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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES

I. PHYSIOLOGY
LOCOMOTION
PM Contraction - Rigor Mortis
PM Cooling - Algor Mortis
PM Staining - Livor Mortis
Creatine phosphate in muscle is referred to as ATP sparer or energy buffer
ac! molecule of glucose produce " 38 ATPs
About #-$ !rs after deat!% all muscles of t!e body assume a state of contracture " Rigor
Mortis
T!e efficiency of muscle contraction is " 45%
Muscle contraction &it!out s!ortening in lengt! " Isoetri! Contra!tion
'!ole cardiac muscle obeys all or none la& because of S"n!"ti#
Re$ra!tor" perio% is t!e brief period during &!ic! muscles undergoing contraction for a
first stimuli is unable to respond to a second stimuli
T!e energy of contraction of muscle is directly proportional to t!e lengt! of t!e fibre-
Ster&ing &a'
Tetanisation is t!e fusion of successive t&itc!es &!en t!e fre(uency of stimuli is given
at a rapid rate
Myast!enia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder in &!ic! auto antibodies are produced
against A!h re!eptors
(LOO)
Plasma constitutes about 55*+,% of blood
)iscosity in blood is provided by gaa g&o-#&ins
Arterial blood is more A&.a&ine t!an venous blood
*ello& colour of t!e plasma is due to (i&ir#-in
Serum differs from plasma lac+ing $i-rinogen/ prothro-in and ot!er coagulation
factors
R(C o$ spe!ies
o ,iconcave - -og% Co&% S!eep
o S!allo&.flat - /oat
o S!allo& concave - 0orse% Cat
o lliptical% sic+le s!ape - Camel % -eer
o lliptical 1 nucleated - ,irds% Amp!ibians
Poi.i&o!"tosis " variation in cell s!ape
Anioso!"tosis " variation in cell s si2e
Larger si0e R(C " in dog 34.5 micron6
Sa&&er si0e R(C " in goat 37.8 micron6
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Mature R,C derive energy from Anaero-i! 1MP path'a" and HMP sh#nt since t!ey
!ave no mitoc!ondria
Ap&asti! anemia lac+s functional bone marro&
Tr#e PC2 9 venous PC):;.<$3Correction factor for trapped plasma6
Rouleau= formation is seen in e3#ines an% %ogs
SR is negatively influenced by Reti!#&o!"te an% A&-#in
Site of synt!esis of Monocytes - L"phoi% tiss#e o$ -one arro' an% sp&een
In ruminants Haea& &"ph no%es functions as spleen
2it (45 an% $o&i! a!i% are essential for maturation of R,C
Metheog&o-in is formed by o=idation of ferrous iron to ferric iron
0b !as 5,, ties more affinity for C> t!an >?
ac! gram of 0b binds &it! a ma=imum of 4634 & of >?
Average life span of R,C is 45, %a"s 75,*3, %a"s in po#&tr"8
-estruction of R,C in dog is in -one arro'
R1TIC9LO 1N)OTH1LIAL SYST1M
o In liver and spleen "Stellate >r @upfer Cells
o In tissues - 0istiocytes >r Macrop!ages
o In blood - Monocytes
T!e ratio of ',C to R,C is more in goats74:43,,8 and &ess in !att&e74:8,,8
S!ift to left is an increase in number of immature neutrop!ils c!aracteristic of -a!teria&
in$e!tions
T-lymp!otes provide !e&&#&ar immunity
,-lymp!ocytes provide h#ora& immunity
Suppressor or regulatory T cells regulate t!e activities of C"toto;i! T !e&&s an% he&per T
!e&&s
Li$e span
o /ranulocyte - 7-A !rs
o T lymp!ocytes - ?-5 yrs
o , lymp!ocytes - 5-7 days
o Monocytes - ?7 !rs
o Platelets - A-88 days
Platelets are nucleated in -ir%s an% repti&es
A&-#in acts as a primary carrier to fatty acids
Plasma proteins acts as -&oo% -#$$er and t!us maintains p034.76
Prostag&an%in
o P//?%P/0? - Platelet aggregation
o P/I? - )asodilator
o P/I? - Platelet aggregation in!ibitor
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
2itain < is necessary for t!e formation of prot!rombin and clotting factors )% )II% IB
and B
He&&er An% Pa#& Mi;t#re 9Ammonium o=alate C potassium o=alate 9 5C?
So%i# $&#ori%e is ideal anticoagulant for estimation blood glucose level
0emop!ilia A due to deficiency in $a!tor 2III
0eparin is produced by ast !e&&s an% (asophi&s
(&oo% gro#ps
o -ogs - A groups
o 0orse - A groups
o Cattle - 88 groups
o S!eep - 4 groups
o Pigs - 85 groups
H1ART AN) CIRC9LATION
Systemic Circulation - A7D of ,lood
Pulmonary circulation - AD of ,lood
Coronary circulation - 4D of ,lood
SA no%e controls t!e rate of !eart
=citatory stimuli originate outside SA node - 1!topi! $o!i
Conduction velocity is fastest in P#r.in=e fibres
Cardiac sounds can be recorded by using an instrument called phono!ar%iogra
L#- so#n% 7S48 " closure of A) valve
)#- so#n% 7S58 " closure of pulmonary valve
1&e!trio!ar%iograph is an instrument to measure electrical c!anges of !eart
ERS comple= s!o&s spreading of electrical potential t!roug! A.) node% bundle of !is
%pur+inFe fibres% ventricular muscles
>utput of eac! ventricle is referred as stro.e >o&#e
Car%ia! o#tp#t is t!e volume of blood eFected by eit!er t!e left or rig!t ventricle
t!roug! t!e aorta or pulmonary artery per minute
Star&ings &a' 9 nergy liberated by cardiac muscle is directly proportional to fibre
lengt!
)agus nerve is negati>e !hronotropi! and negati>e inotropi!
T&o -aro!eptors one in carotid sinus 3sin#s or -#$$er ner>e6 and one in aortic body
3!ar%io %epressor ner>e6
1n%othe&in is t!e most potent of all t!e mammalian vasoconstrictor substances
True !api&&aries are t!e place of nutrient e=c!ange
P#&se press#re is t!e difference bet&een systolic and diastolic pressure
,lood pressure using Sph"goanoeter is measured using femoral artery in dogs
and Coccygeal artery in cattle
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Increased blood flo& to tissues in response to increased metabolic rate is called as A!ti>e
H"pereia
Cerebrospinal fluid produced from &atera&/ thir% an% $o#rth >entri!&e o$ -rain
R1SPIRATION
=c!ange bet&een atmosp!eric air and pulmonary capillary is 1;terna& respiration
/as e=c!ange occurs in A&>eo&i
-ead space is t!e respiratory passage from t!e 1;terna& nares to a&>eo&i
H"per>enti&ation is increased in alveolar ventilation cause respirator" a&.a&osis
H"po>enti&ation is decreased in alveolar ventilation cause respirator" a!i%osis
Inspiration is an active process% 1;piration is passive process
In horse even under rest% e=piration is active
H"pernea is state of breat!ing in &!ic! rate% dept! or bot! are increased
Po&"pnea - rapid% s!allo& panting type of respiration
Ti%a& >o&#e " air breat!ed in during a (uite normal respiration
T!e entry of air in to pleural cavity is called Pne#othora;
Resi%#a& >o&#e represents t!e amount of gas remaining in t!e lung even after forced
e=piration
Respiratory (uotient3RE69 )olume >f C>?. )olume >f >?
o RE of C0> - 8
o RE of Lipids - ;.4
o RE of protein - ;.A
Partial pressure of >? in alveoli pO5?4,, Hg
Partial pressure of C>? in alveoli pCO5?4, Hg
>ne gram of 0b can transport 4634 & o$ O5
Arteria& -&oo% >eno#s -&oo%
p>?9 8;; mm0g p>? 97; mm0g
pC>?97; mm0g pC>?97# mm0g
/reater portion of C>?is transported in blood in c!emical combination as HCO3
Ch&ori%e shi$t or ha-#rger shi$t " in venous blood 0C>5 ion comes out of R,C and
to replace Cl ion goes in to R,C
,inding of >? to 0b displaces C>?" a p!enomenon referred to as GHa&%ane e$$e!tH
Asph";ia is !ypo=ia combined &it! !ypercapnea
Hering (re#er re$&e; " in!ibits inspiration so t!at prevents furt!er inflation during over
stretc!
Central c!emoreceptor area is in e%#&&a% perip!eral c!emoreceptor area is in !aroti%
an% aorti! -o%ies
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
R1SPIRATION IN (IR)S
,ot! inspiration and e=piration are active
S"rin; - is t!e vocal organs in birds
=c!ange of gases bet&een lungs and blood occur in Para-ron!hi
Since Air sacs are Avascular% no gaseo#s e;!hange o!!#rs
-iverticula from airsacs are connected to many bones % !ence t!ey are pne#ati!
N1R2O9S SYST1M
Astrocytes closely attac!ed to blood vessels of CNS
Microglia or microcytes formed from &e#!o!"tes
S!h'ann@s !e&& 7ne#ri&ea8 produce myelin s!eat!% insulating and coating nerve fibre
No%es o$ ran>ier aid in flo& of ions bet&een CI and ICI
)elocity of myelinated nerve fibre ranges from 3, *4,,Ase!% &!ereas in unmyelinated
3, Ase!
T!e duration of activity of neurotransmitter in synaptic cleft last only for 4*5 se!
Specific type of neuron synt!esis and release only one type of neurotransmitter substance
at nerve terminal " )a&e@s prin!ip&e
Jeurotransmitters susceptible to ano;ia an% anestheti! agents
1;!itator" ne#rotransitters C /lutamate%Substance P% L-Aspartate
Inhi-itor" ne#rotransittersC /lycine% /A,A% -opamine% Serotonine% Taurine%
Morp!ine% ndorp!ine
(oth e;!itator" an% inhi-itor" C Ac!% Jor pinep!rine% pinep!rine% 0istamine% P/
Ne#rotransitter Ainoa!i% Pre!#rsor
o Jorepinep!rine p!enyl alanine
o /lycine serine
o /A,A L-glutamic acid
=teroreceptors and proprioreceptors are collectively called Soatore!eptors
Propriore!eptors " for posture and balance
Bore -rain " Proscencep!alon
Mi% -rain - Mesencep!alon
Hin% -rain " R!ombencep!alon
T&o cerebral cortices are connected by transverse myelinated fibres +no&n as t!e !orp#s
!o&&as#
T!e ability of one !emisp!ere to control movement% reducing t!at burden for t!e ot!er
!alf is called Cere-ra& )oinan!e
Tha&a#s functions as sensory relay nuclei
Li-i! !orte; primarily functions as visceral brain
H"potha&a#s acts as a principal motor output pat!&ay of t!e limbic system and
controls t!e vegetative functions of t!e body
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Iormation and recall of memory re(uire t!e function of a"g%a&a an% hippo!ap#s
Melatonin released from pinea& g&an% in response to dar+ness
Melatonin in!ibits gona%a& a!ti>it"
Tri geminal% Abducent% facial% vestibular originates from pons
Cerebellum is important in t!e planning and e=ecution of -a&&isti! o>eents
RILB CRAJIAL JR)
o Pupillary lig!t >culomotor
o Corneal
,lin+ >p!t!almic division of trigeminal
Lac!rmation -do-
o Salivary refle= Trigeminal% facial% glossop!aryngeal
o metic glossop!aryngeal% vagus%vestibular
o Suc+ing trigeminal and facial
o S&allo&ing vagus% !ypoglossal% glossop!aryngeal
o Mastication trigeminal% facial%/P
o Coug! refle= vagus
o Snee2e trigeminal
S&eep is a state of reversible unconsciousness
Sleep inducing centre is located in tha&ai! reti!#&ar area
Serotonin is a sleep inducing substance secreted by rap!e nuclei
T!e central motor control system include the otor !orte;/ -asa& gang&ia an%
!ere-e&&#
Coordination of slo& or ramp movements is associated &it! -asa& gang&ia
Me-rano#s &a-"rinth is t!e functional part of vestibular apparatus
T!e terminal portion of t!e spinal cord% t!e meninges and nerves are collectively referred
to as !a#%a e3#inae
(ra!hia& p&e;#s " C$%C4%CA%T81T?
L#-osa!ra& p&e;#s " L5%L7%L#%S81S?
Mi;e%7-oth otor sensor"8 !rania& ner>esC Trigeminal% Iacial% /lossop!aryngeal%
)agus
Sensor" !rania& ner>esC >ptic% >lfactory.)estibulotroc!lear
)IG1STI21 SYST1M
Salivary secretion in cattle " 4,, C 5,, &itA%a"
>rgan of pre!ension in dog 1 cat " $ore &i-
B#n%i! g&an%s
,ody c!ief cells.peptic cells " pepsin 1 rennin
Jec+ c!ief cells " intrinsic factor 1 mucin
Parietal.o=yntic cells " 0Cl
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
A!etate : propionate :(#t"rate ratio
Iorage diet " 4;C?;C8;
/rain diet - $;C5;C8;
Jormal )IA content of rumen " D, *45, e3A&it
@etone bodies serves as energy source in CNS E heart
Pan!reas
Se!retin " stimulates secretion of bicarbonates from pancreas
CC< " stimulates secretion of en2ymes from pancreas
Sphin!ter o$ o%%i gaurds terminal part of common bile duct
Fa#n%i!e
>bstructive Faundice " conFugated bilirubin
0epatic Faundice " free bilirubin
0emolytic Faundice " bot! free 1 conFugated
)#o%en# acts as pace ma+er of intestine
C0> in t!e Small Intestine stimuli for /IP secretion
Iat 1 protein in t!e Small Intestine stimuli for CC@ secretion
Acid in t!e Small Intestine stimuli for secretin secretion
Re>erse perista&sis is a normal feature in colon
A-sorption
/lucose 1 amino acid " active transport 3JaK Co transport 6
S!ort c!ain fatty acid 1 glycerol " passive diffusion
Intact protein 1 triglycerides " pinocytosis
1GCR1TORY SYST1M
Rena& $#n!tion is t!e total cardiac out put t!at passes t!roug! t!e +idneys 3?8D
in manL ?;D in dogs6
/lomerular filtration rate " 48, &itA%a"
/lomerular membrane is completely impermeable to p&asa proteins
Bi&tration $ra!tion " percentage of t!e renal plasma flo& t!at becomes
glomerular filtrate3normal plasma flo& " $#; ml.min L normal /IR " 8?#
ml.min6
G&#!ose Eaino a!i% are reabsorbed entirely from glomerular filtrate
Part Ao#nt O$
GBR
Rea-sor-e%
Rear.s
Pro;ia& t#-#&e3action of
PT06
$#D -ecrease Ca e=cretion
)es!en%ing &oop o$ hen&e 8#D More permeable to &ater
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Less permeable to urea 1 sodium
As!en%ing &oop o$ hen&e Less permeable to &ater
More permeable to urea
)ista& t#-#&e3action of
aldosterone6
8;D Active JaK transport
Secretion of @K
Co&&e!ting t#-#&e3action of
A-06
<.5D Permeable to &ater
P&asa &oa% " total amount of substance in t!e plasma t!at passes t!roug! t!e
+idneys eac! minute 3 plasma load of glucose -$;;mg.min6
T#-#&ar &oa% " fraction of plasma load t!at is filtered as glomerular
filtrate3tubular load of glucose " 8?# mg.min6
Mrine is t!ic+ in horse
Tubular fluid contain ? buffer system namely " phosphate -#$$er E Aonia
-#$$er
Presence of fat in urine is not patho&ogi!a&
/lucosuria is a c!aracteristic finding in enteroto;eia
'!en t!e pressure in bladder reac!es 45, H5O% contraction of bladder begins
Avian +idney !as ? types of nep!rons " Mammalian type3?#D glomerular filtrate6
1 reptilian type34#D glomerular filtrate6
Metabolic end product of protein in aa&s C #rea &!ere as in birds 1 reptiles
it is uric acid
GROHTH E (1HA2IOR
On&" 3% of t!e cells &it! in adult body is capable of dividing
S!ape of /ro&t! curve is sigoi% or IS@ shape
/0 does not !ave effect on gro&t! during t!e $eta& &i$e
<r"pton gas is used to measure body &eig!t indirectly by dilution met!od
T!ermo neutral 2one for most farm animals D, *J,
,
B
Torpor is a stage in &!ic! animals or birds ma+e t!eir metabolic activities
decline
Ser# agnesi# level is constantly increased during !ibernation
(ro'n $at present in !ibernating animals !elps t!em to a&a+e from !ibernation
1sti>ation As#er s&eep is observed in " frog% crocodiles 1 alligators
Amount of !eat loss by evaporation of 8g of &ater is 58, !a&ories
S&eat glands " 1!!rine in an K Apo!rine in ania&s
Among farm animals sheep E !att&e !ave lo&est critical temperature
Raise in 8
;
c in body temperature can cause increase of 4, *5,% in the -asa&
eta-o&is
>ily secretion of preen g&an%s ma+es t!e plumage resistant to &etting
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
1tho&og" is t!e study of animal be!avior
1N)OCRINOLOGY
Car-o&i! a!i% is t!e first disinfectant identified by Fosep! lister
I%o;#ri%ine is t!e first antiviral drug identified by @aufman
Se!retin is t!e first !ormone identified by bayliss 1 starling
O;"to!in E >asopressin are t!e peptide !ormones
Precursor of steroid !ormones " !ho&estero&
RCPT>RS
o Protein %peptide !ormones
1 catec!olamines - cell surface
o Steroid !ormones - cytoplasm
o T!yroid !ormones - nucleus
Birst essenger " !ormone
Se!on% essenger " c AMP% Calmodulin% Cytosolic Calcium% -iacyl /lycerol% Inositol
Trip!op!ate
Thir% essenger " p!osp!o+inase
P!ysiologically% t!e pituitary gland is a aster g&an%
Ara!hi%oni! acid is a precursor for prostaglandins
Long day lig!t promote reproduction in horse C &ong %a" -ree%er
S!eep 1 goat " short %a" -ree%ers
L * re!eptors control catec!olamine release from sympat!etic nerve endings
Horone No o$
Aino
a!i%
T"pe o$ a!tion Rear.s
/ro&t! !ormone 8<; Anabolic !ormone
Protein sparer
)e$i!ien!" --&arfism
1;!ess " gigantism 3young6
Agromegaly 3adult6
Prolactin Lactogenic !ormone Crop mil+ secretion " pigeons
,roodiness " birds
Maintenance of CL " s!eep
1goat
Metarnal be!avior - animals
)asopressin A )e$i!ien!"
-iabetes insipides
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
>=ytocin A Let do&n of mil+
Sperm transport
Contraction of uterus
T!yro=ine Potent /alactopoitic
!ormone
Catabolic !ormone
T73T!yro=in6 " more
predominant t!an T5
T5 is more active t!an T7
Metamorp!osis " amp!ibians
Moulting " birds
)e$i!ien!"
Cretinism3young6
My=edema3adult6
Para t!yroid
!ormone
3C!ief cells of
parat!yroid gland6
A7 Increases Ca absorption
Minute to minute regulation of
blood calcium
Calcitonin
3C cells of t!yroid
gland " animals
Mltimobronc!ial
gland "reptiles%
amp!ibians 1
birds6
5?

Rapid but s!ort time regulation
of blood calcium
Prevent post prandial !yper
calcemia
Insulin
3N cells of
pancreas6
#8 0ypoglycemic factor Iat sparer
)e$i!ien!" - diabetes mellitus
/lucagon
3O cells of
pancreas6
?< 0yperglycemic factor
@etogenic !ormone
Mineralocorticoids
3 2ona glomerulosa
of adrenal corte=6
g - aldosterone
lectrolyte balance
,lood pressure !omeostasis
/lucocarticoids
32ona reticularis of
adrenal corte=6
Anti inflammatory
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
g - Cartisol )e$i!ien!" "Addisons disease
1;!ess " cus!ing syndrome
Catec!olamines
3 adrenal medulla6
Jon s!ivering t!ermogenesis
II. 21T1RINARY 1THICS AN) F9RISPR9)1NC1
ACTS Y1AR
Livestoc+ importation act 8A<A modified on 8<#?
T!e /landers 1Iarcy act 8A<<
T!e dourine act 8<8; modified on 8<#4
T!e poisoning act 8<8< modified on 8<#?
-angerous drugs act 8<5;
-rugs and cosmetics act 8<7;
-rugs and cosmetics rules 8<7#
Prevention cruelty to animalPs act 8<$;
Prevention cruelty to animals to droug!t1 pac+
animals rules
8<$#
Prevention cruelty to animals 3licensing of Iarriers
rule6
8<$#
Prevention cruelty to captured and &ild animals 8<4?
'ild life 3 protection 6 act 8<4?
ProFect Tiger 8<45
Prevention cruelty to animalPs registration of cattle
premises
8<4A
Transportation of animals rules 8<4A
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
=perimental animals act 8<A?
Animal &elfare board of India 8<A?
ProFect lep!ant 8<<?
Note :-
Livestoc+ importation act 8A<A not permitting transport of follo&ing diseased
animals -Tic+pest%Ant!ra=%/landers%Iarcy%Scabies
Applicable in all states of India e=cept in Q1@state
C&oning in sheep * 4JJ+/ )OLLY6
Phoo. or %oo%e> inFection air or any materials in to t!e female genital organ
TH1 IN)IAN P1NAL CO)1
TH1 IN)IAN
P1NAL
CO)1
)1ALS HITH
Se!tion 44 I&&ega& har to t!e animals
Se!tion 4+ -efinition of animals - an" &i>ing -eing other than h#an -eings
Se!tion 4J5 Ba&se entr" in re!or%s
Se!tion 4J+ Ba&se !erti$i!ation of animals
Se!tion 5,4 )estr#!tion o$ an" %o!#ents
Se!tion 5DJ -one by neg&igen!e to spread infectious disease
Se!tion 5+, -one by intention to spread infectious disease
Se!tion 5+4 Jot follo&ing (uarantine rule
Se!tion 5+5 A%#&teration of any food or drin+
Se!tion 5+3 Sa&e o$ #n$it $oo% or %rin.*$ mont!s prison &it! Rs -8;;;. - fine.
Se!tion 5+4 A%#&terating e%i!ina& items for sale
Se!tion 5+5 Sa&e o$ a%#&terate% e%i!ine
Se!tion 58J -isobey any order% &it! any animal in !is possession
Se!tion 3,4 Jegligently causing deat! of any person
Se!tion 3++ 2o&#ntar" !arna& inter !o#rseA (eastia&it" &it! any animals " 8; yr
prison &it! Rs 8;;;;. fine
Se!tion 45, Bra#%#&ent !heating of persons altered animals - prison of 4yr
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Se!tion 45+ E
458
Mis!hie$/ aiing/ .i&&ing -" poisoning " prison of ? yr
Se!tion 43, Causing %e!rease o$ 'ater s#pp&" for animals
III. IMM9NOLOGY
Louis Paste#r &!o &as credited &it! t!e formulation of ger theor" did e=tensive
&or+ on $o'& !ho&era/ anthra; and ra-ies and %e>e&ope% >a!!ines6
T!e innate immunity is also called as nat#ra& %e$ense
0umoral immunity is mediated by antigen specific blood glycoproteins called
anti-o%ies6
T!ere are t&o populations of T cells " T he&per !e&&s 3T0 cells6 and !"toto;i! T !e&&s
3TC cells6.
)i$$eren!es (et'een H#ora& E Ce&& Me%iate% I#nit"
Humoral immunity
Ce&& e%iate% i#nit"
Antigen =tracellular antigens Intracellular antigens
Responding
lymp!ocytes
, lymp!ocytes T lymp!ocytes
ffector mec!anism Antibody mediated
elimination
Lysis of infected cell
Transferred by Serum T lymp!ocytes
T!e portions of antigen t!at are recogni2ed by t!e immune system 3by individual
lymp!ocytes6 are called epitopes or antigeni! %eterinants
Apoptosis is programmed cell deat!.
Memory cells escape apoptosis t!roug! e=pression of a specific gene se(uence called
bcl2
Immunologic unresponsiveness against individualPs o&n antigen is referred as to&eran!e
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AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
T!e specific immune response t!at ta+es place after an antigen stimulus can be divided
into t!ree p!ases Re!ognition Phase/ A!ti>ation Phase 1 1$$e!tor Phase6
T!ere are t!ree classes of lymp!ocytes " (*&"pho!"tes/ T*&"pho!"tes an% nat#ra&
.i&&er !e&&s 7N< !e&&s8
Mature , cells do not produce antibody but it differentiates into t&o daug!ter cells upon
antigenic stimulation " p&asa !e&&s an% eor" !e&&s
P&asa !e&&s are t!e only cells in t!e body to produce antibodies
T!e t&o important C- receptors of T cells are C)4 an% C)8.
T!e he&per T !e&&s !ave C)4 re!eptors and C"toto;i! T !e&&s !ave C)8 re!eptors
T!e N< !e&&s mediate a p!enomenon called Anti-o%" )epen%ant Ce&& Me%iate%
C"toto;i!it" 7A)CC8 t!at removed t!e antigen coated &it! immunoglobulins
S&6No Propert" ( !e&&s T !e&&s
8. Site of
development
,one marro&% bursa%
PeyerPs patc!es
T!ymus
?. -istribution Lymp! node corte=%
splenic follicles
Spleen periarticular
s!eat!
5. Circulate Jo *es
7. Antigen receptors ,CR TCR
#. Important surface
antigens
Immunoglobulins C-?% C-5% C-7% C-A
$. Antigens
recognised
Iree foreign proteins Processed foreign
proteins on M0C
4. Tolerance
induction
-ifficult asy
A. Progeny cells Plasma cells% memory
cells
0elper T cells%
cytoto=ic cells
<. Secreted protein Immunoglobulins Cyto+ines
8;. P!enotypic
mar+ers
Ic receptor% Class II
M0C% C-8<% C-?8
0elper T cell
C-5
K
% C-7
K
% C-
-
Cytoto=ic cell
C-5
K
% C-7-% C-
K
Page | 14
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
T!e macrop!ages are considered as po&erful p!agocytic cells and are referred as -ig
eaters or gar-age !o&&e!tors

)i$$erent naes are gi>en $or a!rophages $o#n% in >ario#s organs.
a. ,lood stream - Mono!"tes
b. Connective tissue - histio!"tes
c. Liver - <#p$er !e&&s
d. ,rain - G&ia& !e&&s
e. Lung alveoli - A&>eo&ar a!rophages
f. Lung capillaries - P#&oar" intra>as!#&ar a!rophages
T!e most important C- mar+er of macrop!ages is C-$A% &!ic! is ot!er&ise called as
a!rosia&in
T!e primary function of macrop!age is phago!"tosis
T!e actual mec!anism of macrop!age-mediated p!agocytosis is by re!eptor -e%iate%
en%o!"tosis follo&ed by lysosomal en2yme degradation.
T!e percentage of neutrop!ils in blood circulation among animals varies &idely. It is D,*
+,% in !arni>ores/ 5,*3,% in r#inants an% 5,% in horses
Opsonin ma+e t!e antigen palatable for p!agocytic cells.
Ig 1 is one of t!e isotypes of antibodies t!at is responsible for a&&ergi! rea!tions .
Interdigitating dentritic cells are scattered t!roug!out t!e s+in epidermis and called as
Langerhans !e&&s6
The iportant ro&es o$ generati>e an% periphera& &"phoi% organs
8. (one arro' 3mammals6 and (#rsa o$ Ba-ri!i#s 3birds6 " ( !e&& $a!tories
?. Th"#s and intestina& epithe&i# 3payerPs patc!es6" T !e&& $a!tories
5. Lymp! nodes " Qunctional filters in lymp!atic system
7. Spleen " Iilter in circulatory system
#. MALT " localised antibodies at maFor sites of pat!ogen entry
A microorganism is said to be pathogeni! &!en it can cause infection and t!e ability to
cause infection is termed as >ir#&en!e.
Molecules &it! a molecular &eig!t of 5,,, or greater are good immunogens
Haptens are small antigens t!at cannot elicit antibody response individually. ,ut t!ey
become immunogenic &!en coupled &it! larger molecules.
Page | 15
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
=oto=ins are !ig!ly immunogenic and stimulate t!e production of antibodies. T!e
antibodies against e=oto=ins are called antito;ins6
'!en t!ese e=oto=ins are precipitated by mild protein denaturing agents suc! as
formalde!yde% t!e e=oto=in loses its pat!ogenicity but retains its immunogenicity called
to;oi%s
Some times rarely immune response is elicited against normal body components. Suc!
substances are called as a#toantigens
Heterophi&e antigens are immunologically related groups of antigens t!at occur in t!e
cells of some bacterial species and also in some species of animals.
C!emically t!e antibody molecules are g&"!oproteins.
T!e fle=ibility of an antibody molecule is due to a region called hinge region t!at is ric!
in pro&ine and !"steine residues.
T!e antigen-combining site of an antibody is called as paratope.
IgM is t!e biggest antibody molecule &it! a molecular &eig!t of <4;+-.
IgM is t!e first antibody to class to appear in primary immune response
IgG is t!e only antibody class t!at can pass t!roug! placenta
Ig1 presence in large amount is an indication of allergic condition.
Macrop!ages and dendritic cells are called as antigen presenting cells 3APCs6
8. Priar" -in%ing tests " In t!ese tests t!e binding of antigen to an antibody is
measured directly. .g. RIA% LISA% IIA etc.
?. Se!on%ar" -in%ing tests " In t!ese tests% t!e results of antigen-antibody interaction
3agglutination% precipitation% fi=ation of complement6 in-vitro are measured. .g. 0I%
A/I-% CIT etc.
5. Tertiar" -in%ing tests " T!ese tests are in-vivo tests and re(uire a living system. In
t!ese tests% t!e effects of actual protective effects of antibodies are measured in living
system. .g. Jeutralisation assay
T!e ability of an assay to detect only t!e target and not any ot!er is referred as spe!i$i!it"
of t!e test.
T!e sensiti>it" of an assay refers to ability of t!e test system to detect very minute
amount of t!e target
In B&#orses!ent i#noassa"s 7IBA8 fluorescent dyes li+e fluorescent isot!iocyanide
3IITC6 or r!odamine is used
If t!e concentration of antibody is in e=cess it &ill not produce agglutination. T!is
p!enomenon is called as pro0one rea!tion6
Ina!ti>ate% >a!!ines * Iormalin and ,eta propiolactone are t!e common inactivating
agents.
Page | 16
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
I). G1N1RAL MICRO(IOLOGY
Antoni >an Lee#'enhoe. is called as $ather o$ -a!terio&og".
Ro-ert Hoo.e - identified cells using !is compound microscope
Louis Pasteur is called $ather o$ Mi!ro-io&og".
B&age&&# is t!e organ of locomotion for bacteria.
Monotri!ho#s * ,acteria !aving single polar flagellum.
Lophotri!h#s * 0aving tufts of flagella at one end
Aphitri!ho#s * 0aving flagella at bot! ends
Peritri!ho#s * 0aving flagella all around surface
T!e flagellum is composed of t!ree parts $i&aent/ hoo. an% -asa& -o%"
T!e maFor component of cell &all of /ram positive bacteria is Pepti%og&"!an 78,*J,%86
T!e LPS is also referred as 1n%oto;in
M"!op&asa do not !ave cell &all.
T!e ribosomes of bacteria are +,S composed of 5;S and #;S ribosomes subunits.
Iour nucleic acid bases form t!e deo=yribose-nucleotides. T!ey are A%enine 7A8/
G#anine 7G8/ C"tosine 7C8 an% Th"ine 7T8 of -JA.
T!e nucleotides of -JA are lin+ed by 3@*5@ phospho%iester bonds.
RJA !as got purine bases a%enine 7A8 and g#anine 7G8 and pyrimidine bases C"tosine
7C8 and 9ra!i&7986
-JA is used to code for t!e synt!esis of RJA is called trans!ription.
GROHTH OB (ACT1RIA
Generation is t!e interval for t!e formation of t&o cells from one cell
Lag phase: T!e brief period of no activity is called as lag p!ase.
1;ponentia& phase: -uring t!is p!ase t!ere is rapid increase in t!e number of bacteria.
Stationar" phase: -uring t!is p!ase t!ere is no increase in number of cells.
)eath phase: T!e deat! p!ase is also e=ponential but it is slo&. It is due to lac+ of
nutrients.
(a!teria are !&assi$ie% in to $i>e !ategories.
Psyc!rop!ile - 385
o
c6
Mesop!ile - 35<
o
c6
T!ermop!ile - 3$;
o
c6
0ypert!ermop!ile - 3AA
o
c6
0ypert!ermop!ile - 38;#
o
C6.
Ha&ophi&e - Salt loving% prefer Jacl concentration bet&een 8-5;D6%
Osophi&e - gro& in !ig! sugar concentration
Gerophi&e - gro& in very dry conditions
*ield of ATP molecules in respiration : 38 ATP
Page | 17
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
M#tation: in!eritable c!ange in base se(uence of nucleic acid
Point #tation: Mutations involving one or very fe& base pairs are referred as point
#tation.
Trans%#!tionC process in &!ic! -JA is transferred from cell to cell t!roug! viruses t!at
infect bacteria called as (a!teriophages6
Con=#gation: process of transfer of -JA directly from one bacterial cell to anot!er cell
by a mec!anism t!at re(uires cell-to-cell contact
P&asi%s: are also referred as e=tra c!romosomal -JA
Transposition: Certain genes in bacteria are capable of s!ifting from one location to
anot!er location in t!e c!romosome
)isin$e!tants * c!emicals t!at are used to +ill microorganisms on inaniate o-=e!ts.
Antisepti!s - c!emicals t!at are relatively in to=ic and are used to +ill or in!ibit
microorganisms in &i>ing tiss#es.
/enerally t!e c!emicals &it! antimicrobial actions are referred as geri!i%es6
T!e substances obtained from microorganisms alone are referred as anti-ioti!s6
Birst report o$ >ir#ses: by )iitrii I>ano's." attributed t!e causative agent of tobacco
mosaic disease.
BIRSTS
Ania& >ir#s C Ioot and mout! disease by Loe$$&er an% Pa#& Bros!h
H#an >ir#s C *ello& fever by Reeds Commission
P&ant >ir#s C Tobacco mosaic disease by )iitrii I>ano's."
T!e -JA found in t!e c!romosome is attac!ed &it! a protein called histones and t!is
protein is also responsible for staining property 3basic staining6.
T!e t&o strands of -JA are Foined toget!er by h"%rogen (on%s6
T!e most commonly used stain for fungal identification is La!topheno& Cotton (&#e6
T!e media t!at are commonly used for fungal isolation are t!e Sa-o#ra#%@s %e;trose
agar
T!e substances t!at pat!ogens produce t!at cause damage to p!agocytes are referred to as
RAggressinsR.
1n%oto;ins are part of t!e outer cell &all of bacteria.
1n%oto;ins are associated &it! cell &all of /ram-negative bacteria -
Lipopo&"sa!!hari%e
1;tra !e&&#&ar -a!teria& proteins that $#n!tion as in>asin
In>asin (a!teria In>o&>e%
Coag#&ase Staphylococcus aureus
Le#!o!i%in Staphylococcus aureus
Le!ithinase Clostridium perfringens
Anthra; L$ Bacillus anthracis
). M1AT SCI1NC1
Lateral retro p!aryngeal lymp! node is used to rule out T,
Page | 18
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
0emal lymp! node absent in horses an% pigs
'ater C protein ratio of young animal M 4:4
Muscle C ,one ratio for !ealt!y animals - 4:4
Rigor mortis time of !att&e ? J hrs% -ir%s ? 5 hrs6
C!illed meat temperature is +NC
C!illed offal temperature is 3NC
Iro2en temperature of meat is *48NC
Coo+ed meat temperature is +5NC
,lac+ cartridge used for slaug!tering e%i# si0e o$ ania&
In electrical stunning lo& voltage temperature is +, >o&tsA55,A/ +*4, se!
In stunning if current is not sufficient it lead to C#rarisationAMisse% Sho!.
Act of slaug!ter in Fe&is! met!od is she!hita
Iirst slaug!ter !ouse S &eonar/ M#-ai
P!osp!orous level of meat and blood 55*D,% an% 8,%
Mould formation is common in !hi&&e% eat
Process of free2e drying called &"ophi&isation
Sterili2ation by radiation called Ra%apperi0ation
Marbling absent in horse $&esh an% >enison
Mus+y odour seen in -#$$a&o eat
/lycogen content in !orse ,65*4%
Refractive inde= is !ig! in horse $at
Ieed efficiency " po#&tr"74:4688Mra--it74:58Mpig74:38M!att&e74:58
-ressing percentage of pig S+,*+5%
Ritual met!od practiced in india is ha&a& E =hat.a etho%
/ut s&eat bread S Pan!reas
Reducing agent used in curing is So%i# As!or-ate7,65*4%8
Mltimate p0 level of meat is 565*56+
Process of conversion of muscle to meat called rigor ortis
Rigor mortis occurs 8*45 hrs after slaug!tering
Autolytic lysosomal en2ymes in meat is called !athepsin
PS1 occurs mostly in pig% )B) is common in -ee$
In cold storage condition% O &ine is %istr#pte%
T!a&ing temperature of meat is 4*DNC
Iree2ing point of meat is 7*465NC8
Presence of &atery or blood stained fluid from fro2en meat is called 'eepA%rip
Scalding temperature of pig is D5*D4NC $or D in
One ania& #nit 9one bovine9? pigs95 calves 9 # s!eep
>ver!ead rails s!ould be placed at t!e !eig!t of 363 $or !att&e %ressing
Meat analogues are So"a-ean protein an% g&#ten o$ 'heat
Meat of deer is called >enison
-ressing D of veal 9D3%
Page | 19
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Art of removing s+in.!ide is called $&a"ing
Ires!% emulsion type of por+ sausage called Tsa&aiP
2itain (4 7thiaine8 is !ig!er in por+
'ater level of meat is D5*8,%
Mil+ !as an e=cellent source of Ca 1 P and lo& in Be/ !#/ I an% >itain C6
Self life of vacuum pac+aging is 8*4, 'ee.s at ,NC
Musty.eart!y odour due to A!hroo-a!ter and fis!y odour due to E.coli
<eet is t!e name of young guinea fo&l
Co& slaug!ter is banned in india e=cept in states of .era&a an% 'est (enga&
Mai&&ar% rea!tion is responsible for development of bro&n color on t!e surface of cured
meat
,lac+ rot in eggs is cause by Prote#s an% Pse#%oonas
Red rot caused by Serratia
In sausage ma+ing% salts added in t!e level of 4*465%
Iunctional unit of myofibrils called Sa!roere
Commonly used !umectants are g&"!ero&Aprop"&ene g&"!o&
,uffalo meat is &!ite due to absence of !arotene
)itamin A present in beef and mutton a-sent in (#$$a&o/ Che>on An% Por.
/iblet consisting of heart/ &i>er/ gi00ar%
Poultry meat contain !ig! level of o&ei! an% &ino&ei! a!i% and lo& level of c!olesterol
T!e onset of rigor mortis is en!anced at ambient temperature a-o>e 5,NC
In plate type free2er ac!ieved at t!e temperature of *4,NC 1 blast type free2er ac!ieved
at
*4,Nto *3,NC
Canned meat products !ave a self life of 5 "rs at a-ient teperat#re
0ippop!agia "consumption of !orse meat
@ynop!agia " consumption of dog meat
'eig!t ta+en ?7!rs prior to slaug!ter is considered as Live &eig!t of t!e animal
PLMC@ in cattle " laryn=% trac!ea% lungs% !eart and liver
S!eep " spleen also
Pigs " esop!agus also
Meat inspector in !is one day &or+3A!rs6can e=amine " 4# cattle.?;; pigs.?#; calves.7;;
s!eep
Area si0e
Small abattoir Mpto 5;%;;; units.year 8 " ? acres
Medium abattoir #;%;;; K units.year ? " 7 acres
Large abattoir 8 la+! K units.year 7 " $ acres
Page | 20
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
&ight intensit"
3Ta+en at t!e level of ;.< m from floor6
All inspection points #7; lu= units #; foot candles
Slaug!ter !all 1 &or+ room ??; lu= units ?; foot candles
>t!er areas 88; lu= units 8; foot candles
Roo teperat#re
C!illing room -8 to #
;
C
-etention room ?;
;
C
dible offal room 5
;
C
Meat cutting room 8?
;
C
PPM &e>e&
C!lorine for carcass &as!ing 8;; ppm
C!lorine for e(uipment &as!ing ?#; ppm
,>- of domestic se&age ?#;-5;; ppm
,>- of slaug!ter !ouse 8#;;-?;;; ppm
Sodium nitrite level in cured meat ?;;ppm
Sodium nitrate level in cured meat #;;ppm
)ressing per!entage
cattle #; -#7 D
s!eep 7# -7A D
/oat 75 -#; D
Pig 4; -4# D
Poultry $# " 4; D
Rabbit #? " #AD
(&ee%ing tie
Species ,leeding Amount of blood ,lood yield
Page | 21
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
time3mts6 3D in body &gt6
Cattle $ 5 - 7D 8; " 8? +g
Calves $ # " $D 8.# +g
S!eep # 7 - 7.#D 8 -8.# +g
Pig $ 5 -7D ? -5 +g
poultry 8.# - ?
Slaughtering of pigs
-esirable t!ic+ness of fat on t!e bac+ is 465 in!hes for lean por+ production
/aseous Stunning " D5*+,%CO5%
lectrical stunning * D,*8, >o&ts/ 5*4, se!
Stic+ing " !aroti% arteries an% =#g#&ar >eins % #-$ min
Ca&!i# %e$i!ient in meat of pig
Pig " highest $at storing a-i&it"
Por+ is ri!h in phosphor#s/ iron/energ"
2itain A an% ) not present in por+
(&#e pig - crossing of &!ite and blac+ breed
Lar% " pig fat
Store pig " A -8# &ee+s of age for mar+et
Scalding temperature C D,*D3NC $or 5 in
)I. GYNA1COLOGY
O;"to!in
Iirst !ormonal peptide to be synt!esi2ed found in t!e animals
>=ytocin 9 rapid birt!
T&o sites of origin " ovary% !ypot!alamus
Contraction of oviduct% mil+ letdo&n
>varian o=ytocin - Luteal function " acting on endometrium " induce P/IO in turn
leads to Lysis of CL
strogen en!ances responsiveness of smoot! muscle to o=ytocin
GnRH
Release of IS0% L0
BSH
Growth & maturation of graffian follicle
Spermatogenesis " up to secondary spermatocytes
Acts on receptors of sertoli cells leads to production of A,P
Page | 22
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Spermiation
Secretion of in!ibin from granulose cells of ovary and sertoli cells of testes
LH or ICSH
Pre ovulatory L0 surge
Maintains activity of CL
Stimulates leydig cells
Pro&a!tin
L#teotropi! properties in dogs% mice% rats
Maternal be!avior
Iunctions as metabolic !ormone in lo&er forms of animals
Placental !ormones
PMS/% !C/% PL% PSP,
PMSG
Can be isolated from blood% not found in urine
ndometrial cups of pregnant mare " t!ese are formed by 4,
th
day of gestation and
persist till 85
th
day of pregnancy
Important for maintenance of pregnancy in mare
Clinical use " super ovulation% anestrum
More of BSH li+e activity
HCG
Syncytio trop!oblastic cells of placenta of primates
More of LH li+e activity
Clinical use " induce ovulation% cystic ovaries
P&a!enta& &a!togen
/0 li+e activity
Imp. Regulator of maternal nutrients to t!e gro&ing foetus
1strogen
Se=ual receptivity in female
Secondary se=ual c!aracters
-uctal development of mammary gland
Attac!ment of embryo to uterine &all
Anabolic effect
Jegative feedbac+ mec!anism to t!e /nR0
-evelopment of female reproductive tract
Clinical use C Induction of !eat% treatment of misalliance% as cbolic 3Mummification%
Pyometra6% induces mil+ production in co&
Progesterone
Source L ovary% placenta% adrenal% testes
In!ibits uterine contractions
Increases endometrial secretions
Page | 23
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Maternal be!avior% nest building
Induction of lactation
Clinical use
Treatment of ovarian cysts not responds to /nR0
Cervico vaginal prolapsed
arly embryonic mortality
0abitual abortion
Co&% /oat% So& " CL dependant

T1ST1S
Mediastinum testes absent in stallion
Connective tissue capsule " Tunica albuginea
Medial septum of testes " -artos
,lood testes barrier " primary " Peritubular cells -prevent auto immune reactions
Secondary " Functional comple=es bet&een sertoli cells
Testes " 7-$Uc lo&er t!an body temperature
>=ytocin% P/I?O% Ac!% tends to alter t!e pididymal Transit Time
=tra gonadal reserve 3/R6 " pididymis% vas deferens% Ampulla
Time re(uire to complete a cycle of seminiferous epit!elium3Spermatogenesis6
,ull " 87 days
,oar " < days
Ram " 8; days
0orse " 8? days
R9T " Certain definite period of se=ual e=citement in some &ild animals
3-eer% Camel% lep!ant6 " spermatogenesis occurs in t!is period
Ap#&&ae E 2esi!#&ar g&an% absent in dog and cat
Ye&&o'ish colour of bull semen is due to riboflavin
(#&-o#rethera& g&an% absent in dog
Sigmoid fle=ure " Pre s!rota& " ,oar% Post s!rota& " ,ull% Ram
Retractor penis muscle controls sigmoid fle=ure
G&ans penis
,ull " pointed
Ram " uret!ral process
,oar " glans penis absent
-og " t&o parts bulbus glandis3pro=imal 8.56 % pars longa glandis3distal?.56
Cat " s!ort% terminal part !aving several spines
Stallion " prominent uret!ral process% /roove - Iossa glandis
Testi!#&ar %es!ent
,ull " 8;$ days of gestation
0orse " Jear birt!
Ram% ,oar " 4; days of gestation
Page | 24
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
-og " 5 " 7 days post natally
High $&an.ers " Testes reac!es t!e inguinal canal but not descent in to t!e scrotum
Ipotentia !oe#n%i " Reduced to complete lac+ of se=ual desire and ability to
copulate
Ipotentia generan%i " Inability to reduced ability to fertili2e
(a&anitis " Inflammation of glans penis
Posthitis " Inflammation of prepuce
(a&anoposthitis - Inflammation of penis and prepuce
Phiosis " Mnable to normally protrude t!e penis
Paraphiosis " Mnable to retract t!e penis in to t!e prepuce
)ipha&&#s " -ouble penis
Pha&&o!apsis " deviation of penis eit!er ventral or lateral or spiral
Rain-o' penis " ventral deviation
Cor.s!re' penis " lateral deviation
Inherite% sper %e$e!ts
)ia%e e$$e!t Sign of disturbance in spermiogenesis%
version of galea captis 1crater s!aped
depressions in t!e nucleus%
Juclear pouc! formation defect.
Ieulgen stain 1 p!ase
contrast microscopy !elpful
in revealing t!is defect.
<no--e%
sperato0oa
Acrosomal defect% ccentrically placed
t!ic+ening of t!e Acrosome.
osin-,% Iast green stain1
p!ase contrast microscopy
!elpful in revealing t!is
defect.
Testi!#&ar h"pop&asia " /iant cells% medusa cells% !ig! incidence of cytoplasmic
droplets
Testi!#&ar %egeneration " Large no. of primary abnormality
Speratogenesis
,ull% Ram% -og " $;-4; days
Stallion " 7;-7# days
,oar " #;-$; days
A0oosperia " no sperms
O&igosperia " decrease in sperm concentration
Arti$i!ia& inseination
84A; " La22aro spallan2ani 3ITALIAJ6 - AI in bitc!
8<;; - Ivanoff 3Russian6 " used AI as a tec!ni(ue for breeding
8<5< " in India " @umaran -Palace dairy farm " Mysore
Page | 25
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Seen !o&&e!tion
Spe!ies Arti$i!ia& >agina Tepet#re
,ull 5<-78Uc
Stallion 7#-#;Uc
,oar 7#-#;Uc
Ram 1 buc+s 7#-#;Uc
-og 7;-7?Uc
Sper !e&& !on!entration " ,ull - 8;D of t!e semen volume% ,oar " ?-#D
Spe!ies pH
,ull% Ram $.A
Stallion% ,oar 4.7
-og $.4
Iructose " Jormal sugar providing energy to spermato2oa in ruminants
Sorbitol " Sugar alco!ol can be o=idi2ed to fructose and provides source of
energy
Inositol " ,oar semen
rgot!eionine " ,oar% Stallion
/lyceryl p!osp!oryl c!oline " pididymal Secretion
Age at P#-ert"
Spe!ies Bea&e Ma&e
Cattle $-8A mont!s <-8? mont!s
0orses 8;-?7 mont!s 8A mont!s
-og $-8? mont!s 4-8; mont!s
S&ine #-A mont!s #-4 mont!s
Cat #-8A mont!s #-8A mont!s
Monoestro#s " 'ild Animals
Po&"estro#s " Co&% So&
Reg#&ar estro#s !"!&e " Co&% S!eep% Mare% ,itc!% So&
Spontaneo#s o>#&ators " ovulation ta+es place but CL formed &ill not be
functional until mating
In%#!e% o>#&ators " ovulation 1 CL formation depends upon t!e mating !as
occurred or not 3 cat% Rabbit% Min+ 6
9niparo#s A Monoto!o#s " one ovum% one fetus3 co&% mare% so&6
M#&tiparo#s A Po&"to!o#s " 5 -8# ova% 5-8# fetus3dog% cat% so&6
N#&&ipara " female t!at !ave never conceived . carried young one
Priipara " conceived for t!e first time 38
st
gestation period6
P&#ripara " conceived previously ? or more times earlier
Page | 26
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Spe!ies Ip&antation7)a"s a$ter Con!eption8
Co& ?? " 5# days
Mare 5$ " 5A days
&e 8$ -8A days
So& 85 " ?; days
IS0 1 L0 re(uired for antrum formation
Co& " Metestr#a& or post 1str#a& -&ee%ing " capillary bleeding due to t!e
&it! dra&l of estrogen
*oung animals " slig!t s!orter lengt! of estrous cycle
Se;#a& %i$$erentiation
o Ieline% porcine embryo " 5; days of gestation
o >vine " 5# days
o ,ovine " 7# days
O># o>#&ate% - All species Metap!ase II " ?
nd
meiotic division
Mare% -og% Io= " 8
st
meiotic division
Spe!ies 1str#s perio% O>#&ation tie
Co& 87-8A !rs 8?-8A !rs after t!e end of estrus
Mare 7-4 days Last ? days of estrus
So& ?-5 days Last day of estrus
&e 8-? days Last day of estrus
,itc! 4-< days Iirst 5 days of estrus
Cat Induced 7 days if
copulation occurs or else <-
8; days
>ne day after mating
Capacitation initiated in t!e uterus and completed in ist!umus of oviduct
H"a&#roni%ase " ,ull acrosome
Ar"&s#&$a&ase " ,oar acrosome
S"nga" - Iusion of male and female pronuclei
Pheroone " volatile substance secreted or released outside t!e body and
perceived by t!e olfactory system of ot!er individuals of t!e same species
Page | 27
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
(oar " Saliva 3sub ma=illay gland6% Prepucial pouc! " ? Attractants 5O
androstenol% #O androstenone
B&ehen response " ,ull% Ram% Stallion
-elayed ovulation% silent estrus% anovulation may be due to P*!arotene
%e$i!ien!"
arly embryonic mortality occurs bet&een 8*4J %a"s after breeding
Co& " best time of AI " middle to t!e end of standing !eat 3 i% estr#s not
metestrus 6
Car% test " rapid% sensitive accurate test for field screening of -r#!e&&osis
Leptospirosis " gargety mil+
)isease organis Tie o$ a-ortion
)ibriosis Vibrio fetus veneralis 1ar&" 1-r"oni! %eath " common
7 t! mont! to term " occasional 3 II
triester 8
Tric!omonosis richomonas foetus Birst triester 3 ?-7 mont!s6
Iungal abortion !spergillus fumigatus #
t!
-4
t!
mont!s
pi2ootic bovine
Abortion
"sittacosis#Chlamydia
Group of org
$
t!
-A
t!
mont!
Listeriosis $isteria monocytogenes Last triester34
t!
-<
t!
mont!6
,rucellosis Brucella abortus Last triester of pregnancy
Leptospirosis $%pomona#$%hard&o#
$%grioppotypphosa
Last !alf of gestation
I,R "IP) 'erpes virus All 5 trimesters of t!e pregnancy
Gona%a& se; %eterination
BB " Me%#&&a inhi-ite% and corte= develops - Bemale
B* " !orti!a& %e>e&opent inhi-ite% "testes develops - male
Primary se= cords - Ancestors of spermato2oa
Secondary se= cords " Ancestors of oocytes
Spe!ies O>ar" shape More $#n!tiona&
,ull % &e Almond Rig!t
Mare ,ean Left
Page | 28
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
So& Mulberry Left
,itc! >val

>varian !ormones " 1strogen/ Progesterone/ O;"to!in /Re&a;in/ Inhi-in
an% A!ti>in
>viduct " opening of infundibulum Gostium tubae abdominalH
>pening of utero tubal Function Gostium tubae uterinumH
9ter#s spe!ies
,icornuate Co&% &e% /oat % So&
Simple= primates% !umans
-eciduate ,itc!% Eueen
Jon-deciduate Co&% -oe% &e% Mare% So&
Cotyledonary Ruminants
-iffuse Mare% So&
Vonary ,itc!% Eueen
-iscoidal /uinea pig
Cattle "Caruncle - Arranged in 7 ro&s 34;-8?; in number6
True &ater3?
nd
6 bag - anion
Mare " cruciform or TTP s!aped
,itc! and (ueen entire uterus lies in t!e abdominal cavity
Portion of cervi= proFects in to t!e vagina " Portio >agina&is
Borni; " a-sent in so'% prominent in mare
Remnants of &olffian duct " gartners %#!t
Pregnancy diagnosis also +no&n as !"esiognosis
Positi>e signs o$ pregnan!" " Amniotic vesicle% Ietal membrane slip% Ietus%
cotyledons
)a"s Pa&pa-&e part Q pregnan!"
5; days Amniotic vesicle
5#-<; days Ietal membrane slip
About <; days Ietal bump
Page | 29
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
<;-8;; days Placentomes
8?; days Iremitus
'!ite !eifer disease due to se; &in.e% re!essi>e gene is commonly seen in
&!ite s!ort !orn cattle
Mterine tubal patency test " pheno&s#&phonptha&ene7PSP8 %"e test
Bo&&i!#&ar !"st " n"phonia 3bullers6% multiple in bot! ovaries%rela=ation of
sacrosciatic ligament- up&ard displacement of coccy= " Rsteri&it" h#pS
L#tea& !"st " often single% anestro#s% a%rena& >iri&is
M#i$i!ation o$ $et#s
In cattle " heati! t"pe " 5-A mont!s % pap"ra!eo#s t"pe occur in ot!er
species
R. - firmer%dryer leat!er li+e tissue &it! uterine &all &it!out cotyledon
RG
P/I? O -3 Lutalyse%vetmate%iliren%dinofertin6
Cattle " ?#mg 3total dose6
Ma!eration o$ $et#s
&ill occur at any stage " commonly 5
rd
mont!
Tri!hooniasis and >i-riosis organisms invade t!e uterus cause infection and
pus formation
-ropsy of fetal membranes over all incidence ;.5D
Hydroallontois ( ))*+# most freuently encountered than hydroamnios (,-
-.*+
0ydroallontois - -&oate% -#&& $rog &i.e !a&$
Mterine torsion " t&isting or revolution of t!e gravid uterus on its &ong a;is
Signs of approac!ing parturition in mare " 'a;ing o$ teat/ pat!h" s'eating
!etus decides the day of birth and dam decides the time of birth
Jormal placental =pulsion time C
cattle - ) - -/hrs#
0are - .%, 1 2hrs#
sheep &goat - 2 1 3 hrs
,itc! " Placentophagy
So& " !oetophagy
-uring fetal e=pulsion " co&% &e% -oe " Sternal recumbency% Mare " lateral
recumbency
Post partum period " p#erperi#
Mterine involution completed by
cattle - ?$ " #? days follo&ing parturition
Mare - 5? days
Page | 30
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
,itc! - 7 " # &ee+
Post partum uterine disc!arge " Lo!hia
>nset of estrus after parturition% cattle C- 55 " <; days% buffaloes C- 7 " $
mont!s
!oal heat " # $%2 days post partum
,itc! - t!e post partum Lo!hia is green !o&o#r is due to Mteroverdin " brea+
do&n product of 0emoglobin .
Mterine incision is closed by " %o#-&e ro' o$ &e-ert or !#shing s#t#res
Ieeding s&eet clover to s!eep " 0yperestrogenisim can leads to uterine
prolapsed.
-o&ner co& " clinically parturient paresis but unable to rise a$ter54 ho#rs
an% t'o !a&!i# in$#sions
Creeper co& " co& becomes alert and gains control follo&ing calcium
inFection but reains re!#-ent %#e to ina-i&it" to #se hin% 3#arters
Synt!etic analogues of GnRH " ,userelin3RCPTAL6 %
Iertirelin3>)AL*S6 % /onadorelin 3IRTA/*L6
Presentation P 4elation of the spinal a&is of the fetus to that of dam. 3egL
longitudinal . transverse and anterioer . posterior 6
Position P 4elation of the dorsum of the fetus in longitudinal
presentation or the head in transverse presentation to that of
uadrants of maternal pel'is.
3egL dorso " sacral %dorso-pubic etc.% 6
Post#re P (elation of the e&tremities or the head# nec5 and limbs of t!e
fetus to the body of its o)n.
3egL s!oulder fle=ion% !ip fle=ion nape etc.%6
Post partum !eat in pigs- 3 C 5 %a"s
At t!e time of deep free2ing " 3, i&&ion sperms .ml
At t!e time of AI 3post t!a&6 - minimum 4, i&&ion sperms . ml
,uc+ spermato2oa (uite susceptible to cold s!oc+
,uc+ semen " Presence of egg coagulating en2yme 3P!osp!olipase A6
prevents t!e storage at # Uc in yol+ containing diluents
Page | 31
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
(uilibrium of semen W 5T! $or D hrs to enable g&"!ero& a!tion
Sealing po&der " po&" >in"& a&!oho&
La-orator" sea& !as to be cut during AI
Minimum of 4,*45 i&&ion of viable sperms present after free2ing and
t!a&ing in eac! doses
T!e capacity of Irenc! mini stra& " ,655 &

)II. LI21STOC< PRO)9CTION AN) MANAG1M1NT
Bo#r pi&&ars o$ &i>esto!. anageent 7or8 LPM
86 ,reeding ?6 'eeding 56 Ieeding 76 0eeding
Tur+ey - 0eleagris gallopavo
Q. Euail - Coturni6 coturni6 &aponica
/uirea foul - Numida meleagris
-uc+ - !nas plathyrhynchos
/oose - !nser anser
Coon Ters an% )e$initions
Page | 32
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Horse
/eld 3or6 gelding - castrated male !orse.
,ro+en !orse - A &ell trained !orse
Mnbro+en !orse - Mntrained !orse
Colt foal - Male young one
Iilly foal - Iemale young one
-ouble rig - Cryptorc!id 3bot! testicles retained in t!e
abdomen6
Ioaling - Act of giving birt! to young one.
Mule - Mare = =a!. ass
Qennet.Qenny.!inny./enet -sta&&ion = she %on.e"
Catt&e
0eifer - 7oung female over one year# which has &ust attained
maturity%
Slin+ calf - !n aborted calf
,obby calf- 0ale calf about - wee5 old%
Iree martin - win calves of different se6es are born
T!e bull calf - Se6ually normal %
female calf - Sterile (always+
Sheep
'edder 3or6&et!er - !n adult castrated male sheep%
/immer - Iemale s!eep &!ic! is bet&een 8 and ?
s!earing.
Seggy - an adult male castrated after service
Brog " t!e central elevated portion be!ind t!e foot
Chestn#t " t!e !orny gro&t! situated belo& t!e !oc+ on bot! t!e !ind limb
Hogging " clipping t!e mane
Po#ring " pouring small (uantity of dip into parts of t!e fleece along t!e
bac+%sides and belly
Cr#t!hing " removing soiled dung-stained &ool of Perineal and inguinal
regions
S!o#ring " removal of impurities in ra& &ool
M#&&ing - castration by crude met!od
Ringing " removal of &ool from t!e region around t!e penis
1"eing " clipping of &ool around t!e eye to prevent &ool blindness
Spe!ies N#-er o$ %e$ine% -ree%s
In%ia
Cattle ?A
,uffalo 4
Page | 33
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
S!eep 77
/oat ?5
(uines $
Hatering o$ &i>esto!.

Spe!ies 'ater inta.e A%a"
Cattle 1 buffalo ?4 " ?A lit
Adult camel 4; " <; lit
S!eep 1 goat 8A lit
Pigs ?# " 5; lit
Poultry ?#; ml
-og 1cats 87 lit
0orse 5$ lit

Spe!ies Hater re36$or a&& p#rposes A %a"
Co& - 8;; " 88; lit
0orse - 4? lit
Pigs - 7; -#; lit
Potable )ater
Standard physical ualities
>rganic matter 2ppm
P0 range 8-)%,
Turbidity , turbidity scale
Chei!a& 3#a&ities
C!loride% Sulp!ate ?#;ppm
Iluoride 8ppm
Page | 34
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Ammonia
Lead ;.8ppm
Arsenic ;.;#ppm
Iron ;.5ppm
Har%ness o$ 'ater
temporary !ardness " -i!ar-onates o$ !a&!i# an% agnesi#
Permanent !ardnes - Ch&ori%es an% s#&phates o$ !a&!i# an% agnesi#6
C!lorine demand for normal &ater " ,6J*468 pp
,rac+is! taste of &ater is due to presence of so%i# !h&ori%e
Si!.&e shape% horn C surti
Ta&&est In%ian sheep -ree% C *ellore
Shortest In%ian sheep -ree% C +andya
Pelt breed " ,ara,ul
Largest goat breed " -amnapari
-&arf breed of goat " .arbari
Mil+ fat percentage !ig!est in /a,ffarabadi 1 lo&est in *ili$ra'i
0hegu and chanthangi are pas!mina goat
/estation !eat is also present in goat
Safe sanitary distance is 45,*5,, $eet a&ay from t!e sources of
contaminations
G&#tara&%eh"%e 75%8 a(ueous solution used for sterili2ation of instruments
Trap is a contrivance for preventing se'ar gas escaping in to !ouse drainage
system
Presence of iron in &ater encourages t!e gro&t! of iron bacteria suc! as
!renothri; and ga&&ione&&a
0ig!er concentration of fluoride causes interference &it! calcification giving
rise to dental dystrop!y +no&n as ott&e% teeth
Cooling po&er can be measured by .ata theroeter
Air velocity 4,,$tAin at +,NC is found to be comfortable for broilers
Percentage of C>? present in t!e atmosp!ere can be measured by Ha&%ane@s
apparat#s
S!ort day breeders " s!eep and goat
Long day breeders - !orse
0ousing -ast- &est orientation " temperate regions
Jort! " sout! orientation " tropical regions
1dentification of horse
Gre" " s+in is blac+ &it! admi=ture of blac+ and &!ite !airs
(a" " varies from dull red to yello&is! color% blac+ mane% tail and t!e limb
Page | 35
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Pie-a&% " irregular patc!es of &!ite and blac+
Star " a &!ite mar+ on t!e fore!ead eit!er large or small
Stripe " a narro& &!ite mar+ing running do&n t!e face%may be t!in or broad
Con=oine% star an% stripe " stripe in continuation of a star
(&a0e " a &!ite mar+ing covering almost t!e &!ole of t!e fore!ead bet&een
t!e eyes and e=tending do&n t!e front of t!e face beyond t!e &idt! of nasal
bone and usually involving t!e mu22le
Hhite $a!e " &!ite covers t!e &!ole of fore!ead
Snip " any isolated &!ite mar+ in bet&een t!e nostrils
Hhite #00&e " bot! lips &ill be &!ite
Hhor&s " any irregular setting of !airs
Bree0e -ran%ing - -ry ice C 7* +,NC8 / Li(uid nitrogen " 7*4JDNC6
Teeth
Canine teeth absent in mare%cattle
T#shes C !anine teeth o$ pig
Ho&$ teeth " 8
st
pre molar of upper Fa& in !orse
)enta& star " a mar+ seen on t!e table surface of incisors in !orse
In$#n%i-#&# " dar+ depression on t!e table surface of incisors in !orse
Carnassia&s A se!toria& teeth " in dogs.
7
t!
c!ee+ toot! of upper Fa& 3 7
t!
pre molar6
#
t!
c!ee+ toot! of lo&er Fa& 38
st
molar6
Ga&>a"ne@s groo>e is a depression on t!e labial surface of t!e corner incisors
(ishoping is an attempt to ma+e t!e old animals to be mista+en for a young one
2ental formula
spe!ies Teporar" 7 %e!i%#o#s 8 peranent
5 3Incisors . canine . premolar6 5 3Incisors.canine.premolar.molar6
Catt&eAsheepAgoat ;.7 % ;.; % 5.5 ?; ;.7 % ;.; % 5.5 % 5.5 5?
Horse 5.5 % ;.; % 5.5 ?7 5.5 % 8.8 % 5-7.5 % 5.5 7; - 7?
Pig 5.5 % 8.8 % 5.5 ?A 5.5 % 8.8 % 7.7 % 5.5 77
)og 5.5 % 8.8 % 5.5 ?A 5.5 % 8.8 % 7.7 % ?.5 7?
Cat 5.5 % 8.8 % 5.? ?$ 5.5 % 8.8 % 5.? % 8.8 5;
Cae& 8.5 % 8.8% 5.? ?? 8.5 % 8.8% 5.? % 5.5 57
-ouble dis!ed face is c!aracteristic of =erse" and G#ernse"
Page | 36
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Go&%en "e&&o' color mil+ is seen in /uernsey
,est mil+ production of &orld is Ho&stein Briesian
@ey stone of arc! in animal breeding " se&e!tion
Mass selection can be po&erful for high&" herita-&e traits
Spe!ies Sper !o#ntA& >o&#e
(#&& $;;-8?;; million ?-8; ml
(#$$a&o $;;-8;;; million ?-# ml
Ra A;;-7;;; million ;.$-? ml
Sta&&ion #;-?;; million 5;-?A; ml
(oar ?#-8;;; million 8#;-7#; ml
Ca&$ starter s!ould be fed at 5 mont!s of age 7T)N *+,%/ CP *55%8
Additional feeding during t!e pregnancy period " TSteaming up3
Co&s s!ould be bred after calving &it!in D,*J, %a"s
ar notc!ing is commonly practiced in pigs
Removal of testicles in fo&l " Caponisation
-raug!t po&er of bulloc+ " ,6+5 HP
/estation period of goat is 445*455 days
,est +no&n Indian goat milc! breed " =anapari
Cr#%e Bi-re utili2ation - GoatMsheepM-#$$a&oesM!o's
In s!eep $&#shing is practiced 5*3 'ee.s before mating
Age of ram for breeding purpose " 5 "rs
S!eep tends to survive best in %rier !&iates
At ?; &+s of age% 4D hrs of lig!ting is re(uired
Air movement s!ould not e=ceed 3, $t 7J658Ain
Ior production of 8ml of mil+ 4,,*5,,& of blood must pass t!roug! t!e
udder
MaFor elements 3Ca% P % @ % Cl % and Ja6 cannot be c!anged by altering t!e
levels of t!ese elements in t!e ration of a co&
STH/ACTH/TSH an% O;"to!in e=ert t!eir effect in maintaining t!e normal
lactation curve
Ga&a!tophore - a mil+ duct
Ga&a!tosi%ase - en2yme &!ic! catalyses t!e splitting of lactose into g&#!ose U
Ga&a!tose
Ga&a!topoiesis " maintenance of lactation
La!togenesis " initiation of mil+ secretion
Page | 37
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Concentrate feeding " ;.5# +g per lit of mil+
Colostrums also +no&n as (eesting
,est time for castration is 8*4, 'ee.s for cattle
-e&orming " &it! pipera0ine a%ipate &it! in 5
rd
to 4
t!
day% repeat it once in a
mont! upto $
t!
mont! of age
Calf mortality - -e&o' 8%
Adult mortality " -e&o' 3%
C!emical used for s!earing in s!eep " C"!&ophospai%e
Limiting amino acid of s!eep - Methionine
-ry matter re(uirement of s!eep - 565 C 3 .g Ahea% A %a"
T!e only mil+ producing s!eep breed 3goat li+e s!eep6 " Sona%i
Bineness o$ 'oo& " e=pressed in terms of spinning !o#nts 7s8
Ratio of secondary to primary follicle in Bine 'oo& -ree%s " 5, : 4
Carpet 'oo& -ree%s" 4:4 to 3:4
-iameter of 'ool fiber " 45 C 5, V
-iameter of @emp fiber " 4,, C 5,, V
0air - Medulla is present
T"pe o$ 'oo& )iaeter S #nit
Iine &ool X?# Y $7s to A;s
Medium &ool ?# " 7; Y #;s to $?s
Coarse &ool Z7; Y X#;s
T!e fiber from t!e Angora goat is +no&n as Mohair
Ileece contain Suint and /rease
S#int " &ater soluble salts present in t!e &ool% &!ic! is e=cretory products
from s+in
T!e &aviness of &ool is +no&n as !rip/ fine &ool &ill !ave more crimps
Mutton " Pale pin+is!
C!evon " dar+ red &it! coarse te=ture
B&oor spa!e per ania& 7S36$t8
T"pe o$ ania& Co>ere% area Open area
Co&s ?;-5;35.# m
?
6 A;-8;;34 m
?
6
,uffaloes ?#-5# A;-8;;
Page | 38
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
*oung stoc+ 8#-?; #;-$;
Pregnant co&s 8;;-8?; 8A;-?;;
,ulls 8?;-87;38? m
?
6 ?;;-?#;38?; m
?
6
Ram .,uc+ 5.7 m
?
&e .-oe 8 m
?
,oar < m
?
< m
?
2III PO9LTRY SCI1NC1
(R11)C group of individuals &it! in t!e species !aving distinct p!ysical 1
productive c!aracteristics% &!ic! are efficiently transmitted to decendents
>ariet"C subdivision of breed mostly decided by type of comb% colour of plumage
StrainC population of small number of individuals in variety reproducing &it!
&ell establis!ed common c!aracteristics
(ree%s
Me%iterranean !&ass 7gg type6C M L A 3Minorca %Leg!orn % Ancona6
1ng&ish !&ass3Meat type6C C O S A3Cornis!% >rp!ington% Susse=% Australop6
Aeri!an !&ass 3-ual type6C R P N H3R!ode islandred% Plymout!roc+% Je&
0amps!ire% 'yandotte6 "
Asiati! !&ass " ,r!aman% Coc!in%Langs!arn
)#!.
1gg &a"ersC @!a+i Campbell% Indian runner
Meat %#!.sC &!ite pe+in% Aylsburry% Muscovy% Rouven
Se= ratio C MaleCIemale 4:45*4D - Replacement pullets
4:4,*45 - broiler breeders
Bai&" se&e!tion is useful in lo& !eritability c!aracteristics
Lo& !eritability c!aracters egg pro%#!tion / $erti&it" an% >ia-i&it"
Pedigree selection is used for se; &iite% traits
Individual selection adopted for traits of high herita-i&it"%
high&" herita-&e !hara!ters " egg &eig!t% s!ell (uality% se=ual maturity% gro&t! rate%
confirmation
Selection of birds for La"er Line " 8;-87 &ee+s of age
Meat T"pe Line " A &ee+s of age
NAB1) " Jational Agricultural Co->perative Mar+eting Iederation of India
In mar+eting of eggs% state level government organi2ations li+e
MAIC>%TAPC>%P>MIC>%JCC and JAI- are ma+ing considerable efforts for
ar.eting an% sa&e prootion o$ eggs
N1CC " Jational egg coordination committee " $i;es the pri!es $or the eggs
In%ia C 3
r%
&argest egg pro%#!er ne=t to c!ina 1 MSA
Page | 39
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Iertile egg " nucleus is called as Ger %is!% infertile egg it is called as Ger spot
O>iposition " act of laying% due to t!e release of Arginine and >asoto!in
(ro'n !o&or o$ egg s!ell is due to t!e pigment Porph"rin
(&#e she&&e% eggs " pigment Oo!"anin
T!e normal dept! of air cell is 4 to 8
S!ell from outside covered by a layer of cuticle &!ic! is (a!teriostati!
S!ell membranes " ,6,,4 C ,6,5 thi!.
S!ell " 44 % of total egg &eig!t
Albumen " 58 % of total egg &eig!t
*ol+ " 34 % of total egg &eig!t
O>o#!in " responsible for firmness of t!ic+ albumen
O>i%#!t
In$#n%i-#&# - fertili2ation of ovum% t!e yol+ stays for about 45 in
Magn# " maFor (ty of t!ic+ albumen secreted !ere % materials stay about 3 ho#rs
Isth#s " 8.?# !rs% egg &!ite%? s!ell membranes% some salt and &ater is added to egg
9ter#s " maFor role in egg formation% !ard calcareous s!ell% s!ell pigment% some
minerals1 &ater along &it! cuticle deposited% egg spends ma= time ?8 !rs at t!is place
2agina " egg Fust passes &it!out spending time
54 C 5D hrs re(uired for formation of an egg
Ha#gh #nit7H98 " valuating albumen (uality% t!e 0M of good (uality egg " +,
Temperature gg !olding room 48 C 5,T!
Ph"sio&ogi!a& Oero " to arrest t!e development of embryo before setting at 4#-A; D
!umidity
Iumigation " 8= " 7;ml of formalin &it! ?;g of @mno7.?.A;m5
Incubator - temp-54.#- 54.AUC %$#-4;D !umidity
0atc!er " temp- 5$.# " 5$.AUC% 4# " A;D !umidity
Incubation period " ?;-?8 days
(roo%ing anageent " up to 7 &ee+s " broilers% $-A &+s " layers
(roo%ing spa!e " #;-$$ cm
?
.c!ic+% temperature " 55UC during first &ee+%?.$UC reduced
every &ee+ till reac!es ?8UC
)e-ea.ing - generally done t&ice in egg type c!ic+en " -ay old 1 Around <
t!
day or at
5-7 &ee+s of age
Toe*!&ipping " breeding males " $-< days of age
)#--ing " removal of comb % around 4-A &ee+s of age
Cropping - removal of &attles
The a>erage sto!.ing %ensit" o$ a%#&t -ir%s
Iree range - 55,-ir%sAha
Semi intensive C +5, -ir%sAha
Intensive system " 4,,,,*55,,,-ir%sAha
Bo#&*pat!h " t!e ground immediately surrounding t!e !ouses- more danger of infection
Page | 40
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
)epth o$ &itter " 5! for c!ic+s%+ *4,! for gro&ers and layers
T!e re&ati>e h#i%it" in the %eep &itter system s!ould be aro#n% 4,%
T!e oist#re !ontent o$ &itter s!ould not be less t!an 48% and s!ould not e=ceed
M54%
T!e ammonia level produced by litter s!ould not e=ceed 55pp
>rientation of poultry !ouses " 1ast*Hest %ire!tion

B&oor spa!e re3#ireent
La"ers (roi&ers
Age
3&ee+s6
Space.bird3cm s(6 Age 3&ee+s6 Space.bird3cm s(6
)eep &itter
;-4 $#;-$4# ; - 7 7#;-74;
A-88 <;;-<?# # - 4 4#;-A#;
8?-8< 8A;;-?;;;
Cage s"ste
;-A ?;;-?#;
<-?; ?4#-5;;
?; 1 above 554-54#
Restri!te% $ee%ing- increases t!e si2e of initial eggs laid and is an important factor to
reg#&ate the si0e o$ eggs
1gg*-orne transission 3Trans ovarian diseases6 - Salmonellosis % Mycoplasmosis%
Avianleucosis comple=% Rani+!et disease % Infectious ,ronc!itis% Avian
ncep!alomyelitis%avian Adeno virus infection% I,03inclusion body !epatitis6% -S-4$%
Io&l typ!oid
Mott&e% "o&. " -ue to coccidiostat% !ot &eat!er% gossypol poisoning
(&oo% spot " )itamin A deficiency
(roo%er pne#onia " Aspergillus fumigates
Gape 'or 3Ior+ed &orms6" Syngamus trac!ea
)accine - -rin+ing &ater administration " Ior 8; liters of &ater 4.g o$ i!e and D,g o$
s.ie% i&. po'%er is used
T!e R0 of poultry !ouse s!ould range from 45*+5%
0atc! &eig!t of broiler c!ic+ - 35 C 4, g
C!ic+s must remain in continuous lig!ting #p to 8 '.s of age
N9TRITION
Page | 41
AMIGOS 2002-03 BATCH TNPSC NOTES
Supplemental nitrogen: s#&ph#r necessary in t!e ratio of 4,:4
Cereal grains are deficient in &"sine and tr"ptophan
Iis! meal is ric! source of &"sine/ tr"ptophan and ethionine
Piglets !ig!ly susceptible to iron and !o-a&t deficiency
Pig&et anaeia3th#ps6
symptoms - Pale in t!e region of ears and belly% Listlessness% Rapid breat!ing%
often -iarr!oea .
RB - 8;;-8#; mg of iron in t!e form of iron de=tron " 5 days after birt! if
necessary a second inF.-5 &ee+s later
'eig!t at &eaning age is proof of e$$i!ient gro'th and also an indication of t!e i&.ing
a-i&it" of t!e gilt
Creep feeding given from 3
r%
'ee. on&ards 3?#-5;D CP6
*ello& mai2e is ric! in !r"pto;anthine
Restri!te% $ee%ing produces better (uality meat
Cotton seed meal is +no&n for its efficiency to produce har% an% $ir eat
Ieeds li+e gro#n% n#t/ ai0e/ ri!e -ran/ >egeta-&e oi&s% etc &!en fed in liberal &ill
result in so$t por.
Mai2e as a cereal deficient in !a&!i#
Cho&ine and ethionine are needed to supplement to counteract t!e to=icity resulting
from tannin
Rice polis! " ric! in thiaine and !ig!er in nia!in and ri-o$&a>in
'!eat bran " 8?D fibrer ric! in phosphor#s and poor in !a&!i#
.lood meal $ 4856 protein
+eat meal " #5$## 0P
,lood meal is deficient iso&e#!ine
/round nut ca+e 4,*5,% protein
Ieat!er meal 5% inclusion level
Page | 42