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# MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Yichao Zhu
Department of Mathematics, HKUST
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Targets
Exponential, logarithm, trigonometric and inverse
trigonometric functions

## properties (whether they are monotonic, periodic)

their graphs
Acquaintance with an important irrational number - the
natural exponential e
Ideas of the inverse functions
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
Exponential Function
In general, an exponential function is a function of the form
f (x) = a
x
, a > 0.
For what types of x, you know the outcomes?
If x = n, a positive integer, then
If x = 0, then a
0
= 1.
If x = n, where n is a positive integer, then a
n
= 1/a
n
.
If x is a rational number, x = p/q, where p and q are integers
and q > 0, then a
x
= a
p/q
=
q

a
p
= (
q

a)
p
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
Question
What if x is an irrational number?
For example, for y = 2
x
, where x is rational.
We want to enlarge the domain of y = 2
x
to include both
rational and irrational numbers. That means we need to
naturally ll in the holes in the graph.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
Example when x =

## 3 using the idea of limit

We can approximate for

## 3 as close as we want by using

decimal approximation
Literally, there is one number which is greater than 2
1.7
, 2
1.73
,
2
1.732
, 2
1.7320
, 2
1.73205
, . . . and less than all of the numbers:
2
1.8
, 2
1.74
, 2
1.733
, 2
1.7321
, 2
1.73206
, . . .
We dene 2

3
to be this number.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
The graphs of members of the family of functions y = a
x
are
shown in the following gure.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
Exponential Function
There are basically three kinds of exponential functions y = a
x
:
If 0 < a < 1, the exponential function decreases;
If a = 1, it is a constant;
If a > 1, it increases.
Law of Exponents (a
x
)
a
x+y
= a
x
a
y
; a
xy
=
a
x
a
y
;
(a
x
)
y
= a
xy
;
(ab)
x
= a
x
b
x
.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 1
Example
A 20-day internship oers two ways in your payment.
1. You get paid each day for \$ 100.
2. After day 1, you would get \$0.01; after day 2, you would
totally receive twice of the amount oered for completing
work at the previous day, i.e. you would get a total amount of
\$0.02 after day 2, etc.
Which oer would you receive in terms of money?
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 1
Solution
If t denotes time, then by method 1 you will receive P = 100t.
By method 2, you will receive P = 0.01 2
t1
.
It is calculated that P
1
= 100 20 = 2000 and
P
2
= 0.01 2
19
5242. P
1
< P
2
.
Exponential functions grow much faster than ANY polynomials
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
Applications of Exponential Functions
Consider a population of of bacteria in a homogeneous nutrient
medium. Suppose the population of the bacteria doubles every
hour. If the number of bacteria at time t is p(t), where t is
measured in hours, and the initial population is p(0) = 1000, then
we have
p(1) = 2p(0) = 2 1000
p(2) = 2p(1) = 2
2
1000
p(3) = 2p(2) = 2
3
1000
In general, p(t) = 2
t
1000 = (1000)2
t
. Under ideal conditions
(unlimited space and nutrition and absence of disease) this
exponential growth is typical of what actually occurs in nature.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
The Number e
If we measure the slopes of the tangent lines at (0,1) of 2
x
and 3
x
,
we nd that m 0.7 for y = 2
x
and m 1.1 for y = 3
x
.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Exponential Functions
The number e
If we choose the base a so that the slope of the tangent line
to y = a
x
at (0, 1) is exactly 1.
In fact, there is such a number and it is denoted by the letter
e.
We will see that e 2.71828.
f (x) = e
x
is called the natural exponential function.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 2
Example
Use a graphing device (not required by this lecture) to nd the
value of x for which e
x
> 1, 000, 000.
Solution
The curves of y = e
x
and y = 1000000 intersect when x 13.8.
Thus e
x
> 10
6
when x > 13.8.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
One-To-One Functions
One-to-one function
A function f is called a one-to-one function if it never takes on the
same value twice; that is,
f (x
1
) = f (x
2
) whenever x
1
= x
2
In the above graph, f is a one-to-one function, while g is not.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
One-To-One Functions
Horizontal Line Test
A function is one-to-one if and only if no horizontal line intersects
its graph more than once.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 3
Example
Is the function g(x) = x
2
one-to-one?
Solution
This function is not one-to-one because, for instance,
g(1) = 1 = g(1)
so 1 and -1 have the same output.
Alternative Solution
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions
Inverse Function
Let f be a one-to-one function with domain A and range B. Then
its inverse function f
1
has domain B and range A and is dened
by
f
1
(y) = x f (x) = y
for any y in B.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions and Example 4
Properties of Inverse Functions
Domain of f
1
= range of f
Range of f
1
= domain of f
Caution: Do not mistake the 1 in f
1
for an exponent.
Thus
f
1
(x) does not mean
1
f (x)
The reciprocal 1/f (x) could be written as [f (x)]
1
.
Example
If f (1) = 5, f (3) = 7, and f (8) = 10, nd f
1
(7), f
1
(5), and
f
1
(10).
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 4
Solution
From the denition of f
1
we have
f (3) = 7 = f
1
(7) = 3
f (1) = 5 = f
1
(5) = 1
f (8) = 10 = f
1
(10) = 8
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions
Properties of Inverse Functions
The letter x is traditionally used as the independent variable,
so when we concentrate on f
1
rather than on f , we usually
reverse the roles of x and y in the denition of inverse
functions and write
f
1
(x) = y f (y) = x
By substituting for y in the denition and substituting for x,
we get the following cancellation equations:
f
1
(f (x)) = x for every x in A
f (f
1
(x)) = x for every x in B
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions and Example 5
How to Find the Inverse Function of a One-to-one Function f
1. Write y = f (x).
2. Solve this equation for x in terms of y (if possible).
3. To express f
1
as a function of x, interchange x and y.
The resulting equation is y = f
1
(x).
Example
Find the inverse function of f (x) = x
3
+ 2.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 5
Solution
We rst write y = x
3
+ 2.
Then we solve this equation for x:
x
3
= y 2
x =
3

y 2
Finally, we interchange x and y:
y =
3

x 2
Therefore the inverse function is f
1
(x) =
3

x 2.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions and Example 6
Graph of f
1
The graph of f
1
is obtained by reecting the graph of f about
the line y = x.
Example
Sketch the graphs of f (x) =

## 1 x and its inverse function

using the same coordinate axes.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 6
Solution
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Logarithmic Functions
Logarithmic Functions
If a > 0 and a = 1, the exponential function f (x) = a
x
is
either increasing or decreasing and so it is one-to-one by the
Horizontal Lines Test. It therefore has an inverse function
f
1
, which is called the logarithmic function with base a and
is denoted by log
a
x.
If we use the formulation of an inverse function, then we have
log
a
x = y a
y
= x
By using the cancellation equation,
log
a
(a
x
) = x for every x R
a
log
a
x
= x for every x > 0
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Logarithmic Functions
Graphs of Logarithm Functions
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Logarithmic Functions and Example 7
Laws of Logarithms
If x and y are positive numbers, then
log
a
(xy) = log
a
x + log
a
y
log
a

x
y

= log
a
x log
a
y
log
a
(x
r
) = r log
a
x (where r is any real number)
Example
Use the laws of logarithms to evaluate log
2
80 log
2
5.
Solution
Use the laws, we have
log
2
80 log
2
5 = log
2

80
5

= log
2
16 = log
2
2
4
= 4 log
2
2 = 4
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Natural Logarithms and Example 8
Natural Logarithms
The logarithm with base e is called the natural logarithm and has a
special notation:
log
e
x = ln x
The properties of the natural logarithm function become
ln x = y e
y
= x
ln(e
x
) = x, x R
e
ln x
= x, x > 0 In particular, ln e = 1.
Example
Find x if ln x = 5.
Solution
ln x = 5 means e
5
= x. Therefore x = e
5
.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Angles
Angles can be measured in degrees or in radians (abbreviated as
in degrees - the angle given by a complete revolution contains
360

## in radians - the angle given by a complete revolution contains

and

180

57.3

180
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 9
Example
1. Find the radian measure of 60

.
2. Express 5/4 rad in degrees.
Solution
1. To convert from degrees to radians we multiply by /180.
Therefore, 60

= 60

180

=

3
2. To convert from radians to degrees we multiply by 180/.
Thus
5
4
5
4

180

= 225

.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Angles
The gure shows a sector of a circle with central angle and
radius r subtending an arc with length a. Since the length of the
arc is proportional to the size of the angle, we have
a = r
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 10
Example
1. If the radius of a circle is 5 cm, what angle is subtended by an
arc of 6 cm?
2. If a circle has radius 3 cm, what is the length of an arc
subtended by a central angle of 3/8 rad?
Solution
1. Using the formula with a = 6 and r = 5, we see that the angle is
=
6
5
2. With r = 3 cm and = 3/8 rad, the arc length is
a = r = 3

3
8

=
9
8
cm
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
How to Dene Angles in x-y planes
The standard position of an angle oc-
curs when we place its vertex at the
origin of a coordinate system and its
initial side on the positive x-axis. A
positive angle is obtained by rotat-
ing the initial side counterclockwise
until it coincides with the terminal
side. Likewise, negative angles are
obtained by clockwise rotation.
Several Examples
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
The Trigonometric Functions of Acute Angles
For an acute angle the six trigonometric functions are dened as
ratios of lengths of sides of a right triangle.
The Trigonometric Functions of General Angles
For a general angle in standard position we let P(x, y) be any
point on the terminal side of and we let r be the distance |OP|.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry and Example 11
By denition, trigonometric functions are all periodic of period
or 2
sin( + 2) = sin(), cos( + 2) = cos(), tan( + ) = tan(),
cot( + ) = cot(), sec( + 2) = sec(), csc( + ) = csc().
The Trigonometric Functions
The exact trigonometric ratios for certain angles can be read from
the triangles in the following gure.
Example
Find the exact trigonometric ratios for = 2/3.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 11
Solution
From the gure we see that a point on the terminal line for
= 2/3 is P(1,

3).
Then sin
2
3
=

3
2
, cos
2
3
=
1
2
, tan
2
3
=

3,
csc
2
3
=
2

3
, sec
2
3
= 2, cot
2
3
=
1

3
.
Question
What does the sign of a trigonometric function depend on?
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
The Trigonometric Functions
The signs of the trigonomet-
ric functions for angles in each
be remembered by means of
the rule All Students Take
Calculus.
The following table gives some values of sin and cos
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 12
Example
If cos =
2
5
and 0 < < /2, nd the other ve trigonometric
functions of .
Solution
Since cos =
2
5
, we can label the hypotenuse as having length 5
and t he adjacent side as having length 2. Then the Pythagorean
Theorem gives x
2
+ 4 = 25, so x =

21
Then we can use the diagram to write the
other ve trigonometric functions:
sin =

21
5
tan =

21
2
csc =
5

21
sec =
5
2
cot =
2

21
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Trigonometric Identities
Elementary (directly from denition)
csc =
1
sin
sec =
1
cos
cot =
1
tan
tan =
sin
cos
cot =
cos
sin
The distance formula (or, equivalently, the Pythagorean
Theorem) tells us that x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
. Therefore,
sin
2
+ cos
2
=
x
2
r
2
+
y
2
r
2
=
x
2
+ y
2
r
2
=
r
2
r
2
= 1
Associated with the distance formula
tan
2
+ 1 = sec
2
, 1 + cot
2
= csc
2

## Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)

Trigonometry
sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y,
cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y.
sin(x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y,
cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y.
tan(x + y) =
tan x + tan y
1 tan x tan y
, tan(x y) =
tan x tan y
1 + tan x tan y
Product Formulas
sin x cos x =
1
2
[sin(x + y) + sin(x y)]
cos x cos x =
1
2
[cos(x + y) + cos(x y)]
sin x sin x =
1
2
[cos(x y) sin(x + y)]
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Double-Angle Formulas
The double-angle formulas can be derived from addition and
distance formulas
sin 2x = sin(x + x) = 2 sin x cos x,
cos 2x = cos(x + x) = cos
2
x sin
2
x = 2 cos
2
x 1 =
1 2 sin
2
x.
Half-Angle Formulas
Rearranging the double-angle formulas we have
cos
2
x =
1 + cos 2x
2
sin
2
x =
1 cos 2x
2
Symmetry in Trigonometric Functions
cos(x) = cos x (even)
sin(x) = sin x and tan(x) = tan x (odd)
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 12
Example
Find all values of x in the interval [0, 2] such that sin x = sin 2x.
Solution
Using the double-angle formula, we rewrite t he given equation as
sin x = 2 sin x cos x or sin(1 2 cos x)
Therefore there are two possibilities:
sin x = 0 x = 0, , 2
or 1 2 cos x = 0 cos x =
1
2
x =

3
,
5
3
.
The given equation has ve solutions: 0, /3, , 5/3, and 2.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions
More Properties for sin x and cos x
Zeros: x = k for sin x; x = (k + 1/2) for cos x
Domain (, ); Range [1, 1]
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Trigonometry
Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
By the horizontal line test
The function f (x) = sin x, restricted on the interval
/2 x /2 is one-to-one.
The inverse function of this restricted sine function f exists
and is denoted by sin
1
or arcsin. It is called the inverse sine
function or arcsine function.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Function and Logarithms
Inverse cosine function
The restricted cosine function f (x) = cos x, 0 x , is
one-to-one so it has an inverse function denoted by cos
1
or arccos.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Inverse Functions and Logarithms
Inverse tangent function
The tangent function can be made one-to-one by restricting it
to the interval (/2, /2).
The inverse tangent function is dened as the inverse of the
function f (x) = tan x, /2 < x < /2.
It is denoted by tan
1
or arctan.
tan
1
x = y tan y = x and

2
< y <

2
Other Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)
Example 13
Example
1. Evaluate tan(arcsin
1
3
)
2. Simplify the expression cos(tan
1
x)
Solution
1. Let = arcsin
1
3
, so sin =
1
3
.
Then we can draw a right triangle
accordingly and the third side is

9 1 = 2

2.
tan(arcsin
1
3
) = tan =
1
2

2
2. Let y = tan
1
x, then x = tan y
cos(tan
1
x) = cos y =
1

1 + x
2
.
Yichao Zhu Department of Mathematics, HKUST MATH 1013 Calculus I (Lecture 2)