p(3) = 2p(2) = 2

3

1000

In general, p(t) = 2

t

1000 = (1000)2

t

. Under ideal conditions

(unlimited space and nutrition and absence of disease) this

exponential growth is typical of what actually occurs in nature.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

The Number e

If we measure the slopes of the tangent lines at (0,1) of 2

x

and 3

x

,

we nd that m 0.7 for y = 2

x

and m 1.1 for y = 3

x

.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Exponential Functions

The number e

If we choose the base a so that the slope of the tangent line

to y = a

x

at (0, 1) is exactly 1.

In fact, there is such a number and it is denoted by the letter

e.

We will see that e 2.71828.

f (x) = e

x

is called the natural exponential function.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 2

Example

Use a graphing device (not required by this lecture) to nd the

value of x for which e

x

> 1, 000, 000.

Solution

The curves of y = e

x

and y = 1000000 intersect when x 13.8.

Thus e

x

> 10

6

when x > 13.8.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

One-To-One Functions

One-to-one function

A function f is called a one-to-one function if it never takes on the

same value twice; that is,

f (x

1

) = f (x

2

) whenever x

1

= x

2

In the above graph, f is a one-to-one function, while g is not.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

One-To-One Functions

Horizontal Line Test

A function is one-to-one if and only if no horizontal line intersects

its graph more than once.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 3

Example

Is the function g(x) = x

2

one-to-one?

Solution

This function is not one-to-one because, for instance,

g(1) = 1 = g(1)

so 1 and -1 have the same output.

Alternative Solution

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions

Inverse Function

Let f be a one-to-one function with domain A and range B. Then

its inverse function f

1

has domain B and range A and is dened

by

f

1

(y) = x f (x) = y

for any y in B.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions and Example 4

Properties of Inverse Functions

Domain of f

1

= range of f

Range of f

1

= domain of f

Caution: Do not mistake the 1 in f

1

for an exponent.

Thus

f

1

(x) does not mean

1

f (x)

The reciprocal 1/f (x) could be written as [f (x)]

1

.

Example

If f (1) = 5, f (3) = 7, and f (8) = 10, nd f

1

(7), f

1

(5), and

f

1

(10).

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 4

Solution

From the denition of f

1

we have

f (3) = 7 = f

1

(7) = 3

f (1) = 5 = f

1

(5) = 1

f (8) = 10 = f

1

(10) = 8

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions

Properties of Inverse Functions

The letter x is traditionally used as the independent variable,

so when we concentrate on f

1

rather than on f , we usually

reverse the roles of x and y in the denition of inverse

functions and write

f

1

(x) = y f (y) = x

By substituting for y in the denition and substituting for x,

we get the following cancellation equations:

f

1

(f (x)) = x for every x in A

f (f

1

(x)) = x for every x in B

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions and Example 5

How to Find the Inverse Function of a One-to-one Function f

1. Write y = f (x).

2. Solve this equation for x in terms of y (if possible).

3. To express f

1

as a function of x, interchange x and y.

The resulting equation is y = f

1

(x).

Example

Find the inverse function of f (x) = x

3

+ 2.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 5

Solution

We rst write y = x

3

+ 2.

Then we solve this equation for x:

x

3

= y 2

x =

3

y 2

Finally, we interchange x and y:

y =

3

x 2

Therefore the inverse function is f

1

(x) =

3

x 2.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions and Example 6

Graph of f

1

The graph of f

1

is obtained by reecting the graph of f about

the line y = x.

Example

Sketch the graphs of f (x) =

using the same coordinate axes.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 6

Solution

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Logarithmic Functions

Logarithmic Functions

If a > 0 and a = 1, the exponential function f (x) = a

x

is

either increasing or decreasing and so it is one-to-one by the

Horizontal Lines Test. It therefore has an inverse function

f

1

, which is called the logarithmic function with base a and

is denoted by log

a

x.

If we use the formulation of an inverse function, then we have

log

a

x = y a

y

= x

By using the cancellation equation,

log

a

(a

x

) = x for every x R

a

log

a

x

= x for every x > 0

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Logarithmic Functions

Graphs of Logarithm Functions

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Logarithmic Functions and Example 7

Laws of Logarithms

If x and y are positive numbers, then

log

a

(xy) = log

a

x + log

a

y

log

a

x

y

= log

a

x log

a

y

log

a

(x

r

) = r log

a

x (where r is any real number)

Example

Use the laws of logarithms to evaluate log

2

80 log

2

5.

Solution

Use the laws, we have

log

2

80 log

2

5 = log

2

80

5

= log

2

16 = log

2

2

4

= 4 log

2

2 = 4

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Natural Logarithms and Example 8

Natural Logarithms

The logarithm with base e is called the natural logarithm and has a

special notation:

log

e

x = ln x

The properties of the natural logarithm function become

ln x = y e

y

= x

ln(e

x

) = x, x R

e

ln x

= x, x > 0 In particular, ln e = 1.

Example

Find x if ln x = 5.

Solution

ln x = 5 means e

5

= x. Therefore x = e

5

.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Angles

Angles can be measured in degrees or in radians (abbreviated as

rad).

in degrees - the angle given by a complete revolution contains

360

2 rad

Therefore rad = 180

and

1 rad =

180

57.3

180

rad 0.017 rad

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 9

Example

1. Find the radian measure of 60

.

2. Express 5/4 rad in degrees.

Solution

1. To convert from degrees to radians we multiply by /180.

Therefore, 60

= 60

180

=

3

rad.

2. To convert from radians to degrees we multiply by 180/.

Thus

5

4

rad =

5

4

180

= 225

.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Angles

The gure shows a sector of a circle with central angle and

radius r subtending an arc with length a. Since the length of the

arc is proportional to the size of the angle, we have

a = r

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 10

Example

1. If the radius of a circle is 5 cm, what angle is subtended by an

arc of 6 cm?

2. If a circle has radius 3 cm, what is the length of an arc

subtended by a central angle of 3/8 rad?

Solution

1. Using the formula with a = 6 and r = 5, we see that the angle is

=

6

5

= 1.2 rad

2. With r = 3 cm and = 3/8 rad, the arc length is

a = r = 3

3

8

=

9

8

cm

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

How to Dene Angles in x-y planes

The standard position of an angle oc-

curs when we place its vertex at the

origin of a coordinate system and its

initial side on the positive x-axis. A

positive angle is obtained by rotat-

ing the initial side counterclockwise

until it coincides with the terminal

side. Likewise, negative angles are

obtained by clockwise rotation.

Several Examples

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

The Trigonometric Functions of Acute Angles

For an acute angle the six trigonometric functions are dened as

ratios of lengths of sides of a right triangle.

The Trigonometric Functions of General Angles

For a general angle in standard position we let P(x, y) be any

point on the terminal side of and we let r be the distance |OP|.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry and Example 11

By denition, trigonometric functions are all periodic of period

or 2

sin( + 2) = sin(), cos( + 2) = cos(), tan( + ) = tan(),

cot( + ) = cot(), sec( + 2) = sec(), csc( + ) = csc().

The Trigonometric Functions

The exact trigonometric ratios for certain angles can be read from

the triangles in the following gure.

Example

Find the exact trigonometric ratios for = 2/3.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 11

Solution

From the gure we see that a point on the terminal line for

= 2/3 is P(1,

3).

Then sin

2

3

=

3

2

, cos

2

3

=

1

2

, tan

2

3

=

3,

csc

2

3

=

2

3

, sec

2

3

= 2, cot

2

3

=

1

3

.

Question

What does the sign of a trigonometric function depend on?

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

The Trigonometric Functions

The signs of the trigonomet-

ric functions for angles in each

of the four quadrants can

be remembered by means of

the rule All Students Take

Calculus.

The following table gives some values of sin and cos

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 12

Example

If cos =

2

5

and 0 < < /2, nd the other ve trigonometric

functions of .

Solution

Since cos =

2

5

, we can label the hypotenuse as having length 5

and t he adjacent side as having length 2. Then the Pythagorean

Theorem gives x

2

+ 4 = 25, so x =

21

Then we can use the diagram to write the

other ve trigonometric functions:

sin =

21

5

tan =

21

2

csc =

5

21

sec =

5

2

cot =

2

21

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Trigonometric Identities

Elementary (directly from denition)

csc =

1

sin

sec =

1

cos

cot =

1

tan

tan =

sin

cos

cot =

cos

sin

The distance formula (or, equivalently, the Pythagorean

Theorem) tells us that x

2

+ y

2

= r

2

. Therefore,

sin

2

+ cos

2

=

x

2

r

2

+

y

2

r

2

=

x

2

+ y

2

r

2

=

r

2

r

2

= 1

Associated with the distance formula

tan

2

+ 1 = sec

2

, 1 + cot

2

= csc

2

Trigonometry

Addition and Substraction Formulas

sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y,

cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y.

sin(x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y,

cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y.

tan(x + y) =

tan x + tan y

1 tan x tan y

, tan(x y) =

tan x tan y

1 + tan x tan y

Product Formulas

sin x cos x =

1

2

[sin(x + y) + sin(x y)]

cos x cos x =

1

2

[cos(x + y) + cos(x y)]

sin x sin x =

1

2

[cos(x y) sin(x + y)]

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Double-Angle Formulas

The double-angle formulas can be derived from addition and

distance formulas

sin 2x = sin(x + x) = 2 sin x cos x,

cos 2x = cos(x + x) = cos

2

x sin

2

x = 2 cos

2

x 1 =

1 2 sin

2

x.

Half-Angle Formulas

Rearranging the double-angle formulas we have

cos

2

x =

1 + cos 2x

2

sin

2

x =

1 cos 2x

2

Symmetry in Trigonometric Functions

cos(x) = cos x (even)

sin(x) = sin x and tan(x) = tan x (odd)

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 12

Example

Find all values of x in the interval [0, 2] such that sin x = sin 2x.

Solution

Using the double-angle formula, we rewrite t he given equation as

sin x = 2 sin x cos x or sin(1 2 cos x)

Therefore there are two possibilities:

sin x = 0 x = 0, , 2

or 1 2 cos x = 0 cos x =

1

2

x =

3

,

5

3

.

The given equation has ve solutions: 0, /3, , 5/3, and 2.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions

More Properties for sin x and cos x

Zeros: x = k for sin x; x = (k + 1/2) for cos x

Domain (, ); Range [1, 1]

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry

Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

By the horizontal line test

The function f (x) = sin x, restricted on the interval

/2 x /2 is one-to-one.

The inverse function of this restricted sine function f exists

and is denoted by sin

1

or arcsin. It is called the inverse sine

function or arcsine function.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Function and Logarithms

Inverse cosine function

The restricted cosine function f (x) = cos x, 0 x , is

one-to-one so it has an inverse function denoted by cos

1

or arccos.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Inverse Functions and Logarithms

Inverse tangent function

The tangent function can be made one-to-one by restricting it

to the interval (/2, /2).

The inverse tangent function is dened as the inverse of the

function f (x) = tan x, /2 < x < /2.

It is denoted by tan

1

or arctan.

tan

1

x = y tan y = x and

2

< y <

2

Other Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Example 13

Example

1. Evaluate tan(arcsin

1

3

)

2. Simplify the expression cos(tan

1

x)

Solution

1. Let = arcsin

1

3

, so sin =

1

3

.

Then we can draw a right triangle

accordingly and the third side is

9 1 = 2

2.

tan(arcsin

1

3

) = tan =

1

2

2

2. Let y = tan

1

x, then x = tan y

cos(tan

1

x) = cos y =

1

1 + x

2

.

Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

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