Three-Level Selection

Three-Branch Way

Human Social History

The Unified Theory of Human Society:
The Unified Society
Postmodern Unified Society

The Unified Theory of Human Society: the Unified Society
Contents Abstract Diagrams and Tables Three-Level Selection in Evolution The Evolution of Three-Level Selection Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 The Three-Branch Way The Five Factors in Social Life The Social Life System for Primates The Properties of Social Lives Ape Evolution and Social Structures Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct The History of Human Society Love The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life Elementary and Secondary Education Postmodern Economy Postmodern Unified Political System The Development of Mental Disorder Mental Disorders Introduction 1. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection 1.1. Individual Selection with Individualistic Society 1.2. Relational selection with Collectivistic Society 1.3. Group Selection with Harmonious Society 1.4. The Evolution of Three-Branch Human Society 1.5. The Way to Local Peace 1.6. The Way to World Peace 6 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 20 20 22 22 25 27 28 31 32 32 32 33 34 35 37 37 38 39 39 41

Part 1. The Three-Branch Way
2. The Development of Social Life 2.1. The Five Factors 2.1.1. The Gender Factors 2.1.1.1. Social Role: Bond and Systemization 2.1.1.2. Social Relationship: Relation and Achievement 2.1.1.3. Social Unit: Collectiveness and Individual 2.1.2. The Non-Gender Factors 2.1.2.1. Intragroup Contact: Passive and Dynamic 2.1.2.2. Social Flexibility: Unyielding and Flexible 2.2. The Social Lives 2.2.1. Yin and Yang Social Lives in Social Group 2.2.2. Group Social Relationship: Expressive and Domination

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2.3. The Harmonious Social Life 3. Ape Evolution and Hominid Evolution 3.1. Ape Evolution 3.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 3.1.2 The First Split: the peacemaking ape 3.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 3.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 3.1.5 The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 3.2. Hominid Evolution 4. The Properties, Interactions, and Reinforcements of the Social Lives 4.1. The Properties of the Social Lives 4.2. The Interaction of the Social Lives 4.2.1. The Interaction of the Social Lives in an Individual 4.2.2. The Interaction of Social Lives Among Individuals 4.2.3. The Interaction of the Social Lives in a Group 4.3. The Enforcement of the Social Life

Part 2. Human Social History

5. The Prehistoric Period 5.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society 5.2. The Religious Prehistoric Harmonious Society 5.3. The Exit from the Harmonious Society 6. The Early Period 6.1. The Early Collectivistic Society 6.2. The Early Individualistic Society 6.3. The Revival of the Harmonious Society 6.3.1. The Reasons for the Revival 6.3.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 6.4. The Conversion of the Non-Harmonious Social Lives 6.4.1. The Conversion to the Collectivistic Social Life 6.4.2. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life 7. The Modern Period 7.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 7.1.1. The Renaissance 7.1.2. The Industrial Revolution 7.2. The Modern Collectivistic Society 7.3. The Christian Church 7.3.1. The Early Church as the Harmonious Society 7.3.2 The Church as the State Religion 7.3.3 The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary 7.3.4. The Puritan Movement:the breakdown of the collectivistic society 112 7.4. The Three-Branch Unified society of America 113 7.4.1. The Decline of the State Religion 113 7.4.2. The Separation of Religion and State 114 7.5. The Harmonious Moral Religions 115 Part 3. The Postmodern Unified Societies 118 8. The Postmodern Economic System 122

42 49 52 52 53 53 54 56 58 62 62 65 65 67 68 69 71 72 72 74 76 80 80 83 86 86 89 99 99 102 106 106 106 107 108 109 109 111 111

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8.1. The Economic Equation 8.2. Industrial Economy 8.2.1. Individualistic Economy 8.2.2. Collectivistic Economy 8.2.3. Adaptive Economy 8.3. Postmodern Economy 8.3.1. Individualistic Economy 8.3.2. Adaptive Economy 8.3.2.1. Economic Adaptive Change 8.3.2.2. Cohesive Society 8.3.2.3. Sustainable Economy 9. The Postmodern Political System 9.1. Democracy and Meritocracy 9.2. Democracy - Partisan Unified Society 9.2.1. Modern American Partisan Unified Society 9.2.2. The Partisan Political System 9.2.3. The Different Constituents 9.3. The Viability of the Postmodern Partisan Political System 9.4. The History of Meritocracy 9.5. The Postmodern Meritocracy as nonpartisan Unified Political System 9.5.1. The Formation of the Postmodern Nonpartisan Political System 9.5.2. The State and the Private Sector 9.5.3. The Viability of the Nonpartisan Political System 9.6. The Postmodern Democracy and Meritocracy 9.7. The Postmodern Balanced Unified Society 10. The Postmodern Education 10.1. The Nature of Education 10.2. Elementary and Secondary Education 10.3. Balanced Elementary and Secondary Education 10.4. The Four Stages of Life 11. The Postmodern Mental Health 11.1. Mental Overreactions 11.1.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Overreactions 11.1.2. Delusional Mental Overreactions 11.1.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Overreactions 11.1.4. Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy 11.2. Mental Disorders 11.2.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Disorders 11.2.1.1. Unipolar Depression Subtype 11.2.1.2. Paranoid Subtype 11.2.1.3. Anxiety Subtype 11.2.1.4. Mania Subtype 11.2.2. Delusional Mental Disorders 11.2.2.1. Schizophrenia 11.2.2.2. Autism 11.2.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Disorders

122 123 124 126 127 133 133 138 138 139 143 154 154 155 155 156 157 157 162 162 162 165 166 168 169 174 174 175 176 178 181 181 185 187 193 195 195 198 198 198 200 201 201 201 201 205

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11.2.3.1. Bond Addiction Subtype 11.2.3.2. Expressive Addiction Subtype 11.2.3.3. Systemization Addiction Subtype 11.2.3.4. Domination Addiction Subtype 11.2.4. Religions and Mental Disorders 11.2.4.1. Mental Health of Religious Group 11.2.4.2. Mental Disorders and Religious Community 12. The Postmodern Religious System 12.1. The Diminishing Dominance of Religion 12.2. The Modernization of Religion 12.2.1. The Postmodern Modernized Religion 12.2.2. The Postmodern Dominating Religion 12.2.3. The Postmodern Complementary Religion 12.3. The Postmodern Harmonious Religion 12.3.1. The Core Value and the Bridge Value 12.3.2. The Harmonious Society of God 13. The World Peace Narrative 14. Summary 15. Reference Email address: Website (download all books): Books list: einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt/documents

205 206 206 207 208 208 209 210 210 212 213 214 214 215 215 216 220 225 226

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Abstract
The unified theory of human society unifies all aspects of human society, and establishes the peaceful Unified Society for the future. The unified theory is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) human social history, and (3) the Postmodern Unified Society. (1) The unified theory is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from three-level selection, neuroscience and psychology. The harmonious social life that lowers conflicts in social interactions and exists only in humans is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The three human social lives result in the three-branch society of the collectivistic, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance, the modern communication resulted in the unity among the three branches of human society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive economy. The inevitable outcomes of individualistic and collectivistic economies are economic collapses from economic corruption and economic mismanagement, respectively. Adaptive economy involves the economic adaptation to avoid economic corruption and mismanagement in cohesive society for sustainable economy. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is sectarian civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The optimal education system requires balanced and timely collectivistic and individualistic educations. In the postmodern mental health, mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The postmodern harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from and complementary to collectivistic and individualistic societies. The way to world peace is through the deliberate restraint of violence and the balance and unity of the three-branch way.

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Diagrams and Tables
Three-Level Selection in Evolution
selection time turning point principal base for cooperation unconditional reciprocity beneficial relatedness competition among individuals individuals with various degrees of relatedness groups of division of labor social interaction and society individualistic collectivistic principal behaviors systemization domination bond expressive prevail in male female

individual relational

earliest middle caring relation

group

last

handicapped individuals

existential division of labor

harmonious

hyper-bond hyperdetection

both

The Evolution of Three-Level Selection
unconditional reciprocity in individual selection caring relation as the turning point beneficial relatedness in relational selection handicapped individuals as the turning point existential division of labor in group selection harmonious society collectivistic society individualistic society

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Part 1. The Three-Branch Way

Part 2. Human Social History

Part 3. The Postmodern Unified Society

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The Three-Branch Way
THE FIVE FACTORS IN SOCIAL LIFE
social role social relationship social unit intragroup Social flexibility (Relation(Bond(Collectiveness- interaction (Unyielding(Passive-Dynamic) Flexible) Systemization Achievement) individual)

• •

yin (Bond-Relation-Collectiveness = collectivistic relation for social bond) and yang (Systemization-Achievement-Individual = individualistic achievement for systemization) Passive – Dynamic intragroup interaction harmony = high Flexible to minimize conflicts in social interactions

SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bond

yin dynamic social life (expressive)
expressive

harmonious social life
hyper bond + detection

yang dynamic social life (driver)
domination

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemization

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collectivistic collectivistic society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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The Five Factors in Social Life
Social Life Gender factors social role social relation social unit Non-gender factors intragroup interaction social flexibility bond (B) systemization (S) Relation (R) achievement (A) collectiveness (C) individual (I) passive (P) dynamic (D) unyielding (U) flexible (F) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) intuition (N) sense (S) introvert (I) extrovert (E) judging (J) perceiving (P) society The Big Five Agreeable (A) Neuroticism (N)

Consciousness (C)

Extrovert (E) Openness (O) social life Merrill-Reid social style

The Social Life System for Primates
Social lives yin (BRC ) –yang (SAI) passive-dynamic or harmony (high (introvert-extrovert) Flexible) Yin Passive

Yang

Passive

Yin Yang

Dynamic Dynamic

Harmony

the loose collectivistic society the loose individualistic society the tight collectivistic society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

bond

Amiable

systemization

Analytical

expressive domination

Expressive Driver

harmony

The Properties of Social Lives
Yin (Collectivistic) Social Life Symbol Social-life enhancer Social-life enhancer components Social-life stressor Sin Stress response Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society collectivistic relation bond expressive disconnection injustice disconnection sin injustice sin despair paranoid collectivistic social group collectivistic collectivistic Yang (Individualistic) Social Life individualistic achievement systemization domination disorganization repression disorganization sin repression sin anxiety unfulfillment individual individualistic individualistic Harmonious Social Life

harmonious cooperation hyper bond detection estrangement enlargement estrangement sin enlargement sin alienation one-to-one relation harmonious harmonious

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Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society)
13 million years ago (Ma)

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch
collectivistic)
7 Ma

gorilla (patriarch collectivistic society) human (harmonious society)

6 Ma 2 Ma

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collectivistic society)

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper bond (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper bond

theory of mind (detective instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence conscience will

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THE HISTORY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
the harmonious prehuman hominid society the human evolution the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Upper Paleolithic Revolution the prehistoric religious harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Neolithic Revolution
the Early Society

the individualistic society: the individualistic state + the state individualism

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic state + the state religion

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Modern Revolution the Modern Unified Society

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic party + the partisan socialism

the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Postmodern Revolution World Peace the postmodern balanced unified economic, political, educational, mental disorder, and religious systems

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Love
Social Life mutual sexual attraction mutual expressive bond unconditional mutual bond mutual ambiguous bond individualistic social life collectivistic social life harmonious social life the combinations of three or two social lives Greek tradition Eros affection Agape friendship Purpose reproduction expressive for survival none (exist in a small social group) ambiguous all-in-one

The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of the sin of disharmony The Harmonious Relationship: Justification 禅宗 (Zen Buddhism) Christianity The harmonious relationship identity The kingdom of God The self-ending The rebirth into the harmonious relationship The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification 和谐四心 The harmonious mind identity 镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心 the fourfold harmonious mind (正定 right concentration, 正念 right mindfulness, 仁慈 the calm mind, the clear mind, the lovingkindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom, loving-kindness, 无 emptiness) love, and perishable flesh) 灭我 the self-ending 一刹那间妄念俱灭 the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending 重生 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind
顿见真如本性

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

Elementary and Secondary Education
COLLECTIVISTIC EDUCATION collectivistic relation memorization framework INDIVIDUALISTIC EDUCATION individualistic achievement creativity free choice

Social Knowledge-Skill Technical Knowledge-Skill Career Preparation

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Economy
technological breakthrough economic policies

economic growth collectivistic economy excess equality beyond the optimal equality mismatching supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation unstable economic growth by waste, exaggeration, and apathy economic mismanagement economic collapse adaptive economy adjust to the optimal equality for sustainable economy individualistic economy excess inequality beyond the optimal equality insufficient demand and human capital unstable economic growth by debt, speculation, and greed economic corruption economic collapse

Political System
politics base formation of government mechanism Democracy individualistic politics freedom and equality number and majority rule election based on vote • political parties control election partisan unified system the United States partisan unified political system zero-sum partisan competition • • • Meritocracy collectivistic politics freedom and equality professional merit and consensus professional merit system based on education and job performance one political institute controls professional merit system nonpartisan unified system China and large corporation nonpartisan unified political system weak private sector

unified system example postmodern system downfall

Political System
Unified Political Systems

collectivistic politics (meritocracy) nonpartisan professional semipopular government

individualistic politics (democracy) partisan popular semiprofessional government

weak private sector collapse

robust private sector unity 14

nonzero-sum competition unity

zero-sum competition civil war

Mental Disorders
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancer stressor stress response hyper stress response mental disorder defensive survival instinct hyper stress response mental disorder (example) subtype of mental disorders delusional mental disorder delusional mental disorder (example) hyper pleasure response mental disorder hyper pleasure response mental disorders (example) Passive amiable bond disconnection despair depression flight-freeze major depression Dynamic expressive expressive injustice paranoid manipulation manipulative BPD Yang Passive analytical systemization disorganization anxiety obsession obsessive panic, phobias, OCD, PTSD anxiety delusional obsession autism addictive systemization Asperger Symptom Dynamic driver domination repression unfulfillment mania rage manic depression mania delusional mania delusional mania addictive domination psychopath

unipolar depression delusional depression catatonic schizophrenia addictive bond

paranoid delusional manipulation paranoid schizophrenia addictive attention

nymphomania

histrionic personality disorder

The Development of Mental Disorder
hyper response gene chronic adverse environment

maladaptive nervous system chronic maladaptive nervous system misdirected mental function

mental overreaction chronic mental overreaction mental disorder (disordered nervous system)

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Introduction
Human society is a complex society. Different people have different social lives. The human brain has been evolved to be much more advanced than any other brains in the natural world. Different places have developed different social histories. In the modern time, there are at least two major political parties: socialistic (collectivistic) and capitalistic (individualistic) parties. In addition, human has supernatural human society in terms of religions. There are at least seven major religions: Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity. So far, there is no viable unified theory of human society to unify specifically all these different social phenomena. The unified theory of human society explains the principal differences among different human societies, and identifies the peaceful unified society for all human societies. The unified theory of human society is based on the evolution of three-level selection. Chapter 1 deals with the evolution of three-level selection, the evolution of three-branch human society, and peace. Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is based on the threebranch way. Local peace is peace within a region and a period of time. World peace is peace of the world permanently. The way to local peace is through the deliberate restraint of violence among people and social groups. The way to world peace is through the balance and unity of the three social interactions. The unified theory of human society explains the principal differences among different human societies, and establishes the Unified Society. The unified theory is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) human social history, and (3) the Postmodern Unified Society. In Part 1, the three-branch way consists of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. In Chapter 2, social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (Relation-Achievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Unyielding-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five

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factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond (yin passive), expressive (yin dynamic), systemization (yang passive), domination (yang dynamic) corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life, and exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper bond instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious social lives result in the collectivistic, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. In Chapter 3, the human social lives come from biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The human ancestors were essentially the bipedal bonobos. Chapter 4 deals with the interactions and the enforcement of the social lives. The interactions involve exclusive social life, love, and the checks and balances. The enforcement involves how a society enforces its dominant social life. In Part 2, human social history includes the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. In Chapter 5, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period in Chapter 6 starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In Chapter 7, in the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the examples of the collectivistic and individualistic materialistic societies were the communist society and the capitalist society, respectively. The modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collectivistic, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America. Part 3 involves the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution. Chapter 8 deals with the unified postmodern economy. The economic equation consists of wealth production from natural resource and labor and wealth consumption from wealth product and labor. The rate of wealth production and consumption can be accelerated by the combination of technology and technological investment. Wealth is proportional to the degree of control in natural resource, labor, technology, and technological investment. With respect to wealth, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic) economy, collectivistic (socialistic) economy, and adaptive (unified) economy. The favorable condition to start individualistic economy is the pending commercialization of technological breakthrough, such as the industrial revolution and the information revolution. It brings about inequality during the economic growth. The excess inequality leads to insufficient demand and human capital. The unstable economic growth beyond the optimal equality is based on debt, speculation, and greed, resulting in economic corruption that brings

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about economic collapse. The favorable conditions to start collectivistic economy are war, gross inequality, and the infrastructure of technological breakthrough. The economic growth brings about economic equality. The excess equality beyond the optimal equality leads to mismatching supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation. The unstable economic growth beyond the optimal equality is based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy, resulting in economic mismanagement that leads to economic collapse. Adaptive economy involves economic evolutionary change in cohesive society to adapt to sustainable economy that does not deviate too much from the optimal equality. Cohesive society includes the American, the German, and the Chinese models. Sustainable economy consists of cohesive society, economic robustness, and environmental protection. In Chapter 9, The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. In the partisan unified system, the political parties represent separately the collectivistic and the individualistic societies, and in the nonpartisan unified system, the state represents politically both the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. In the partisan unified political system, the zero sum political competition leads potentially civil war, and the nonzero sum political competition brings about the unity of the system. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the weak private sector leads potentially the collapse of the system, and the robust private sector leads to the unity of the system. Chapter 10 deals with the postmodern education for learning the collectivistic and individualistic social lives in elementary and secondary school as well as in the four-stage life. Chapter 11 deals with the postmodern mental health. Mental disorders are common. In the United States, in a given year approximately one quarter of adults are diagnosable for one or more disorders. Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. The chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The misdirected mental functions include the addiction instincts, the defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freezeobsession), and the mental process during sleep. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive,

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analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized by these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes. Chapter 12 describes the postmodern religions from the modernization of religion. During the Postmodern Period, the dominance of the major religions has been greatly diminished by modernization consisting of individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. The major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the postmodern harmonious religions. The postmodern harmonious religion is the most suitable postmodern religion. It fits well in the modern society with the highly specialized functional institutions. The postmodern harmonious religion occupies the highly specialized domain of the harmonious society, while modernity occupies the highly specialized domain of the collectivisticindividualistic societies. Furthermore, the postmodern harmonious religions return to the original harmonious religions before they assumed the dominance of the whole society. The core value of the postmodern harmonious religion resides in the harmonious society of God. It consists of the theology and the harmonious society from Christianity, the harmonious mind practice from Buddhism, and the harmonious adaptation from Daoism. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife. In Chapter 13, the world peace narrative tells the story of the three social interactions, the development of the three-branch way in human history, the balanced unified systems in the Postmodern Period. World peace is near through the postmodern balanced unified economic, political, educational, mental disorder, and religious systems.

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1. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection
The basic social system for the unified theory of human society is the system of social interactions within a human society. The basic social system is derived from the evolution of three-level selection. Evolution needs populations of reproducing individuals. Evolutionary change occurs by mutation and selection. The most fundamental unit of evolution is gene. Fitness is a relative measure of reproductive success of an organism in passing its genes to the next generation. Natural selection is the process in nature by which only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characters in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated. In multilevel selection theory by David Sloan Wilson and Elliott Sober1, there are many layers of competition and cooperation for evolution. The different levels function cohesively to maximize fitness in terms of reproductive success. The conventional levels are individual selection for individuals against individuals, relational (kin) selection for kin against kin, and group selection for group against group. Another theory of selection contains only one level that is individual selection. Relational selection is merely an extension of individual selection to include inclusive fitness that contains relatives. Group selection is same as relational selection. Multilevel selection can be viewed as chronological levels. Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual selection, relational (kin) selection, and group selection. Natural selection can be viewed from the perspective cooperation2 that benefits fitness. Three-Level Selection in Evolution
selection time turning point principal base for cooperation unconditional reciprocity beneficial relatedness competition among individuals individuals with various degrees of relatedness groups of division of labor social interaction and society individualistic collectivistic principal behaviors systemization domination bond expressive prevail in male female

individual relational

earliest middle caring relation

group

last

handicapped individuals

existential division of labor

harmonious

hyper-bond hyperdetection

both

1.1. Individual Selection with Individualistic Society Natural selection started with individual selection. The principal base of cooperation for individual selection is unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals. All individuals are equal in cooperation and competition. Reciprocity can be direct, indirection, or spatial. In direct reciprocity, I help you, but expect we will meet again, and then, you help me. It is common in a small social group where the chance to meet again is high. The strategy is tit-for-tat in prisoner’s dilemma described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation3. To find different strategies for cooperation,

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they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate 2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum social memory 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group. In indirect reciprocity, if I help you, I get the reputation of helping other, so someone else will help me. A rule for indirect reciprocity is qb > c, where q = probability to know someone’s reputation, c = cost of cooperation, and b = benefit of cooperation. In spatial reciprocity, individuals who live in protected areas where they are immune from attack by predators are likely to survive, and to have more children, which then grow the population faster. By staying and working together for the greater good, each individual has a better chance of survival. This becomes even truer when there is conflict between social groups as the larger social groups have a greater chance of winning. In individual selection, the competition is among all individuals, and each individual has to form its own cooperation based on unconditional reciprocity. Each individual can be a cooperator or a cheater. The social interaction in individual selection is individualistic social interaction, and the society for such individualistic social interaction is individualistic society. The important social behavior within a subgroup such as family is to establish self in terms of systemization for systematic procurement of food and establishment of territory. The important social behavior in a social group outside of subgroup is domination by partisan competition to find the right place in competitive social hierarchy. Such individualistic social interaction prevails in males. An example of individualistic society with individual selection is the society of male chimpanzees. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. To maintain social hierarchy, some male cooperate to form alliance based on unconditional reciprocity. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. The internal conflict is high. In the wild, male

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chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. In animals, individualistic society with individual selection is common among males. The consequences of individual selection are males with competitive hierarchy, partisan competition, large size bodies, large fighting horns, sharp canine teeth, beautiful feathers, fancy dances and songs, and elaborate nest building skill, contrary to relatively small and plain females. 1.2. Relational Selection with Collectivistic Society Natural selection started with individual selection followed by relational (kin) selection. The turning point from individual selection to relational selection is caring relation in which a giver of caring relation takes effort to improve the fitness of specific related individuals as the recipients of caring relation. The most fundamental caring relation is between mother and her offspring in terms of the improvements of gene and environment of her offspring. The improvement of gene of offspring comes from sexual selection in which a female chooses a mate with the best possible gene for fitness and the best possible provider for her offspring. After the birth, maternal instinct brings about maternal care to her offspring. This maternal caring relation improves the quality of the fitness of her children at the expense of the quantity of her children, while without caring relation, a typical animal father concerns about the quantity of his children. This caring relation may or may not expand to siblings and other relatives. Caring relation can also apply to individuals in close proximity with or without kin relation. A rule for relational selection is Hamilton’s rule4, rb > c where c is the reproductive (fitness) cost to the giver of caring relation, b is the additional reproductive (fitness) benefit gained by the recipient of caring relation, and r is their degree of relatedness. In relational selection, all individuals are not equal, unlike in individual selection. The competition and cooperation among individuals are dependent on various degrees of relatedness. The fitness becomes inclusive fitness to include to all individuals with various degrees of relatedness. The social interaction in relational selection is collectivistic social interaction, and the society for such collectivistic social interaction is collectivistic society. The most important social behavior inside a subgroup such as family is bond to connect with the members of subgroup. The most important social behavior in a social group outside of subgroup is expressive to relate with the individuals outside of subgroup. Such collectivistic social behavior prevails in females. An example of relational selection with collectivistic society is female bonobo. Bonobos have the matriarch collectivistic society. Female bonobo is smaller than male bonobo, but female bonobos bond together to dominate the society. Bond is important for bonobos, and is expressed in sexual activities that can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. Bonobos in collectivistic society are much more peaceful and have a greater degree of bond than chimpanzees in individualistic society. 1.3. Group Selection with Harmonious Society Group selection was evolved from relational selection is group selection. Group selection cannot be evolved directly from individual selection. The turning point from

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relational selection to group selection is handicapped individuals. All individuals in group selection are handicapped in terms of long term survival and reproduction. The existence of individuals is dependent on the existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the individual fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. In group selection, competition becomes competition among groups instead of individuals who are handicapped. Edward O. Wilson suggests5 that for group selection, Hamilton's rule is modified to include group, (rbk + be) > c, where bk is the benefit to related individual such as kin (b in the original equation) and be is the benefit accruing to the group as a whole. He further suggests that for social insects, be > rbk. In group selection, within a group, there is no competition among individuals, and all individuals cooperate harmoniously by existential division of labor. The competition is among the groups of existential division of labor. The social interaction in group selection is harmonious social interaction, and the society is harmonious society. Harmonious society is same as Edward O. Wilson’s eusociality6. Harmonious society is like multicellular organism, and individuals are like cells cooperating by existential division of labor. The most important social behaviors are hyper bond derived from communication and existential division of labor and hyper detection to detect invaders and cheaters. For eusocial insects, hyper detection is a specific pheromone for each social group. For human, hyper detection is theory of mind to detect what the minds of other people think. Theory of mind does not exist in other animals. Such harmonious social interaction can prevail in both males and females. With minimum internal conflict and existential division of labor, the harmonious societies of eusocial insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans dominate the earth as described by Edward O. Wilson in “The Social Conquest of Earth” 7 . Harmonious society (eusociality) with group selection was evolved from highly collectivistic society with relational selection. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to a harmonious society with group selection is activated by handicapped individuals. Because there are many layers of evolution from individual selection to group selection, it is not possible to remove many layers of evolution to reverse group selection to purely individual selection. An example of group selection with harmonious society is ant. Ants were evolved from a highly cooperative collectivistic society with relational selection. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to a harmonious society with group selection was activated by handicapped individuals. Ants started with a disable highly productive mother ant that produced almost all able sterile worker daughter ants, and produced rarely productive daughter and son ants. Individually, they were handicapped, and did not have long term survival and reproduction. By communication and existential division of labor as well as by following the pre-harmonious social cooperative behaviors, they survived and reproduced as a group. Gradually, the group fitness became better than the group fitness of non-handicapped individuals. The final stage in the evolution of harmonious society was hyper detection as specific pheromone for each social group to detect and eliminate cheaters and invaders. Another example is human. As described later, Ardi was evolved from highly cooperative bonobo-like ape. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to

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a harmonious society was activated by the individual handicap that was awkward bipedalism. Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus)8, the oldest human ancestor (4.4 million year old) discovered, lived on woodland. Around 5 millions of years ago, a major climate change reduced some part of forested area in Africa to woodland where Ardi was evolved. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. Comparing to forest area, woodland area had scarcer food resources. According to the observation9 in Africa, when food resources are scarce or unpredictable, chimpanzees use upright locomotion to improve food carrying efficiency. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. For reaching food from bushes and low branches on woodland and carrying food, the original human ancestors came down to the ground from living among trees, and adopted bipedalism as the way to move on the ground. However, Ardi’s foot was primitive with an opposable big toe that could not provide a push needed for efficient bipedal walking. Ardi had a more primitive walking ability than later hominids, and Ardi had a somewhat awkward gait when on the ground. Ardi could not walk or run for long distances. (For apes, the quadrupedal knuckle-walking like gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees was faster and better way than Ardi’s primitive awkward bipedalism to move on the ground.) Without many big trees to escape to as in forest, woodland was a dangerous place, especially, for very young, very old, pregnant, and child-rearing individuals. Individually, they could not survive on the ground with such awkward bipedalism. The only way to survive with awkward bipedalism was through existential division of labor by means of the free hands from bipedalism. The free hands allowed them to carry food to a safe gathering place, such as few big trees on woodland, where they could share food together safely with very young, very old, pregnant, and child-rearing individuals. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. The free hands from bipedalism also allowed Ardi to have the continuous hand gestural communication for group communication that directed continuous existential division of labor to find food and watch for predators during group forage on the ground. (Human verbal language was developed much later. Human verbal language and gestural language are in the area of the brain.) With continuous hand gestural communication, individuals in the group during group forage knew precisely all the time about the locations of food sources, predators, and the safe places to escape from predators and about the plan of division of labor as a group. Carrying food to a safe gathering place and continuous hand gestural communication during group forage strengthened existential division of labor without which individuals could not survive. Ardi’s awkward bipedalism created handicap for individuals, and improved group fitness for a cohesive social group. By communication and existential division of labor as well as by following the pre-harmonious social cooperative behaviors, the original human ancestors survived and reproduced as a group. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from forest to woodland. They lived in a society that from each according to one's ability, to each according to one's need.

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Otherwise, the whole hominid society would have been extinct without existential division of labor of handicapped individuals. Harmony in the original human ancestors was manifested by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for aggression and fighting, unlike any other apes. The two important traits of Ardi to distinguish Ardi from other apes are bipedalism and small canine teeth. The final stage of the evolution of human harmonious society was hyper detection as theory of mind to detect what the minds of other people think. Hyper detection is to detect cheaters and to self-examine (guilty feeling and shame). Two million years ago, human ancestors started to have elaborate tool and fire. Humans started to evolve with the usage of tool and fire by decreasing physical strength as the weakest ape and decreasing ability to eat tough raw food. (Fire was for both cooking and the protection of group at home base.) Individuals became handicapped without tool and fire that involved the cooperation of individuals in the harmonious society. Group selection became increasingly important. The most harmonious society survived from the competition of groups in group selection. The size of social group was small with about thirty people. The reason for such small size is that it was difficult to form hyper bond to bond large social group and to form hyper detection to detect cheaters in large social group. The evolution of three-level selection is as follows. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection unconditional reciprocity in individual selection caring relation as the turning point beneficial relatedness in relational selection handicapped individuals as the turning point existential division of labor in group selection harmonious society collectivistic society individualistic society

1.4. The Evolution of Three-Branch Human Society The three human social interactions (lives) are the collectivistic (yin), the individualistic (yang), and the harmonious social interactions. The collectivistic social life (interaction) represents collectivistic relation for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to lower conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social interaction is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. The three social interactions will be described in details later.

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Human history can be characterized by the progress toward the three-branch way as the balance and unity among yin, yang, and harmony. Human history can be divided into the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, the Modern Period, and the Postmodern Period. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). The beneficial relation of relational (kin) selection in the collectivistic society is clearly described in the Old Testament (Judaism) of the Bible. “Go, assemble the elders of Israel and say to them, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob —appeared to me and said: I have watched over you and have seen what has been done to you in Egypt. And I have promised to bring you up out of your misery in Egypt into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites—a land flowing with milk and honey.’ (Exodus 3: 16-17) In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Greek philosopher, Socrates, described a highly individualistic life: the unexamined life is not worth living. Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. The existential division of labor from group selection in the harmonious society is described clearly in the New Testament (Christianity) of the Bible. But in fact God has placed the parts in the body, every one of them, just as he wanted them to be. If they were all one part, where would the body be? As it is, there are many parts, but one body. The eye cannot say to the hand, “I don’t need you!” And the head cannot say to the feet, “I don’t need you!” On the contrary, those parts of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable, and the parts that we think are less honorable we treat with special honor. And the parts that are unpresentable are treated with special modesty, while our presentable parts need no special treatment. But God has put the body together, giving greater honor to the parts that lacked it, so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other. If one part suffers, every part suffers with it; if one part is honored, every part rejoices with it. Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. (1 Corinthians 12:18-27) In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the examples of the collectivistic and individualistic societies were the socialist society and the capitalist society, respectively. The modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society to

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establish the modern three-branch society. later.

Human history will be described in details

Human Social History
the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Neolithic Revolution
the Early Society

the individualistic society: the individualistic state + the state individualism

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic state + the state religion

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Modern Revolution the Modern Unified Society the collectivistic society: the collectivistic party + the partisan socialism the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism the harmonious society the harmonious religion

1.5. The Way to Local Peace The archaeological evidence of warfare extends back only about 12,000 years at the start of the formation of large social group for agricultural-nomad society. The harmonious social interaction did not work in a large social group like the group in agricultural-nomad society. However, violence in a large human social group is not a biological adaptation10. Margaret Mead 11 in 1940 and favored by anthropologists proposed that war is not a biological adaptation but a cultural "invention", like cooking, marriage, writing, burial of the dead or trial by jury, that emerged relatively recently in human prehistory. For human, war is a deliberate expression of violence through copying, encouragement, and force. War is a self-perpetuating infectious meme, because when one group in a region resorts to war, others must either take it up or be destroyed. Societies in a warlike region had a strong incentive to boost their fighting capability, by inventing new tactics and weapons, and to carry out pre-emptive strikes against neighbors. In this way, the whole world rapidly became militarized, armed and dangerous. For war as an invention to become obsolete, Mead argued, "people must recognize the defects of the old invention, and someone must make a new one." To counter war as the deliberate expression of violence, human has invented the deliberate restraint of violence. The deliberate restraint of violence among individuals and social groups includes the justice from government to replace the justice from individuals, the formation of large national state to replace small tribal states, the formation of international organization to settle international conflicts, trade to replace plunder, and our powers of reason and cosmopolitanism to reduce the temptations of violence as described by Steven Pinker in “The Better Angels of our Nature: Why Was Violence Declined.12”

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Pinker showed that violence in the past was much worse. Tribal warfare was nine times as deadly as war and genocide in the 20th century. The murder rate of Medieval Europe was more than thirty times what it is today. Slavery, sadistic punishments, and frivolous executions were unexceptionable features of life for millennia, then suddenly were targeted for abolition. Since the World War II, wars between developed countries have vanished, and even in the developing world, wars kill a fraction of the people they did a few decades ago. Annual war deaths have fallen over the past 60 years by more than an order of magnitude, from about 500,000 to 30,000 per year, according to one estimate. As for terrorism, you are more likely to be killed by lightning than by a terrorist. Rape, battering, hate-crimes, deadly riots, child abuse, cruelty to animals have been substantially down. People living now are less likely to meet a violent death, or to suffer from violence or cruelty at the hands of others, than people living in any previous century. In a large part of the world, local peace has been achieved through the deliberate restraint of violence. The local peace among major nations provides the interdependence among major nations. The first interdependence is the economic interdependence. No major nation generates all goods and service within the nation. All major nations import and export good and service. An economic problem in one major nation inevitably affects all other major nations economically. A war that disrupts such economic interdependence among major nations will produce economic disasters globally, resulting in mutually assured economic destruction. Culturally, all nations become interdependent through education, communication, and tour. It is difficult to wage a war against the people that are culturally connected. Such economic and cultural interdependence reinforces local peace. 1.6. The Way to World Peace As described by Pinker, human history can be characterized as the progress toward local peace through the deliberate restraint of violence. However, without solving the conflicts among the basic forces, the maintenance of peace through the deliberate restraint of violence is limited and temporary. The basic forces are the collectivistic (yin), the individualistic (yang), and the harmonious social interactions. The three different social interactions have different values. The conflicts among them can be solved by the balance and unity among them. The balance and unity among yin, yang, and harmony is the three-branch way. The way to world peace is through the three-branch way. In the real world, world peace is through both the three-branch way and the deliberate restraint of violence. As mentioned before, human history can be characterized by the progress toward the three-branch way as the balance and unity among yin, yang, and harmony. In the Postmodern Period starting from the information technology revolution, various balanced unified systems have appeared for the balance and unity among the three social interactions. Such balanced unified systems coexist with the imbalanced divided systems in the economic, the political, the education, and the religious systems. In the real world, world peace is through both the three-branch way and the deliberate restraint of violence. The Postmodern Economic System The postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic) economy, collectivistic (socialistic) economy, and balanced unified (adaptive) economy. Individualistic economy brings about economic inequality and fast economic growth.

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The inevitable outcome is economic corruption with debt and greed that leads to economic crisis. Collectivistic economy brings about economic equality and slow economic growth. The inevitable outcome is economic stagnation with apathy and mismanagement that results in economic downfall. Adaptive economy unifies both economies. Adaptive economy involves economic evolutionary change in cohesive society to adapt to sustainable economy. The postmodern economic system will be described in details later. The Postmodern Political System The balanced unified political system is divided into the partisan unified political system where the political parties represent separately the collectivistic and the individualistic societies and the nonpartisan unified political system where the state represents both the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. In the partisan unified political system, the individualistic political party competes with the collectivistic political party. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the political institute is the professional provider for professional public officials through education and election. In the partisan unified political system, the zero sum political competition leads to potentially civil war, and the nonzero sum political competition brings about the unity of the system. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the weak private sector leads potentially the collapse of the system, and the robust private sector leads to the unity of the system. The postmodern political system will be discussed in details later. The Postmodern Education System The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. Elementary and secondary education is primarily collectivistic education, and individualistic education is secondary. Individualistic education increases gradually with increasing ages. Significant amount of individualistic education is introduced in senior secondary education to prepare eventually individualistic career in early adulthood. The postmodern education system will be discussed in details later. The Postmodern Religious System In the postmodern religious system, the major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the postmodern harmonious religions. The postmodern harmonious religion is the balanced unified religion complementary to the collectivistic and individualistic societies. Postmodern religious system will be discussed in details later. Mental Disorder System In mental disorder system, the identities include hyper stress response disorder, delusional disorder, and hyper pleasure response disorder. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The social values for hyper stress response disorder, delusional disorder, and hyper pleasure response disorder are struggle for survival, dream-like

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wakefulness, and the addiction of pleasure, respectively. The three types of mental disorders are further divided into 12 subtypes of mental disorders by the dynamic and the passive forms of collectivistic social life and individualistic social life. Mental disorders will be discussed in details later.

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Part 1: The Three-Branch Way

In Part 1, the three-branch way consists of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. In Chapter 2, social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (Relation-Achievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Unyielding-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond (yin passive), expressive (yin dynamic), systemization (yang passive), domination (yang dynamic) corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life, and exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper bond instinct and the hyper detection instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious social lives result in the collectivistic, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. In Chapter 2, the evolutional origin of the three-branch way comes from sociallife biological evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. The human ancestors were essentially the bipedal bonobos. Chapter 3 deals with the interactions and the enforcement of the social lives. The interactions involve exclusive social life, love, and the checks and balances. The enforcement involves how a society enforces its dominant social life.

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1. The Development of Social Life
In individual selection, competition is among individuals, and the principal base of cooperation is reciprocity. The social life (interaction) of individual selection corresponds to individualistic social life for individualistic achievement in individual competition. In relational (kin) selection, competition is among individuals of various degrees of beneficial relatedness. The social life of relational selection corresponds to collectivistic social life for collectivistic welling for the related individuals who share caring relation. In group selection, there is no competition among individuals in a social group. All individuals cooperate harmoniously by existential division of labor in a society that from each according to one's ability, to each according to one's need. The social life of group selection is harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation among individuals. The human brain was evolved to accommodate all three selections. Individual selection prevails more in the male brain, relational selection prevails more in the female brain, and group selection prevails in both the brains of both genders. Different people have different proportions of the three selections, resulting in differences in personality. There are many personality theories. The two popular theories are the Big Five13 and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)14 derived from Carl Jung's personality type15. The five factors in the Big Five are openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity), conscientiousness (tendency to act dutifully rather spontaneously), extraversion (to seek the company of others), agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others), and neuroticism (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN model of personality. MBTI includes four factors: Introvert-extrovert, sense-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving. The personality system matches these two popular personality theories. 2.1. The Five Factors in Social Life The three-branch way consists of the yin (collectivistic), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collectivistic social life represents collectivistic relation for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social life is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. Social life is developed by the five factors, including three gender factors and two non-gender factors. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (RelationAchievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Unyielding-Flexible) matures during early adulthood for social responsibility. The development of social life by the five factors is described in Louann Brizendine’s books, “The Female Brain”16 and “The Male Brain,”17. All five factors are

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listed in the table below, and compare them with the factors in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five personality theories. The Five Factors in Social Life
Social Life Gender factors social role social relation social unit Non-gender factors intragroup interaction social flexibility bond (B) systemization (S) relation (R) achievement (A) collectiveness (C) individual (I) passive (P) dynamic (D) unyielding (U) flexible (F) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) intuition (N) sense (S) introvert (I) extrovert (E) judging (J) perceiving (P) The Big Five Agreeable (A) Neuroticism (N)

Consciousness (C)

Extrovert (E) Openness (O)

2.1.1. Social Life: The Three Gender Factors The three gender factors that differentiate male and female are social role, social relationship, and social unit. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males. After eight weeks, all children's fetal brains appear exactly the same: female. Female is nature's default setting. Starting 8 weeks, a surge of testosterone masculinizes the fetal brain for males. For males, high testosterone is maintained from 1 month to 12 months after the birth. For females, estrogen is secreted in massive amount from age 6 to 24 months. After the surges of the hormones, the hormone levels remain low until puberty for both males and females. 2.1.1.1. Social Role: Bond and Systemization
Social Life social role Bond (B) Systemization (S) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) The Big Five Agreeable (A)

According to Simon Baron-Cohen18, the essential difference between the female brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. The average female brain prefers to form social bond. Instead of social bond, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematization of non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant. Social role is divided into Bond (B) for females and Systemization (S) for males. To form social bond is important for females to improve care of children and female social network which helps in various ways with the caring of children and the protection from the aggression of physically stronger males. On the other hand,

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systemization helps males become good hunters and increase their social status by improving spatial navigation and the making and use of tools. The differences in social role come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing information. Hormones One day old boys look longer at a mechanical mobile while girls longer at a face. This is due to the effects of fetal hormones. Simon Baron-Cohen19 found that the higher the child's fetal testosterone, the less eye contact the child makes at 12 months of age and the slower it is to develop language at 18 months old. The same children have been followed up at 4 years old. The higher the fetal testosterone, the more social difficulty the child was having at school and the narrower the child's interests. It relates to some relationship between systemization and bond, because narrow interests could be related to systemization that needs to zero in on small details, and social bond relates to social skill. The finding shows that social bond and systemization relate to fetal testosterone. The brain structures for processing information In male brains, men have six and a half times more gray matter than women do. Gray matter is partly responsible for information processing. Women have as much as 10 times as much white matter - the part of the brain partially responsible for connecting information processing centers. Women are such good multi-taskers. In general, female brains tend to employ both sides of their brain to process information while male brains tend to rely primarily on their dominant or language side to process. As the dominant hemisphere tends to be analytic, problem solving, task oriented, detailed, and verbal this helps to explain male behavior. A female brain can also process in this manner, but the non-dominant hemisphere that can process emotion, meaning without words, empathy, tone, and disposition is also engaged by the female. Mirror neuron system (MNS) that gets in sync with others’ emotions by reading facial expressions and interpreting tone of voice and other nonverbal emotional cues is larger and more active in female brain. Temporal parietal junction (TPJ) that gets in sync with others’ cognitive problems is activated earlier and more active in the male brain. Therefore, males appear to be less empathetic by less understanding of others’ emotion through MNS, and activating “cognitive problem solving” too early through TPJ. MBTI does not have specific social role. Social role for MDTI is incorporated in Feeling-Thinking. Bond is a part of Feeling for relating to people, while Systemization a part of Thinking for relating to things. Another part of Feeling-Thinking is social relationship. In the Big Five, Agreeable (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others) corresponds to Bond. 2.1.1.2. Social Relationship: Relation and Achievement
Social Life social relation Relation (R) Achievement (A) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) The Big Five Neuroticism (N)

Social relationship is divided into Relation for females and Achievement for males. For males, Achievement is a way to determine social hierarchy. Achievers are on

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the top of social hierarchy, and underachievers are on the bottom of social hierarchy. Men typically identify with their jobs that show their achievements. Females have flatter social hierarchy. Females are competitive, but the wellbeing of social relationship is more important than achievement. Women typically identify with their families that show the wellbeing of social relationship. Little girls like to play games of social gathering to establish the wellbeing of social relationship, while little boys like to play games of fighting to establish achievement in terms of winning. Childhood is a training period for adulthood. For male adults, to achieve the top of social hierarchy by high achievement is a way to gain wealth and power. For female adults, the wellbeing of social relationship allows the sharing of wealth and power. During mating, Achievement allows a single-minded determination to mate, while Relation allows the emergence of courtship for selecting the best option for the wellbeing of relationship. Courtship allows a female to express her preference in male suitors. During courtship, a female is hesitant to decide what to do, and heightens her sensitivity (emotion) what she likes and dislikes. A male is decisive to what to do, and reduces his sensitivity (emotion) what he likes and dislikes in order to follow what she likes and dislikes. During the courtship, a male peacock suitor shows off his beautiful feather fan to attract a female at a great personal risk to attract predators at the same time. (For a female, her personal risk occurs after the mating process to protect her unborn and born children.) In the mating process, a male and a female require opposite durations of time and opposite sensitivities. Relation and Achievement are complementary. The differences in social relationship come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing social relationship. Hormones For females, the hormones for social relationship are estrogen and oxytocin. Estrogen is sometimes all business, and sometimes an aggressive seductress. The increase of estrogen stimulates the increase in oxytocin as the “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. When men were given a single high dose of oxytocin, it increased their ability to resonance with other people’s feelings. For males, the hormones for social relationship are testosterone and vasopressin. Testosterone is dominant, aggressive, all-powerful, focused, and goal-oriented to outrank other males in social hierarchy. Vasopressin is for gallantry, monogamy, and protecting and defending turf, mate, and children. Prairie voles have strong male-female pair bonding, while montane voles are promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. When the release of vasopressin is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. The brain structures for processing social relationship Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings20 to allow women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options for the wellbeing of social relationship. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals. The male amygdala, which also controls sexual thought, is twice as large as that of females.

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Dorsal premammillary nucleus (DPN) that is a primitive part of the brain for territorial defense is larger for males than females. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is the motivation area to produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter required for initiating movement, motivation, and reward is more active in males. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is the worry-wart to weight options, detect conflicts, and motivates decisions is larger in females. In terms of personality, Achievement and Systemization identify with male, and Relation and Bond identify with female. In MBTI, the combination of Achievement and Systemization is the Thinking type (T), and the combination of Relation and Bond is the Feeling type (F). According to MBTI, The thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. The research in MBTI shows that there are much more women with F than men. In the Big Five, Context corresponds to Neuroticism (N) (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). The research in the Big Five also shows that more women with Agreeable (A) and Neuroticism (N) than men. 2.1.1.3. Social Unit: Collectiveness and Individual
Social Life Social Unit collectiveness (C) individual (I) Personality Type (MBTI) intuition (N) sense (S) The Big Five Consciousness (C)

For a male adult, it is possible for him to act as individual with any social connection. For a female adult, the caring of offspring forces her to think social unit of collectiveness. Social unit is divided into Collectiveness (C) for female and Individual (I) for male. The differences in social unit come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing social unit. Hormones The hormones for social unit are the same as the hormones for social relationship. For females, the hormones for Collectiveness as social unit are estrogen and oxytocin. During menstrual cycle, the hormones fluctuate, and women are talkative and friendly at the peak of the estrogen-oxytocin level around the time of ovulation. Talkativeness and friendliness allow Collectiveness as social unit. Women are not talkative and friendly at the bottom of the estrogen-oxytocin level before menstruation. For males, the hormones for Individual as social unit are aggressive testosterone and defensive vasopressin. Aggression and defensiveness keep Individual as social unit. The brain structures for processing social unit Collectiveness requires multi-task to deal with many people at the same time, good communication with people, and good reading of emotion. The female brain is wired to be proficient in multi-task, good communication, and good reading emotion. In male brains, men have six and a half times more gray matter than women do. Gray matter is partly responsible for narrow information processing suitable for Individual as social unit. Women have as much as 10 times as much white matter - the
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part of the brain partially responsible for connecting information processing centers. Women are such good multi-taskers suitable for Collectiveness as social unit. The mothers of young children have the brains of even better multi-task. Women often excel at language-based tasks for two reasons: two brain areas that deal with language are larger in females, and females process language in both hemispheres while males favor a single brain half. Little girls are much better in verbal expression than little boys. Since women use both the left brain and the right brain that can process emotion, meaning without words, empathy, tone, and disposition, women can read emotion better than males. There are three different ways to use Individual and Collectiveness: (1) information processing, (2) focused attention, and (3) social unit. (1) Information Processing (MBTI): Some tasks, such as languages, fine motor skill, and repetitive work, require Individual for proficiency in handling small details. Some tasks, such as space orientation, unrelated new information, and the central principle among different details, require Collectiveness to make sense of broad information. These two tasks are complementary. In MBTI, Sense (S) (trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete) and Intuition (N) (trust information that is more abstract or theoretical) are about information processing. Individual corresponds to Sense (S) for the way to manipulate related details, and Collectiveness corresponds to Intuition (N) for the way to find relationship among many initially unrelated details. (2) Focused Attention (the Big Five): Focused attention is an efficient way to carry out a task. However, unfocused attention can be an advantage in an unfamiliar environment that hides many unexpected dangers. In the Big Five, Consciousness (C) is about focus in carrying out a task, corresponding to Individual for being focused. MBTI does not check Consciousness in the Big Five, while the Big Five does not check Sense-Intuition in MBTI. (3) Social unit (Social Life): In human social evolution, some people place Individuals more important than social group, and some people place social group more important than Individuals. Neither MBTI nor the Big Five checks social unit. As a gender factor, social unit is not an independent factor. Social unit overlaps with social role and social relationship. Individual is equivalent to Systemization + Achievement, while Collectiveness is equivalent to Bond + Relation. Therefore, the set of Bond-Systemization and Relation-Achievement or the set of CollectivenessIndividual is sufficient to describe genders in terms social interactions. 2.1.2. The Non-Gender Factors The two non-gender factors for a large social group outside of family are intragroup contact and social flexibility. 2.1.2.1. Intragroup Interaction: Passive and Dynamic
Social Life intragroup interaction passive (P) dynamic (D) Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (E) The Big Five

Extrovert (E)

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For primates, the basic social subgroups can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (noncommittal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be Passive (P) or Dynamic (D). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a small core social group in a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The dynamic intragroup interaction leads to a large core social group in a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group. In terms of evolution, Passive and Dynamic relate to the suitable size of social group. Dynamic about social interaction allows high frequency of social contacts within a relatively large social group, while Passive about social interaction can allow only low frequency of social contacts in a relatively small social group. In a relatively poor and dangerous environment, a large social group is necessary for finding food and protection, while in a relatively rich and safe environment, a small social group exists comfortably without wasting energy and time in frequent social contacts. Since both environments exist, the coexistence of Assertiveness and Sensitivity becomes complementary. The person of Dynamic has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of Passive has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person of Dynamic requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck21 , extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. For humans and many other advanced animals, the time to involve actively in social interaction outside of family is adolescence after puberty. It will be discussed the section about group social relationship. The personality of Dynamic is the social life of extrovert as described in MBTI. On the other hand, the social life of Passive is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation. Passive corresponds to Introvert (I) in MBTI, and Dynamic corresponds to Extrovert (E) in MBTI and Extrovert (E) (to seek the company of others) in the Big Five. 2.1.2.2. Social Flexibility: Flexible and Unyielding
Social Life Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five Social flexibility Unyielding (U) Flexible (F) judging (J) perceiving (P)

Openness (O)

In intragroup and intergroup social interactions, social flexibility is divided into Flexible and Unyielding. Flexible involves manipulation of several sets of information,

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including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information. The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating. The whole Flexible involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of rigidity. The prefrontal cortex matures in early adulthood just in time for parenthood which requires social responsibility to take care of family. Females have larger prefrontal cortex than males, because females have direct responsibility to take care of family. Marmosets are the 22 New World monkey species. Some Marmoset fathers are the most involved fathers, holding their newborn more than fifteen hours a day every day for one month. In the brains of devoted marmoset fathers, the prefrontal cortex has more cells and connections than in the non-father marmosets. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences. In terms of human evolution, Flexible is particularly important for the evolution of the harmonious social life that is to minimize conflicts in social interactions. The instinct to minimize conflicts is in conflict with other instincts for reproduction and survival, so the unusual large human prefrontal cortex in comparison with other apes allows the instinct for the harmonious social life to control the instincts for reproduction and survival. It will be discussed in the section for the harmonious social life. According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches Unyielding. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches Flexible. Flexible corresponds to Openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity) in the Big Five. 2.2. The Social Lives

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The human social lives are the combination of the five factors in social life. 2.2.1. Yin Social Life and Yang Social Life in Social Group In a small social group such as family, the feminine yin social life is the combination of Bond, Relation, and Collectiveness, resulting in collectivistic relation mostly for personal task. The masculine yang social life is the combination of Systemization, Achievement, and Individual, resulting in individualistic achievement mostly for impersonal task. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) represents social interaction in a social group outside of family during adolescence after puberty. In terms of evolution, Passive and Dynamic relate to the suitable size of social group. Dynamic about social interaction allows high frequency of social contacts within a relatively large core social group in a tight social group, while Passive about social interaction can allow only low frequency of social contacts in a relatively small core social group in a loose social group. The loose collectivistic society and the tight collectivistic society come from the yin passive and the yin dynamic social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang dynamic social lives, respectively. In the tight collectivistic society, the dynamic intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collectivistic relation. In the tight individualistic society, the dynamic intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collectivistic society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society. In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collectivistic society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live on the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-centered collectivistic society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the male-centered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell22 is the tight collectivistic society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and

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warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male. For orangutans, there are the loose collectivistic society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collectivistic society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos. From of the perspective of acquisition instead of condition, the tight individualistic society can acquire resource and security better than the tight collectivistic society, and the tight society acquire resource and security better than the loose society. On the other hand, from the perspective of the cost for individuals in terms of energy and time spend in intragroup interaction, the tight individualistic society is more costly than the tight collectivistic society, and the tight society is more costly than the loose society. The social structure of non-human primates is the balance among condition, acquisition, and cost.
Tight individualistic Society 4 Tight collectivistic Society 3 Loose individualistic society 2 Loose collectivistic society 1

Condition

Acquisition Cost

1 4

2 3

3 2

4 1

1 = under most abundant resource and security condition 1 = acquire most resource and security 1 = least costly for individuals in the intragroup interaction

2.2.2. Group Social Relationship: Expressive and Domination For humans and many other advanced animals, the time to involve actively in social interaction outside of family is adolescence after puberty. At puberty, there is again an explosion of hormones. For boys, there is 20-fold increase in aggressive testosterone and defensive vasopressin. For girls, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone (in low amount) increase. Girls’ brains develop two years earlier than boys. Sex circuits start to develop. In terms of gender factors, social role (Bond-Systemization) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) remain unchanged. Social relationship (RelationAchievement) changes from family social relationship to group social relationship. When a girl actively seeks intragroup interaction, the combination of Relation and Dynamic brings about Expressive. When a boy actively seeks intragroup interaction, the combination of Achievement and Dynamic brings about Domination. Passive intragroup interaction produces low degrees of Expressive and Domination. In a social group, Expressive is to attract attention by maintaining wellbeing of relationship, appearance, and communication. The surge of estrogen can trigger teen

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girls' need to become sexually desirable to boys. Through Expressive, a girl can be in the in-group to attract friends, allies, and boys. Domination is to show force by achievement and posturing of strength. Flooded with testosterone, many become absorbed in sexual fantasies. Through Domination, a boy can be on the top of social hierarchy to attract allies and girls. The mature rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) that registers social approval and disapproval to avoid costly social mistakes matures makes boys highly sensitive to criticism. The social life system for yin and yang is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style 23 theory , consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. Expressive and Domination correspond to expressive and driver, respectively, in the popular MerrillReid social style theory. Amiable and analytical in the Merrill-Reid social style theory correspond to Bond and Systemization for Passive with low degrees of Expressive and Domination. In a social group outside of family, the combination of yin-yang social lives and intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) results in yin passive (bond), yin dynamic (expressive), yang passive (systemization), and yang dynamic (domination), corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory.

Merrill-Reid Social lives control emotion analytical ask amiable expressive emote driver tell

The Yin Yang Social life yang yang passive yang dynamic systemization domination passive dynamic yin passive yin dynamic bond expressive yin

• • •

According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collectivistic relation, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social

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life (bond) that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people for collectivistic relation. The expressive corresponds to the yin dynamic social life (expressive) that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collectivistic relation. The analytical corresponds to the yang passive social life (systemization) that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task for individualistic achievement. The driver corresponds to the yang dynamic social life (domination) that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement. 2.3. The Harmonious Social Life The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high Flexible in terms of social flexibility in social life. The high Flexible allows the harmonious social life to minimize conflicts in social interaction. Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections. The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table. The Social Life System for Primates
Social lives yin (BRC ) –yang passive-dynamic (SAI) or harmonious (introvert-extrovert) or cooperation (high flexible Intragroup openness) interaction among basic social units Yin Passive society social life Merrill-Reid social style

Yang

Passive

Yin

Dynamic

Yang

Dynamic

Harmonious cooperation

flexible

the loose collectivistic society the loose individualistic society the tight collectivistic society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

bond

Amiable

systemization

Analytical

expressive

Expressive

domination

Driver

harmony

The harmonious social life in animals consists of hyper bond and hyper detection. Hyper bond results from communication and existential division of labor. The individuals in the harmonious society are handicapped individuals who do not have long term survival

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and reproduction outside of a cohesive social group. It is vitally necessary for such handicapped individuals to cooperate in order to survive and reproduce. The harmonious cooperation through communication and existential division of labor overcomes individual handicaps, and results in the group fitness better than the group fitness of non-handicapped individuals without existential division of labor. Hyper detection is necessary to detect cheaters who do not cooperate through existential division of labor. For eusocial insects such as ant, termite, bee, and wasp, hyper detection is to detect specific pheromone for each social group. For human, hyper detection is theory of mind that detects what the minds of other people think. For human, hyper bond and hyper detection can work only in a small social group. Hyper bond in terms of communication and existential division of labor and hyper detection in terms of detecting cheaters become difficult in a large social group. The optimal size of harmonious society is about thirty people. The Hyper bond instinct In human, the hyper bond instinct is expressed as language. The verbal communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For example, the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct indicates the highly developed human hyper bond instinct. The bond nervous system is described by Simon Baron-Cohen as empathy circuit 24 , consisting of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) frontal operculum (FO) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) caudate anterior cingulate cortex (cACC),anterior insula (AI) right-side temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) somatosensory cortex (SMC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) amygdala (Amyg). The hyper bond nervous system is hyperactive empathy circuit. The Hyper Detection instinct In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The hyper detection instinct for detecting a lie in a verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The hyper detection instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily without the new hyper detection instinct. The neural network for the hyper detection instinct is called the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram Brownell and Richard Griffin25 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows.

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The Lie Detection Neural Network left brain questionable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

expression

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 questionable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex repeat or conclusion When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion. The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as below.

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The Lie Making Neural Network left brain changeable statement 1 right brain internal alternative statement 1

statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 Changeable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain. The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The conclusion is then expressed. The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain. The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny. The Conscience Instinct Theory of mind derived from the hyper detection instinct is that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The combination of the hyper bond instinct and theory of mind derived from the hyper detection instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum

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eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious society. This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the second most important saint in Confucianism. Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness) Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper bond instinct of the conscience instinct, while righteousness and wisdom come from the hyper detection instinct (theory of mind) of the conscience instinct. The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of the five factors, social life, and social structure is as below.

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The three branch way
THE FIVE FACTORS IN SOCIAL LIFE
social role social relationship social unit intragroup Social flexibility (Relation(Bond(Collectiveness- interaction (Unyielding(Passive-Dynamic) Flexible) Systemization Achievement) individual)

• •

yin (Bond-Relation-Collectiveness = collectivistic relation for social bond) and yang (Systemization-Achievement-Individual = individualistic achievement for systemization) Passive – Dynamic intragroup interaction harmony = high Flexible to minimize conflicts in social interactions

SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bond

yin dynamic social life (expressive)
expressive

harmonious social life
hyper bond + detection

yang dynamic social life (driver)
domination

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemization

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collectivistic collectivistic society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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3. Human Evolution

Diverging from the peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestor, the early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Living in hospitable woodland, early human ancestors were bipedal and harmonious. Feeding on fruits from bushes and low branches forced Ardi to walk on two legs often. When a group fanned out to find food, the continuous gestural communication from bipedal early human ancestors’ free hands coordinated individuals effectively. The improvement of gestural communication led eventually to the emergence of the harmonious social life as indicated by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for fighting. About 14 millions years ago, the progressively drier and cooler climate resulted in the decrease of tree-density in forest. The decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The original ape was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security in dense forest. Orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the support of tight social group. The slight decrease of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It needed the support of the matriarch collectivistic society for collectivistic relation to survive. Bonobo is the peacemaking ape without the strong need to fight for food. The further decrease in tree-density in some forests to become diverse forests caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collectivistic society for collectivistic relation with strong loyalty to their dominatingly large male leader for protection to survive. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor, who used free hands for the improvement in gestural communication to survive in hospitable woodland. The improvement in communication led eventually to the harmonious social life with the harmonious society. Human is the harmonious ape. Near the central Africa, the inhospitable woodland from further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch individualistic society for individualistic achievement with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland. During hominid evolution, the usage of tools and the successful harmonious society based on the conscience instinct (the combination of hyper bond and hyper detection) allowed the Homo to become highly successful species adaptable in diverse environments. The prehistoric human society was the harmonious hunter-gatherer society.

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Ape Evolution
orangutan gorilla chimpanzee bonobo human

2 Ma 6 Ma Ardi

7 Ma bonobo-like common ancestor

13 Ma(million years ago)

orangutan-like common ancestor

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Hominid Evolution:
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma) hyper friendliness theory of mind (hyper detection instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens < 0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence
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conscience will

3.1. Ape Evolution Early apes evolved during the Miocene epoch from 25 Ma (million years ago) to 5 Ma. Miocene warming began 21 Ma allowed tropical forests to prevail in Eurasia and Africa. The early ancestors of apes migrated to Eurasia from Africa about 17 Ma. Apes evolved in Eurasia. Miocene warming continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. As a result, some apes migrated south into tropical forests in Africa. By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. Consequently, apes became extinct except in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and Africa. In Africa, the climate got even cooler and dryer and the forest patches shrank. By the end of the Miocene, East Africa had become mostly open grassland. About 2 Ma, a significant drying occurred in Africa. Cooling and drying cause the change in the density and type of trees in forest and the changes from forest to woodland, grassland, and desert. The difference between woodland and dense forest is in the canopy. Forest trees are tall and dense enough to hide most of the sky, while woodland trees are sparse enough for the sky to be visible and grass and brush to grow on the ground. Grassland has tall grass with few trees. Eventually, tropical forests are limited to a tight band around the equator. The original apes were arboreal animals in dense forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provided both food resource and security. Different apes evolved to adapt to the changes in environments. The family Hominidae (great apes) includes five apes: orangutans, bonobos, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae lived some 13 Ma, when the ancestors of the orangutans by the analysis of DNA diverged from the ancestors of the other four apes, which are in the subfamily Homininae. About 7 Ma, the ancestors of gorillas diverged from the ancestors of the three other apes, which are in the tribe Hominin. About 6 Ma, the ancestors of humans diverged from the other two apes, which are in the genus Pan. About 2 Ma, bonobos and chimpanzees diverged. The divergences in DNA coincide with the significant changes in climate. 3.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape The original great ape existed before 13 Ma, when the warm and wet climate allowed tropical forest to prevail in Eurasia. It was the orangutan-like common ancestor with the best food resource and security from dense forest. The orangutan-like common ancestor did not migrate to Africa. Apes evolved a new way of moving around in the trees – brachiation that is arm-over-arm swinging from one branch to another. Brachiation evolved as a way to get at fruits that were at the very tips of branches. This allows apes to get at fruits that a monkey cannot reach. Apes have larger brains than monkeys. Gestural communication is virtually limited to great apes. As the orangutan-like common ancestor, current orangutan is the solitary ape that has the loose social structure without the need of the support of tight social group. They are currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutan is the largest arboreal animals in forest, adapting to life in the trees in dense forest that provides both food resource and security. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion sleeping nests from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than other apes; males and females generally

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come together only to mate. There is significant sexual dimorphism. Orangutans primarily eat fruit. 3.1.2. The First Split: the peacemaking ape The Miocene warming began 21 Ma and continued until 14 Ma, when global temperatures took a sharp drop. About 13 Ma, the slight decrease in of tree-density in forest by climate change caused the first split from the orangutan-like common ancestor to produce the bonobo-like common ancestor with the second best food resource and security. It was necessary to have the support of social group for the procurement of food and for protection in this environment. With the support of social group, food and security posted no serious problems without the strong need to fight for food in a social group. As a result, as the bonobo-like common ancestor, bonobo is the peacemaking ape that has the matriarch collectivistic society for collectivistic relation. Bonobos are now found in the wild only in the dense tropical forest south of the Congo River. Genetically modern bonobo is exactly as close to modern human as modern chimpanzee. For peacemaking, bonobo has “hyper friendliness” as shown in the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group26. The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. On the other hand, De Waal pointed out that 'sex for peace' precisely because bonobos have plenty of conflicts. There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony. Bonobo walks upright approximately 25% of the time during ground locomotion. At the time of the split, its quadrupedal ground locomotion was orangutan-like forelimb fist or palm walking instead of the predominant use of knuckles developed later as characteristic of gorillas and the chimpanzees. Like human, bonobo has relatively small canines. These physical characteristics and its posture, give bonobo an appearance more closely resembling humans than that of chimpanzee. 3.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape By 8 Ma, temperatures dropped sharply once again. The further decrease in treedensity in some forests by further temperature drop caused the second split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce gorilla in diverse forests in about 7 Ma. In some regions in Africa, dense forest turned into diverse forest with various tree-densities. Gorilla is the loyal ape that has the patriarch collectivistic society for collectivistic relation with strong loyalty to the dominatingly large male leader for protection. Gorillas are the largest of the living primates. Instead of relying trees for protection, gorillas rely on their physical sizes for protection. Relying on physical size for protection was adaptable to diverse forests with various tree-densities. Large gorillas could not climb trees easily, so gorillas were ground-dwelling. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking. Gorillas are shy and peaceful vegetarians. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early gorillas ancestors were basically the dominatingly large bonobos. Gorillas today live in tropical or subtropical forests in different parts of Africa.

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In social group, a silverback is the strong, dominant troop leader. He typically leads a troop (group size ranges from 5 to 30) and is in the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. All members of a social group are loyal to the dominatingly large silverback. 3.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus)27, the oldest human ancestor (4.4 million year old) discovered, lived on woodland. Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc. Around 5 millions of years ago, a major climate change reduced some part of forested area in Africa to woodland where Ardi was evolved. She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The appearance of woodland caused the third split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce the bipedal human ancestor. Human was the harmonious ape with the harmonious society. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. Comparing to forest area, woodland area had scarcer food resources. According to the observation 28 in Africa, when food resources are scarce or unpredictable, chimpanzees use upright locomotion to improve food carrying efficiency. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. For reaching food from low branches on woodland and to carry food, the original human ancestors came down to the ground from living among trees, and adopted bipedalism as the way to move on the ground. However, Ardi’s foot was primitive with an opposable big toe that could not provide a push needed for efficient bipedal walking. Ardi had a more primitive walking ability than later hominids, and Ardi had a somewhat awkward gait when on the ground. Ardi could not walk or run for long distances. (For apes, the quadrupedal knuckle-walking like gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees was faster and better way than Ardi’s primitive awkward bipedalism to move on the ground.) Without many big trees to escape to as in forest, woodland was a dangerous place, especially, for very young, very old, and pregnant individuals. Individually, they could not survive on the ground with such awkward bipedalism. The only way to survive with awkward bipedalism was through existential division of labor by means of the free hands from bipedalism. The free hands allowed them to carry food to a safe gathering place, such as few big trees on woodland, where they could share food together safely, with very young, very old, and pregnant individuals. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. The free hands from bipedalism also allowed Ardi to have the continuous hand gestural communication for group communication that directed continuous existential division of labor to find food and watch for predators during group forage on the ground. (Human verbal language was developed much later. Human verbal language and gestural language are in the area of the brain.) With continuous hand gestural communication, individuals in the group during group forage

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knew precisely all the time about the locations of food sources, predators, and the safe places to escape from predators and about the plan of division of labor as a group. Carrying food to a safe gathering place and continuous hand gestural communication during group forage strengthened existential division of labor without which individuals could not survive. Ardi’s awkward bipedalism created handicap for individuals, and improved group fitness for a cohesive social group. By communication and existential division of labor as well as by following the pre-harmonious social cooperative behaviors, the original human ancestors survived and reproduced as a group. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from forest to woodland. They lived in a society that from each according to one's ability, to each according to one's need. Otherwise, the whole hominid society would have been extinct without existential division of labor of handicapped individuals. Harmony in the original human ancestors was manifested by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for aggression and fighting, unlike any other apes. The two important traits of Ardi to distinguish Ardi from other apes are bipedalism and small canine teeth. The final stage of the evolution of human harmonious society was hyper detection as theory of mind to detect what the minds of other people think. Hyper detection is to detect cheaters and to self-examine (guilty feeling and shame). They climbed trees mostly at night, for high branch fruits, and for safety. The tree-density was high enough, and the gestural communication and division of labor were good enough, so they had access to trees to escape from predators, and did not need the rapid movement of quadrupedal locomotion, such as knuckle walking, to escape from predators. Bipedalism might possibly happen in a number of locations with similar woodland environment. The continuous gestural communication allowed improved explanation gestural communication for improving mutual understanding and the improved cooperative gestural communication for establishing elaborate social rules. The improvement in communication reduced conflicts by the improvement of understanding among them and the establishment of some elaborate social rules. The primitive gestural communication emerged first involved the primitive natural gestures of pointing and pantomiming. Such primitive gestural communication did not require the large expansion of the brain. What robust vocal/facial/gestural communication needed was pleasure connecting with vocal/facial/gestural communication. For bonobos, hyper friendliness for peacemaking is expressed by causal sexual contact that gives them pleasure. Unlike other apes, humans, including babies, enjoy gestural/facial/vocal communication, such as dancing, singing, and talking. The pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication of early human ancestors gradually replaced pleasurable casual sexual contact of the bonobo-like common ancestors as pleasurable way to bond with one another. By the time of Ardi, pleasurable causal sexual contact disappeared, and replaced by pleasurable vocal/facial/gestural communication. Instead of group sex for peacemaking, human ancestors, like Ardi, had group dancing and group singing for peacemaking. The disappearance of casual sexual contact allowed human ancestors to develop monogamy for pair bonding. Communication became not only useful but also pleasurable. Communication became frequent. Communication became sharing information both related and unrelated physical needs. The human ancestors, like Ardi, evolved from the merely peacemaking bonobo-like common

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ancestors to the harmonious hominids as shown in the absence of large sharp canine teeth (fangs) for fighting. Other apes, particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines that they use for displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. Such harmonious coherent social group improved its ability to find and collect food and to fend off predators, resulting in improved chance for survival in woodland. The human ancestors inherited good gestural communication from the bonobolike common ancestors as shown by Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal in “Ape Gestures and Language Evolution” 29 . Gestural communication is virtually limited to the Hominoidea (great apes). Chimpanzees beg other chimpanzees for food by approaching them with open hands. Gestures seem less closely tied to specific emotions, hence they permit greater cortical control than other forms of communication. They compared bonobos and chimpanzees. They found that facial/vocal displays were used very similarly by both ape species, but bonobos showed greater flexibility in gestural communication than chimpanzees and were also the only species in which multimodal communication (i.e., combinations of gestures and facial/vocal signals) added to behavioral impact on the recipient. The bonobos' variable gestural repertoire and high responsiveness to combinatorial signaling indicate that the human ancestors came from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The development of free hands for the improvement of gestural communication was a natural extension of the gestural communication from the bonobo-like common ancestors. The connection between human communication and human cooperative infrastructure is shown by Michael Tomasello in “Origins of Human Communication” 30 Tomasello proposes that the most fundamental aspects of uniquely human communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction. The cooperative infrastructure in human hominid ancestors was inherited from the bonobolike common ancestors who were the peacemaking apes. Gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism improved greatly such cooperative infrastructure. No other animals develop such human-like communication. Gestural communication served as a stepping stone for the evolution of human symbolic communication. Gesture production in humans is so automatic that it is relatively immune to audience effects: blind subjects gesture at equal rates as sighted subjects to a known blind audience. Gestural communication as gestural language is the predecessor of spoken language31. The generally right-handed dominant hominid caused the development of the gestural language area (Broca’s area) in the left-brain that eventually developed into the part for the spoken language later. In the study by Hickok, Bellugi and Klima32 , the impairment for sign language patients was identical with that of speaking patients. At the hemispheric level the neural organization of sign language is indistinguishable from that of spoken language. Gorillas did not develop bipedalism, because instead of searching for high quality food, such as fruits, gorillas today eat abundant low quality foods such as leaves, when high quality is not readily available. Gorillas today do not break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. As seen later, chimpanzees did not develop bipedalism, because they needed knuckle walking to escape from predators and for the large foraging ranges in inhospitable woodland as the initial habitat. In inhospitable woodland, bipedal walking initially was not fast enough to escape from predators, and initially was not efficient enough for the large foraging ranges to survive.

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3.1.5. The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape Near the central Africa about 2 million years ago, the inhospitable woodland from the further decrease in tree-density caused the fourth split from the bonobo-like common ancestor to produce chimpanzee. Chimpanzee is the aggressive ape that has the patriarch individualistic society with individual and group aggression to survive in inhospitable woodland. The initial tree-density in the initial habitat of chimpanzees was the lowest among the five apes. Anatomical differences between chimpanzee and bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviors there are marked differences. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees became the mean to survive in such inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees cannot abandon quadrupedal locomotion and its speed advantages because of their large foraging ranges and susceptibility to predation. Diverging from the bonobo-like common ancestors, early chimpanzee ancestors were basically the aggressive bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to inhospitable woodland. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. Primatologist Frans de Waal described male chimpanzees in Chimpanzee Politics33. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. On the contrary, bonobo males or females prefer sexual contact over violent confrontation with outsiders. In summary, the decrease of tree-density of dense forest in Africa by climate change generated the environments for ape evolution. The decrease of tree-density decreased food resource and security for apes. The orangutan-like common ancestors had the best food resource and security in dense forest. The bonobo-like common ancestors compensated the decreased food resource and security from the decreased treedensity with the support of the peacemaking social group. Gorilla compensated the further decreased food resource and security by following dominatingly large male leader for protection. Humans compensated the further decreased food resource and security with improved gestural communication by free hands from bipedalism. Chimpanzees compensated the further decreased food resource and security with individual and group aggression of male chimpanzees. Each species of apes made its initial niche divergence from the previous species to fit its initial environment. Each species stays the same, continues to evolve, diverges, or becomes extinct in the subsequent environment.

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The diagram and the table of ape evolution and social structures are listed below.

Ape Evolution and Social Structures
orangutan-like common ancestor (loose society) Family Hominidae
13 million years ago (Ma)

orangutan (loose society) bonobo-like common ancestor (matriarch
collectivistic)
7 Ma

Subfamily Homininae Tribe Hominini

gorilla (patriarch collectivistic society) human (harmonious society)

6 Ma 2 Ma

Genus Pan

chimpanzee (patriarch individualistic society) bonobo (matriarch collectivistic society) Ape Evolution
History Initial Habitat (1 = best food resource and security) dense forest/tree (1) dense forest/tree (2) diverse forest/ground (3) hospitable woodland/ground (4) Inhospitable woodland/tree (5) Characteristic Social Structure

Orangutan Bonobo Gorilla Human Chimpanzee

the original ape (> 13 Ma) the first split ( 13 Ma) the second split ( 7 Ma) the third split (6 Ma) the fourth split (2 Ma)

the solitary ape the peacemaking ape the loyal ape the harmonious ape the aggressive ape

loose society matriarch collectivistic society patriarch collectivistic society harmonious society patriarch individualistic society

3.2. Hominid Evolution Human is Homo sapiens, which is the only non-extinct species of hominids. Hominid evolution started from woodland in Africa. From 6 Ma to 2 Ma, the drier and cooler climate progressed slowly. By around 6 Ma to 2 Ma in Africa, an apelike species had evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from apes: (1) bipedalism and (2) small canine teeth. The two most complete skeletons for early hominids are Ardi and Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) 34. Ardi (45% complete skeleton) is estimated to be 4.4 million years ago. (Similar to other apes, Ardi's skull encased a small brain – 300 to 350 cc.) She lived in grassy woodland with patches of denser forest and freshwater springs. The further decrease in temperature and rain decreased food resource and security as shown in Lucy (40% complete skeleton) in 3.2 million years ago. (The brain size is 450-530cc.) The environmental pressure led to the small expansion of the brain as shown in the larger brain in Lucy than in Ardi.

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After about 2.8 Ma, in East Africa east of the African Rift System, the environment pressure came from the climate fluctuation and significant drying. During this period, parts of forest and woodland turned to grassland. Without the protection of forest, the bipedal hominid in the open grassland faced predators from both large dangerous animals 35 and intense inter-group competition. The climate fluctuation and open grassland forced hominids to evolve quickly in terms of the brain size to thrive in diverse environments including forests, woodlands, and grassland savannas. It involved the usage of tools and the emergence of the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society based on the conscience instinct as the combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind for social cooperation. The usage of tools and the highly efficient cooperative harmonious society allowed human to thrive in diverse environments. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands that allowed the potential for many usages. For the Australopithecines, the usage is gestural language to improve communication for survival as discussed previously. The brain size was only slightly larger than other apes. In the next 2 million years, the Australopithecine evolved into the Homo with larger brain than its predecessor. The next most significant gradual change of hominid evolution is the conversion of free hands into manipulative hands with precision grip resulting in the acquisition of tool-use and making. The most primitive stone tool-use hominid family is Homo habilis in about 2.2-1.6 Ma. (The brain size is 750-850cc.) Because tool-use and making required thinking and precision manipulation, the competitive advantage of the tooluse and making resulted in the rapid expansion of the brain for tool-use and making. The use of tools allowed hominids to hunt and butcher animals which provided the nutrients for the brain. Eventually, (1.9-0.1 Ma), Homo erectus had not only perfected stone tools considerably but had also learned how to control and use fire. (Homo habilis and Homo erectus coexisted. The brain size is 1000-1250 cc.) The hearth for fire and the gathering for cooperative tool manufacture promoted the development of social organization. The competitive advantage of social organization resulted in the rapid development of spoken language to aid gestural language in the same area of the brain. The bone structures of Homo erectus showed signs for commanding speech. For speech, Homo erectus had a larynx with an equivalent position to that of an 8-year-old modern child 36. Both brain-size and the presence of the Broca's area also support the use of articulate language37. The competitive advantage of the spoken language led to theory of mind as mentioned before. Ardi already had vocal/facial/gestural communication as hyper friendliness. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind from theory of mind led to the conscience instinct that is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The social life is the harmonious social life in the harmonious society. Homo erectus was probably the first hominid to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer bandsocieties38. Humans started to evolve with the usage of tool and fire by decreasing physical strength and decreasing ability to eat tough raw food. Individuals became handicapped without tool and fire that involved the cooperation of individuals in the harmonious society. Group selection became increasingly important. The most harmonious society survives from the competition of groups in group selection.

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Language alone cannot solve all social conflicts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie, so it is necessary to control social conflicts by will. The social behaviors were still affected greatly by the instincts from the old non-harmonious social lives that hinder frequently maximum eager cooperation without lie. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society resulted in the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Adult humans with injure in the prefrontal cortex know what to do for socialization, but do not have the will to do for socialization. Therefore, the conscience instinct can be divided into the conscience intelligence for the knowledge of socialization and the conscience will to control the non-harmonious instincts to achieve maximum eager cooperation without lie. A large part of the prefrontal cortex is for the conscience will connecting emotion and instinct areas in the brain. The competitive advantage of the harmonious society filtered out the less harmonious people and social groups (trouble makers) who were marginalized or forced to move out of the harmonious society. The remaining people with the harmonious social life continued to evolve into even more harmonious social life, and the less harmonious people and groups continued to be marginalized or move out. The technological and social 39 selections generated the unusually fast evolution of the hominid brain. Eventually, the most technologically advanced and harmonious hominid, Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa where the harmonious society originated. The earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia were dated to be about 200,000 years old. (The brain size is 1,350 cc.) The brain of Homo sapiens reaches the maximum efficiency in terms of size and complexity. Any additional size and complexity to achieve higher harmonious social life are counter-productive 40 , so Homo sapiens have the maximum harmonious social life rather than the ideal harmonious social life. The genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the hyper detection instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper friendliness in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo 41 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Since conscience involves significantly the prefrontal cortex, loneliness impairs the performance of the prefrontal cortex, such as in logical reasoning42. Such harmful and miserable effect of loneliness indicates the strong preference of social connection through the harmonious cooperation in a social group for our primitive ancestors. In summary, walking hands turned into free hands by bipedalism. Free hands allowed improved gestural language that became the expression of hyper friendliness. Such evolution took place in woodland without the requirement of additional brain expansion for intelligence. In the highly impoverished and insecure open grassland, the brain started to expand as free hands evolved into manipulative hands to make improved tools. The appearance of very useful spoken language greatly accelerated the expansion of the brain. The spoken language became the expression of theory of mind as theory of

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mind that exists only in human. The combination of hyper friendliness and theory of mind resulted in the conscience instinct. The enhanced conscience instinct came from the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the non-harmonious instincts. Hominid evolution is the evolution of the conscience instinct. Hominid evolution as the evolution of the conscience instinct is as follows.

Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct
walking hands (bonobo-like common ancestor)
bipedalism

free hands for gestural language as hyper friendliness (non-Homo hominids 6-1 Ma) manipulative hands for tool (Homo habilis 2.2-1.6 Ma) speech for theory of mind (Homo erectus 1.9-0.1 Ma)

hyper friendliness

theory of mind (hyper detection instinct) conscience instinct
extra prefrontal cortex

enhanced conscience instinct (Homo sapiens <0.2 Ma) conscience intelligence conscience will

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4. The Properties, Interactions, and Reinforcements of the Social Lives
Freud’s structural theory divides the psyche into the id, the ego, and the super-ego. The id is the source of psychological energy derived from instinctual needs and drives. The superego is the internalization of the conscious extenuated by rules, conflict, morals, guilt, etc. The ego develops slowly and gradually, being concerned with mediating between the urgings of the id and the realities of the external world; it thus operates on the reality principle. Essentially, id represents the cognition- emotion part of the brain in the cortex and the limbic system, superego represents the control part of the brain in the prefrontal cortex that control cognition and emotion, and ego represents the process of the interaction between the cognition-emotion part (id) and the control part (superego). Freud’s psychoanalysis deals with the psyche interactions among id, superego, and ego. The three branch way for human social interactions consists of the yin (collectivistic), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collectivistic social life represents collectivistic relation for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social life is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. 4.1. The Properties of the Social Lives As mentioned before, amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the MerrillReid social style theory correspond to yin passive, yin dynamic, yang passive, and yang dynamic. Amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver can be described as bond, expressive, systemization, and domination. Life has many parts. Each specific part has specific enhancer and stressor. Enhancer enhances life, and stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to enhancer that enhances life is pleasure response to continue the enhancer. Stressor that disrupts enhancer is the loss of the function of certain adaptive life part. The instinctive reaction to stressor is stress response to prompt attention to stressor, so stressor can be dealt with urgently. Stress response is expressed as the feelings of stress, anxiety, and pain. For example, a woman who has a good digest system enjoys digesting food. When the damage in her digest system induces the loss of the function of her digest system, she instinctively suffers from pain that prompts attention to the damage in her digest system, so she can deal with the damage urgently. The healing of stress response is the adoption of enhancer to replace stressor. The healthy life allows all parts of life working together constructively rather than destructively. There are three social lives: yin, yang, and harmony. Each social life has specific social-life enhancer and social-life stressor. Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer,

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so the enhancers enhance social life with pleasure response. Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. The symptom of social-life stress response is the feeling of stress and anxiety, so the stressors disrupt social life with stress response. The action of social-life stressor is social-life sin. The healing of social-life stress response is the adoption of social-life enhancer to replace social-life stressor. The healthy social life allows all three of social lives working together constructively rather than destructively. The social-life enhancers for adult feminine social life are bond and expressive. The instinctive reaction to bond and expressive that enhance collectivistic social life is collectivistic social-life pleasure response to continue collectivistic relation. Collectivistic social-life stressor that disrupts collectivistic social life consists of disconnection and injustice that cause the losses of bond and expressive, respectively. The instinctive reaction to collectivistic social-life stressor is collectivistic social-life stress response, consisting of despair and paranoid to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of disconnection and injustice, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The action of collectivistic social-life stressor is collectivistic social-life sin, consisting of disconnection sin and injustice sin. The fundamental social unit is collectivistic social group. A person who has the collectivistic social life is a collectivistic lifer. For example, a woman who is a collectivistic lifer enjoys collectivistic relation. When injustice induces the loss of her collectivistic relation, she suffers instinctively from paranoid that prompt attention to the injustice, so she can deal with the injustice immediately. When she induces injustice, she commits injustice sin that causes paranoid. The social-life enhancers for adult masculine social life are systemization and domination. The instinctive reaction to systemization and domination that enhance individualistic social life is individualistic social-life pleasure response to continue individualistic achievement. Individualistic social-life stressor that disrupts individualistic social life consists of disorganization and repression that cause the losses of systemization and domination, respectively. The instinctive reaction to individualistic social-life stressor is individualistic social-life stress response, consisting of anxiety and unfulfillment to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of disorganization and repression, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The action of individualistic social-life stressor is individualistic social-life sin, consisting of disorganization sin and repression sin. A person who has the individualistic social life is an individualistic lifer. For example, a man who is an individualistic lifer enjoys individualistic achievement. When repression induces his loss of individualistic achievement, he suffers instinctively from unfulfillment that prompts attention to the repression, so he can deals with the repression urgently. When he induces repression, he commits repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The social-life enhancer for harmonious social life is harmonious cooperation that lowers the conflicts in social interaction produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals in only a small social group, and exists only in human. Harmonious cooperation consists of hyper bond and hyper detection. (Hyper detection as theory of mind is the enhancer for the detection of lie within both self and other people.) The instinctive reaction to hyper bond and hyper detection that enhance harmonious

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cooperation is harmonious social-life pleasure response to continue harmonious cooperation. Harmonious social-life stressor that disrupts harmonious social-life enhancer consists of estrangement and enlargement that cause the losses of hyper bond and hyper detection, respectively. Enlargement from a small social group to a large social group causes the disruption of hyper detection, because in a large social group, a cheater is more difficult to be detected, and is able to avoid the repetition of cheating to the same person. The instinctive reaction to harmonious social-life stressor is harmonious social-life stress response, as alienation to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of estrangement and enlargement, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The actions of estrangement and enlargement are estrangement sin and enlargement sin that cause the social-life stress responses of alienation. A person who has the harmonious social life is a harmonious lifer. For example, a man who is a harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. When estrangement and enlargement induce the loss of his harmonious cooperation, he suffers instinctively from alienation that prompts attention to the estrangement and enlargement, so he can deal with the estrangement and enlargement urgently. When he induces estrangement and enlargement, he commits estrangement sin and enlargement sin that cause alienation. Alienation is not a typical mental disorder. Alienation is an existential problem for an individual to exist in a large and non-harmonious society. There is no distinctive defensive survival instinct as the mental overreaction to the stressors of estrangement and enlargement. The reaction is simply changing from the harmonious social life to the yin or yang social life. The table below describes all three social lives. The Three Social Lives
Yin (Collectivistic) Social Life Symbol Social-life enhancer Social-life enhancer components Social-life stressor Sin Stress response Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society collectivistic relation bond expressive disconnection injustice disconnection sin injustice sin despair paranoid collectivistic social group collectivistic collectivistic Yang (Individualistic) Social Life individualistic achievement systemization domination disorganization repression disorganization sin repression sin anxiety unfulfillment individual individualistic individualistic Harmonious Social Life

harmonious cooperation hyper bond hyper detection estrangement enlargement estrangement sin enlargement sin alienation one-to-one relation harmonious harmonious

Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collectivistic, individualistic, and harmonious social lives), which have different rules, so social-life sins are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with increasing communication and checks and balances among social lives.

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4.2. The Interaction of the Social Lives 4.2.1. The Interaction of Social Lives in an Individual An exclusive social lifer lives in an exclusive one social life with deliberate exclusion of other social lives. An exclusive social lifer requires maintaining allowed pleasure response, forbidden pleasure response, forbidden sins, allowed sins, and acceptable stress responses at the same time as follows. Exclusive Social Lifer
Exclusive Collectivistic Social Lifer bond expressive systemization domination hyper bond detection disconnection (sin) injustice (sin) despair paranoid disorganization (sin) repression (sin) estrangement (sin) enlargement (sin) anxiety unfulfillment alienation Exclusive Individualistic Social Lifer systemization domination bond expressive hyper bond detection disorganization (sin) repression (sin) anxiety unfulfillment disconnection (sin) injustice (sin) estrangement (sin) enlargement (sin) despair paranoid alienation Exclusive Harmonious Social Lifer hyper bond detection bond expressive systemization domination estrangement (sin) enlargement (sin) alienation disconnection (sin) injustice (sin) disorganization (sin) repression (sin) despair paranoid anxiety unfulfillment

allowed pleasure response from forbidden pleasure response from

forbidden stressors (sins) stress responses from forbidden stressors (sins) allowed stressors (sins)

acceptable responses

stress

A typical collectivistic social lifer is Confucius. Confucius obtained happiness from collectivistic relation in terms of bond and expressive for society and family. He did not obtain happiness from individualistic achievement in terms of systemization and domination, and from harmonious cooperation in terms of hyper bond and detection. He strongly opposed disloyalty in terms of disconnection and injustice stressors, and avoided disconnection and injustice sins. Disconnection and injustice sins cause the guilt as despair and paranoid stress responses. Disconnection and injustice stressors cause despair and paranoid stress response. He allowed disorganization by disliking precise and systematic legal laws to maintain morality, allowed repression against individual prominence, allowed external appropriate appearance to hide inner estrangement, and allowed the formation of a large social group. He accepted the stress responses of anxiety from imprecise morality without precise and systematic legal laws, unfulfillment from the repression of individual prominence, alienation from inner estrangement and in a large social group. The pleasure response from bond and expressive overcomes the stress responses of anxiety, unfulfillment, and alienation. The exclusive collectivistic social life is the devotional life for a social group.

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A typical exclusive individualistic social lifer is Plato. Plato obtained happiness from individualistic achievement in terms of systemization and domination for highly systematic mathematical and philosophical systems and endless search for the best perfect system. He did not obtain happiness from collectivistic relation in terms of bond and expressive, and from harmonious cooperation in terms of hyper bond and detection. He strongly opposed disorganization and repression stressors, and avoided disorganization and repression sins. He allowed disloyalty in terms of disconnection as that his teacher, Socrates, and some of his followers were put to death for disloyalty. He allowed injustice by believing in the hierarchy based on individualistic achievement, allowed the endless and systematic search for the best at the expense of inner harmony, and allowed the formation of a large social group. He accepted the stress responses of despair from disconnection, paranoid from injustice, alienation from inner estrangement and from a large social group. The pleasure response from systemization and domination overcomes the stress responses of despair, paranoid, and alienation. The exclusive individualistic social life is the ascetic life to seek perfection endlessly. A typical exclusive harmonious social lifer is Buddha. He obtained his happiness from harmonious cooperation in terms of hyper bond and detection for compassion to all living organism and detecting impermanence and imperfection. He did not obtain his happiness from collectivistic relation in terms of bond and expressive, and from individualistic achievement in terms of systemization and domination. He gave up the life of the individualistic achievement of prince, and became a lowly monk. He lived in a harmonious life in a small harmonious social group as monastery. He strongly opposed estrangement and enlargement stressors, and avoided estrangement and enlargement sins. He allowed disloyalty in terms of disconnection to gods by marginalizing gods, allowed injustice by living outside of man society, allowed imperfection because to him, everything is impermanent and imperfect, allowed repression of individualistic achievement. He accepted the stress responses of despair from disconnection, paranoid from living outside of main society, anxiety from imperfection, and unfulfillment from the absence of individualistic achievement. He viewed perfection from systemization as illusion, considered domination as greed, and regarded the extinction (repression) of the drive for domination and perfection as nirvana. The happiness from hyper bond and detection overcomes the stress responses of despair, paranoid, anxiety, and unfulfillment. The exclusive harmonious social life is the harmonious life in a small social group. An exclusive collectivistic social lifer lives a devotional life for a social group, but avoids an ascetic life to seek perfection endlessly and a harmonious life in a small social group. An exclusive individualistic social lifer lives in an ascetic life to seek perfection endlessly, but stays away from a devotional life for a social group and a harmonious life in a small social group. An exclusive harmonious social lifer lives in a harmonious life in a small social group, but shuns a devotional life for a social group and an ascetic life to seek perfection endlessly. In the postmodern society, a person likely assumes multiple roles for all three social lives, and cannot simply shun any one of social lives. Therefore, a person lives in a devotional life for the family, an ascetic life to seek perfection endlessly at work, and a harmonious life in a religious small group and privately in meditation. The person lives in different social lives for different social situations. Without focusing in one social life,

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the person is simply an ordinary good person without reaching the level of sainthood as Confucius, Plato, and Buddha. 4.2.2. The Interaction of Social Lives among Individuals The most important interaction among individuals is love that keeps individuals close together. Love can be divided into the mutual sexual attraction, the mutual expressive bond, and the unconditional mutual bond, relating to the individualistic social life, collectivistic social life, and the harmonious social life, respectively. The mutual sexual attraction is for the competition of sexual reproduction. In the competition of sexual reproduction, a person is attracted to the best available mate with whom the best and the most children can be produced. Typically, the best available female mate is healthy, fertile, and young, while the best available male mate is a healthy, fertile, and good provider. The mutual sexual attraction allows the partners to be close together as the best possible pair for reproduction. Since the mutual sexual attraction involves the competition for the best available mate, domination-repression in the individualistic social life is an important factor. The mutual expressive bond is for the expressive in a social group. The core of the mutual expressive bond is the mother-child bond. Since all adults and older siblings have expressive responsibilities in a social group, the mutual expressive bond is extended to all members in a social group. The mutual expressive bond keeps people close together as the best way for expressive to survive as a social group. The mutual expressive bond does not contain the mutual sexual attraction. Unlike the mutual sexual attraction, the mutual expressive bond does not involve competition where dominationrepression is an important factor. The mutual expressive bond decreases significantly, when a child becomes an independent adult, so the mutual expressive bond is dependent on a person in a specific form. The mutual sexual attraction and the mutual expressive bond are the basic loves to keep people close together for reproduction and survival. Relating to the harmonious social life, the unconditional mutual bond is unique in human. It comes from hyper bond in the harmonious social life. For hyper bond, a person can be a friend for no particular purpose, such as reproduction and expressive, and the mutual bond is unconditional. The unconditional mutual bond keeps people close together for no particular purpose. Unlike the mutual sexual attraction, the unconditional mutual bond of a committed couple does not have the competition for the best available mate. Unlike the mutual expressive bond, the unconditional mutual bond of a committed couple is not dependent on a person in a specific form. Typically, the unconditional mutual bond is formed in a small social group where unrelated people form strong bond automatically and unconditionally. A small social group can be a religious small group with a strong faith and a military small unit in combat. An additional love is the mutual ambiguous bond for close friendship. Friendship is the ambiguous all-in-one bond that combines two or three of the mutual sexual attraction, the mutual expressive bond, and the unconditional mutual bond without committing to any one of the three loves. The mutual ambiguous bond can behave as the transitional or backup state for the other three loves. The mutual ambiguous bond of the same sex can be the combination of the mutual expressive bond and the unconditional mutual bond. The mutual ambiguous bond of the opposite sexes can be the combination of all three loves or the combination of any two loves.

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The Greek tradition divides love into (1) Eros, romantic love between people “in love”, (2) affection, between members of a family; (3) Agape, the love one has toward God and one’s neighbor, and (4) friendship. Eros, affection, Agape, and friendship correspond to the mutual sexual attraction, the mutual expressive bond, the unconditional mutual bond, and the mutual ambiguous bond. Love
Social Life mutual sexual attraction mutual expressive bond unconditional mutual bond mutual ambiguous bond individualistic social life collectivistic social life harmonious social life the combinations of three or two other social lives Greek tradition Eros affection Agape friendship Purpose reproduction expressive for survival none in a small social group ambiguous all-in-one

4.2.3. The Interaction of Social Lives in a Group A dominated society has only one dominant social life. There are the collectivistic dominant society, the individualistic dominant society, and the harmonious dominant society. In the collectivistic dominant society, bond and expressive are the top priorities, disconnection and injustice are forbidden. Human relation is much more important than systemizing legal laws. Individual prominence is repressed. External appropriate behave is much more important than inner harmony. The society is a large social group. Disorganization, repression, estrangement, and enlargement of social group are allowed sins. Anxiety, unfulfillment, estrangement, and alienation are acceptable stress responses. The collectivistic dominant society includes Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, and socialism. In the individualistic dominant society, systemization and domination are the top priorities, and disorganization and repression are forbidden. Individual pursuit of perfection and domination can override social bonds. The hierarchy based on individualistic achievement is much more important than equality. The pursuit of perfection is more important than inner harmony. The society is a large social group. Disconnection, injustice, estrangement, and enlargement of social group are allowed sins. Despair, paranoid, and alienation are acceptable stress responses. The individualistic dominant society includes Classical Greek Society and capitalism. In the harmonious dominant society, hyper bond and detection are the top priorities, and estrangement and enlargement of basic social group are forbidden. Unrestricted by social bond, individual can move readily from one small social group to another small social group. A small harmonious social group does not need moral code for justice, does not need systemization for the improvement of living standard, and does not domination to establish hierarchy. Disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression are allowed sins. Despair, paranoid, anxiety, and unfulfillment are acceptable stress responses. The harmonious dominant society includes Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism.
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A peaceful unified multi-social life society consisting of the collectivistic, individualistic, and harmonious social lives has the balanced social life. In the balanced social life, collectivistic relation is not violated severely by individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation, individualistic achievement is not repressed severely by collectivistic relation and harmonious cooperation, and harmonious cooperation is not disharmonized severely by collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement. To have a balanced social life, a peaceful society must have a continuous checks and balances process, so all social lives have acceptable existences. An unbalanced multi-social life society does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for all social lives. For example, in traditional marriage, husband is responsible for the individualistic life for individualistic achievement to achieve social status and wealth, while wife is responsible for the collectivistic relation of family. In a balanced marriage, the individualistic achievement by husband is not repressed by the collectivistic relation by wife, while the collectivistic relation by wife is not violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. A balanced marriage requires continuous checks and balances, so both collectivistic life and individualistic life have acceptable existences in marriage. In an unbalanced family, the individualistic achievement by husband is repressed by the collectivistic relation by wife, and/or the collectivistic relation by wife is violated by the individualistic achievement by husband. An unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances process to find acceptable existences for both collectivistic life and individualistic life. A balanced marriage has good checks and balances to work out acceptable effort, time, and risk for collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement, while an unbalanced marriage does not have good checks and balances. In dysfunctional marriage, one or both of the social lives are dysfunctional. 4.3. The Enforcements of the Social Lives Healthy society and individual in terms of social life enforce the adoption of social-life enhancer and the avoidance of social-life stressor. The enforcement originates from the memories of pleasure response and stress response, social reward and punishment, and faith. The memory of social-life pleasure response enforces the adoption of enhancer, while the memory of social-life stress response enforces the avoidance of stressor. The process can be manifested by the memories of extreme social-life stress response and pleasure response. The memory of extreme social-life stress response leads to posttraumatic stress stressor (PTSD), involving painful persistent re-experience of traumatic stress response, such as extreme paranoid, despair, repression, anxiety, and alienation. The extreme stress responses of paranoid, despair, repression, anxiety, and alienation are the sudden extreme damages to collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, by death or violence. The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the original painful traumatic experience even more painful. The reexperiencing traumatic experiencing brings about extreme avoidance and hyper-sensitivity. In PTSD, the re-experience of extreme stress response greatly damages the ability for normal life. The memory of normal social-life stress response enforces the avoidance of social-life stressor without damaging the ability for normal life.

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The memory of extreme social-life pleasure response brings about post peak experience enhancer (PPEF), involving happy persistent re-experiencing of social-life pleasure response, such as extreme collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation. Peak experiences are described by American psychologist and philosopher Abraham H. Maslow 43 as especially joyous and exciting moments in life, involving sudden feelings of intense pleasure response and well-being, wonder, and awe. The peak experience of collectivistic relation is the pleasure response for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the pleasure response for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience of harmonious cooperation is the social pleasure response for sudden extraordinary mutual empathy and empowerment or the personal pleasure response for the sudden extraordinary sense of unity without self. The re-experience is triggered by a similar experience to make the memory of the happy original peak experience even happier. In PPEF, the re-experience of peak experience enforces the active participation and the confidence in social-life enhancer. The memories of many experiences of normal social-life pleasure response can also enforce the active participation and the confidence in social-life enhancer. Society rewards enhancer as virtue, and punishes stressor as sin. The collectivistic society rewards collectivistic relation, and punishes injustice and disconnection as sins. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement as virtue, and punishes repression and disorganization as sins. The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes enlargement and estrangement as sins. As soon as a specific social life is established by the combination of memory and social enforcement, the faith in the social life can continue the enforcement even without the successful social life. Since social life enhanced by enhancer is often interrupted, the faith in a specific social life is important to continue the social life.

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Part 2: Human Social History

In Part 2, human social history includes the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. In Chapter 5, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period in Chapter 6 starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In Chapter 7, in the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the examples of the collectivistic and individualistic materialistic societies were the communist society and the capitalist society, respectively. The modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches (collectivistic, individualistic, harmonious) of human society, resulting in the Modern Unified Society, such as America.

Human Social History
the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Neolithic Revolution
the Early Society

the individualistic society: the individualistic state + the state individualism

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic state + the state religion

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Modern Revolution the Modern Unified Society the collectivistic society: the collectivistic party + the partisan socialism the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism the harmonious society the harmonious religion

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5. The Prehistoric Period
5.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society
Enhancer Harmonious Society harmonious cooperation stressor (sin) estrangement enlargement Stress response alienation

In the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society, the social-life enhancer that enhances social life is harmonious cooperation. The social-life stressors that disrupt social life are estrangement and enlargement. The actions of estrangement are estrangement and enlargement sins that cause the stress response as alienation. The harmonious society rewards harmonious cooperation as virtue, and punishes estrangement and enlargement as sins. The prefrontal cortex for the harmonious social life controls the old social lives: the collectivistic and the individualistic social lives, so collectivistic relation to separate friends and outsiders and individualistic achievement to look down underachiever are minimized to maximize harmonious cooperation. The prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximized eager for the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, social connection through the harmonious human relation instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The harmonious hunter-gatherer society as maximum eager cooperation without lie is egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”44. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social group. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age), while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden45. The harmonious social life is the origin of the uniquely human social life. The harmonious prehistoric society was based on the conscience instinct without external

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artificial rules, identities, and desires for wealth. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, the harmonious social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The harmonious social life is based on conscience for all people as described by Paul in the Bible. Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them. (Romans 2:14-15) The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5) For Zen Buddhism, the harmonious social life as the original human social life is the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature. As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saintemperors). The imitation of the prehistoric harmonious society was described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) For Laozi, there are two different ways, the Way (Dao) and the civilized way. The Way was practiced by the prehistoric harmonious society based on the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct. The civilized way is practiced by the civilized society based on the non-harmonious lives with external artificial rules, identities (names), and desires for wealth. The two different ways are described in the first chapter of Dao De Jing. The way can be spoken of is not the constant Way; the name can be named is not the constant Name. The nameless is the beginning of all things; the name is the mother of all things. Therefore, the one without constant desire will perceive its

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subtleties; the one with constant desire will perceive its boundaries. These two are the same in source but different in name. Both of them are called the mystery. It is the mystery of mysteries. It is the gateway to all subtleties. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 1) In the Chapter I of Dao De Jing, the Way (the harmonious social life) includes the constant Way, the constant Name, the nameless, and the one without constant desire. The civilized way (the non-harmonious social lives) includes the way, the name, the name, and the one with constant desire. The Way and the civilized way come from the same source in the mysterious and subtle human mind. 5.2. The Prehistoric Religious Harmonious Society For about 160,000 years, the livestyle as the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society society remained mostly unchanged until the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution about 40,000 years ago. The major human social life during this period was the harmonious social life. The natural biological instincts were adequate for the human survival. Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper Paleolithic Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and cultural changes occurred. The revolution comprised new religions, technologies, hunting techniques, human burials, and artistic work. The Upper Paleolithic period extended from about 40,000 to between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period that encompasses a number of sudden global temperature drops, meaning a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last ice age. A number of sudden temperature drops reduced significantly the area for forest in Europe and Asia. The reduction of forest reduced the food supply, usable timber, and other nonfood materials. The same climate change caused the extinction of Neanderthals, who had survived since 200,000 years ago, and had similar intelligence as Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens faced the same fate of extinction as Neanderthals. One distinct difference between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the appearance of the new Homo sapiens’ religion, which saved Homo sapiens from extinction. At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural was immanent supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in the world. Anything unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society was democratic and egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped. Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent before the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The symbols for the immanent supernatural were typically the exaggerated and distorted representation of the real natural objects to represent the unexplained and unusual characteristics of the immanent supernatural, so the symbols represented partly the natural and partly the supernatural. (Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a specific feature of a real object.) Such symbols brought the immanent supernatural to help people. They did not worship such symbols, because there was no concept of worshipping anything authoritative.

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During the harsh time in the Upper Paleolithic Period, the social group that was preoccupied with fertility and vitality for women and men, respectively, and had strong faith in the immanent supernatural had better chance to survive the harsh environment. The common symbols of the immanent supernatural for fertility were the exaggerated and distorted female figurines. In most cases, the female figurines are miniature sculptures of well-rounded female nudes with an overemphasis of the fleshy parts of the body (buttocks, stomach and chest). The sexual accent on the female breasts and the posterior are assumed by many to connote signs of fertility. The head and arms are mostly absent with the stress on the middle of the torso. Thighs tend to be exaggerated tapering into smaller legs. The head has no face. These distorted and exaggerate form of female body represents the immanent supernatural in a natural female body. These religious female figurines were valuable bringing the immanent supernatural to help fertility in the sense of bringing good luck to child birth. Another group of religious symbols is the cave paints for the immanent supernatural to achieve vitality. During the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the harsh environment prompted people to find alternate mental states to revitalize. The alternate mental states involved hallucinatory or trance states by drugs or repetitive rhyme. The belief in the immanent supernatural within a person made the entrance into the alternate state easy and inevitable. The whole process was manifested in the Paleolithic cave paintings as described by David Lewis-Williams46. In the cave paints, the animals were mystic large strong animals or mystic animals with horns that symbolized maturation and strength. The mystic animal pictures were conceived during the trance states. The mystic powerful animal cave paintings were presented as evidence of spirit journeys previously undertaken. The difference in the religious practice during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the increasingly shared religious symbols for the immanent supernatural among different social groups. The enormous distribution of these female figurines implied a ritualistic exchange system with the figurines playing a central role in inter-group relations 47 . Practicing alternate states of the mind also became community rituals among different social groups, often led by shaman inside or outside of caves. The practicing of the alternate state of mind together promoted unity among different social groups. The sharing of the religious symbols brought about the sharing of survival information and resource among different social groups. The sharing could actually improve the fertility and vitality of the groups involved, resulting in the validation of the power of the religious symbols. The result was the rise of the female figurine and cave painting religion. People spent much more energy and time to develop and make such religious symbols for the immanent supernatural, resulting in rapid development and spread in religious art and the involved skills. In terms of theology, when human faced the possibility of extinction in the harsh environment, the supernatural initiated the supernatural miracle by using the religious symbols for fertility and vitality in the forms of female figurines and cave paintings, respectively. Through sharing religious symbols among different social groups by the hyper bond instinct, the religious symbols were blessed by the supernatural with the supernatural miracles. The religious symbols really worked miraculously. Different social groups identified with the common religious symbols, forming the social bond. The religious symbols become the abstract bond outside of the natural mind that relies on

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actual concrete human interaction. In other words, the religious symbols instantly evoke social bond without actual concrete human interaction. This abstract bond is revealed through the supernatural miracle. Bounded by the blessed religious symbols, different social groups worked together to overcome the harsh environment, avoiding extinction. After providing the way for the abstract bond among different social groups to avoid extinction, the supernatural miracle became increasingly unnecessary. Neanderthals never conceived of an "alternate reality”. From the perspective of Neanderthals, Homo sapiens were delusional to believe in the religious symbols of the immanent supernatural. Without bonding different social groups to overcome the harsh environment, Neanderthals became extinct in about 20,000 BC when female figurines and cave painting were popular. The society with the abstract bond is the unified prehistoric harmonious society. 5.3. The Exit from the Harmonious Society The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated animals as the main food source. The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticulturalpastoral society48. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks. Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural peoples. Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe. The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals. These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the weather changes. The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomad society. Plowing maintained the fertility of

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the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community. Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food, but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was severe in the agricultural society. Civilization was an irreversible process, because the large population caused by civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agricultural-nomad society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the hunter-gatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomad society was actually shorter than in the hunter-gatherer society. Because one of the rules for TIT FOR TAT is the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3, the large size social group does not allow TIT FOR TAT strategy for the harmonious society. TIT FOR TAT is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original harmonious society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomad society is warfare. Cultural anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly 49 believes that warfare originated very late in human evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago. Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the harmonious society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. The deviation from the human innate goodness of the prehistoric harmonious society has been described by various religions. In the Bible, the deviation represents the exit from the Garden of Eden. In the Bible, the Garden of Eden symbolizes the harmonious

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society. The forbidden fruit symbolizes civilization. The eating of the forbidden fruit by Adam and Eve resulted in the death, as commanded by God, “…but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die (Genesis 2:7). “For as in Adam, all die.” (1 Corinthians 15:22)”. “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23).” The deviation represents the spiritual death after civilization. For Daoism, the emergence of the civilized society is the deviation from the Great Way in the harmonious society in the prehistoric time. Therefore, when the Great Way is rejected, it is then that we have the virtues of humanity and righteousness. When knowledge and wisdom appear, it is then that there is great hypocrisy. When the six relations are not in harmony, it is then that we have filial piety and compassion. When the country is in chaos and confusion, it is then that there are virtuous officials. (Chapter 18, Dao Te Jing) Daoism considers humans were corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated, The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury, and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.50 In prehistoric past, all was in harmonious cooperation and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disrupted. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.51

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It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. Zen Buddhism, particularly the Sixth Patriarch who was illiterate, believes in human original nature much more than in symbols and rules as in civilization. To Zen Buddhism, the reliance in symbols and rules rather than human original nature is a deviation. To Zen Buddhism, even the symbol of Buddha can be a deviation.

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6. The Early Period
The harmonious society was evolved to adapt to small social group. The prehistoric society whose basic social unit was small social group was the harmonious society until the emergence of civilization that required large social group. The civilized society was completely dominated by the collectivistic society (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Islam, and socialism) and the individualistic society (Greek individualism and capitalism) that allow estrangement sin. The harmonious society (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity) revived later as humans had propensity for the harmonious social life. The return to the harmonious social life requires the conversion to the harmonious social life that involves the threestage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The conversions to the collectivistic and the individualistic social lives involve the corresponding three-stage conversions. 6.1. The Collectivistic Society
Enhancer Collectivistic Society collectivistic relation Stressor (sin) disconnection injustice Stress response despair paranoid

In the collectivistic society, the social-life enhancer that enhances social life is collectivistic relation. Social-life stressors are disconnection and injustice. The actions of disconnection and injustice are disconnection and injustice sins that cause the stress responses of despair and paranoid. The collectivistic society rewards collectivistic relation, and punishes disconnection and injustice. In the collectivistic dominant society, individualistic achievement to look down underachiever and harmonious cooperation for a small social group are minimized to maximize collectivistic relation. The collectivistic society includes the moral religions and socialism. The collectivistic religions include Hinduism, Confucianism, Judaism, and Islam. Collectivistic relation is expressed as the moral code for the wellbeing of all people in a religion. Socialism has the centralized economic plan for the wellbeing of all people in a socialistic society. The moral code in the collectivistic religions prevents injustice. The supernatural authority rules over all human rulers with morality. The supernatural authority becomes the “High Ruler”. Theologically, the supernatural provides the abstract morality in the collectivistic religions through the supernatural miracle. Judaism and Islam believe in one personal God or Allah, while Confucianism believes in one impersonal God (Heaven (Tian) or High Ruler (Shang-di)). Hinduism is polymorphic monotheism where one God assumes many forms. A typical example of the moral code is the Ten Commandments from Exodus 20, 1. You shall have no other gods before me. 2. You shall not make for yourself an idol. 3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God.

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4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. 5. Honor your father and mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor. The first four commandments are to accept the Lord as the supernatural authority. The fifth commandment is to accept parents as the earthly authority. The rest of the commandments are for the prevention of injustice. God is powerful, benevolent, and righteous as a shepherd to a flock of sheep. The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. (Psalm 23) In the Old Testament, the Garden of Eden represents the harmonious social life. God of Israel represents the collectivistic social life. The devil and the sinners represent the individualistic social life where people are free to worship different gods and practice injustice. In China, the prevalent and official version of God is one impersonal God with the interchangeable names of the Heaven and the High Ruler. The worship of the Heaven by emperors took place in the Temple of Heaven. The current Temple of Heaven was built in 1420 A.D. According to historical records, such formal worship of the Heaven can be traced back to 2000 BC. The emperors built the Temple of Heaven that demanded the highest level of skills and the perfection in the art of construction. During the worship, emperors knelled down before the Heaven like every one else. The first three Dynasties (the Xia, Shang, and Zhou) all arose in the north in the second millennium BC. The founders of Zhou believed that the Shang dynasty has lost the mandate because of its gross ritual and moral failings. They received the mandate from Heaven to rule China because of their virtue, consisting of kindness, humbleness, and just. The founders of Zhou accepted the high ruler for the abstract morality of morality. Confucius was born around 551 BC in China. The Zhou dynasty had been in power for 600 years, and was to persist until 253 BC, but the Zhou king had not been able to rule the whole China for the last 200 years. Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The wars among nobilities destroyed the framework of virtue established in early Zhou. Confucius devised a moral system for common people to claim the legitimacy of the mandate from Heaven. A person who knows the will of Heaven becomes a superior man.

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The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.” Analects XX: 3: 1 Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages. “ Analects XVI: 8.1 When Confucius was in danger being killed by Huan Tui, The Master said, 'Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. What can Huan Tui do to me?' (Analects VII: 22) For Confucius, the virtue of Heaven in him formed a mysterious protection over him. When Confucius was sick, one of his students wanted to pray for him. The Master said, 'My praying has been for a long time.' (Analects VII: 34) By following the will of Heaven, Confucius was in continuous contact with Heaven in a form of prayer. The Confucius’ teaching is about mostly how to establish human relations among various people. The end result is the rational moral civilized society. At the high end, the high ruler serves as the abstract morality for morality. At the low end, family serves as the natural small group for love and diligence. The whole civilized society aligns with the line connecting the two ends. Confucius described the concept of extension. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy. (Great Learning) Such system is particularly suitable for the agricultural society where family is the basic production unit. Confucianism prevailed as the main social system in the agricultural China without any serious opposition and interruption. The enforcement of collectivistic relation comes from instinct, social enforcement, and faith as the combination of instinct and social enforcement. Collectivistic relation and injustice cause instinctively pleasure response and paranoid stress response, respectively. The collectivistic society rewards collectivistic relation, and punishes injustice. As soon as the faith in collectivistic relation is established by the combination of instinct and social enforcement, the faith in collectivistic relation can continue even without instinct and social enforcement. Since the social life enhanced by collectivistic relation is often interrupted, the faith in collectivistic relation is important to continue the pursuit of collectivistic relation. For example, for Judaism, when Israelites suffered from injustice sin from the invaders, the prophets told Israelites that the reason for such suffering was due to failure to follow

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the moral code as the God’s law. A righteous savior would come to save them from suffering by following the God’s law. Typically, in the civilized society before the modern period, human society had the complete enhancer of one social life that caused the suffering and sin of another social life. The complete collectivistic life in terms of wanting wellbeing for all people in all conditions brings about repression sin and unfulfillment as an individual cannot fully develop one’s potential under complete collectivistic life. The cessation of injustice sin and paranoid is to return to collectivistic relation. The complete collectivistic life requires the end of the individualistic social life to have the complete cessation of injustice sin and paranoid. To have complete justice for equality, the collectivistic society with complete collectivistic life disallows freedom for individualistic achievement. 6.2. The Individualistic Society
Adaptation Individualistic Society individualistic achievement Stressor (sin) disorganization repression Stress response anxiety unfulfillment

In the individualistic society, the social-life enhancer that enhances social life is individualistic achievement. Social-life stressors as sins are disorganization and repression. The stress responses as the responses to disorganization and repression are humiliation and unfulfillment. The individualistic society rewards individualistic achievement, and punishes disorganization and repression. In the individualistic dominant society, collectivistic relation to restrict individualistic achievement and harmonious cooperation to disregard the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement are minimized to maximize individualistic achievement. The individualistic society includes Greek individualism and capitalism. In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. It prevented the formation of the collectivistic society over all communities, resulting in the tight individualistic society in many separated states in Greece. Furthermore, the tight individualistic society with competitive hierarchy could acquire great wealth for the costal cities from trades. In the tight individualistic society, the active intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group. This individualistic society developed state individualism. Greek individualism allowed individuals to understand rationally the physical universe, unrelated to human relations at all. It permitted individuals to have self-reliance to question all traditional religions and human authorities. Individual achievement rather than collectivistic relation became the primary concern.

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The two distinctive features in Greek culture are Greek mythology and science. Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not the main concern. Science involves essentially the individualistic intellectual achievement. It involves no human relation for collectivistic relation. The main pursuit of science is to find the most beautiful and perfect methods and natural laws, which do not involve any practical usage for human. The individualistic society has the merit hierarchy based on individualistic achievement. Before the modern time, the merit hierarchy could be inherited based on the individualistic achievements of ancestors. Greek mythology involves essentially the individualistic supernatural achievement. All gods engage in the competition of individualistic achievement. The high honor is to be a high heroic achiever to overcome all obstacles and become an immortal. Morality is not the main concern. The individualistic civilized society, the complete individualistic life requires the end of the collectivistic social life to have the complete cessation of repression sin and unfulfillment. To have complete freedom for individualistic achievement, the individualistic society with complete individualistic life disallows justice for equality. 6.3. The Revival of the Harmonious Society 6.3.1. The Reasons for the Revival For about ten thousand years after the Neolithic Revolution, the two-branch civilized society consisting of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society dominated the civilized society. The revival harmonious societies including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity were found by Laozi, Buddha, and Jesus, respectively. The five reasons for the revival of the harmonious society are the propensity for harmonious cooperation as a part of human social lives, the futility of the existing enhancer in the chaotic society, the affluence of society to allow the existence of the dependent harmonious society as a small social group, the miraculous supernatural selection to reveal complete harmonious life, and the examples of the founders to choose complete harmonious life. The Propensity for Harmonious Cooperation The harmonious social life based on the conscience instinct exists only in humans. The human propensity for harmonious cooperation is strong. As mentioned earlier, the genetic psychological reinforcement of the harmonious social life is achieved by both the positive good feeling in practicing the harmonious social life and the negative bad feeling in violating conscience for the harmonious social life. For the detective instinct in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. For hyper bond in conscience, the automatic emergence of miserable feeling in loneliness steers people toward harmonious social connection. Psychologist John Cacippo finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Loneliness as stress response is harmful to mental and physical health. The Futility of the Existing Enhancer

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The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the chaotic society. In the chaotic society, the existing enhancer as collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement could not last long in the frequent and brutal conflicts. It often was futile to pursue the existing enhancer in the chaotic society. Laozi was born in a chaotic period in China. The king of China could no longer rule the whole country. His power could not reach beyond the small territory where he lived. Without a centralized power, feudal states engaged in frequent and devastating wars among themselves. The feudal states themselves were not stable. The successions of feudal lords were often difficult and bloody. The nobilities under the feudal lords often had great power, overshadowed the feudal lords, and sometimes overthrew the feudal lords. The disposed aristocrats and bureaucrats became common people. The distinction between fortune and misfortune became blurry. Laozi wrote Misfortune is what fortune depends upon Fortune is where misfortune hides beneath Who knows their ultimate end? They have no determined outcome. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 58) Buddha also lived in a chaotic period in India. The ancient Vedic aristocracy decayed. This situation was expressed by a king in the Upanishads: The great kings and heroes of the past have abandoned their glory and passed to the next world ... The oceans dry up, the mountain-tops fall, the Pole star trembles, the stars are loosened, the earth founders, the gods leave their stations. Jesus lived in the society with confusing enhancer. The individualistic enhancer (individualistic achievement) from the individualistic Roman society collided with the collectivistic enhancer (collectivistic relation) from the collectivistic Jewish society. The Roman society had a high degree of religious freedom, but had little social justice for equality. The Jewish society had a high degree of social justice for equality, but had little religious freedom. The faiths in the collectivistic enhancer and the individualistic enhancer were weakened by the futility of existing enhancer in the chaotic society. People started to look for another faith in another way of social life. The Affluence of Society The civilized society is a necessarily large social group to support the complexity of civilization. The harmonious society is a necessarily small social group to support the harmonious cooperation, but such small social group cannot support civilization. The harmonious society as a small social group cannot exist independently in the civilized society. However, when the civilized society is affluent enough, the affluence of the civilized can support the harmonious society as a small dependent social group, such as small isolated social group in monastery. Many small social groups can be connected into a large social group, but the basic unit is small social group without the capability and the claim to support civilization. The founders of the revived harmonious society lived in the society that had the affluence to support dependent small social group. At the beginning of Buddha’s quest of

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the truth, Buddha became a monk in a small social group outside of mainstream society. At the beginning of Jesus’ mission, Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist who had a small social group outside of mainstream society. The Miraculous Supernatural Selection In natural selection in the biological evolution, enhancer enhances biological survival. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. In the non-harmonious world, the abstract rebirth into the harmonious social life was revealed through the supernatural miracle to the founders of the revived harmonious society. The Examples of the Founders The complete enhancer of one social life causes the stress responses of sins of other two social lives. Individuals who choose the complete enhancer of one social life must accept the stress responses of other two social lives, because the pleasure response of the chosen enhancer is much greater than the stress responses of the other two social lives. The complete enhancer of one social life requires the end of the other two social lives to have the complete cessation of the stress response and sin of the chosen social life. To achieve complete harmonious life, the founders refused to differentiate insiders and outsiders in collectivistic relation, and to separate achievers and underachievers in individualistic achievement. They identified with outsiders and underachievers, and accepted the stress responses of paranoid and unfulfillment. According to the Shiji (Records of the Historian) by the Han dynasty court historian Sima Qian, Laozi gave up the normal comfortable civilized life as the symbol of individualistic achievement, and ventured west to become an outsider. At the western gate of the kingdom, he was recognized by a guard. The sentry asked Laozi to produce a record of his wisdom. This is the legendary origin of the Dao De Jing. Laozi lived as a hermit in the unsettled frontier. Buddha gave up the throne (the symbol of individualistic achievement and collectivistic relation) for the harmonious life in the monastery. Jesus allowed the ultimate stress response, the total rejection by both the individualistic society and the collectivistic society. They set the examples for choosing the social pleasure response of harmonious cooperation and the social-life stress responses of paranoid and unfulfillment. 6.3.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life The civilized society is dominated by the non-harmonious evolutionary societies (the collectivistic and the individualistic societies) that support civilization. Essentially, every civilized human grows up predominately for the non-harmonious fitness (collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement). The collectivistic social life represents collectivistic relation for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life

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that was derived from the unique human evolution to lower conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social life is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. The basic life contains survival and reproduction. Both collectivistic and individualistic social lives deal with the basic life of survival and reproduction directly. The harmonious social life that lowers the conflicts in social interactions does not deal with the basic life directly. The drive of life is the drive for perfect eternal life. In reality, life is imperfect and temporary. Such futile drive for impossible perfect survival and reproduction causes suffering. Since the futile drive for impossible perfect survival and reproduction comes directly from the individualistic and collectivistic social lives, the best way to minimize the suffering from the futile drive is to convert to the harmonious social life that is active in reducing the conflicts in the individualistic and collectivistic social lives rather than in pursuit of perfect survival and reproduction. The conversion to the harmonious social life involves the three-stage conversion: the harmonious relationship, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The most suitable identity for the harmonious relationship is the kingdom of God from Christianity. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) The kingdom of God requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social life. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the kingdom of God is “justification” (to make just). The most suitable identity for the harmonious mind is the fourfold harmonious mind from Buddhism. The harmonious mind is achieved by practicing meditation diligently. The last advice and words from Buddha is “All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha).” The harmonious mind also requires the “self-ending” of the non-harmonious social lives and the “rebirth” into the harmonious social mind. In the Christian terminology, the rebirth into the harmonious mind is “sanctification” (to make sacred). The most suitable identity for the harmonious adaptation to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is water from Daoism. To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world is like the adaptation of water to its environment. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the place that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) The three-stage conversion constitutes the seven-step conversion is as follows. The Seven-Step Conversion: The harmonious relationship: justification 1. the harmonious relationship identity: the kingdom of God

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2. the self-ending 3. the rebirth The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter the kingdom of God requires the self-ending of the non-harmonious social lives, which can cause disharmony. The self-ending involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from disharmony sin. The rebirth into the harmonious society is through the acceptance of the salvation by Jesus whose forgiveness of disharmony sin allows the repentant person to have complete harmonious life. The harmonious mind: sanctification 4. the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind) 5. the self-ending 6. the rebirth The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious social lives into the harmonious social life. The meditation through the fourfold harmonious mind produces the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the nonharmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness as the harmonious social life. The harmonious adaptation: adaptation: 7. the harmonious adaptation identity: water The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world (non-harmonious civilization) is non-competitive water. The Seven-Step Conversion: the harmonious relationship: justification Step 1: the harmonious relationship identity The harmonious relationship identity that Jesus provides is the kingdom of God. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth. In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this world as the civilized society. Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36)

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To Jesus, the kingdom of God is not political, and the state of the Roman Emperor was separated from the kingdom of God, as described by Jesus. Then he said to them, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what is God's." (Matthew 22:21) The kingdom of God is within a person as the harmonious social life. Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21) According to Jesus, the kingdom of God does not belong to the kingdom of civilization as described in the parable of mustard seed and bush. Again he said, "What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest seed you plant in the ground. Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds of the air can perch in its shade." (Mark 4:30-32) The kingdom of God starts small like a mustard seed, and it becomes a modest mustard bush. According to the rabbinical law, a mustard plant was forbidden in a household garden because it was fast spreading and would tend to invade the veggies. Mustard is a common, fast-spreading plant, which grows to about four feet in height. Garden symbolizes artificial civilization, while mustard represents a plant unlike the normal plants in the artificial civilized garden. The kingdom of God as the kingdom of mustard bush is small and ubiquitous unlike normal civilized plants, but the kingdom of God grows in the civilized garden. The kingdom of God consists of small groups of people. "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom. (Luke 12:32) The civilized society has the propensity to accumulate. The kingdom of God as the harmonious society does not have the propensity to accumulate. Jesus looked at him and said, "How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!” (Luke 18:24) Looking at his disciples, he said: "Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. (Luke 6:20) But Jesus called the children to him and said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. (Luke 18:16)

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Therefore, the kingdom of God consists of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike the kingdom of civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The kingdom of God corresponds to the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society consisting of ubiquitous small groups of people unlike civilization and without accumulation and grandiosity. The small group of people led by Jesus followed Jesus’ command. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) With love from God, the kingdom of God is harmonious as in the prehistoric kingdom of God. Finally, the people in the kingdom of God follow the will of God as Jesus said, "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. (Matthew 7:21) The will of God is the harmonious society. The same aspiration to return to the prehistoric harmonious society is expressed in Daoism. In Daoism, the harmonious relationship identity is the “small state”. Laozi describes the small group society as following. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) This small state has no ambition to become big and grandiose. The people are plain and content. Step 2: the self-ending The complete harmonious life requires the end of the non-harmonious social lives to have the complete cessation of disharmony sin and disconnection. The end of the nonharmonious social lives involves first the confession of disharmony sin and then the repentance from the disharmonious sin. Disharmony sin is defined as disharmony against fellow humans as described by Paul in Romans 1:29-32. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things

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deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. (Romans 1:29-32) It is impossible for civilized individuals under the domination of the non-harmonious social lives to avoid all disharmony sins described by Paul. It is not surprising that all civilized humans are not righteous. There is no one righteous, not even one. (Romans 3:10) For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) The confession of disharmony sin is followed by the repentance from disharmony sin. According to Jesus, "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!" (Mark 1:15) Also, according to Peter, Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, (Acts 3:19) Step 3: the rebirth The rebirth into the harmonious relationship requires complete harmonious life. Because of disharmony sin, humans cannot achieve complete harmonious life. Through the salvation by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross, disharmony sin can be forgiven. The repentant people who accept the salvation can claim complete harmonious life for the rebirth into the harmonious society. The acceptance of Jesus is the end of self. I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. (Galatians 2:20a) An individual accepts the salvation to become just (righteous) as complete harmonious life which allows the rebirth with Jesus into the harmonious society, the God’s family. “This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. (Romans 3:22)”. “That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10:9)”. “Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household. (Ephesians 2:19)” “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, one is a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come! (2 Corinthians 5:17).” Jesus represents “the last Adam, a life-giving spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45)” to bring back the original harmonious society of the Garden of Eden. Jesus found the new covenant. For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (Hebrews 9:15)

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It is a tremendous life-changing experience to liberate from disharmony sin and disconnection, and to enter into the warm, loving, and egalitarian harmonious society, which is build by Jesus to fill with love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) According to Paul, Christians in the church are interconnected as the body of Christ as he stated,” Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. (1 Corinthians 12:27)” In terms of organization, the church in small group unit is essentially similar to the pre-historic hunter-gatherer harmonious society. the harmonious mind: sanctification: Step 4: the harmonious mind identity: the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind) for sanctification The starting of sanctification as the rebirth into the harmonious social mind is justification as the rebirth into the harmonious relationship. The harmonious mind (social life) identity is the fourfold harmonious mind, consisting of the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind, and the no-self mind to transform from the non-harmonious mind into the harmonious mind. They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, loving-kindness, and emptiness, respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience instinct.
Fourfold harmonious mind Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness mind Love Loving-kindness no-self perishable flesh Emptiness

Faith Wisdom right right mindfulness concentration prefrontal cortex control non-conscience instincts stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and emotional stability integrity and objectivity

Hyper friendly detective instinct instinct enhance conscience instinct hyper friendly = love detection of the and kindness no-self

As mentioned before, the evolution of the conscience instinct required the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-harmonious social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections

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between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. A neurological principle in sanctification is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex in sanctification is the increased thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the longterm meditation practice of Buddhist monks52. the calm mind: right concentration The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path (right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, and right mindfulness). The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of the person who prays. The personal harmonious cooperation within the mind establishes the calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer53 to center at a sacred word. The faith in harmonious cooperation with God during prayer allows calm and objective perception. During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly, these beneficial changes become relatively permanent. The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention, with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal cortex 54 , lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through the prefrontal cortex.

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One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. the clear mind: right mindfulness The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the harmonious cooperation among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and nonjudgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step. The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely because of the personal harmonious cooperation with the Spirit. Guided by the spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self, as Paul states. In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will. (Romans 8:26-27) The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective perception. The study by Matthew D. Lieberman 55 showed that while the emotion part (amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can

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lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open) meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud sounds56. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way, not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. the loving-kindness mind: Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist nonreferential compassion meditation 57 ) or prayer. Typical sacred verses for the lovingkindness mind from Christianity are For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16) Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8) For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love). Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours. Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity. As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now. the no-self mind: The no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is basically derived from the non-existence of non-harmonious autobiographic self with respect to the harmonious social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization. The realization of the no-self as no non-harmonious autobiographic self is derived from the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious autobiographic self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious autobiographic self along with the questionable non-harmonious autobiographic self is in the right brain. The

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prefrontal cortex chooses the no non-harmonious autobiographic self to represent the non-harmonious autobiographic self. For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering self to God for the salvation. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self. Step 5: the self-ending Nirvana For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life. To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the non-harmonious autobiographic self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the non-harmonious social life and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather a fixed point. For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul in the Bible, all things are rubbish. What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8) For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha) To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all

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things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie. The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of self. The emotion, due to autobiographic self, loses its emotional impact as if the emotional memory of the self-identity fades away. Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew Newberg 58 . When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a meditator is the self-ending of autobiographic self. Thus, the self-ending of autobiographic self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end or minimize the non-harmonious autobiographic self. Step 6: the rebirth: the Bodhisattva Way Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than the non-harmonious social lives. The result of sanctification is the harmonious social life with maximum tranquility and contentment. After sanctification, a person with the harmonious social life and compassion in the harmonious society and in the world is described by Paul in the Bible. Love must be sincere. Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the Lord. Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with God's people who are in need. Practice hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. (Romans 12:9-18)

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The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Step 7: the harmonious adaptation: adaptation
The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

The world as non-harmonious civilization consists of the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. Both societies work well and consistently as large social groups in the world. There is a competition between these two societies to determine the most suitable dominant society for civilization. The harmonious society, however, does not work well and consistently as a large social group to support civilization. The harmonious society is simply not a suitable dominant society for the world, so realistically there should not be competition between the harmonious society and the world. The harmonious adaptation identity of the harmonious social life to the world is non-competitive water from Daoism. The best are like water. Water benefits all things and does not compete with them. It flows to the place that people disdain. In this it comes near to the Way. In their dwellings, they love the earth. In their hearts, they love what is profound. In their friendship, they love humanity. In their words, they love sincerity. In government, they love good order. In business, they love ability. In their actions, they love timeliness. It is because they do not compete that there is no resentment. (Dao De Jing Chapter 8) To Laozi, the adaptation of the harmonious social life to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The harmonious social life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a place for the harmonious social life that is different from the social lives of the world. Therefore, the harmonious social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world dislikes. The motivation for the harmonious society to exist is mutual empathy and empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place, thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing harmonious society. Without competing with the world, the harmonious society as Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world. Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft and yielding. Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person

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knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78) For Daoism, a leader of the Way accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the nation. For Christianity, the symbol of the humiliation and the misfortunes is the cross, and paradoxically, through the cross Jesus reaches priesthood and kinghood. The harmonious adaptation identity of the kingdom of God to the world is the cross that accepts the humiliation and the misfortunes of the world rather than the domination of the world. In the way, paradoxically, the kingdom of God as the harmonious society survives and thrives in the world. The summary of the seven-step conversion to the harmonious social life is as below. The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life
Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of the suffering of disconnection (loneliness) and the atonement of the sin of disharmony The Harmonious Relationship: Justification 禅宗 (Zen Buddhism) Christianity The harmonious relationship identity The kingdom of God The self-ending The rebirth into the harmonious relationship The Harmonious Mind: Sanctification 和谐四心 The harmonious mind identity 镇定心, 清晰心, 仁慈心, 无我心 the fourfold harmonious mind (正定 right concentration, 正念 right mindfulness, 仁慈 the calm mind, the clear mind, the lovingkindness mind, the no-self mind (faith, wisdom, loving-kindness, 无 emptiness) love, and perishable flesh) 灭我 the self-ending 一刹那间妄念俱灭 the non-harmonious autobiographic self-ending 重生 the rebirth into the harmonious social mind
顿见真如本性

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

The Harmonious Adaptation: Adaptation Daoism Christianity The harmonious adaptation identity The harmonious adaptation identity The cross Water

6.4. The Conversion of the Non-Harmonious Social Lives Some people in different social situations and different ages have to undergo the conversions to different social lives. The conversion to the harmonious social life was described. The conversions of the non-harmonious social lives will be described. 6.4.1. The Conversion to the Collectivistic Social Life The typical causes for the conversion to the collectivistic social life are the reduction of the suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice. The

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conversion to the collectivistic social life involves the three-stage conversion: the collectivistic relationship, the collectivistic mind, and the collectivistic adaptation. 1. the collectivistic relationship: the collectivistic society In the first stage, the collectivistic relationship is obtained by joining the collectivistic society, including the socialistic society, the moral religions (Judaism, Islam, Confucianism, and Hinduism), and people-oriented work. The goal of the socialistic society and the moral religions is collectivistic relation. People-oriented work relates to also collectivistic relation. The collectivistic relationship is the group-oriented relationship for collectivistic relation of social group. Within a nuclear family group, there are husband-wife, fatherchild, mother-child, and sibling-sibling relationships for collectivistic relation of a family. Within a religious group, there are God-believers and believer-believer relationships. It is not a person-to-person relationship without a social group. Different kinds of love extend to the inside of and the outside of social group. 2. the collectivistic mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind and the nurturing mind The joining of the collectivistic society provides the start of the conversion to the collectivistic social life. The next step is the development of the collectivistic mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for collectivistic relation, the bold mind for collectivistic relation, the bonding mind, and the nurturing mind.
Fourfold collectivistic mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind prefrontal cortex concentrate in collectivistic relation high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety bonding Nurturing mind mind bonding nurturing instinct instinct enhance collectivistic instinct bonding mind nurturing

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for collectivistic relation concentrates instincts and emotions in collectivistic relation. Because of the inevitable conflicts in social groups, the drive for collectivistic relation inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. For Judaism, the intense mind and the bold mind come from God’s power as described in Psalm 23. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod

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and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. (Psalm 23) It is a poem to describe high tolerance of stress and anxiety in a stressful and unpredictable society. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences, learning, determination, hard work, diligence, and perseverance. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collectivistic relation. The intense mind and the bold mind are the opposites of the calm mind and the clear mind, respectively, in the conversion to the harmonious social life. The intense mind allows and tolerates stress, while the calm mind prefers calmness and reduces stress. The clear mind prefers clearness (mindfulness) and reduces anxiety, while the bold mind allows unclearness (unpredictability) and tolerates anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind perceives and tolerates the stress in the presence of enemies, and the bold mind perceives and tolerates the anxiety in the valley of the shadow of death. The calm mind perceives enemies not as threat, and feels no stress. Jesus said, “But I tell you: Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you” (Matthew 5:44). During the meditation for the calm mind, the focus is calmness without stress. The clear mind perceives death not as uncertainty, and feels no anxiety. Jesus said, “"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16). During the meditation for the clear mind, the mindfulness of the present does not perceive uncertainty that leads to anxiety. In Psalm 23, the intense mind and the bold mind need goodness and love to overcome and tolerate stress and anxiety. The calm mind and the clear mind feel content and peaceful without constant need for goodness and love. the bonding mind As mentioned before, the collectivistic instincts include the bonding instinct to bond with other human and the nurturing instinct to nurture the love ones. The bonding mind and the nurturing mind come from the bonding instinct and the nurturing instinct. The bonding mind is for group-oriented bonding for collectivistic relation. The bonding mind is to bond the members of a social group to achieve collectivistic adhesion. Within collectivistic adhesion, there are different bonds among members of a social group, such as parent-child, sibling-sibling, and husband-wife. For each bond, such as parent-child, each person has proper social role in terms of love, authority, and responsibility for collectivistic adhesion. Proper social role is reinforced externally by proper social manner, including proper dress, grooming, language, and salutation for each social role. Proper social role and proper social manner are the foundations for the bonding mind in a large society. The stable bonds in a large social group are based on healthy instinctive bonds in a small natural functional social group, such as the instinctive bond between people and God and the instinctive bonds among family members. For Confucianism, the bonding mind is trained first in a small natural social group, such as extended family. A person first has to practice the proper social role and ritualistic proper social manner in a family all the time with proper love, authority, responsibility, dress, grooming, language, and

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salutation. With the proper social role and proper social manner, a person is reminded constantly that one is bonded to a family. This proper social role and proper social manner in a family are extended to a large society, so all people are reminded constantly that they are bonded to a large society regardless of individualistic achievement. When a large society becomes dysfunctional, it is duty of people to reestablish the functional society where people again can practice proper social roles and social manners in the large functional society. the nurturing mind The nurturing mind is the attitude of the leaders and the elders toward the followers and the youngsters of the collectivistic society. The nurturing mind is benevolent based on the parental instinct. In organizations, the nurturing mind results in benevolent leadership style. The benevolent leaders believes that all their employees should be guided and treated with benevolence and wisdom like parents treats their children Benevolent leaders listen to, coach, and mentor their employees to support their growth, development, and goals and to align their goals to organizational goals. They tolerate and accept others’ mistakes and imperfections. They salvage the situations of crisis by active involvement of themselves. They walk the talk. Benevolent leadership is suitable in a large mature and stable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total collectivistic social life happiness from the total collectivistic social life fitness: collectivistic relation. The peak experience of collectivistic relation is the happiness for sudden extraordinary wellbeing in social togetherness. The peak experience reinforces collectivistic social life. 3. the collectivistic adaptation The adaptation of the collectivistic social life to the individualistic social life is competition. The survival of the collectivistic social life requires competition against the individualistic social life that is opposite from the collectivistic social life. The adaptation of the collectivistic social life to the harmonious social life is noncompetitiveness, because while the collectivistic social life works in a large social group, the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other. The Three-Stage Conversion to the Collectivistic Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of alienation and the atonement of the sin of injustice The Collectivistic Relationship Joining the collectivistic society The Collectivistic Mind the fourfold collectivistic mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the bonding mind, the nurturing mind The Collectivistic Adaptation Competitive to the individualistic social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

6.4.2. The Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life The typical causes for the conversion to the individualistic social life are the reduction of the suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of sin of repression. The

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conversion to the individualistic social life involves the three-stage conversion: the individualistic relationship, the individualistic mind, and the individualistic adaptation. 1. the individualistic relationship: the individualistic society In the first stage, the individualistic relationship is obtained by joining the individualistic society, including the capitalistic society and task-oriented work. The goal of the capitalistic society is individualistic achievement. Task-oriented work relates to also individualistic achievement. The individualistic relationship is the individual-oriented relationship for social hierarchy based on individualistic achievement in a social group. Individualistic achievement deals mostly with impersonal systemizing, such as highly developed systematizing skills in military, literature, athletics, music, business, science, and technology in the modern society. The drive for domination forms social hierarchy. 2. the individualistic mind: the fourfold mind: the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind and the dominating mind The joining of the individualistic society provides the start of the conversion to the individualistic social life. The next step is the development of the individualistic mind as the fourfold mind consisting of the intense mind for individualistic achievement, the bold mind for individualistic achievement, the systemizing mind, and the dominative mind.
Fourfold collectivistic mind Neuroscience Purposes Intense mind Bold mind systemizing Dominating mind mind systemizing dominative instinct instinct enhance individualistic instinct systemizing domination

Prefrontal cortex concentrate in individualistic achievement high tolerance for high tolerance for stress anxiety

the intense mind and the bold mind The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. The prefrontal cortex for individualistic achievement concentrates instincts and emotions in individualistic achievement. Because of the inevitable conflicts in individuals, the drive for individualistic achievement inevitably generates stress and anxiety. In the prefrontal cortex, the intense mind in terms of perseverance allows high tolerance for the stress under difficult situation. In the prefrontal cortex, the bold mind in terms of confidence allows high tolerance for the anxiety under unpredictable situation. Individually, the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety is developed from personal experiences and learning. The high tolerance is manifested as focus and commitment to collectivistic relation. With the high tolerance of the stress and anxiety, one can deal with the stress and anxiety with continuous individual efforts to minimize the stress and anxiety. The training for the intense mind and the bold mind for individualistic achievement is quite common in the individualistic society. It includes many individualistic motivation courses to train individuals to develop tough and bold mind to have high tolerance of stress and anxiety. Typically, the courses start with unfulfillment of individuals, and then, train individuals to have high tolerance of stress

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and anxiety in order to accomplish difficult and unpredictable task. For the training in classical Greece, Greek mythological hero had high tolerance for stress and anxiety in the pursuit of a heroic task. Socially, the stress and anxiety from individualistic achievement are dealt with by a well-defined social hierarchy typically based on merit of individualistic achievement in the modern society. High individualistic achievement that results typically from high tolerance of stress and anxiety is rewarded with high position in a social hierarchy. the systemizing mind As mentioned before, the individualistic instincts include the systemizing instinct to systemize various objects into a system and the dominative instinct to have domination in social hierarchy. The systemizing mind and the dominative mind come from the systemizing instinct and the dominating instinct. The systemizing mind is for taskoriented work, while the dominative mind is to motivate individuals to have personal achievement above other people. They can be trained as in the individualistic competition to compete against one another in task. As discussed before, bipedalism of human ancestors allowed the free hands to develop gestural language and tool making. Gestural language led to hyper friendliness, while tool making led to hyper systemizing. The properties of raw materials, such as stone, had to be precise to make good tool. The methods to make tool had to be precise and repeatable. The shapes and properties of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The usages of tools had to be precise and repeatable. The whole process of tool making-usage required highly systematic thinking, resulting in hyper systemizing that is unique for humans and their ancestors. The instinct for hyper systemizing is the hyper precisionrepetition instinct, because a viable and significant system is precise and repeatable. The extreme form of the hyper precision-repetition instinct is manifested in autism that has an excessive passion for precision and repetition. The three-step process for systemizing is 1. the analysis of data, 2. the construction of elaborate, precise, and repeatable system from the data, and 3. the verification of the system in all conditions. For science, technology, or organizational management, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable physical laws, manufacture-usage, or organizational charts, respectively. For literature, music, art, or sport, systemizing represents elaborate, precise, and repeatable writing, musical, artistic, or athletic skill, respectively. the dominative mind The dominative mind is the mind for competitive social hierarchy. The three ways to achieve the dominative mind are dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing. Dominative posturing is the domination in social gathering. A person who has the ability in the domination in social gathering has charisma. Dominative social maneuver is the domination by partisan competition in terms of coalition and confrontation of competitive groups and individuals. Since human society is highly systematic, people who are good in systemizing occupy high positions in competitive social hierarchy. People with the best dominative posturing, dominative social maneuver, and dominative systemizing are the dominative leaders. The dominative leadership is decisive, charismatic, task-oriented, and transformational. It is suitable for a dynamic organization (e.g. entrepreneur organization) that requires frequent

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short-term critical decisions and a large mature organization that requires one time critical short-term change to become a more viable organization. The completion of the fourfold mind can result in the peak experience that is the total individualistic social life happiness from the total individualistic social life fitness: individualistic achievement. The peak experience of individualistic achievement is the happiness for sudden extraordinary individualistic achievement far above ordinary individualistic achievement. The peak experience reinforces individualistic social life. 3. the individualistic adaptation The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the collectivistic social life is competition. The survival of the individualistic social life requires competition against the collectivistic social life that is opposite from the individualistic social life. The adaptation of the individualistic social life to the harmonious social life is noncompetitiveness, because while the individualistic social life works in a large social group, the harmonious social life works only in a small social group. They do not compete against each other. The Three-Stage Conversion to the Individualistic Social Life
1. 2. Typical causes of the conversion: the reduction of suffering of unfulfillment and the atonement of the sin of repression The Individualistic Relationship Joining the individualistic society The Individualistic Mind the fourfold collectivistic mind the intense mind, the bold mind, the systemizing mind, the dominative mind The Individualistic Adaptation Competitive to the collectivistic social life Non-competitive to the harmonious social life

3.

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7. The Modern Period
The Modern Period starts from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution to the Postmodern Revolution. Chapter 6 deals with the Modern Revolution in the West starting from the Renaissance, which added individualism to the essentially collectivistic society. The mass printing and increased literacy allowed individualism to spread in the West. Such individualistic innovation and motivation particularly favored the start and the spread of the Industrial Revolution that required individualistic innovation and motivated entrepreneur. As a result, the modern individualistic society as capitalism emerged. At the same time, the counter movement as socialism for the modern collectivistic society also emerged. The modern individualistic society and the modern collectivistic society formed the modern two-party society. In the Modern Three-Branch Unified Society, Christian church and America played critical roles. The Christian church changed from the original harmonious society into the state collectivistic religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. The Modern Revolution gradually moved the church back to the harmonious society, particularly in America. In the Modern Unified Society, such as America, political parties replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state individualism, and religions become harmonious religions without political state of large social group. The Unified Society is the system of separation and balance of powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collectivistic society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society. 7.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 7.1.1. The Renaissance Greek individualism assisted the early Christianity to thrive in the collectivistic society by the emphasis on individuals rather than worldly authorities. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the end of the dominance of the Greek culture, the Western World returned to the collectivistic society dominated by the human authorities in the Christian church in the Middle Ages. It had rigid social code to maintain the order in the society. The Greek culture and its individualism again became important in the Renaissance. The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics, similar to the exclusive individualistic society in the classical Greece, resulting in the individualistic society. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals.

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The change in the society as a whole was more gradual than the change in ideas. The broad power of the church was replaced by small national powers. The society as a whole continued to be the collectivistic society. In some areas, the exclusive democratic society appeared. The exclusive democratic society was controlled by small wealthy males. Within this small group, there was democracy, while the whole society was still the collectivistic society with rigid social code and hierarchy. The situation was changed by the industrial revolution. 7.1.2. The Industrial Revolution Greek individualism assisted not only in the development of new science after the Renaissance but also the development of new technology and new commerce, resulting in the industrial revolution in the areas where individualism was strong. Such areas were mostly occupied the protestants whose belief relied on distinctively individual connection with God. The food shortage by the climate change forced gatherer-hunters to change the way to produce food. The Neolithic Revolution worked temporally to minimize the food shortage. The food shortage again appeared in the agricultural-nomad society by the high population and periodic natural disasters and wars. By the standard today, people in the agricultural-nomad society were in poverty, not much different from the people living today in the poor agricultural societies. About 10,000 years after the Neolithic Revolution, the Industrial Revolution occurred to change the yin-yang civilized society (agricultural-nomad society) with material poverty into the affluent society with material affluence. The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on manual labor by one dominated by machinery. The dramatic increase in productivity lifted most people from the poverty in the agricultural-nomad society. The Industrial Revolution started in the mid 18th century and early 19th century in Britain and spread throughout the world. The success of the Industrial Revolution in Britain is due to the simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth, all of which Britain had in the mid 18th century. At that time, none of other locations had all elements for the successful start of the Industrial Revolution. The financial capital came mostly from the successful agricultural improvement imported from Holland during the early 18th century. The agricultural improvement involved new crop rotation, the usages of horse plowing, the increased usage of manure, and the improved breeding techniques for animals. By 1870, Britain produced 300% agriculturally more than in 1700, but only 14% of population works on land. Many successful landowners used the wealth accumulated from the land to invest in the Industrial Revolution. Some of financial capital came from the colonization of Britain. The excess labors free from the farm work due to the agricultural improvement became the low cost labors for the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started with the mechanized textile industries powered by steam engine. The improved steam engine invented by James Watt, and patented in 1769. Steam engine enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated textile and other factories at any locations. The factory system started to form industrial cities to

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attract labors and investors. With strong scientific establishment, technology advancement was sustainable. As an island nation, Britain had broad international market. The lack of the interferences from domestic feudal system allowed competitive free domestic market. People could choose to buy goods and service in market without interference. The competitive free market allowed the existence of large industrial production. The simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth in Britain made the Industrial Revolution successful in the mid 18th century. The same combination spread to other regions. Britain and her former colonies remain the top free market industrial nations in all continents of the world. There are two different kinds of capital systems: material capital and expertise capital. The material capital system relates to tangible properties, such as monetary investment, building, and machine. The expertise capital system relates to intangible properties, such as technical skill and innovation. The core of entrepreneur free market structure is the legal capital system. Free market requires stable, mobile, and large investment in terms of capital. This kind of large-scale capital needs standardization of each business transaction in order to avoid misunderstanding and repetitive reexamination. This standardization and the enforcement of the standardization are the legal capital systems59. The legal capital system provides a legal system for the free and large collections of investment for sustainable free market. Without the legal capital system in free market, capital is too fragmentary to sustain a robust free market. The most important aspect of the legal capital system is ownership. The free market society is the individualistic society with minimum code and hierarchy. Individual property right is strongly protected. The individualistic society requires abundant resource and security. For the free market society, the abundant resource comes from the continuous economic growth from new technology, additional natural resource and labors, and additional trade. Security comes from the protection by laws. The continuous success of the free market society carries the individualistic society into the extreme individualistic society as the affluent society. In the affluent society, the combination of consumerism, globalization, and productive technology fuels the economy. Productive technology improves the productivity that increases the living standard for all people. It produces attractive and low-cost goods and services for consumerism. The volume of consumption increases rapidly, stimulating increasing production. New productive technology continues to appear to maintain continuously the increase in productivity. When productivity slows down at a specific location, the globalization of production and consumption takes over to move production to a different location where high productivity can be maintained. The ever-increasing economic growth in production and consumption allows ever-increasing numbers of people to consume low-cost goods and services. The material affluence and consumerism are spreading to the whole global society.

7.2. The Modern Collectivistic Society

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By the mid-nineteenth century, many reformers from Europe and America realized the need to transform capitalist industrial society into a much more egalitarian system in which collectivistic relation is above individualistic achievement. The system is socialism. The word was first used in the early 1830s by the followers of Owen in Britain and those of Saint-Simon in France. They criticized the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They advocated reform via the egalitarian distribution of wealth without private property. The principle of socialism is collectivistic relation. There are different ways to carry out collectivistic relation. Socialism can be cooperative socialism, total state ownership socialism, partial state ownership socialism, and regulatory socialism. In cooperation socialism, without private ownership, people cooperate with freedom and equality. It is possible only in a relatively small simple community. The large complicate industrial society requires a centralized government that plans and controls the economy in order to achieve collectivistic relation. Therefore, for large socialistic society, collectivistic relation is carried out by systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned or regulated by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. Total state ownership socialism, such as Communism, does not allow free market. The means of producing and distributing goods is owned totally by a centralized state that plans and controls the economy. Partial state ownership socialism allows both free market for private ownership and state ownership. Regulatory socialism demands private own business to be as transparent as possible, so state can monitor and regulate private own business to follow a certain degree of collectivistic relation. Most socialism systems today consist of partial state ownership socialism and regulatory socialism. 7.3. The Christian Church In the Modern Three-Branch Unified Society, Christian church and America played critical roles. The Christian church changed from the original harmonious society into the state collectivistic religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. The Modern Revolution gradually moved the church back to the harmonious society, particularly in America. In the Modern Unified Society, such as America, political parties replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state individualism, and religions become harmonious religions without political state of large social group. The Unified Society is the system of separation and balance of powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collectivistic society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society. 7.3.1. The Early Church as the Harmonious Society The early church from 30 to 312 AD represented the harmonious society established by Jesus Christ. It is the harmonious society, small and ubiquitous like the prehistoric harmonious society. Since human society was the harmonious society in the prehistoric time, and human was evolved to adapt to the harmonious society, humans have propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. Such propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society is the basic reason for the growth

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of the early church from the obscure, marginal Jesus Movement to become the religious force in the Western World in a few centuries as described by sociologist Rodney Stark60. E. R. Dodds has put this as well as anyone: A Christian congregation was from the first a community in a much fuller sense than any corresponding group of Isiac or Mithraist devotees. Its members were bound together not only by common rites but by a common way of life.... Love of one's neighbor is not an exclusively Christian virtue, but in [this] period Christians appear to have practiced it much more effectively than any other group. The Church provided the essentials of social security.... But even more important, I suspect, than these material benefits was the sense of belonging which the Christian community could give. Christianity did not grow because of miracle working in the marketplaces (although there may have been much of that going on), or because Constantine said it should, or even because the martyrs gave it such credibility. It grew because Christians constituted an intense community, able to generate the "invincible obstinacy" that so offended the younger Pliny but yielded immense religious rewards. And the primary means of its growth was through the united and motivated efforts of the growing numbers of Christian believers, who invited their friends, relatives, and neighbors to share the "good news." The early church spread in the urban area, the center of civilization. The center of civilization was also the place farthest away from harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. Most people in the urban area suffered from endless conflicts, diseases, and loneliness. The church as the community with harmonious cooperation attracted a lot of people in the urban area. They loved each other and took care of each other. During the time of plague and conflict, the people in the harmonious society survived much better than the people outside. In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society, men and women were equal. The rise of civilization lowered the status of women. The early church had much better equality between men and women than the Roman Empire. Many leaders in the early church were women. The equality attracted women, contributing to the growth of the early church. The Roman Empire required people to worship the emperor as a divine being. When Christians refused to worship the emperor as a divine being, the unity of the Roman state appeared to be threatened. Some Christians refused to serve in the army and opposed the use of violence. Numerous persecutions ensued. Such persecutions forced the early church to gather in small groups for regular worship. In the urban area, many Christians came from the middle and upper classes, which prepared their houses for worship, resulting in the house church. The small social group in the house church actually worked very well for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society whose ideal size of social group is small. In this way, the persecution actually helped rather than weakened the growth of the early church. The contemporary pagan religions were essentially civilized religions that concentrated in the building of grandiose temples and the presentation of magnificent

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festivals, like what civilized institutions wanted to do. They relied on the support of government and wealthy class rather than community. The loss of such support doomed the pagan religions. From the perspective of the human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society, the rise of the early church in Europe was unstoppable and almost a certainty. 7.3.2. The Church as the State Religion in the Collectivistic Society The decline of the harmonious society as the church resulted from the rise of the state religion as the persecution ended in 313 AD when Edict of Milan gave Christians equal rights. It was issued by Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East. The church started to rely on the state. Eventually, the church became the state religion of the Roman Empire. The society became the collectivistic society, consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. Facing the rise of the church, Constantine decided to use the church for the unity of the Roman Empire. The church started to have a similar hierarchical structure as the Roman Empire. People started to compete to obtain the positions of bishops. After that, the church was no longer a person-to-person movement. The weakening of the Roman Empire near the end of the Roman Empire also forced the church to assume the role of maintaining social and political order. The church became powerful socially and politically. After the end of the West Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity beyond the empire was almost entirely by political means such as treaty and baptizing kings and queens. The state religion was a large social group activity instead of small group activity as the harmonious society. At its peak, the state religion excommunicated a king, and sold people the right to go to the heaven. The state religion became an intermediary between people and the head of the collectivistic state, and also an intermediary between people and God The human propensity for harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society as the tradition of the harmonious society was maintained by devoted monks and nuns who gave up the accumulation of wealth and devoted entirely to God and the Christian community. 7.3.3. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. This Greek culture generated individualism and the individualistic society. The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was

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one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics. The wealthy merchants constituted the affluent upper class, resulting in the individualistic society, similar to the individualistic society in the classical Greece. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals. Individualism from Renaissance changed the dual society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. For the collectivistic state, individualism led to the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between people and the head of the collectivistic state, resulting in nationalism without the interference of the church. For the state religion, the religious individualism brought about the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between human and God, resulting in the Reformation with direct relation between human and God and the Bible as the sole authority without an intermediary. The Reformation was started by Martin Luther. The breakdown of the intermediary is manifested in his speech to defend his faith in front of the representative of Pope before the Diet of Worms in 1520 AD. Since your most serene majesty and your high mightiness require of me a simple, clear and direct answer, I will give one, and it is this: I can not submit my faith either to the pope or to the council, because it is as clear as noonday that they have fallen into error and even into glaring inconsistency with themselves. If, then, I am not convinced by proof from Holy Scripture, or by cogent reasons, if I am not satisfied by the very text I have cited, and if my judgment is not in this way brought into subjection to God’s word, I neither can nor will retract anything; for it can not be right for a Christian to speak against his country. I stand here and can say no more. God help me. Amen. . Without the intermediary, the dual society, however, continued to exist. The national state and the state religion continued to support each other. The national state as the collectivistic state recognized the state religion as the exclusive religion within a nation, while the state religion recognized the national state as the exclusive state with the divine right. Each one concentrated in its domain of authority. The state religion continued to be a large social group activity, unlike the harmonious society. 7.3.4. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collectivistic society The further development of individualism resulted in the Enlightenment. Individualism from the Enlightenment brought about further change in the collectivistic society consisting of the national collectivistic state and the state religion. Individualism from the Enlightenment forced the national collectivistic state to accept the individualistic society coexisting with the original collectivistic society, resulting in the

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constitutional democracy to allow individualistic expression in the collectivistic society. The religious individualism from the Enlightenment objected the conformity imposed by the state religion (the Church of England), resulting in the Puritan movement. The Puritans objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches for the state religion. They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. They refused to endorse completely all of the standardized ritual directions and formulas of the state religion. The state religion could not exist well as a large group collectivistic society with all the individualistic religious expressions. The non-conformable denominations had to be silent or expelled. 7.4. The Three-Branch Unified Society of America When the United States of America was formed, the United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. It established the base for the separation of state and church, resulting eventually the threebranch Unified Society of America. 7.4.1. The Decline of the State Religion The return of the harmonious society resulted from the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism and pluralism brought about the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism led to the migration of the persecuted nonconformable Puritan and other denominations to America. The most famous and wellknown emigration to America was the migration of the Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England, who fled first to Holland, and then later to America, to establish the English colonies of New England, which later became the United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the pilgrims". The original intent of the colonists was to establish spiritual Puritanism, which had been denied to them in England and the rest of Europe to engage in peaceful commerce with England and the Native American Indians and to Christianize the peoples of the America. The collectivistic society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion, initially, continued to exist in America. Each state sanctioned but one official church that was supported by taxes and received privileges granted to no other denomination in almost every colony founded in the western hemisphere before the midseventeenth century. The religious pluralism 61 in America changed such collectivistic society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. Historians conventionally note that early New England’s religious character was shaped primarily by English Puritans, and the religious character of the South by English Anglicans. The Middle Colonies— comprised of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware—became a stage for the western world’s most complex experience with religious pluralism. The mid-Atlantic region, unlike either New England or the South, drew many of its initial settlers from European states that had been deeply disrupted by the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars that followed in its wake.

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Early American churchmen and churchwomen soon discovered that if they wanted to practice their beliefs unmolested in a diverse society, they had to grant the same right to others. No single state religion could be imposed on such a mixed population. Instead, a new form of religious practice emerged in the middle region: the voluntary church—an institution supported by the free choice and personal commitment of its adherents. As a result, there was the separation between state and religion. Religion actually flourished under this system. As Thomas Jefferson wrote, “Pennsylvania and New York…have long subsisted without any establishment. … They flourish infinitely. Religion is well supported.” James Madison concurred: “The example of the Colonies…which rejected religious establishments altogether, proved that all Sects might be safely & advantageously put on a footing of equal & entire freedom.” The religious individualism allows a non-conformable person to follow what one believes, while the religious pluralism disallows the existence of a single religion as the state religion. The collapse of the state religion without destroying the religion itself led to the return of the harmonious society as a small group activity for harmonious cooperation. 7.4.2. The Separation of Religion and State In America, the initial distinction between the secular society and the harmonious religious society is an amiable difference as described in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, which reads, "Congress shall ake no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ". It means that Congress as state is different from religion, so Congress does not establish or prohibit religion. The phrase "separation of church and state" is derived from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to a group identifying themselves as the Danbury Baptists. In that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between Church & State. Jefferson moved the amiable difference in the Constitution to the amiable separation. The wall between Church and State was quite permeable. State freely used broad religious symbols and rituals without establishing a specific religion. As American society has become more pluralistic, there is no broad religious symbol and ritual that applies to all religious beliefs and non-belief. The amiable separation gradually evolves into the clear separation to accommodate the pluralistic society.

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The separation is natural for Christianity as described by Pope Benedict. In October 2008 Pope Benedict XVI said in a Papal address to a visiting ambassador, with reference to the Church, that: She carries out this mission fully aware of the respective autonomy and competence of Church and State. Indeed, we may say that the distinction between religion and politics is a specific achievement of Christianity and one of its fundamental historical and cultural contributions. The separation of state and religion allows the Unified Society based on the unified theory of society, where the human society is the reflection of three human social lives (yin, yang, and harmony). The two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to female and male psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms. For human in general, yin corresponds to collectivistic relation, and yang stands for individualistic achievement. Since the human society needs all three social lives, the three societies reflecting such three social lives are unified. The prototype Unified Society is the Unified Society of America. The three-branch Unified Society of America is the system of separation and balance among the three social powers: yin, yang, and harmony as describe below. The Three-branch Unified Society of America
Branch Social life = principle Basic group unit Social activity Political party Preferred economic policy Yin Collectivistic relation Large group Politics Democratic Party Collectivistic socialism Yang Individualistic achievement Large group Politics Republican Party Individualistic capitalism Harmony Harmonious cooperation Small group Religion None None

The social lives or the principles for yin, yang, and harmony are collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The basic social group unit for yin and yang is large, while the basic social group unit for harmony is small. The main social activity for yin and yang is politics, while the main social activity for harmony is religion, which is mostly Christianity, a harmonious religion as the kingdom of God. The political parties for yin and yang are typically the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, respectively. The preferred economic policies for yin and yang are collectivistic socialism and individualistic capitalism, respectively. Since economic policy is for large social group unit, harmony as a small social group unit does not have an economic policy. 7.5. The Harmonious Moral religions A major difference between the Western European social system and the American social system is religion. In the Western Europe, religion loses prevalence in favor of secularism, while in America, religion continues its prevalence. The main reason for the decline in Christianity in the Western Europe is the historic position of
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Christianity. Christianity in Europe was state religion, a large social group associated with politics. Such Christianity as state religion is not the original form of Christianity. Christianity as state religion loses the vitality of social and personal harmony associated with harmonious religion. Without its vitality, Christianity loses power in the Western Europe. Furthermore, the increasing pluralistic world also causes the weakening of any state religions closely associated with large society politics as state religions become the source of conflict. All state religions are not viable religions in the pluralistic world as witnessed in Europe. Early Christians came to America to escape from the control of state religions in Europe. The United States Constitution was written by a coalition of Enlightenment rationalists and evangelical Christians who were deeply concerned about entanglements between religion and government. Without being state religion, Christianity in America has maintained its vitality of social and personal harmony associated with harmonious religion. Without associating closely with large social group politics, Christianity can survive in the increasing pluralistic world. People come to Christian churches for social and personal harmonious cooperation in a small social group and in one own self. The viable religions today are harmonious religions which thrive in small social groups as in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society for nearly 200,000 years. In today’s pluralistic world, the state religions that seek domination often and inevitably undergo zero-sum competition, even though sometimes they coexist peacefully. The permanent solution for such zero-sum competition is the conversion of state religion into the harmonious religion that does not engage in the dominative competition among large social groups. The conversion in fact has already taken place in today’s pluralistic world. The mainstream religions of the collectivistic religions, including Islam, Judaism, Confucianism, and Hinduism move toward the harmonious moral religions. The harmonious moral religions include harmonious Judaism, harmonious Islam, harmonious Hinduism, and harmonious Confucianism that separate themselves largely from large social group state politics, and concentrate in building harmonious cooperation in local communities. Instead of political religions, the harmonious moral religions become cultural and spiritual religions. Most countries disestablished state religions or maintain relatively weak state religions. The few state and semi-state religions today can survive well mostly because of their unusually large resource and strong security. With such resource and security, they resist any significant changes to be adaptable to the pluralistic world. As shown in the history of America, the way to maintain Christianity as the harmonious religion is the separation of religion and state. One of the continuous difficulties in the separation is the insistence of religion to be the final moral authority. Morality, especially the principles of morality, today certainly is based largely on religions. The expressions of morality, however, change with time and culture. Religion based on sacred text reflects only the expressions of morality of a specific time and culture. Religion continues to be the foundation of morality, but the legal aspect of morality should be decided by state, rather than religion. The connection between religion and state is inevitable. The fair and open cultural (traditional) instead of political connection can be acceptable. The emphasis of the harmonious religion is the harmonious person-to-person connection in a small local social group. The propagation of the harmonious religion is

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through mostly the example of love in small social group, like hunters and gathers in small social groups in the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The social life is the harmonious social life based on eager cooperation without lie. Such harmonious cooperation is not applicable in large social group, but the person-to-person connection anywhere and time can reveal illusion and impermanence of dehumanized conflicts among large social groups.

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Part 3 The Postmodern Unified Societies

Part 3 involves the Postmodern Period starting from the global mass telecommunication for the Postmodern Revolution. In the Postmodern Period, the world consists of multiple human societies representing different nations, cultures, religions, economic systems, and political systems. The worldviews are the divided world and the unified world. The divided world worldview is essentially the Darwinian worldview that divides the world of organism into different species that compete among one another to survival. The social value for the divided world worldview is individualistic competition to eliminate competitors. The unified world worldview is also possible in the same world of organism. It is the Gaia worldview 62 that integrates all organisms and their inorganic surrounding into a single and self-regulating balanced system, maintaining the conditions for all lives on the planet. The social value for the unified world worldview is collectivistic balance to balance various social identities. Historically, in Europe and the Middle East for the West, many nations fought and eliminated each other in the divided world, so the divided world worldview prevailed in the West to reflect the divided world in Europe and the Middle East. The social value was competition to eliminate competitors. In China, India, and the Far East for the East, there was the reality of the unified world, so the unified world worldview prevailed to reflect the unified world in China, India, and the Far East. The social value was balance in the East to balance different social identities. In India, there was balance among different social classes that were interlocked into the caste system through reincarnation. There is the balance between creative and destructive forces among gods. India today with many different languages is held together by the unified world worldview. In China, there is balance between yin and yang, and balance among metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. The strong sense of the unified world worldview allows China to overcome divisions and absorb invading people and ideas. In the traditional West with the divided world worldview, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam that compete for survival have a clear division of good and evil where good represents one religion, and evil represents all other religions. The divided world worldview is the one way (单向道) of good over evil. In the divided world, the one way of good over evil leads logically to the prophecies about the end time, because the only way to have the ultimate victory of good over evil is the end of the divided world that has eternal fighting between dividing good and evil. In the East with the unified world worldview, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism do not have a clear division of good and evil where good represents one religion, and evil represents all other religions. They do not have the prophecies about the end time. Without fighting for survival, the unified world exists forever without end time. Now the East meets the West. The modern period was dominated by the West. The postmodern period is shared by the East and the West. The question now is what the postmodern world is, divided world or unified world. If the postmodern world is divided,

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the divided world worldview prevails. If the postmodern world is unified, the unified world worldview prevails. Since the end of the Cold War, all major powers in the world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. For major powers in the world, the postmodern world is unified. Therefore, in the postmodern world, the unified world worldview with the value of balance prevails to reflect the postmodern world. By the definition of the divided world, there is eternal fighting for survival without ultimate victory until the end of the divided world. Therefore, the end time reflects the divided world, and the end of prevailing divided world is the beginning of prevailing unified world. The postmodern world fulfills the end time prophecies of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The end time is the end time of the divided world worldview of the West, and the unified world worldview after the end time is the postmodern world here and now instead of the unified world worldview of a specific traditional religion in the future as traditionally expected. It is similar to Jesus’ kingdom of God here and now that is not the return of Israel in the future as traditionally expected. Jesus said that the kingdom of God is within you. (Luke 17:21) In the Bible, the unified world was described in the 8th-century BC by Prophet Isaiah as the unified society without the fighting for survival after the end time. “See, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind…The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, and dust will be the serpent’s food. They will neither harm nor destroy on my entire holy mountain,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 65: 17-25) They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (Isaiah 2:4) Prophet John in the first-century AD described the new earth as the unified world where all nations co-exist peacefully without separation. Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,” for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City… The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. (Revelation 21:1-26) Chapter 8 deals with the unified postmodern economy. The economic equation consists of wealth production from natural resource and labor and wealth consumption from wealth product and labor. The rate of wealth production and consumption can be accelerated by the combination of technology and technological investment. Wealth is proportional to the degree of control in natural resource, labor, technology, and technological investment. With respect to wealth, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic) economy, collectivistic (socialistic) economy, and adaptive (unified) economy. The favorable condition to start individualistic economy is

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the pending commercialization of technological breakthrough, such as the industrial revolution and the information revolution. It brings about inequality during the economic growth. The excess inequality leads to insufficient demand and human capital. The unstable economic growth beyond the optimal equality is based on debt, speculation, and greed, resulting in economic corruption that brings about economic collapse. The favorable conditions to start collectivistic economy are war, gross inequality, and the infrastructure of technological breakthrough. The economic growth brings about economic equality. The excess equality beyond the optimal equality leads to mismatching supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation. The unstable economic growth beyond the optimal equality is based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy, resulting in economic mismanagement that leads to economic collapse. Adaptive economy involves economic evolutionary change in cohesive society to adapt to sustainable economy that does not deviate too much from the optimal equality. Cohesive society includes the American, the German, and the Chinese models. Sustainable economy consists of cohesive society, economic robustness, and environmental protection. In Chapter 9, The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. In the partisan unified system, the political parties represent separately the collectivistic and the individualistic societies, and in the nonpartisan unified system, the state represents politically both the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. In the partisan unified political system, the zero sum political competition leads potentially civil war, and the nonzero sum political competition brings about the unity of the system. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the weak private sector leads potentially the collapse of the system, and the robust private sector leads to the unity of the system. Chapter 10 deals with the postmodern education for learning the collectivistic and individualistic social lives in elementary and secondary school as well as in the four-stage life. Chapter 11 deals with the postmodern mental health. Mental disorders are common. In the United States, in a given year approximately one quarter of adults are diagnosable for one or more disorders. Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. The chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The misdirected mental functions include the addiction instincts, the defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freezeobsession), and the mental process during sleep. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety

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disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized by these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes. Chapter 12 describes the postmodern religions from the modernization of religion. During the Postmodern Period, the dominance of the major religions has been greatly diminished by modernization consisting of individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. The major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the postmodern harmonious religions. The postmodern harmonious religion is the most suitable postmodern religion. It fits well in the modern society with the highly specialized functional institutions. The postmodern harmonious religion occupies the highly specialized domain of the harmonious society, while modernity occupies the highly specialized domain of the collectivisticindividualistic societies. Furthermore, the postmodern harmonious religions return to the original harmonious religions before they assumed the dominance of the whole society. The core value of the postmodern harmonious religion resides in the harmonious society of God. It consists of the theology and the harmonious society from Christianity, the harmonious mind practice from Buddhism, and the harmonious adaptation from Daoism. The followers of harmony continue to exist in afterlife. In Chapter 13, the world peace narrative tells the story of the three social interactions, the development of the three-branch way in human history, the balanced unified systems in the Postmodern Period. World peace is near through the postmodern balanced unified economic, political, educational, mental disorder, and religious systems.

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8. The Postmodern Unified Economy
8.1. The Economic Equation The four sectors in the economic equation are the primary, the secondary, the tertiary, and the quaternary sectors for raw material, manufacturing, service, and technology sectors, respectively63.
The Economic Equation 4 production technolog y (invention and investment )  1 natural resource + labor           → raw material prodcution 4 production technolog y (invention and investment )  2 raw material + labor           → rmanufactu red goods production 4 consumptio n technolog y (invention and investment )  3 manufactur ed goods + labor            → consumptio n serivice

The primary sector is raw material sector to extract raw materials from natural resource. The secondary sector is manufacturing sector to convert raw materials into manufactured goods. The tertiary sector is service sector to provide services for wealth consumption of manufactured goods. The quaternary sector is the technology sector for invention and investment to improve productivity and to manipulate production and consumption. In the primary sector, the origin of raw materials is from natural resource and labor. Natural resource can be in the form of material or energy. In the primary sector, labor is what a person does to transform natural resource into usable raw material. The combination of natural resource and labor leads to useful raw material production. The symbol for wealth product is money. Raw material includes the raw material from natural resource and from recyclable resource. This sector includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and extraction of oil and gas. Primary industry is typically the largest sector of economy in developing countries In the secondary sector, the combination of raw materials and labor leads to useful manufactured goods production. The secondary industries are the manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries aggregate, pack, package, purify or process the raw materials into manufactured goods. In the tertiary sector, the combination of manufactured goods and labor leads to the service industries for consumption service. It involves the supplying of services to consumers and businesses. Tertiary industry is typically the largest sector of economy in developed countries. Humans are tool makers. It takes the extra effort to make tool. The combination of tool and the extra effort to make tool accelerates the rate to generate wealth. Tool involves technological invention, and the extra effort to make tool is technological investment. Technology includes both useful tools and useful systematic methods to improve productivity and to manipulate production or consumption effectively. Technological investment is the cost needed to establish such technology. For example,
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in developed countries primary sector becomes more technologically advanced, for instance the mechanization of farming as opposed to hand picking and planting. The mechanization of farming requires capital investment. Technology include production technology and consumption technology. The economic equation is like a chemical equation consisting of reactant, product, and catalyst. For example, the reactants for raw material production are natural resource and labor. The rate to generate raw material production per nation is proportional to natural resource and labor. Technology, like catalyst in a chemical equation, is to accelerate the rate to generate wealth. Different countries have different proportions and strengths in different sectors of economy. The increased productivity by improved industrious and information technologies have reduced sharply the numbers of jobs first in raw material sector and then in manufacturing sector. The number of farm workers decreased sharply at the beginning of industrialization, while numbers of jobs increased sharply in manufacturing and service sectors. In 1950, 30% of all US jobs were in manufacturing while 63% were in services. Subsequently, the loss of manufacturing jobs is largely due to increased productivity and automation by information technology. Another factor for the loss of manufacturing jobs is the domestic outsourcing of service jobs, such as janitorial services, cafeteria/food services, accounting and payroll services, and legal departments, within a manufacturer, so jobs that may have been classified as manufacturing are now classified as service jobs. In 2011, 9% of total employment remains in manufacturing, 86% in services. The globalization of the world globalizes economic sectors, resulting in increasingly interdependence of economy among nations. For manufacturing sector, the countries without strong technology sector have commanding leads in lower tech areas such as textiles, apparel, appliances, as well as certain commodities, while the countries with strong technology sector have larger shares in higher tech areas such as aircraft, special industrial machinery (machine tools, turbines, equipment for construction and mining), information technology, medicine, medical and scientific equipment, and media. Ideally, without adopting protectionism, an economically and socially stable nation needs the strong performances from all four sectors localized within the nation. To support all four sectors locally, a nation needs to have appropriate education, tax, regulation, and political systems as well as renewable energy and reusable-recyclable material programs. Germany is better than most countries to support all four sectors locally, so Germany is able to maintain socioeconomic stability better than most countries. In 2010, the manufacturing sector in Germany is 20.7% of GDP, while in US is 12.7%64. Unlike America with a large trade deficit, Germany has a large trade surplus, even thought Germany has higher hourly wage and broader welfare system than US. 8.2. Industrial Economy The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on manual labor by one dominated by machinery. The dramatic increase in productivity lifted most people from the poverty in the agricultural-nomad society. The development of industrial economy is dependent of the economic policies of a society. Suitable economic policies for industrial

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economy acquire industrial technology and capital to build the industrial physical and financial infrastructures and the education system for industrialization. With suitable economic policies, industry brings about rapid economic growth, and transforms agricultural society into industrial society, and mostly rural society into mostly urban society. In Europe and America, the rapid economic growth from industrialization started in 1850’s. With respect to the control of wealth, the industrial economy is divided into three different economics: individualistic (capitalistic) economy, collectivistic (socialistic) economy, and adaptive (unified) economy. Economy
technological breakthrough economic policies

economic growth collectivistic economy excess equality beyond the optimal equality mismatching supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation unstable economic growth by waste, exaggeration, and apathy economic mismanagement economic collapse adaptive economy adjust to the optimal equality for sustainable economy individualistic economy excess inequality beyond the optimal equality insufficient demand and human capital unstable economic growth by debt, speculation, and greed economic corruption economic collapse

8.2.1. Individualistic Economy In individualistic economy, the control of the wealth as technology and capital belong to individuals. Individualistic economy is capitalist economy. Government has only a minimum control over the ways how the owners use the wealth. The favorable condition to start individualistic economy is pending commercialization of technological breakthrough, such as the industrial revolution and information revolution, which improves productivity drastically. All the foundation for the pending commercialization of technological breakthrough has been well established before the commercialization. The commercialization requires individualistic efforts. Such commercialization cannot be easily done by collectivistic efforts. The commercialization of new technological system brings about fast economic growth by fast increase in productivity resulted from replacing old ineffective system with new highly productive system.

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An immediate consequence of the individualistic economy is economic inequality, because different people have different controls of wealth, and the control of wealth is concentrated in few individuals who have sufficient capital and technology. People are likely to use the control of wealth to benefit themselves. Economic inequality can be good and bad for society. Economic inequality motivates people to work hard to move up in economic hierarchy. Other the other hand, economic inequality brings a lot of stress to people who are in the bottom of economic hierarchy. Stressful people develop mental health, physical health, family, financial, and legal problems. Comparing with people in egalitarian society, people on the top of a highly hierarchical society have more stress to worry about their economic downfalls. After the optimal equality (inequality), the concentration of wealth in the high income group decreases significantly the ability of low income group to purchase goods and service, while high income group can only buy limited amount of goods and service, resulting in insufficient demand. The inequality also decreases the ability of low income group to education for keeping up with the changing technology in the growing economy, resulting in the insufficient human capital. The overall insufficient demand and human capital force the slowdown of economic growth. The economic growth after the optimal equality continues because of the inertia from expectation. The economic growth, however, becomes the unstable economic growth based on debt, speculation, and greed. In the society of high economic inequality, poor people who struggle to make a living and middle-class people who have difficult to keep up with the perceived living standard of middle-class borrow money, and rich people who have so much money are willing to take the risk to loan them money with high interest. In the fast economic growth environment, rich people who want to make fast profit in the future borrow money to invest. The investment to make profit in the future is often based on pure speculation. Some unscrupulous investors take advantage of people’s desire to make fast money mislead people to invest in unsustainable or nonexistent ventures. Eventually, high debt and inability to repay debt leads to financial crisis. The economic growth based on debt, speculation, and greed is unstable, resulting in economic corruption. A sudden unexpected economic setback can quickly cause the collapse of the unstable economic growth. Economic growth can be expressed in terms of GDP (gross domestic product). The individualistic economy that leads to economic collapse in a maladaptive economy expressed below as maladaptive individualistic GDPinequality curve. Maladaptive Individualistic GDP-Inequality Curves
unstable growth stable growth collapse

GDP

optimal equality

economic inequality

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A good example of individualistic economy is the economy in America between the end of the World War I and the stock market crash of 1929. The relaxation of the governmental control of the wealth and the weakening of the labor movement led to increasing economic inequality and fast economic growth. During this period, income inequality increased, and was peaked on 1928. In 1928, the year before the stock market crash, the top 1% people had 23% of the national income. Inevitably, individualistic economy with economic inequality and fast economic growth led to the economic corruption with debt, speculation, and greed. In the society of high economic inequality, poor people in the rural area had to borrow money to make a living. The middle-class people and rich people wanted to make fast profit in the future borrowed money to invest in the stock market. The investment to make profit in the future was based on pure speculation. Some unscrupulous investors took advantage of people’s desire to make fast money manipulated the stock market. Eventually, high debt and inability to repay debt led to the financial crisis of 1929. Besides the financial crisis, the environmental crisis as the Dust Bowl and the crisis social occurred. The Dust Bowl was severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage, and caused the migration of many farmers out of the damaged areas. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without conservation to prevent erosion. The social crisis was the great deal of human suffering and dislocation in the Great Depression 8.2.2. Collectivistic Economy In collectivistic economy, the control of the wealth as technology and capital belong to the state (society). Collectivistic economy is socialist economy. Government has the control over the ways how the wealth to benefit people. The favorable conditions to start collectivistic economy are war, gross inequality, and the infrastructure of technological breakthrough such as the industrial revolution and information revolution. Such conditions require collectivistic coordinative effort to undertake large tasks, such as war, social-economical chaos, and the infrastructure of industrial revolution. Individual effort is not enough to tackle such large tasks. The collectivistic coordinative effort brings about fast economic growth by undertaking large economic projects together to obtain basic economical needs. Economic growth can be fast, because the state can concentrate available technology and capital in the hand of the state to industrialize quickly. An immediate consequence of the collectivistic ownership of the wealth is economic equality, because the state distributes the wealth nearly equally among people. People are welling to work together to obtain basic economical needs for survival or elevation to a much better economic system. The goals of large economic projects are typically relatively simple. Economic equality can be good and bad for society. In collectivistic economy, people feel secure and not stressful. On the other hand, people are not motivated to bring about individual innovation. Individual innovation is not important when the goal of project is simple. After the fulfillment of basic need and the optimal equality, the complexity of economic project cannot be managed by collectivistic effort with insufficient individual

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innovation. The state typically can manage some narrow-focused aspects of economy well, such as defense and heavy industries, and cannot manage the complex aspects of economy well, such as the commercialization of light industries and consumer goods and services. After the initial phase of industrialization, the difficulty for the state to manage the complexity of economy slows down economic growth. The equality above the optimal equality decreases individual innovation to deal with complexity. The consequences without free market are the mismatching of supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation. The society faces economic stagnation and social discontent. The economic growth after the optimal equality continues because of the inertia from expectation. The economic growth, however, becomes the unstable economic growth based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy. The mismatching of supply-demand brings about a lot of waste. The exaggeration of economic report hides the real slow economic growth. People become apathy. The economic growth based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy is unstable, resulting in economic mismanagement. If the country of collectivistic economy is isolated economically from outside, a sudden outburst of social unrest from discontent brings about the economic collapse. If the country of uncompetitive collectivistic economy competes economically with outside, the high unemployment and huge national debt bring about the economic collapse. The collectivistic economy that leads to economic collapse in a maladaptive economy expressed below as maladaptive collectivistic GDP-inequality curve. Maladaptive Collectivistic GDP-Inequality
collapse unstable growth stable growth

GDP

optimal equality

economic inequality A good example of the economic downfall is the downfall of European communist countries after many years of economic mismanagement. 8.2.3. Adaptive Economy The combination of the maladaptive individualistic and collectivistic GDPInequality curves is as follows.

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Maladaptive GDP-Inequality Curves
collapse unstable growth collapse stable growth

GDP

stable growth

optimal equality

economic inequality It is important to find and keep the optimal equality, and to prevent unstable economic growth and economic collapse. When such maladaptive economic collapses, it is important to rescue the collapse by the opposite economy in such way that collectivistic economy rescues individualistic economic collapse, and individualistic economy rescues collectivistic economic collapse. In other words, collectivistic economy in terms of infrastructure and education balances excess individualistic economy in terms of insufficient demand and human capital, and individualistic economy in terms of privatization balances excess collectivistic economy in terms of mismatching supplydemand and insufficient individual innovation in order to return to the optimal equality. Such economy is the adaptive economy. The requirement for the existence of adaptive economy is the political cooperation between individualistic economy and collectivistic economy. The political polarization between individualistic economy and collectivistic economy prevents the existence of adaptive economy. In polarization politics, the necessary economic correction cannot be made, or a lame compromise is made when a much more drastic economic correction is necessary. Extreme political polarization brings about maladaptive economy. Adaptive economy is possible, when people with rigid positions in individualistic economy or collectivistic economy are considered as extremists. A good example of adaptive economy is the American economy between 1930’s and late 1970’s, when people from both individualistic economy and collectivistic economy worked together to come out with adaptive economic corrections, and considered the people with rigid positions in individualistic economy or collectivistic economy as extremists. In 1930’s, President Franklin Roosevelt in America corrected the extreme economic inequality. The economic correction included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform. • the financial reform: Under Roosevelt, various financial innovations, such as high leverage investment, were regulated. Banks became localized to prevent systemic risk. Speculative investment banks were disconnected from deposit banks. The unethical manipulations of stocks became illegal. • the income reform: To rescue people from unemployment, the governmental spending in various infrastructure projects allowed people to have jobs. Unemployment fell dramatically in Roosevelt's first term, from 25% when he took office to 14.3% in 1937. The National Labor Relations Act legalized

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collectivistic bargaining. Collectivistic bargaining allowed workers to earn enough income to become the middle class. Social security allowed elders to have decent living standard. the environmental reform: Under Roosevelt, governmental programs designed to conserve soil and restore the ecological balance of the nation were implemented. The environmental reform allowed sustainable economic growth. the social reform: The National Labor Relations Act established the federal rights of workers to organize unions, to engage in collectivistic bargaining, and to take part in strikes. It provided worker rights. Social security provided elder rights.

Adaptive economy continued after Roosevelt. During the mid-1940s and the early 1960s both parties essentially expressed a more centrist approach to politics on the national level and had their liberal, moderate, and conservative wings equally influential within both parties. After the 1964 presidential election, the conservative wing became more dominant in the Republican Party, and the liberal wing became more dominant in the Democratic Party. However, both parties continued to work together. There was no big controversy in Republican Eisenhower-era 90% top tax rates. Under Eisenhower, the national highway system was build, benefiting economic growth in all areas in America. Education expanded stimulated by the scientific and technological competition with the Soviet Union. The increase in public education allowed increasing number of people to receive higher education to increase their incomes. Medicare was passed to benefit older Americans. All of these public programs further decreased the income inequality. Since 1928 when the top 1% people had 23% of the national income, the income inequality decreased until late 1970’s when the top 1% people had 9% of the national income. In late 1970’s, most Americans felt and were actually prosperous. When economy started to be stagnant, American government moved back to individualistic economy by reducing tax to stimulate economy, such as during the presidency of J.F. Kennedy. In America, it was a period of unprecedented middle class expansion, broad business growth, increased home ownership, rising consumer spending, and the shared expectation that a college education was within the reach of everyone and that the lives of their children would be better than their own. The United States federal government has enacted a series of clean air acts, starting with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. In 1970, under conservative Nixon, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to protect human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The environmental reform allowed sustainable economic growth. Many progresses in social coherence were made starting from Roosevelt to 1980. The progresses in social coherence include worker rights, minority rights, elder rights, and woman rights. During the Cold War, the competition with the communist countries in science and technology motivated America to establish the world top universities and federal agencies in research and development of science and technology. They provided the major technological infrastructures for telecommunication and information technology. Another good example of the adaptive economy is the economic reform in China started in 1978. As pointed out by Paul R. Gregory and Kate Zhou from Hoover

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Institution, the economic liberalization from the collectivistic economy has led to a rapid economic growth in China, while the similar economic liberalization in Russia has not led to a similar rapid economic growth65. The rapid economic growth in China by the economic reform is derived from the large land, the large population, and the Confucian culture. The large land offers large diverse natural resources, the large population offers large labor resources, talents, and domestic market, the millions of Chinese diasporas extended to virtually all corners of the world transfer and invest in industrialization from overseas, and the Confucian culture historically established China as the vastest unified domestic market and the largest, most populous and most prosperous cities in the world before the nineteenth century. Before the nineteenth century, Chinese villages adopted the most advanced planting technology, and reached the highest yield per hectare in the world. Chinese craftsmen used the most advanced production tools and technology. The output of the Chinese manufacturing industry in 1750 amounted to about one third that of the entire world. In 1820, the GDP of China’s largely agricultural economy was six times that of industrialized England. The turning point was the defeat of China in the Anglo-Chinese Opium War (1839 to 1842) resulted in the unequal Treaty of Nanking in 1842, turning China into a weak country dominated by the strong industrial countries. Confucianism provided both the favorable private sector and public sector for the strong economy in China as pointed out by Shi Zhonglian from Harvard-Yenching Institute66. The favorable conditions in the private sector for strong economy are work ethics, business ethics, education, and familial economic unit favors the development of strong economy. The favorable conditions in the public sector for strong economy are unified state, benevolent government for the enrichment of people, effective administration and management, and the minimization of dependent relationship of the peasant upon the landlord. For the private sector, Confucianism advocates work ethics in terms of the jingye 敬业 spirit: to work cautiously, conscientiously, seriously, assiduously, and diligently. Confucianism also promotes business ethics as sincerity, honesty and trustworthiness. Confucianism attached the greatest importance to education. Confucius was a teacher. Chinese call him the best saint and the earliest teacher. As Western Christians built innumerable churches, the Confucians established countless schools throughout China and did their best to urge people to study. Confucianism strengthens family as the basic spiritual, economic, and political unit. To Confucian Chinese, family has a strong spiritual value for the past, the present, and the future. Ancestor is the center of family worship. Ancestor provides protection and moral standard. Anyone who commits a crime or becomes a useless person is to defame one’s ancestor and family. An individual’s success and shame belongs to the whole family. All family members are obligated to take care of one another. One works hard and accumulates wealth not only to benefit the present generation but also the future generation. The result is that the economic unit is extended family that allows the collectivistic effort to establish strong familial economic power. The private sector based on work ethics, business ethics, education, and familial economic unit favors the development of strong economy. Confucianism also provides the favorable conditions in the public sector for strong economy. They are unified state, benevolent government for the enrichment of

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people, effective administration and management, and the minimization of dependent relationship of the peasant upon the landlord. Confucius (552-479BC) lived in the period of divided China. He longed for the unified China before the period. To him, the ideal state was a unified state before the period of divided China. To Confucius, the ideal ruler was a benevolent rule that enriched people as the rulers before. He advocated low taxes. The Confucian government was an effective government controlled by educated administers chosen through the written examination on Confucian doctrine. The government minimized dependent relationship of the peasant upon the landlord in terms of great disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor. At the same time, the strong economic power in family allowed common people to have strong economic power to minimize the dependence upon very wealthy individuals. The population of ownerpeasants, small farmers, and freemen in China was larger than that of Europe in ancient times and the Middle Ages. The dependent relationship of the Chinese peasant upon the landlord was looser than that of the European serf in the Middle Ages, resulting in the freer and more equitable private sector than in the ancient West. The Confucian favorite conditions in the private sector and the public sector for strong economy allowed China to become the wealthiest country in the world before the nineteenth century. The three major shortcomings of Confucianism from the perspective of the modern industrial economy are the depreciations of commerce (merchant), the knowledge of nature, and the enjoyment of material interests and wealth. The Confucian China needed to import industrial commerce, science-technology, and consumerism to match the Western economic power. The economic reform in China is both top-down from the political leaders and bottom-up from the grassroots level. The Chinese political leaders who started the economic reform recognized that to save the Chinese Communist Party after the disastrous Cultural Revolution was to return the role of the Confucian benevolent government enriching people and to listen to people. According to Deng Xioaping who started the economic reform, not introducing reforms will take the Party down a blind alley, poverty is not socialism, prosperity is the new face of the socialism, and to get rich is glorious. The Chinese political leaders listen to people by installing the economic liberalization in response to the grassroots demand to return to the Confucian China. The abolishment of collectivistic farm started from the private citizens who secretly returned to the family farming. The government responded to it by the policy of the abolishment of collectivistic farm, increasing the farm output significantly. The private-owned farm led to the private-owned farm business, which in turn spread to city. The government responded it by the privatization of business. The private sector grew remarkably, accounting for as much as 70 percent of China GDP by 2005 from virtually no private sector in 1978. Different local governments made different innovative reforms. The central government responded it by the decentralization of government, allowing local governments to innovate and compete. The government responded to the return of the Chinese diasporas by opening Special Economic Zones for them to invest and transfer the whole industrial production systems from overseas. Derived from the local Confucian culture and the imported industrial commerce, science-technology, and global consumerism for foreign and domestic consumers, unprecedented growth occurred, with the economy increasing by 9.5% a year from 1978 to 2010. China's economy became the second largest after the United States. Per capita

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incomes grew at 6.6% a year. Average wages raised six fold between 1978 and 2005, while absolute poverty declined from 41% of the population to 5% from 1978 to 2001.

The success of the Chinese economic liberalization is derived from the return of Chinese economy to the strong Confucian benevolent public sector and the strong Confucian private sector which existed not long ago. The problematic Russian economic liberation results from the disappearance and forgetting of the private sector after long communist rule and the relatively weak private sector in the ancient West. The Chinese economic reform certainly has its own Chinese characters rooted in Confucianism. The rapid economic growth occurs in the states with the strong Confucian tradition, including Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and China. Economy
Individualistic Economy system favorable starting condition economic hierarchy shortfall beyond the optimal equality unstable economic growth outcome of unstable growth inevitable economic end economic system example capitalism pending commercialization of technological breakthrough economic inequality insufficient demand and human capital growth by debt, speculation, and greed economic corruption collapse USA before the Great Depression Collectivistic Economy socialism war, gross inequality, and the infrastructure of technological breakthrough economic equality mismatching supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation growth by waste, exaggeration, and apathy economic mismanagement collapse European communist countries USA between 1930’s and late 1970’s Chinese economic reform started in 1978 Adaptive Economy adaptive economic system balance

optimal equality

economic end example

Great Depression

fall of European communism

The best way to have adaptive economy is to adopt adaptive change to correct the course of economy before it reaches economic collapse as follows.

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Adaptive GDP-Inequality Curve
optimal GDP

GDP

optimal equality

economic inequality For individualistic economy, when there is a sign of insufficient demand and human capital, the state starts to increase infrastructure and education, resulting in moving toward collectivistic economy. When there is a sign of mismatching supplydemand and insufficient individual innovation, the state starts to increase privatization and deregulation. After few adjustments to move toward optimal equality, the state with proper population control and conservation, GDP reaches the optimal GDP. With the optimal equality and the optimal GDP, the economy becomes sustainable economy. 8.3. Postmodern Economy The postmodern economy is based on the postmodern technology as the combination of industrial technology and information technology. Information technology involves any computer-managed data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism. The combination of industrial technology and information technology brings about unprecedented automation and globalization. Such automation replaces or assists human physical movement and thinking process in great power, speed, precision, and complexity. Such automation minimizes most of the difficulties in connecting different places in the world, resulting in extraordinary globalization. The postmodern technology increasingly involves all areas of human endeavors. The development of the postmodern economy is dependent of the economic policies of a society. Suitable economic policies for postmodern economy acquire the postmodern technology and capital to build the postmodern physical and financial infrastructures and the education system for the postmodern economy. With suitable economic policies, the postmodern technology brings about rapid economic growth, and transforms agricultural society or industrial society into the postmodern society as the information-industrial society with automation and globalization. In industrial countries, the rapid economic growth from the postmodern economy started in late 1970’s. 8.3.1. Individualistic Economy The shift to individualistic economy from adaptive economy was started by Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990) and Ronald Reagan (the President of the United States from 1981 to 1989). When European

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communism reached to its end in 1989, collectivistic economy was discredited, and there is no significant collectivistic economy in the postmodern economy. In America, after 1980, the shift to individualistic economy was brought by Ronald Reagan. The slogan was small government and low tax. The shift included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform. • the financial reform: Reagan and the subsequent presidents deregulated financial institutions. Banks were allowed to expand nationally and globally. Speculative investment banks were connected to deposit banks. The enforcement of the financial regulations was not strict. • the tax reform: Reduce tax rate, particularly the top tax rate and corporation tax • the income reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, labor unions were weakened, resulting in weak collectivistic bargaining and increased income inequality. There was little progress in public education, physical infrastructure, and health care to equalize income. • the environmental reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many environmental regulations were reversed or were not strictly enforced. • the social reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many minority rights were reversed or were not strictly enforced. The shift in addition to the application of the technological breakthrough in telecommunication and information established previously started economic boom globally from 1982 to 2007. The net worth of all U.S. households and business increased from $27 trillion in today’s dollars in 1980 to $57 trillion in 2007. Adjusting for inflation, more wealth was created in America in the twenty-five year boom than in the previous two hundred years. Productivity in American also improved, and was much higher than Europe. At the same time, economic inequality increased rapidly. Individualistic economy favors individualistic achievement, resulting in the hierarchy of income inequality based on individualistic achievement. In individualistic economy, collectivistic relation as expressed by collectivistic bargaining of workers and the public equalization through public education, public health care, and public physical infrastructure were stagnant or weakened. The result is the three decades of increasing income inequality. In addition to the economic policies of individualistic economy, the other two factors to bring about economic inequality are automation and globalization. During the globalization, the competitive advantage of the developed countries is knowledge-based technology that is lacking in under-developed countries. The high demand for the educated people in knowledge-based technology boosts the income for such educated people. In individualistic economy, the insufficient public education fund to meet the demand to produce educated people in knowledge-based technology creates two separated groups of people with and without sufficient education to earn high income. The last factor for economic inequality is the global competition in manufacturing particularly after 2000. The labor-intensive manufacturing inevitably has moved to low labor cost developing countries. In America, the labor-intensive manufacturing has been replaced by specialized manufacturing and advance manufacturing. Specialized manufacturing that is for specialized market requires specialized technology and modest

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capital. It is done by small to medium size industrial companies. Advanced manufacturing requires high automation, complex and high technology, and high capital. Before 2000, America was still strong in specialized manufacturing and advanced manufacturing that replaced labor intensive manufacturing. After 2000, other nations that have offered attractive markets, incentives, high skill labors, and low labor cost with the collectivistic efforts by governments, private business, and technological education have gradually moved significant portions of specialized manufacturing and advanced manufacturing away from America. After 2000, labor cost is no longer the dominant factor for outsourcing. Comparing with other nations, America government has not made significant effort to keep specialized manufacturing and advanced manufacturing to stay in America. However, most of the profit from such out-sourcing has remained in America to cause the enrichment of stockholders and executives in American manufacturing corporations and the loss of employment for manufacturing workers. The unemployed manufacturing workers become low-paid service sector workers to serve the rich stockholders and executives. A study from Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney67 reveals that the median earnings of men ages 25 to 64 declined 28 percent between 1969 and 2009.

Within this age group, the median earnings of men who completed high school but didn’t go on to college fell 47 percent, while the median earnings of male college graduates also declined, only 12 percent. (The calculation of earnings included zero income for the people without jobs.) To keep up with the normal living standard, women had to work. The twoincome family allowed the household earning to increase. In the report68 by the Congressional Budget Office a nonpartisan budget and tax analysis arm of Congress, in the last three decades, the United States has become a far more unequal nation. For the 1 percent of the population with the highest income, average real after-tax household income grew by 275 percent between 1979 and 2007. The next-highest 19 percent of earners saw their income grow by 65 percent over the same period. Income grew by just under 40 percent for the 60 percent of the population in the middle, while the 20 percent at the bottom of the scale saw income growth of only about 18 percent.

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In America, the income inequality69 as expressed by the share of total Income going to the top 10% before the financial crisis of 2008 is at about the same level as the economic inequality before the financial crisis of 1929.

In America, the income inequality as expressed by the share of total Income going to the top 1% before the financial crisis of 2008 is also at about the same level as the economic inequality before the financial crisis of 1929.

In postmodern individualistic economy, to stimulate fast economic growth, governmental regulation was at little as possible as shown in unregulated financial innovation. Technology innovation invented new technological products and methods that improve productivity and living standard. Financial innovation invented new financial instruments and institutions that improve financial investment from investors to

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invest in businesses or properties. The telecommunication and information revolution provided the means to create new financial instruments, such asset-backed security derived from and backed by a specified pool of underlying assets and credit default swaps (CDS) to insure asset-backed security. New technology also allowed the expansion of financial institutions and the interconnections among different financial instruments. Financial innovations outran the regulators’ ability to regulate them. As a result, many financial instruments were not transparent, financial institutions became too big to fail, and financial instruments and institutions became too interconnected to fail. Meanwhile, financial innovation also created giant financial institutions too big to fail and myriad financial interconnections too interconnected to fail, resulting in systemic risk where widespread failure is possible under economic stress. The business expansion with too big to fail and too interconnected to fail provided political and economic clout to encourage gigantic financial institutions to undergo excessive risk-taking with little fear of failure, resulting in the economic corruption by financial institutes. "Financial engineering" that invented new financial instruments replaced "real engineering" that invented new technology to improve productivity for real economic growth. In the US, financial services’ share of total corporate profits increased from 10% in the early 1980s to 40% in 2007. The stock market value of financial services firms increased from 6% in the early 1980s to 23% in 2007. Financial services absorb many highly talented people who could have otherwise worked for real economic growth. The inevitable of individualistic economy with economic inequality and fast growth without proper regulation is the economic corruption with debt and greed. In many developed countries, the year of 2000 started the decade of the economic corruption with debt and greed. Greed is excessive or rapacious desire, especially for wealth or possessions. The sources of greed come from irrational exuberance and loose ethics. Financial irrational exuberance is the belief in infinite and eternal profitable investment opportunities. Loose ethics takes advantage of other people deliberately for the financial gain of oneself. For example, a financial institution deliberately sold an unsustainable investment for the profit of the financial institution. The unsustainable investment had a short-term profit, and definitely was unsustainable in long term such as in Ponzi scheme. In the transition period of technology when there were a lot of confusion and irrational exuberance from economic growth, greed prevailed. The economic corruption was also shown in subprime mortgage. In the consumerism society, the middle-low income people in America went into credit card debt to keep up with the social consumption standard. There was virtually no saving for any investment. Meanwhile, the high income people had plenty of liquidity to invest. To bridge the shortage of liquidity to invest from the middle-low income people and the surplus of liquidity from the high income people, subprime mortgage and new financial instruments were invented by financial institutions. Subprime mortgage with very little initial payment and very low standard of qualification was a good way to invest in housing for the middle-low income people who were high in debt and low in asset. Financial institutions invented financial instruments to support such highly risky mortgage. Financial institutions issued mortgage-backed securities (MBS), which derived their value from mortgage payments and housing prices. Some securities contained such highly risky subprime mortgage. To protect such unsustainable securities, unsustainable credit default swaps (CDS) were issued. These innovative financial instruments were

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beyond the ability of the financial regulators to regulate. They were not transparent. The popularity of subprime mortgage created housing bubble that encouraged more subprime mortgage by the belief that the return from the rising housing price could cover the repayment of mortgage. The economic decline triggered by the rapid increase in oil price put stress in housing bubble. The collapse of the housing bubble led to collapse of subprime mortgage that depended on rising housing price. The collapse of subprime mortgage brought about the collapse of MBS and CDS that caused some large financial institutions to bankrupt or to be rescued by governments. The result from the combination of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed is the financial crisis in 2008. The combination of income inequality, financial innovation, and greed also caused the financial crisis in 1929. The levels of income inequality are the same for the years before both financial crises. For the financial crisis in 1929, the financial innovation was the high leverage investment in the stock market for the middle-low income people, and greed was the unethical manipulation of stock market. The depressed housing market led to the loss of purchasing power of many middle-low income people, resulting in the excess of consumer goods and service. The excess brought about the close of consumer production plants and stores, resulting in high unemployment. The result is the Great Recession. 8.3.2. Adaptive Economy Adaptive economy combines both collectivistic economy and individualistic economy. Adaptive economy involves economic evolutionary change in cohesive society to adapt to sustainable economy. The three parts in adaptive economy are economic evolutionary change, cohesive society, and sustainable economy. 8.3.2.1. Economic Adaptive Change In biological evolutionary change, the evolved system is the old system with new emphases and de-emphases. 99% of DNA is identical for chimpanzee and human. All mammals have same patterns of hands and feet with different emphases and de-emphases. In DNA, the switches turn on and off the genes that encode proteins. All mammals have mostly the same genes with different switches that emphasize certain genes and deemphasize other genes. Adaptive economy involves economic evolutionary change similar to biological evolutionary change. It is not economic revolutionary change that replaces old system with new system. In economic evolutionary change, the evolved economic system is the old economic system with new economic emphases and de-emphases. Adaptive economic change allows collectivistic economy to incorporate individualistic economy and individualistic economy to incorporate collectivistic economy, resulting in the unification of collectivistic economy and individualistic economy. Institutional efficacy is more important than institutional purity. For example, in America, President Franklin Roosevelt added Social Security tax to the existing old general tax for infrastructure, law enforcement, and defense, so the public sector in addition to the existing old private sector (family and community) is responsible for income redistribution to help the people of old-age, survivors, and

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disability. Without the revolutionary change in income redistribution, American society emphasizes the existing public role, and deemphasizes the existing private role to help the people of old-age, survivors, and disability. For less than two years after the Great Recession, American economy adopted adaptive economy like the one by Franklin Roosevelt to repair the damage done by individualistic economy. However, the strong force of individualistic economy has pushed back adaptive economy. Now American economy is in an impasse. China has adopted economic evolutionary change in adaptive economy. In China, the government emphasizes growth-oriented modern corporation structures and highly decentralized (localized) competitive network in public owned corporations existed in socialistic China. Without revolutionary change to become a capitalistic society, the growing, modern, decentralized (localized), and competitive public owned corporations behave like private owned corporations in capitalistic society. Furthermore, parts of equities in 80% public owned companies are sold in the stock markets in China and overseas. The big industries consist of largely public owned corporations that account for about one-third of GDP. Private Chinese and foreign owned companies that employ 80% of Chinese workers dominate small and medium sized businesses, particularly, in the light manufacturing sector and the non-financial service sector. For example, Yum Brands, an American company, now has over 4,500 restaurants in China, largely the very popular KFC, and China revenue comprised 50 percent of total company revenue for the full year of 2011. At the same time, the central government uses all the economic tools in capitalistic society to monitor and adjust national economy for maintaining a balanced budget and keeping inflation in check. Different developing countries have different old system and desirable evolved system, so there is no fixed formula for economic reform. The fixed formulas from international financial institutions and foreign governments that dictate the content and speed of economic reforms typically destroy local socioeconomic structures. Economic reform in China followed a sequential approach: first in agricultural sector, then in foreign trade and investment sectors and then in industry. The financial sector has remained under the control of state and limited reform. Adaptive economy allows Chinese economy to become the second largest economy in the world. Inevitably, many problems and adjustments occur in adaptive economy as the old Chinese saying “crossing a river by feeling the stones 摸着石头过河” that is the mode of economic reform in China. The Chinese government carries out surveys of public opinion to gauge the impact and popularity of its policies70 reflecting a dedication to “constant tinkering”. The problems now include pervasive government corruption, inefficient financial sector, over-dependence on exports and fixed investment for growth, the lack of rule of law, severe pollution, widening income disparities, and a huge industrial overcapacity. To achieving institutional efficacy, the adjustments are necessary to deal with these problems. Another example of adaptive economy is Agenda 2010 71 started in 2003 in Germany to reform the welfare system, the labor laws, and other systems. Agenda 2010 was done before any financial crisis, so it was German economic formula without international financial institutions and foreign governments to dictate the content and speed of economic reforms. Germany made pensions and health insurance more flexible

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and placed greater emphasis on the responsibility of the individual in keeping costs down. Germany's short-time working program played an important role, where the state now shares the costs with industry to keep skilled workers on the payroll during economic downturns, thus enabling them to scale up quickly when the economy picks up. At the same time, Germany raised expenditures in education, research and innovation. This gave a further boost to German industrial base. Germany has been able to keep the increase in labor cost down and the increase in productivity up. Agenda 2010 increased the poverty level in Germany, but it benefited most Germans. Germany is now the best situated of all European economies. In the last few years Germany has managed to reduce the number of unemployed by around 40 percent while at the same time raising exports by around 50 percent despite the mounting global financial crisis. 8.3.2.2. Cohesive Society Any change creates conflicts that can be minimized in cohesive society, so adaptive economy with economic evolutionary change is possible only in cohesive society. There are many models of cohesive society. The three examples are the American Model, the German Model, and the Chinese Model. American Model The American Model is derived from American values based on fairness, affordable opportunity, and work ethic. Fairness is stated in the United States Declaration of Independence, We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. America treats all people fairly. Growing loss of fairness can lead to loss of trust in government, declining political participation, and political polarization, resulting in erosion of social cohesion. Without the sense of fairness, the super-wealthy people can become disconnected from the common welfare, and can lose whatever empathy they may once have had. In the name of economic growth, the increasing economic inequality by racing to the top earnings and the top tax reduction for the rich and racing to the bottom wages for the poor and the middle classes considerably damage the sense of fairness. The rich gets richer, and the poor gets poorer. In terms of wealth distribution, there are three different principles of fairness: the principles of equity, egalitarianism, and need. According to the principle of equity, a fair economic system is one that distributes goods to individuals in proportion to their input in terms of productivity by ability and hard work. People who produce more or better products should be paid more for their efforts than should people who produce less. The distribution by the principle of equity may not succeed in meeting the needs of all members of society. According to the principle of egalitarianism, the fairest allocation is one that distributes benefits and burdens equally among all parties regardless of differences in productivity and need. According to the principle of need, group members get what they need. Thus poor people would get more money, and richer people would get less. While the principle of equity tends to foster productivity, principles of ,

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egalitarianism and need tend to stress the importance of positive interpersonal relationships and a sense of belonging among society members. The adaptive fair distributive economy is based on the adaptive combination of all three principles of fairness. Under different conditions, different combinations of the three principles are different. When productivity falls behind during economic competition, the principle of equity is to be placed in higher priority. When inequality becomes extreme high, and aggregate demand from middle-low income people becomes low, the principles of egalitarianism and need are to be placed in higher priority. The outcome of the adaptive fair distributive economy must be under tight control with respect to national debt, interest rate, personal debt, and inflation, so the adaptive fair distributive economy promotes both social cohesion and economic sustainability. Another application of fairness is the business ethics standard where justice is applicable to every one. In this way, all people’s rights are protected, the corruption is punished, and the conflicts of interest are avoided. Fairness generates the adaptive fair distributive economy and the business ethics standard as the two of the requirements of social cohesion. Affordable opportunity is written on the base of the Statue of Liberty. Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door. America provides affordable opportunities for all people. In the postmodern knowledgebased society, affordable opportunity is the affordable basic education and health care. A good education involves the combination of knowledge, technical skill, social skill, and discipline. Mathematics and science education are important for the postmodern technology. Affordable opportunities for all people also include affordable health care for all people, so all people do not lose opportunities by unaffordable basic health care expense. One way to have affordable basic education and health care to reduce the cost by adding new information technology and automation technology to basic education and health care systems. The Puritans who set sail for America in 1630’s introduced work ethic to America for religious reasons and for the survival of the emigrants in an unfamiliar land. Hard work merits success. For Americans, economic success is both a privilege and a welldeserved reward for hard work. The continuous incoming of emigrants to America have kept the tradition of work ethic. In cohesive society, all able people work to contribute to society that rewards the people who work. Able people feel worthless without work. Work ethic generates the public employment policy with respect to full employment and retirement. Work ethic is proportional to employment rate and retirement age. High employment rate means that people want to work, and society rewards work. It is important to keep high employment rate. In some countries, to keep high employment rate, employers avoid having to implement layoffs to offset the effect of the recession, employing practices like “labor hoarding” which reduces working hours and requires workers to work part-time and share job shifts. In some places, governments encourage such employment practice by paying a part of wages. In this way, employers are able to keep skilled and experienced employees.

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The U.S. and Europe have to make hard choices because of two things: slower growth and aging populations. In America, the average male retirement age fell from 74 years in 1910 to 64 years in 2010. The retirement behavior of men and women is now very similar. Today, retirement is typically an extended period of self-financed independence and leisure. The most likely explanation for the rise of retirement is the overall increase in income, both from labor market earnings, pensions, and Social Security. Another reason is that leisure has become much cheaper over the last century. Such retirement for leisure is contrary to work ethic. Society bears a heavy burden to support able retirees who are able to work. In some countries, societies have to go into heavy debt to support retirees. To reduce the social burden, retirement age should be extended. In some countries, employers offer older employees the option to work part time after a certain age, allowing younger employees to advance. Government can also provide work opportunities in helping local economy, such as local education, local environmental improvement, and local recycling. The typical U.S. household headed by a person age 65 or older has a net worth 47 times greater than a household headed by someone under 35, according to an analysis of Census data released on 7 November 201172. It is more than double what it was in 2005 and nearly five times the 10-to-1 disparity a quartercentury ago, after adjusting for inflation. To assist young generation, it is important for older people to maintain work ethic and to reduce economic burden. Social cohesion consists of fairness, affordable opportunity, and work ethic. Fairness generates the requirements of the adaptive fair distributive economy and the business ethics standard. Affordable opportunity generates the requirement of the affordable basic education and heath care. Work ethic generates the requirement of the public employment policy. Social cohesion requires effective leaderships, negotiation, implementation, and “Economic Majority”. The return to social cohesion requires effective leaderships for social cohesion, the hard and skillful negotiation among conflicting groups, the comprehensive legislatures and institutions to bring about social cohesion, and the vocal “Economic Majority” to reject extremists, to revive the middle class, and to support social cohesion based on fairness, affordable opportunity, and work ethic. German Model The German model is the consensus model between the collectivistic social groups and the individualistic social groups. German Model
regulation financing industry board of directors vocational education collectivistic social group regulatory bodies banks works council schools individualistic social group affected corporations industrial corporations management corporations

The German model seeks to harmonize relations between regulatory bodies representing collectivistic social group and affected corporations representing individualistic social group. In financing industry, banks play major role to finance

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industry. Banks represent collectivistic social group for long-term community economy, industrial corporations represent individualistic social group for profit. In the boards of directors, works councils representing collectivistic social group are groups selected from among employees, and have a significant role in day-to-day operations. Unions bargain for wages, and work with members of works councils. In companies with more than 2,000 employees, the workers elect 50% of the members of the board of directors, which they call co-determination. This gives them a significant voice in the overall approach of German businesses. The average compensation for a manufacturing worker in Germany is 50 percent higher than USA, while the average pay of executives in Germany is much lower. In Germany, vocational education emphasizes apprenticeships for skilled positions, taught by expert worker/instructors in companies. The close cooperation between schools representing collectivistic social group and companies representing individualistic social group allows a much lower percentage of youth unemployment and a much lower percentage of persons entering the workforce for on-the-job training. The German model as the consensus model between collectivistic social groups and individualistic social groups prevents severe conflict between collectivistic political party and individualistic political party. The minimization of social-political conflicts allows adaptive economy to thrive. Chinese Model The world worldview in the East is the unified world worldview, so the political system in China was traditionally nonpartisan as the moral meritocratic political system based on Confucianism. It was in effect in China for about two thousand years under the emperors from different dynasties and even different ethnic groups until the early part of the 20th century. (It is the longest continuous political system in the world.) In China, the political system is nonpartisan. The Chinese model based on nonpartisan meritocratic political system provides the cohesive society that allows adaptive economy to thrive. It will be discussed in details in the next chapter. 8.3.2.3. Sustainable Economy The goal of adaptive economy in a cohesive society is sustainable economy. Sustainable economy includes cohesive society, economic robustness and environmental protection. Economic Robustness The factors in economic robustness are automation, globalization, diversification, innovation, and localization. Automation and globalization derived from the combination of modern industrial technology and postmodern information technology are the bases for the postmodern economy. The countries outside of automation and globalization do not have significant economic growth. The eight requirements for basic economic robustness of automation and globalization are infrastructure (transportation, communication, and electricity), higher education and training, efficient financial source (equity market and bank), efficient labor source (labor-employer relations, wage, and productivity), efficient free market (establishment of business and competition), large market size (GDP and export), global corporations (effective global corporations for development, supply, production,

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and marketing), and technology (industrial technology, information technology, and other technologies). The three requirements for the advanced economic robustness are diversification, innovation, and localization. The economy of some countries that rely on single natural resource revenue is exposed to global volatile price fluctuation. A high level of volatility hinders sustainable economic growth, because periods of prosperity generally do not fully offset the negative structural effects of bad times. The single natural resource revenue benefits mostly few privileged people. Such unstable economy and society hinder sustainable economic growth. Stable economy and society require economic diversification. Economic diversification requires physical infrastructure, technical skills, knowledge of outlet markets and access to finance. Economic growth is driven by new technologies and its widespread applications. Historically, half of productivity growth comes from new technology. Innovation consists of technological breakthrough stage and technological development stage. Technological breakthrough is to invent a completely new technology. Initially, the product from technological breakthrough is costly and restricted in application. Technological development involves reducing cost, improving the capacity, and expanding the application of the products from technological breakthrough. For example, the microprocessor was invented in the early part of the 1970s, but it really wasn't economically significant because of high cost and restricted application. It took many years of the technological development for microprocessor to become low cost, high capacity, and widespread application to bring about significant economic growth. The most significant technological development is to combine many technologies together to produce a product that can attract widespread usages. Innovation in education, health care, and elder care is urgently needed to control and reduce the cost by increasing productivity through innovation. Innovation requires public and private research and development institutes, the sufficient supply of scientists and engineers, patent law, and intellectual property protection. Economic localization brings production and consumption as close as possible to save cost and energy for transportation, to minimize the influence of global instability, and to maintain stable employment. Economic localization faces many difficulties. A difficulty of economic localization is that economics of production are based on economics of scale and network effects. The cost of production goes down when the scale of production reaches high level. Many related productions locate in the same area to bring about network effects for efficient productions. As a result, different products are made in different locations. Other difficulties involve different locations of different raw materials and different labor sources. Therefore, with all these different locations for different products, economic localization to bring production and consumption as close as possible is limited in an affluent society. It takes considerable efforts to bring about economic localization. For advanced countries, the economic localization of manufacturing can be realized by highly automated manufacturing to minimize labor costs in the high-wage advanced countries. The economic localization of energy can be done by renewable solar and wind energies that are available locally. Modular production allows the finished products to be completed near the places of consumption. Such products by modular production can be recycled locally.

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The requirements for cohesive society and economic robustness for sustainable economic growth follow closely the requirements for economic competitiveness in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2011 and 2012 73 where the top ten countries are Switzerland, Singapore, Sweden, Finland, United States, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Japan, and United Kingdom. The additional requirements for sustainable economic growth are the public employment policy, diversification, and localization as well as four requirements in environmental protection described below. Environmental Protection The four requirements in environmental protection are conservation, antipollution, sustainable material by the sustainable modular production, and sustainable energy by the sustainable smart grid. One major way to conserve is to reduce consumption. Excessive consumption is consumerism that is emphasis on or preoccupation with the acquisition of consumer goods and services for individuals. After World War II, the United States faced the problems of finding work for the fifteen million men and women coming home from war, the obsolete production facilities that were used to produce weapons, and the lack of export to other war-torn countries which were unable to buy. American government decided to enforce full employment and to stimulate the non-war consumption internally to solve all these problems. It employed the GI Bill, the 1946 Full Employment Act, the abolition of Blue laws, the tax deductibility of interest on installment buying, and other measures to encouraged borrowing and buying. Consequently, between 1945 and 1960, installment credit grew by a factor of 11 and household debt nearly doubled. America enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity for a quarter century after the war. Advertisement was increasingly used to stimulate the desire to consume. It was the start of consumerism. American consumption as a percent of GDP has increased from 58 percent in the 1950s to 71 percent. This compares to about 67 percent for the European Union, 60 percent for Japan, and only 40 percent for China. Popular trend is another factor cause in consumerism. Consumerism becomes popular only recently. Two hundred years ago, most common American basically had one dress for the week and one dress for church. They worked very hard for barely enough food and small houses. They had very little discretionary income. In the traditional society with limited resource, the popular consumption trend did not change for hundreds years, resulting in insignificant popular trend. In the consumerism society, the popular trend changes practically yearly, resulting in significant popular trend. The spread of the popular trend is fast. To be a part of society, a person must follow closely popular trend, because the life becomes difficult outside of popular trend. An item that starts as an optional consumption can become necessity when most people own it. Consumerism is detrimental to environment by excessive material-energy consumption, resulting in material unsustainability. Most products turn into waste. A small percentage of them are recycled. Americans' total yearly waste would fill a convoy of garbage trucks long enough to wrap around the earth six times and reach halfway to the moon. It is estimated that several hundreds million tons of waste are generated by Americans in a year. With limited resource of raw material and energy, such waste and high energy consumption cause unsustainability. One major way to conserve is to reduce consumption. One way to reduce excessive consumption is the VAT (value-added tax) for nonessential goods and service. The VAT is a consumption tax that taxes the value added by

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businesses at each point in the production chain. About 150 countries have a VAT. It comes in different shapes and sizes, ranging from 5 percent in Japan to 25 percent in Sweden. A Vat as a part of tax favors production over consumption. Another advantage is in the international economic competition in export. All countries that employ a VAT either exempt exports from the VAT or rebate the entire VAT paid on exports. Similarly, all countries that levy a VAT also levy the VAT on their imports. Another requirement for environmental protection is antipollution. Technology improves living standard. At the same time, technology has undesirable side effect: pollution that is harmful to human health, other species’ heath, and environment. Excessive pollution is unsustainable. Antipollution is necessary to minimizes pollution, and protect human, other species, and environment. In the individualistic materialistic society, there is strong resistance to antipollution, because antipollution is costly and time-consuming, retarding economic growth. The resistance to anti-pollution is based on the resistance to the awareness of pollution, the acceptable cost of antipollution device, and clean alternative technology. The awareness of pollution involves extensive investigation and testing. The resistance to the awareness of pollution is the resistance to extensive investigation and test that is costly and time-consuming, retarding economic growth. The resistance also involves the resistance to accept the result of investigation and testing. At the early stage of industrialization when the speed of technological progress was fast, the society as a whole was not aware of the highly polluted environment. Now there is strong resistance to recognize the man-made global warming from carbon dioxide. The man-made global warming is here to significantly affect the earth. According to NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 2011 is among most extreme weather years in history. The devastating string of severe tornadoes, droughts, heat, wildfires and floods hit many parts of the world. Globally, 2010 is tie for the hottest year, and the wettest year. In the last decade, nine years out of ten years are the warmest years since weather record was kept in 1880. The extreme weather events, such as floods in Pakistan, Australia, and Sri Lanka, have become common. The environmental chaos from global warming becomes reality. Other than extreme weather events, higher ocean temperatures are killing off the coral reefs that harbor a quarter of the sea’s life at a record pace. The loss of arctic ice endangers polar bears. It is urgent for antipollution, including carbon dioxide. Two other requirements for environmental protection are sustainable material by the sustainable modular production and sustainable energy by the sustainable smart grid. Both of them relates to economic localization, because the sustainable modular production recycles local products, and the sustainable smart grid uses local energy source. In the modern and the postmodern societies, mass production and mass distribution dramatically increase centralization, and stimulate mass consumption. Globalization produces global centers for various segments of industry. The major system for production, distribution, and consumption is the linear centralized unsustainable system as follows.

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Linear Centralized System of Production and Distribution raw material part supplier new parts central mass producer new product general recycling center central mass distributor new product recyclable items consumer waste waste dump Raw materials are processed by part suppliers to make new parts. New parts are processed in centralized mass producers to make new products. New products are shipped to the mass centralized distributors who distribute new products to customers. In such centralized mass production and distribution, products can be made in high quantity, high quality, and low cost. It is highly efficient way to produce and distribute products. On the other hand, it is a highly wasteful system. Recycling is actually not easy in this linear centralized system where centralized production, centralized distribution, and localized consumption are separated in different places. High cost transportation and inefficient logistics for recycling make recycling impractical. Most products turn into waste. A small percentage of them are recycled. Americans' total yearly waste would fill a convoy of garbage trucks long enough to wrap around the earth six times and reach halfway to the moon. It is estimated that several hundreds million tons of waste are generated by Americans in a year. Sustainable material is possible by the sustainable modular production. The sustainable modular production minimizes the waste. The products in the sustainable modular production are designed to be the combinations of modular units that can be easily assembled and disassembled. Different products in the same category can be assembled as the various different combinations of modular units, so one modular unit can be used in different products. When a product is no longer useful, the product can be easily disassembled into modular units that can be reused to make a new product or recycled into raw material74. The whole production and distribution system is as follows.

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Sustainable Modular Production with Reusing and Recycling raw materials supplier part supplier new parts raw material reusable parts

central producer new modular units reusable modular units

general recycling center

recyclable parts

local producer used product

new product

central distributor new product used product

local retailer new product recyclable parts used product

consumer

Raw materials are processed by part suppliers to make new parts. New parts are processed in centralized mass producers to make new modular units instead products. Modular units are the assembled units of the parts for as for easy assembly and repair or flexible arrangement and use. It is important to reduce the number of modular units used in a product, to make the assembling of modular units into products easier, and to make the product easier to take apart for repair and reusing or recycling at the end of its useful life. Each modular unit has a barcode for identification. With the information technology, modular units can also be identified by photography. The public sector and the private sector set the standard for modular units. Currently, computer companies use modularity design to overcome changing customer demands and to make the manufacturing process more adaptive to change. Examples of modular systems are cars, computers, high-rise buildings, railroad signaling systems, telephone exchanges, pipe organs and electric power distribution systems. The modular units should be as durable as possible. Modular units can be assembled into products easily without specific high technical tools and techniques. Such modular units are shipped to small local producer who assembles modular units in the modular production network75. There can be many small local producers to assemble modular units in many locations. Such small local producers can be multipurpose producers to assemble different products, such as assembling all electronic products such as computers, radio, and television etc in one location. In this way,

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production is decentralized to promote local economy and employment. Almost 1/3 of the waste generated the U.S. is packaging. It is important to use reusable standard package for new products as much as possible to minimize waste. The idea of local producer was promoted by Ratan Tata for the Nano car of Tata Motors in July, 2008 The first thing I would like to do is get a mature product in the Indian market and seed this market effectively. My aim was that I would produce a certain volume of cars and create a very low cost, very low break-even-point plant that a young entrepreneur could buy. A bunch of entrepreneurs could establish an assembly operation and Tata Motors would train their people, would oversee their quality assurance and they would become satellite assembly operations for us. So we would create entrepreneurs across the country that would produce the car. We would produce the mass items and ship it to them as kits. That is my idea of dispersing wealth. Electric car with simple components is particularly suitable for local production from modular units. The Think City electric car is built from prefabricated parts, allowing Think to place its factories near key markets. New products from local producer can be shipped to retailer directly or to central mass distributor. Central mass distributor ships new products to local retailer. Local retailer can be fairly independent and small. Distribution is decentralized to neighborhood. The store sells actual new products, and also takes orders for new products to accommodate the small space of store. It is important to make ordering new products as easy as purchasing new products. A customer can simply pick up a secured bar-coded pictured ordering card for ordering. A number of nearby retailers can form a network to sell different brands in different retailers. In this way, customers can buy and order new products in nearby neighborhood stores instead of giant stores far away. Retailers can act as the place for both selling new products and collecting used products. Customers go to store with used products, get credits for such used products, and come back home with new products. In the same way, central distributor goes to retailer with new products, and comes back with used products. Central distributor then goes to local producer with used products, and comes back with new products. For local producer, used products can be disassembled into useful modular units to be used in new products and recyclable parts to be recycled into raw material. The reused modular units reduces the cost of modular units to counter any wage disadvantages that local producer has. Local producer takes some difficult reusable modular units that require specific tool and technique for repair to central producer, and comes back with new modular units. Local producer takes un-repairable parts to general recycling center. Central producer takes the modular units that cannot be repaired to supplier, and comes back with new parts. Supplier takes un-repairable parts to raw material supplier and comes back with raw material. Therefore, all trips are loaded round-trip to make low cost transportation and efficient logistics for recycling. General recycling center recycles parts into useful raw materials that are shipped to raw material supplier. Instead of being potential waste, new products are potential parts and raw materials for future new products. The minimization of waste makes sustainability possible for both central economy and local economy. This sustainable modular production with

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reusing and recycling can promote local economy and employment. Local producers produce products locally. The used product itself becomes the potential parts and raw materials for local production. The energy used for production is minimized by reusing and recycling. The sustainable modular production helps developing countries to develop local industrialization, and developed countries to stabilize local economy. At the same time, the minimum usage of energy for production helps to slow global warming. The decentralization of industry can also minimize the economic impact by the loss of high industry areas due to global warming and disasters. To encourage the sustainable modular production, local community can give the local retailers and the local producers that participate in the sustainable modular production special tax abatement. In the traditional centralized power grid, power is concentrated in a select number of central power stations that distribute electricity to consumers as needed and according to priorities during periods of peak demand. The goal is to please the most and dissatisfy the least. The existing centralized power structure with central power station prevails and remains unchallenged. The centralized power grind is more efficient than decentralization. It enables location optimization (accessible to energy resources) and less management/industrial overhead per energy produced. Centralized Unsustainable Energy System central power station energy consumers All electrical distribution systems today are designed on the assumption that power flows one way from the central power station to the consumers. The design of the transformers, meters, breakers and monitoring equipment all assume power flows in this one direction. It is difficult to add energy to this one-direction system in the middle of the network. The one-direction in the centralized distribution is rigid. The centralized distribution system is also wasteful. A typical large power station wastes over a third of its fuel by simply heating up the atmosphere. A further 10% of this is wasted in transmission and distribution, meaning less than half of the fuel is used productively by the consumer. It is also difficult to add renewable clean energy to the centralized power system. Typically, abundant renewable clean energy locates far away from the consumers, so it has to build expensive infrastructure to bring renewable clean energy to the consumers. Consequently, the introduction of renewable clean energy is slow in the centralized power system. The rigidity, the waste, and the infrastructure cost in the centralized energy system result in the unsustainable system. The situation of the centralized energy system is very similar to something seen in the centralized computing system before the emergence of personal computer. In that the centralized computing system, all data storage and processing are in the central computer, which provides data for consumers in terminals. In the same way, all energy storage and

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processing are in the central power station which provides energy for consumers in terminals. The current computing system is the unified computing system consisting of the central computer and personal computer both of which store and process data. This unified computing system allows tremendous expansion of data in terms of information. In the same way, the unified energy system consisting of central power station and personal power station can allow tremendous expansion of energy, particularly, renewable clean energy, as the diagrams below. The Integrated Computing System with Bi-directional Data central computer data personal computer The Sustainable Smart Grid with Bi-directional Information and energy Flow central power station information-energy personal power station Sustainable energy is possible by the sustainable smart power grid. The sustainable power grid is the sustainable smart grid with bi-directional information and energy flow. It is the combination of traditional centralized energy source, information technology, and nontraditional local energy source. In the sustainable affluent energy system, the central power station generates energy (electricity) in the conventional ways such as coal and gas. It is assisted by auxiliary power station that uses renewable clean energy. Electricity from the central power station goes to customers through personal power station. The comparison between computer and power station is as follows. Computer and power station comparison
Computer Data central computer personal computer data storage Processor operating system such as Windows Multi-media Power station Energy central power station personal power station power storage Transformer (AC-DC charger) operating system such as DSM multi-energy sources

auxiliary power station

The smart grid with bi-directional information flow allows the grid to gather, distribute, and act on information about the behavior of both suppliers and consumers in order to improve the efficiency, importance, reliability, economics, and sustainability of
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electricity services. The communication of information is through Broadband over Power Line (BPL) communications or wireless technologies such as mesh networking. Some cities already installed the smart grid with bi-directional information flow. The advantages include the enhancement of reliability, the reduction of peak demand, the shifting of usage to off-peak hours, and reduction of energy consumption. The smart grid with bi-directional energy flow in addition to bi-directional information flow allows personal power station sell energy back to the grid through netmetering to the grid. The inclusion of personal power station to incorporate resources like residential solar panels and small wind will spark a revolution in the energy industry by allowing small players like individual homes and small businesses to sell power to their neighbors or back to the grid as discussed by The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World 76 by Jeremy Rifkin who claims that the five pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution are (1) shifting to renewable energy; (2) transforming the building stock of every continent into micropower plants to collect renewable energies on-site; (3) deploying storage technologies in every building and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies; (4) using Internet technology to transform the power grid of every continent into an energy-sharing intergrid that acts just like the Internet (when millions of buildings are generating a small amount of energy locally, on-site, they can sell surplus back to the grid and share electricity with their continental neighbors); and (5) transitioning the transport fleet to electric plug-in and fuel cell vehicles that can buy and sell electricity on a smart, continental, interactive power grid. Excess electricity generated by central power station and personal power station can be stored in battery. The core of personal computer consists of data storage such as hard disk and processor that transforms data in and out of data storage. In the same way, the core of personal power station consists of energy storage such as battery and transformer that transform electric current in and out of energy storage. There are a number of options for battery. One is to convert energy to hydrogen that can be stored for future usage. The recent breakthrough in sodium sulfur battery by Ceramatec 77 allows a viable battery for personal power station. The batteries, which can be ramped to store up to 20 kilowatt-hours of electricity, will be ready for market testing in 2011, and will sell for about $2,000. Another option is relatively low cost, durable and safe lithium iron phosphate battery that is used in electric car and possible battery in the smart grid78. In the future, lithium battery can be used both in electric car and in the energy storage at home for the smart grid as proposed in Norway79. The operating system such as Window in personal computer is to manage data movement. The operating system such as DSM (Demand Side Management) in personal power station is to manage energy movement. DSM is a control box for distributing electricity where it is needed in terms of usage and storage. For example, in the case that personal power station is used merely as a backup for central power station, if the batteries are fully charged and the system is charging, when there is a demand on the system the charge bypasses the batteries and goes directly to the load. If the batteries are low, the electric goes to the battery bank and the demand is drawn from the batteries. DMS saves on battery life, stored electricity, and provides less use of batteries. Different programs in the operating system can be set for different purposes of personal power station.

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In personal computer, data sources are multiple, including keyboard, audio, video, and telecommunication. In personal power station, energy sources are multiple, including energy from central power station, cost effective micro-CHP (combined heat and power), wind, solar power, and bio-energy (anaerobic digestion to generate methane gas). Micro-CHP systems use natural gas generators to produce electricity for homes. The heat from the electrical generator is then used either to create hot water or hot air, which is then used to heat the home. It replaces gas forced-air furnace. Because of this combined efficiency, a micro-CHP is 3 times more efficient than electricity delivered over the grid. If the price of gas is lower than electricity, during winter, a micro-CHP can essentially replaces the central power station that then serves as a backup power source. The micro-CHP is not permanently sustainable, unlike systems like wind or solar. But it is a much more efficient method of addressing the energy needs of a home and small commercial building. During summer, when the day is long, solar energy rather than micro-CHP becomes the main energy source. Wind energy from micro-wind turbines can be used at any season. Personal computer, initially, was expensive and slow. The increasing popularity of personal computer allows increasingly larger data storage capacity, faster processor, more versatile operating system and multi-media, smaller size, and lower cost. In the same way, the increasing popularity of personal power station allows increasingly larger energy storage capacity, faster transformer, more versatile operating system and multienergy source, smaller size, and lower cost. In the future, all buildings will be ready for personal power station to place battery and multi-energy sources as a part of building code. As a whole new industry has been build around personal computer (PC), a whole new industry will be built around personal power station (PPS). The usage of renewable clean energy will grow exponentially. The Requirements for Sustainable Economic Growth
requirements cohesive society fairness affordable opportunity work ethic economic robustness basic robustness (automation and globalization) advanced robustness environmental protection adaptive fair distributive economy business ethics standard affordable basic education and health care public employment policy infrastructure, higher education and training, efficient financial source, efficient labor source, efficient free market, large market size, global corporations, and technology diversification, innovation, localization conversion, antipollution, sustainable material by the sustainable modular production and sustainable energy by the sustainable smart grid

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9. The Postmodern Political System
There are many forms of government for the states of large population of more than 100,000 people. In ancient democratic Athens government (508-507 BCE), the population was about 300,000, and about 15% of population could vote. During and after the American Revolution in 1776, the people who could vote included only white Protestant males who owned property, and excluded women, poor people, indentured servants, Catholics, Jews, slaves from Africa, and Native Americans. Only about 6 percent of the population of the brand-new United States chose George Washington to be the country's first president in 1789. After the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) a nominal right to vote. Women could not vote until 1920. Full enfranchisement of citizens was not secured until after the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) gained passage by the United States Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It took about two hundred years of growth and change in the United States for full democracy to happen. 9.1. Democracy and Meritocracy In a unified society of large population, the best individualistic politics in individualistic-oriented society is democracy, and the best collectivistic politics in collectivistic-oriented society is meritocracy. The formations of government for both political systems are based on freedom and equality. For democracy, everyone is free and equal according to number, and majority rules. For meritocracy, everyone is free and equal according to professional merit, and consensus rules. The mechanism for democracy is election by votes from individuals, while the mechanism for meritocracy is professional merit system by education and job performance. The professional merit system for government officials is like any other professional merit systems for military officers, doctors, lawyers, scientists, engineers, accountants, and business administrators. Democracy allows individual expression in individualistic-oriented society, while meritocracy allows the best policy for collectivistic wellbeing in collectivistic-oriented society. Democracy works well in government. Meritocracy works well in both government and large corporation. A large corporation has a collectivistic goal that is to produce certain products and services, so a large corporation is a collectivistic society. In a large corporation, people move to the top positions mostly by education and job performance. Most decisions are made by consensus instead of majority rule. A democratic large corporation is too messy and inefficient to exist. An example of democracy is America. Examples of meritocracy are the Confucian China, China after the economic reform in 1978, and Singapore. Derived from individualistic-oriented society that involves competition from individuals, a modern democracy for a large population engages inevitably partisan competition from political parties that typically include individualistic political party and collectivistic political party. Democracy becomes partisan political system based on free and equal election controlled by individualistic political party and collectivistic political party. In the postmodern unified democracy as partisan unified political system is the

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peaceful coexistence of the collectivistic and the individualistic political parties to represent the collectivistic and individualistic societies, respectively. Derived from collectivistic-oriented society that involves collectivistic goals from individuals, a modern meritocracy for a large population engages inevitably nonpartisan competition that typically has only one political institute for the professional merit system to represent both individualistic and collectivistic societies. Meritocracy becomes nonpartisan political system based on free and equal professional merit system controlled by one political institute. In the postmodern unified meritocracy as nonpartisan unified political system, the state represents politically both the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. Different cultures produce different suitable political systems. The best political system for individualistic-oriented society is democracy, and the best political system for collectivistic-oriented society is meritocracy. It is tragic to impose unsuitable foreign political system arbitrarily. The imposition of democracy in a collectivistic-oriented society results in zero-sum competition leading to chaotic society. Basically, in collectivistic-oriented society, individuals identify strongly with group instead of individual self, so in democratic system, the democratic election process turns into the polarized competition among groups, resulting in inefficient government or zero-sum violent sectarian civil war. Even in mature democracy such as in the United States, zerosum political polarization where individuals strongly identify with polarized groups occurs. It is better to transform authoritarian government in collectivistic society into meritocracy to benefit all people without sectarian conflict. The imposition of meritocracy in individualistic-oriented society results in the rebellion of common individuals against the domination of public sector based on arbitrary merit. When the domination of public sector over private sector becomes excessive, meritocracy collapses by the revolt of people. It is better to allow people in individualistic-oriented society to have individual expression in election. Political System
politics base formation of government mechanism Democracy individualistic politics freedom and equality number and majority rule election based on vote • political parties control election partisan unified system the United States partisan unified political system zero-sum partisan competition • • • Meritocracy collectivistic politics freedom and equality professional merit and consensus professional merit system based on education and job performance one political institute controls professional merit system nonpartisan unified system China and large corporation nonpartisan unified political system weak private sector

unified system example postmodern system downfall

9.2. Democracy - Partisan Unified Political System

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The partisan unified political system is the main model of political system in the West. It was developed in the modern period. One example is the Modern Partisan Unified Society in America. 9.2.1. Modern American Partisan Unified Society The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political organizations, mainly because most of the founding fathers disliked them. They wanted individual citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups. Yet, major and minor political parties and groups soon arose. By the 1790s, the followers of Alexander Hamilton, the Hamiltonian faction, took up the name "Federalist"; they favored a strong central government that would support the interests of commerce and industry. The followers of Thomas Jefferson as AntiFederalists took up the name "Democratic-Republicans" They preferred a decentralized agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. Immediately, the predecessors of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed. Since the 1790s the country has been run by two major parties The three-branch Modern Partisan unified society of America is the system of separation and balance among the three social powers as describe below. The Three-branch Unified Society of America
Branch Social life = principle Basic group unit Social activity Political party collectivistic Collectivistic relation Large group Politics Democratic Party individualistic Individualistic achievement Large group Politics Republican Party harmony Harmonious cooperation Small group Religion None

The basic social group unit for collectivistic and individualistic is large, while the basic social group unit for harmony is small. The main social activity for collectivistic and individualistic is politics, while the main social activity for harmony is religion, which is mostly Christianity, a harmonious religion as the harmonious society. The political parties for collectivistic and individualistic are typically the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, respectively. Since economic policy is for large social group unit, harmony as a small social group unit does not have an economic policy. 9.2.2. The Partisan Political System A typical modern government structure is the three-branched government, consisting of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is the dominance in the competitive hierarchy. The goal of people in judiciary is the maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a threatening structure to other branches. People with propensity to work with other people closely go to the executive branch. The people with propensity to compete go to

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legislative branch. The people with the propensity to comprehend objectively go to the judiciary branch. The two basic models for democratic government are presidentialism and parliamentarism. In presidentialism, both presidents and representatives are elected directly by people, so there are two legitimate sets of majority rule. Both presidents and representatives serve certain periods of time except in extraordinary circumstances. During their terms, severe persistent confrontation can occur between president and representative, resulting in instability that leads to collapse or stalemate of democratic governments. Therefore, there are few democratic governments with presidentialism model. The parliamentarism model, on the other hand, has one legitimate set of majority rule. Any political party or coalition of political parties can form the cabinet as the executive branch of government. All members of the cabinet are the representatives elected by people. When the cabinet loses the confidence from the parliament, it has to call for new election to form new cabinet. There is no severely persistent confrontation between the executive branch and the legislature branch. Because of the possible short live of the cabinet, the governmental service depends on professional governmental civil and military service that carries out the policies determined by the cabinet. Because of specific period of terms in presidentialism, presidentialism has much more political appointments in governmental service than parliamentalism. The professional governmental service allows much less corruption, incompetence, and inefficiency than the political appointment governmental service. Therefore, parliamentalism, cabinet, and professional governmental service minimize instability and inefficiency in constitutional democracy. 9.2.3. The Different Constituents The core group for the collectivistic party consists of poor people and women, while the core group for the individualistic party consists of rich people and men. Poor people want equality to reach higher level, while rich people want freedom for individual pursuit. Women have social life for collectivistic welfare, while men have social life for individual achievement. However, the overlapping among groups is significant. The middle income group can identify with either poor people or rich people. Poor people may have aspiration to be like rich people, or rich people may have aspiration to be poor people. There are significant overlapping in the social lives of women and men. Intellectuals who have broad knowledge can switch back and fro between two parties depending what they see as more adaptable direction. Economic condition also shifts the preferences of people’s choice of parties. A political party also shifts its direction. A collectivistic party of the present may actually be considered as an individualistic party of the past, and vice verse. 9.3. The Viability in Democracy as the Postmodern Partisan Political System In the partisan political system, the first loyalty of the party members is to the party, so the partisan government is potentially divisive and unstable by the partisan political competition. The possible two outcomes of the partisan political system are

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unity and civil war. The key to maintain unity is nonzero sum political competition, while zero-sum political competition potentially leads to civil war. In zero sum competition, the gain of winner is equivalent to the loss of loser, so the loser does not have much more to lose and more to gain by starting a civil war. In nonzero competition, the gain of winner is more than the gain of loser, and the totality of nonzero competition often moves the whole political system toward a more stable, adaptive, and balanced position. The loser has much more to lose by starting a civil war. The two extreme examples of the partisan political system are India (the largest partisan political system) with chaotic democracy and America (the second largest partisan political system) with orderly democracy. In the 2009 election of the Lok Sabha, the Parliament of India, 41 out of 364 political parties represent 543 seats, the largest party (Indian National Congress) has 206 seats (37.9%), and the second largest party (Bharatiya Janata Party) has 116 seats (21.4%). Most political parties represent specific ethnic groups and regions without particular national agendas. (India has more than 30 main languages, six main religions, and the Hindu caste system.) The ruling parties and the opposition parties (four groups) form coalitions. The policies of ruling party held hostage by its coalition with small political parties that focus in local issues rather than national issues. In this highly fragmented national government, it is hard to pass bills. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had planned to pass 200 bills over the seven sessions since it was re-elected in 2009, but managed just 57 in December, 201180. It is also hard to implement the approved bills. As a result, in the chaotic democracy, there are no clear winners and losers. In fact, most middle class and upper class people do not even vote, because to them, the election of government does not matter much. Without clear winners and losers in the Indian partisan political system, people have much more to lose to start a civil war. In the 63 years since India's independence, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress (INC) for 51 of those years. INC is dominated by benevolent Gandhi family. The prime ministership was bestowed on Singh by Sonia Gandhi, the party’s Italian-born leader. He seems to be keeping the seat warm for her son, Rahul, to represent the fifth generation of his family to lead Congress. INC itself is mostly a benevolent socialistic party. Indians mostly practice inclusive Hinduism. Without clear winners and losers in the Indian partisan political system and with benevolent leaders and inclusive Hinduism, India has been able to maintain the unity in the partisan political system. On the other hand, India’s fragmented and pluralistic political system supports and encourages an entrepreneurial spirit that is at the heart of India’s rapid economic growth. Since launching liberalizing economic reform in 1991, the Indian multinational corporations compete well in terms of profit, efficiency, and innovation with the multinational corporations in advanced nations. The GDP growth (2010–11) is remarkable 8.5% without any economic stimulant after the global financial crisis. In America, the partisan political system is orderly with only two major political parties representing the collectivistic party and the individualistic party that have different names at different times. In early America, the major foreign threat from England unified the partisan political system, because the civil war could have induced the invasion from England. In the absence of a major foreign threat, the Civil War broke out. The issue was slavery. The Republican Party as the collectivistic party, led by

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Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against expanding slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. The Republicans strongly advocated the unity of federal government. Even though Lincoln allowed slavery in the seven cotton states before the Civil War, the seven cotton states felt it was the zero-sum political competition between slavery and the abolition of slavery. They declared their secession and joined to form the Confederate States of America to dismantle the federal government and to start the civil war. In the zero-sum political competition, there was no middle ground. In the 20th century, two World Wars and the Cold War unified the American partisan government. The end of the Cold War in 1989 marked the end of European communism. Without major foreign threat, strong national identity, and social cohesion, American partisan political system started to disintegrate, resulting in the Second Civil War as in “The Second Civil War: How Extreme Partisanship Has Paralyzed Washington and Polarized America”81 by the Los Angeles Times columnist Ronald Brownstein who describes the Second Civil War as the hyper partisanship that he believes has unnecessarily inflamed our differences and impeded progress against our most pressing challenges. In the Second Civil War, the collectivistic party is represented by the Democratic Party, while the individualistic party is represented by the Republican Party. For the collectivistic party, the issue is the freedom from the gross inequality (unfairness) between the middle-low income people and the wealthy 1% comparable with the gross inequality between the slaves and the slave masters in the First Civil War. The poverty in America is appalling for a developed country. In 2010, around 17 million American households (14.5%) are “food insecure”, meaning their income is not sufficient to properly feed the member of the family82. Nearly half of all Americans lack economic security, meaning they live above the federal poverty threshold but still do not have enough money to cover housing, food, healthcare and other basic expenses, according to a survey of government and industry data83. The gross inequality caused debt and greed, resulting in the financial crisis in 2008. With the gross inequality, the low aggregate demand from the middle-low income people retards the economic recovery. Only the significant increase in construction and manufacturing jobs with decent wages for the middle-poor class who have mostly low wage jobs in service sector can increase the aggregate demand significantly to accelerate the economic recovery. The vanguard of the “New North” is Occupy Wall Street who intends to free the 99% from the domination of the wealthy 1% whose money corrupts the Congress as described by Harvard Law School professor Lawrence Lessig in “Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress-and a Plan to Stop It” 84. For the individualistic party, the issue is the freedom from the federal government. To reduce the power of the federal government, the individualistic party has successfully reduced federal, state, and local income taxes to the lowest rate since 195085. The United States actually has the lowest corporate tax as the percent of GDP of any of the member developed nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 200886. In 2009, the corporate taxes as % GDP, the second lowest in the developed nations, had fallen to only 1.3 percent of GDP from 4 percent in 1965, while the total taxes as % GDP was the third lowest in the developed nations 87 . Meanwhile, the Commerce Department estimated that corporate profits accounted for 14 percent of the total national income in 2010, the highest proportion ever recorded 88 . On Fox News

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Sunday on June 5, 2011 89 , influential conservative commentator Bill Kristol said, “Corporations have a ton of cash.” Without the aggregate demand from the middle-low income people, corporations will continue to have a ton of cash. The vanguard of the “New South” is the Tea Party who intends to dismantle the federal government by shrinking the tax base of the federal government that obstructs individual rights as in the South in the First Civil War. The shrinking of the tax base of federal government shrinks the federal programs and size of federal government to the size that it can no longer effectively implement federal laws and regulation. The declaration of the Second Civil War is The Pledge of no tax increase written by Grover Norquist and signed by The List of more than 270 Republican members of Congress. In the 60 Minutes’ interview90 on November 20, 2011 with influential conservative activist Grover Norquist, Norquist maintained that the goal of his tax reform is to have total taxes at eight percent of GDP (the total taxes % GDP in the year of 1900) which will dismantle completely the federal programs of Social Security, Medicare, welfare assistance, and unemployment assistance. In this way, American government will return to the government of President Herbert Hoover (1929–1933) who wrote American Individualism91. In the zero-sum political competition between the freedom from the gross inequality and the freedom from the federal government, there is no middle ground. The result of the zero-sum political competition is the extreme political gridlock and dysfunctional government, resulting in only 9% approval rate, the lowest level ever, for the Congress92. The civil war in the form of actual war or legislative gridlock is the inevitable outcome of the partisan government without strong national identity, social cohesion, and foreign threat. As in Greece and Italy in the “Europe Autumn”93 in 2011, the result of the civil war in the postmodern partisan governments was the temporary end of the partisan governments, resulting in the technocrat nonpartisan governments. In Italy, the cabinet of the technocrat government does not include any politicians. The globalization of economy forces people to think about the weakness of the partisan political system. The Second Civil War in America is unfortunate, because with so much wealth in America, the bipartisan technical solutions, such as the plan by the bipartisan SimpsonBowles fiscal commission, for the economic problems are not hard to find. The clear division between collectivistic economy and individualistic economy does not make sense. There is a significant overlap between collectivistic economy and individualistic economy. Public sector by public ownership can manage only limited portion of business, so it needs private sector by private ownership to manage large portion of business. Private sector by private ownership does not need to take all profit and income, and a person can continue to invest and work even when a reasonable and fair portion of profit and income is used as tax for public sector. There is no evidence to prove that a reasonable and fair tax hurts economic growth. A good use of tax to improve productivity through improved infrastructure can definitely increase economic growth. A poor infrastructure hurts economic growth eventually through likely outsourcing production due to poor infrastructure such as poor education. At the same time, In the Partisan Political System in America, politicians need money to run election, so the members of the Congress spend anywhere from 25 percent up to 50 percent (and sometimes more) of their time fundraising, especially as an election

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approaches. Consequently, the corruptive influences of wealthy interest groups from the private sector are strong. For the Partisan Political System, the corruption comes from the high expenses of election, so it is necessary to change the way to raise fund for election as suggested by Lawrence Lessig 94 . After the supreme court ruling citizens united v FEC, instead of one person, one vote, it is one dollar, one vote, resulting in dollar democracy instead of people democracy95. 9.4. The History of Meritocracy The Confucian meritocratic political system was in effect in China for about two thousand years under the emperors from different dynasties and even different ethnic groups until the early part of the 20th century. It is the longest continuous political system in the world. The common name for Confucianism in Chinese does not contain the word of Confucius. The common name is 儒家 (ru jia), the school of 儒. 儒 was originally the profession that was knowledgeable in local customs, culture, etiquette, and funeral rites to govern social behaviors, equivalent to the modern lawyer profession that is knowledgeable in laws governing social behaviors. The educated 儒 who learned how to govern government involved in government affair. Confucius himself was a highly educated 君 子 儒 (equivalent to Doctor of Law) by profession, and he was a top government official for a short time. As a result, the school of Confucius is the school of 儒. Eventually, 儒 became the profession for government officials, like many modern government officials come from the profession of lawyers. The first meritocracy was implemented in the second century BC, by the Han Dynasty, which introduced the world's first civil service exams evaluating the "merit" of officials. The government maintained an extensive network of professional officials chosen from the civil service examinations on the Confucian doctrines. Everyone was free and equal according to merit instead of nobility of blood. The system allowed anyone who passed an examination to become a government officer to bring wealth and honor to the whole family. Confucianism has a code of morality, and a most important mission of Confucius was to teach the state how to govern. The moral meritocratic Confucian bureaucracy required the approval from emperor who represented people. If an emperor could not represent people, people had the right to replace the emperor, while the Confucian system continued to exist. According to Mencius, 民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻。是故得乎丘民而为天子。The people are to be valued most, the altars of the grain and the land [traditional symbols of the vitality of the state] next, the ruler least. Hence winning the favor of the common people you become Emperor. (Mengzi 7B14) Under the pressure of the West, the Confucian system of the moral meritocratic state collapsed in China. In the modern period, the Japanese government is an example of the meritocratic political system. The Japanese government is dominated by the powerful meritocratic bureaucracy that comes from the best universities, regardless what political party is in power. The Japanese bureaucracy comes from the tradition of the moral educated

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administrative samurai class under the influence of the Confucian system. As a meritocratic government, Singapore has basically one political party. The officials in the government are selected from the best in academic achievement. Singapore has been ranked as a best place in the world to do business for many years. 9.5. The Postmodern Nonpartisan Unified Political System The goal of the postmodern nonpartisan unified political system is the unified political system where the collectivistic and the individualistic societies coexist peacefully. The formation of the postmodern nonpartisan unified political system is to write the goal and the method in the constitution of the society. 9.5.1. The Formation of the Postmodern Nonpartisan Political System The structure of the state is the three-branched government, consisting of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is to represent diverse interests of people. The goal of people in judiciary is the maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a threatening structure to other branches. The structure of the postmodern nonpartisan political system is same as the threebranched government in the postmodern partisan unified political system. The difference is that the nonpartisan political system has the “political institute” instead of political party. The political institute is functioned as the professional organization to provide professional government officials through education and election to determine the job performance. It operates like a professional school where all elected government officials are the members (students) of the institute. The political institute recruits the people who are interested in public affair to become the members starting from young age from all different groups. It instills honor, duty, and service in the members of the political institute. Like the military organization, the political institute operates the schools for government service to train future government officials. The governmental career paths for the members of the political institute are through democratic election and through governmental bureaucracy. These two career paths can be mixed. The political institute establishes scholastic institutes for the advanced training of officials and the analysis of politics for local and national governments. The political institute allows politics to be professional, intellectualized, and rational. The political institute certifies and selects candidates for the election of governmental officials, finances the campaign process, organizes election process, and determines the election result. People want the military organization to provide military professionals to protect nation, and the medical association to provide medical professionals to heal people. In the same way, people want the political institute to provide professional government officials to do governmental serves. Democracy is possible under the political institute system, when the political institute limits its role to be the professional provider of professional government officials through education and election. The political institute does not have actual political

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power to make or implement policies in government. The political institute without actual political power allows government to make and implement policies. The ultimate loyalty of the political institute is to its nation, people, and constitution as the ultimate loyalty of the military organization is to its nation, people, and constitution. The political institute eliminates the intermediate loyalty to a political party in the multi-party system. The intermediate loyalty to a political party often produces a waste for the unnecessary struggle of the survivals of parties in the multi-party system, so the political institute system is more efficient than the multi-party system. In the highly polarized multi-party system, the intermediate loyalty to a political party produces gridlock, petty attack, and even civil war. In many regions of the world, the future of stable political system is in the political institute system rather than multi-party system. For basic local political units, such as small cities and village, the political institute certifies and selects candidates, finances the campaign process, organizes election process, and determines the election result for all three branches of government. There are three different ways to elect the top officials in the large political units such as very large city and state or province below central government. The first way is the legislators in the basic political units nominates and elected the legislators for the legislators in the large political units from the candidates of experienced officials. The second way is that the political institute certifies and selects candidates, finances the campaign process, organizes election process, and determines the election result for only the legislative branch in large political units. The legislature branch by the first way and the second way in large political units nominates and elects the top positions of the executive branch and the judges in the judiciary branch from the candidates of experienced officials. The third way is to have popular election organized by the political institute for the top officials in all three branches of government. All top officials have term limit to avoid stagnation and corruption. In the current election process, particularly in the USA, special interest groups actively involve in general election by funding and propaganda. After general election, special interest groups form lobby groups to involve in the decisions of government. Therefore, it is logical to include special interest groups in the legislature for the election in a large geographical area. As a result, the legislature is divided into two groups: the geographical legislators directly elected by universal suffrage from geographical constituencies and the special interest group legislators elected from special interest constituencies. The special interest groups represent different trade and labor groups. Such dual legislator system is practiced in Hong Kong. In this way, special interest groups have their own voices directly in the legislature, and all lobby groups representing special interest groups are forbidden. For small geographical area, the legislature contains only the geographical legislators, because special interest groups are not significant in a small geographical area. National politics is different from local politics. Local politics is practical concerning about small details in daily life. Local political election is not emotional and divisive. National politics, on the other hand, concerns about long term direction and manages many vastly different areas. National politics is more emotional and divisive. Therefore, national election should be different from local election.

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In the national level, the legislators in the central government are selected by the legislators in large political units such as very large city and state or province from the candidates of the experienced elected officials. The heads of the executive branch are nominated and elected by the national legislators from the candidates of the experienced elected officials who also have experiences in the national government. In judiciary, the top positions of the national judges who are experienced judges are nominated by the executive branch, and approved by the legislature branch. The direct democratic election of national political leaders in the executive branch is divisive, inflammatory, and highly symbolic, resulting many times in civil wars in developing countries described by Amy Chua in “World on Fire”96. It is better to select national political leaders by low-key election in the national legislature. It is better to have experienced, proven, professional, and capable national political leaders than popular inflammatory national political leaders. At the same time, top national political leaders have experiences in local government and local election. No top national political leaders are elected without experiences in local government and local election. The political institute has the direct role in the election of government officials only up to the officials in the large political units below the national government. Therefore, all elected officials in the national level have experiences in the local level. In this way, the central government is naturally is divided into the collectivistic perspective and the individualistic perspective dependent on whether the representatives are benefited from collectivistic relation or from individualistic achievement. Representatives from a poor geographic area favor collectivistic relation, while representatives from a wealthy growing area favor individualistic achievement. High income professions favor individualistic achievement, while low income professions favor collectivistic relation. Collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement are both competitive and interdependent. The consensus and compromise produce the general interest of all people. The skillful executive and legislature branch make the best policies that are suitable to the short-term and the long-term needs of nation and people. In the postmodern society with highly developed information technology, a responsive government carries out surveys of public opinion precisely to find out public attitude toward itself, and therefore to actively gauge the impact and popularity of its policies97. The optimal nonpartisan politics differentiates local politics, national politics, and global politics. In local politics, elected officials are responsible for practical daily matter concerning directly with daily living of local people. The job performance of elected officials can be reflected directly by the popularity of elected officials. The election process for local officials is typically not inflammatory and divisive. Therefore, the elected local officials require general professionalism to do the jobs professionally and direct popularity through direct election In national politics, elected officials involve many different regions and complex international relations. Without directly relating to daily life, local people cannot easily judge the best national policies from the local perspectives, so direct election of national leaders in the executive branch creates confusions, conflicts, and lies, and essentially wastes money, time, and energy. The elections of national leaders, in many developing and developed countries are divisive, inflammatory, and chaotic. It is better to elect legislators through direct election to represent local people in national government, and the legislators elect national leaders who are originally from local leaders with good

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qualification of political experiences and knowledge in both local and nation governments. Therefore, the elected national officials in executive branch require general professionalism and indirect popularity through indirect election. In global politics, elected officials do not have overall political control over national government. Effective global organizations deal with specific areas, such as trade, diplomacy, environment, military, and banking. Therefore, the elected global officials in global organizations require specific professionalism and indirect popularity through indirect election. Nonpartisan Politics
Local Politics National Politics Global Politics Popularity direct indirect indirect Professionalism general general specific

9.5.2. The State and the Private Sector Under the Western influence, Japan first added science-technology and industrial commerce to the Confucian system. During the Meiji period (1868-1912), the Japanese bureaucracy built the state own companies, and sold them to the family-centered privately owned companies in the private sector. The strong family-centered private sector made the fast modernization. The private sector was under strong control and protection by the state. The practice of the control and protection of the state over the private sector in the initial development of industrialization is common among all nations. The state and the private sector have never been clearly separated. As pointed out by New Yorker writer John Cassidy98, in the 14th century, King Edward III of Brittan banned the import of woolen cloths from Belgium and Holland, the market leaders in textiles. In 1721 England placed tariffs on all manufactured goods, thus erecting a protective wall around businesses that created the Industrial Revolution. In 1839, when China refused to import opium from the British East India Company, England launched the Opium War, slaughtering thousands and ensuring that the opium trade would continue. Ironically, the English Foreign Minister, Lord Palmerston, cast the bloodshed as a measure to protect free trade. During the initial development of industrialization in America, there was also strong control and protection of the state over the private sector. During the nation's birth Congress imposed tariffs to protect important industries, and in the War of 1812 it doubled import duties on manufactured goods, to twenty-five percent. Lincoln lifted the levies to 50 percent. During the latter half of the 19th century, the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads were both government-chartered companies that benefited from large land grants and government loans. In 1953, to protect the oil interest of the United Kingdom, Iranian coup d'état orchestrated by the intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States with the CIA-paid thugs overthrew the democratically elected government of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh who wanted a fair contract (50/50 oil profits between Iran and Britain) with the British-owned AngloIranian Oil Company. In recent years, the major technological breakthroughs in America were largely from the Pentagon, which almost exclusively works with American military contractors.

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For examples, the Internet was created by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), and the Boeing 747 was modeled after military aircraft. Agricultural subsidy that is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusinesses is common among developed countries. In 2010, the EU spent €57 billion on agricultural development, of which €39 billion was spent on direct subsidies. The United States currently pays around $20 billion per year to farmers in direct subsidies as "farm income stabilization "via U.S. farm bills. During the recent financial crisis, across the United States, Europe, and much of the rest of the developed world, the states have intervened to lessen the pain of the current global recession and restore ailing economies to health. The dividing line between the state and the private sector is not clear. The state and the private sector have to work together in different manners for different stages of economic development. As many developing countries grow quickly, between 2004 and the start of 2008, 117 state-owned and public companies from Brazil, Russia, India, and China (the so-called BRIC countries) appeared for the first time on the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies, measured by sales, profits, assets, and market value. A total of 239 U.S., Japanese, British, and German companies fell off the list. The percentage market value of this latter group of companies dropped from 70 percent to 50 percent over those four years; the value of the BRIC-based companies rose from 4 percent to 16 percent. To catch up the developed countries, the state has to work closely with the private sector, because the private sector alone simply does not enough leverage, capital, and technology to compete with the developed countries. However, to become a mature globalized corporation to compete globally, the corporations have to move away from the state control in order to become efficient corporations to compete effectively in the global market. The state controlled corporation is simply not efficient, and the state controlled corporation creates a backlash from foreign market. On the other extreme, in the developed countries, multinational corporations become borderless and unpatriotic, and some of them have their phantom headquarters located in wherever the tax is the lowest. Much more productive and innovative than the state controlled corporations, these multinational highly competitive privatized corporations promote trade liberalization and corporation privatization. In conclusion, there is no one right relation between the state and the private sector. All nations have followed similar path in terms of different relations between the state and the private sector under different stages of political and economic developments in the West and in the East for very pragmatic reasons instead ideologies. In the future, when the developing nations become the developed nations, they will have similar relations between the state and the private sector as all developed nations. 9.5.3. The Viability of the Nonpartisan Political System Singapore is an example of the Nonpartisan Unified Society. It is dominated by one political party without viable opposition. Singapore is ranked number two in the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) for 2011-201299. The fear of chaos dominates most countries. A result is the reliance in stable bureaucracy which is relatively insulated from the chaotic partisan competition. Bureaucracies dominate almost all developed countries except the United States and a few less populous English-speaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Typical bureaucracy exists in Japan and

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France. Bureaucracy state is similar to the Nonpartisan Political System. Japan with very strong bureaucracy state is essentially the Nonpartisan Political System. A viable government has strong policies in anti-corruption, income equality, and international relation. Anti-corruption In the Nonpartisan Political System, there are the public sector and the private sector. The public sector is professional semi-popular sector. It must maintain high professional and moral standard to avoid low quality and political corruption. Political corruption, such as bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement which use public office for private gain, discredits and destabilizes both the public sector and the private sector. The responsibility of anti-corruption is shared by both the public sector and the private sector. Without the checks and balances of multi-party system, the public sector in the Nonpartisan Political System is prone to corrupt. The corruption comes mainly from the lack of economic freedom as described by The Heritage Foundation100. Therefore, it is necessary for transparent connections between the public sector and the private sector. It is paramount for the public sector to weed out corruption. At the same time, the private sector has to adhere to the strict anti-corruption, such as anti-bribery in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Anti-Bribery Convention. To prevent corruption, regulations must be simple and non-restrictive, and have adequate controls. All government workers must have wages above the living wages to reduce the motive for petty corruption. The strong ethics agencies in both the public and the private sectors are necessary to maintain professional ethics and to investigate corruption. An independent and professional judicial system is critical to ending impunity and enforcing the impartial rule of law, and to pursue corrupt officials employees in the public and the private sectors. Income Equality Income equality is the combination of individual, family, community, and government responsibility.
Income Equality = Individual Responsibi lity x Family Responsibi lty x Community Responsibi lity x government responsibi lity

Individuals have responsibilities to earn decent income by intelligent career choices and work ethics. Parents are responsible to provide their children education and moral teaching to allow them to find good jobs. Children are responsible to help elder parents. Community in terms of charity and labor union is responsible to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor. By encouraging individual, family, and community responsibilities to achieve income equality, government reduces its role in income equality. Government sets the rules to minimize grossly unfair, predatory, and fraudulent practices, provides safety net for the people who are beyond the helps of individuals, families, and communities, and establishes the infrastructures that improve overall productivity and living environment, increase local production without protectionism, and minimize waste. The infrastructure includes affordable education, affordable heath care, affordable transportation, sustainable smart power grid, sustainable local production, clean environment, and low waste. The infrastructure is more effective than the

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redistribution of wealth to raise the living standard for poor people. This rational way to achieve income equality is impossible in a highly polarized partisan government without the cooperation between private sector and public sector. International Relation In terms of international relation, economy should lead politics, because one country cannot easily judge another country’s political system. Different countries have different histories, cultures, religions, and homogeneities. What considers as a bad government from the perspective of people outside may be the best possible government from the perspective of most people inside. The forced imposition of foreign political system has resulted mostly in the worst and more chaotic political system than before. The best way to change a political system is through economic connection. Through economic connection, the change in an economic system will lead to the change in its political system suitable to the new economic system. Many difficult international conflicts can be solved by placing economic connection before political connection. Ultimately, the viability of the Nonpartisan Political System depends on the robust private sector. In the robust private sector, people work hard for themselves, and consume happily for themselves. In this way, they are content to let the professional moral public sector to maintain social stability. Before the industrialization of the West, India and China were much richer than the West. One important reason was the robust private sector in India and China without the dominating and all powerful political system, religion, and militarism as in the West. In the traditional China, the familycentered private sector had considerable power independent from the state, as in a popular saying, “the sky is high; the emperor is far away”. 9.6. The Postmodern Democracy and Meritocracy The postmodern unified political system is divided into the partisan and the nonpartisan unified political systems for democracy and meritocracy, respectively. In the partisan unified political system, the collectivistic and the individualistic parties represent the collectivistic and individualistic societies, respectively. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the state represents both the collectivistic and the individualistic societies. The nonpartisan political institute is functioned as the professional organization to provide professional government officials through education and election. The political institute organizes all steps in election process. It certifies and selects candidates based on qualification, finances the campaign process, organizes the election, and determines election result. The government in the partisan unified political system is popular semiprofessional government, while the government in the nonpartisan unified political system is professional semi-democratic government. For the partisan unified political system, zero sum political competition potentially leads to civil war, while nonzero sum political competition leads to unity. For the nonpartisan unified political system, the weak private sector leads to the collapse, and the robust private sector brings about unity.

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Political Systems
Unified Political Systems

collectivistic politics (meritocracy) nonpartisan professional semipopular government

individualistic politics (democracy) partisan popular semiprofessional government

weak private sector collapse

robust private sector unity

nonzero-sum competition unity

zero-sum competition civil war

Different cultures produce different suitable political systems. It is tragic to impose an unsuitable political system, resulting in the collapse of collective political system (meritocracy) or the civil war in individualistic political system (democracy). The emergence of a strong middle class is generally considered to favor the rise of democracy, because middle class has too much at stake to leave decisions to a dominating authoritarian government. However, meritocracy allows strong private sector, and provides more stability and order than democracy. The emergence of a strong middle class does not always bring about democracy. In some cases, culture factor is more important than class. Different cultures and different stages of economic development determine the forms of political systems. The best system is the mixed system. Democracy allows meritocracy in terms of technocrat to find technical solutions during a severe zero-sum partisan conflict. Meritocracy allows democracy in terms of local election to determine the merit of local officials, and allows strong private sector based on merits different from the public sector. 9.7. The Postmodern Balanced Unified Society The basic balances in the Balanced Unified Society are the balanced collectivistic society-individualistic society and the balanced civilized society (collectivistic society and individualistic society)-harmonious society. The additional balances include the balanced export-import, the balanced globalization-localization, the balanced foureconomic sectors, the balanced engineering-finance, the balanced profit-value, the balanced soft-hard power, and the balanced domestic culture-foreign culture. Different balances are achieved through different stages of developments. For developing nations, the directions toward the balances are from collectivistic society toward the balanced collectivistic society-individualistic society, from export toward the balanced export to the balanced export-import, from globalized production-consumption to balanced globalized-localized production-consumption, from production toward the balanced production-consumption, from engineering toward the balanced engineeringfinance, from profit toward the balanced profit-value, from soft power toward the

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balanced soft-hard power, and from domestic culture toward the balanced domestic culture-foreign culture. For the developed countries, the deviations from the balances require the rebalances. In America, the society is out of the balances preferring individualistic society, import, consumption, finance, profit, and hard power. According to the conservative New York Times columnist David Brooks 101 , America experience many positive trends, such as lower crime rates, lower teenage pregnancy rates, less domestic violence, more community service. But there is the problem of the enlargement of the self. The generation reared in the 1930s and 1940s had a relatively small definition of self. They saw how great historic events could sweep up mere individuals. (“The problems of three little people don’t amount to a hill of beans in this crazy world.” from the movie Casablanca, 1942). But in the psychologizing movements of the 1950s and 1960s, the big danger was not pride, but lack of self-love. That was amplified by the individualizing effects of the political and cultural shifts of the 1960s (morally) and the 1980s (economically). These narcissistic tendencies have been amplified further by Facebook and reality television. The consequences are grim, including a rising level of consumption (as people spend on themselves in a matter that befits their station); a rising tolerance of debt (which goes along with a greater confidence in people’s perceived ability to handle it); a sharp increase in the earnings of corporation executives (who feel their abilities are above all other people); a greater level of political intolerance (as people need their political opponents to correct the errors in their own thinking). Ideally, without adopting protectionism, an economically and socially stable nation needs the strong performances from all four sectors (raw material, manufacturing, service, and technology sectors) localized within the nation. To support all four sectors locally, a nation needs to have appropriate education, tax, regulation, and political systems as well as renewable energy and reusable-recyclable material programs. Germany is better than most countries to support all four sectors locally, so Germany is able to maintain socioeconomic stability better than most countries. In 2010, the manufacturing sector in Germany is 20.7% of GDP, while in US is 12.7%. Unlike America with a large trade deficit, Germany has a large trade surplus, even thought Germany has higher hourly wage and broader welfare system than US. In America, "financial engineering" that invented new financial instruments replaced "real engineering" that invented new technology to improve productivity for real economic growth. In the US, financial services’ share of total corporate profits increased from 10% in the early 1980s to 40% in 2007. The stock market value of financial services firms increased from 6% in the early 1980s to 23% in 2007. Financial services absorb many highly talented people who could have otherwise worked for real economic growth. As the manufacturing percentage of our GDP declined in the United States, the percentage of our GDP produced by the finance sector increased.

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In America, the multinational corporations concentrate in profit, particularly high profit. In the multinational corporations, any divisions with low profits will be sold sooner or later. As a result, many industries, including medium technology industries, simply disappear in America, or are controlled by the corporations from other nations. The operations of the multinational corporate locate in wherever the cost is the lowest. For example, iPhone and iPad are made in China, but China receives very low values, 1.8% and 2%, out of the sale of iPhone and iPad, respectively102. While each unit sold in the U.S. adds from $229 to $275 to the U.S.-China trade deficit (the estimated factory costs of an iPhone or iPad), the portion retained in China's economy is a tiny fraction of that amount.

American multinational corporations are doing exceptionally well, because their operations are all over the world wherever the best locations for business, and they make half of their profits from outside of America. The Commerce Department estimated that

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corporate profits accounted for 14 percent of the total national income in 2010, the highest proportion ever recorded103. Value includes the values of employees, customers, suppliers, society, and environment. The concentration in profit instead of balanced profit-value enriches American corporations with the recorded profit, and increases the economic inequality in America with the highest economic inequality since 1928. The percentage of the national defense spending104 has remained about 20% since 1975 during and after the Cold War, and with and without the threat from another military superpower.

Comparing with other countries, America has much higher national defense spending.

The American defense spending is about equal to the combined national defense spending from the rest of the world. In the divided global society such as during the Cold War, such high national spending was justified, but in the unified global society, such high national

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spending is not justified. Overextending military power caused the fall of the Roman Empire, and similarly, can cause the fall of American economy as described by Yale University historian Paul Michael Kennedy 105 . The major powers can share defense spending to maintain the global peace in terms of sharing of global military bases, weapon developments, and military operations, resulting in 100 billion to 300 billion dollars in saving. The American defense spending can then be used in strengthening national economy. America has much more hard power than soft power. In the interconnecting postmodern world, soft power works often more effectively than hard power.

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10. The Postmodern Education
Traditionally, common people learned collectivistic social life and individualistic social life in large extended family. In the postmodern society, extended family is too small to be the place for learning collectivistic social life and individualistic social life. Common people in the developed countries learn collectivistic social life and individualistic social life in compulsory elementary and secondary school. 10.1. The Nature of Education Education in terms of teaching and learning to spread knowledge and skill is a complicated process. Very few animals can do education. Apes can do education well. It relates to "triadic attention". For education, triadic attention involves the joint attention among a teacher, a student, and a task that both teacher and student are thinking about, talking about, or working on together. In the brain, triadic attention involves the communication and interaction between the brain region for paying attention to the external world-people and the brain region for paying attention to self 106 . Communication between brain regions is one of the main cognitive impairments of autism that has problem of learning. One of the differences between human and other apes is human hyper bond instinct. Like human language, human education involves hyper social bonding derived from human hyper bond instinct. People are eager to teach and learn, as people are eager to talk. For human, education is not only teaching-learning but also social bonding. In human education, a teacher is eager to teach, and a student is eager to learn, especially during early education in early childhood. An indication for hyper social bonding in human education is overimitation107. In the experiments that apes and human children learn the same task with a number of relevant and irrelevant steps, human children overimitated irrelevant steps that chimpanzees ignored. Because of hyper social bonding in human education, children keep irrelevant steps as a part of social bonding with teachers. In this way, human culture can pass from generations to generations with little change when there is no external influence. Another indication for hyper social bonding in triadic attention is pointing. An infant can learn and use pointing gesture, but other apes cannot learn and use pointing. Pointing is a subtle communication that is meaningful only in the context of triadic attention; pointing has no meaning by itself. Such subtle communication is possible in triadic attention only through hyper bond instinct. Instead of pointing, other apes use gazing to point out direction; gazing has meaning by itself108. Dog, on the other hand, can learn pointing because dog and human have hyper bond as shown in the many different tasks that dogs can learn from people. Overimitation and pointing are two of the differences between human and other apes. Both of them are derived from human hyper bond instinct. Social bonding is important for early children education. It is shown in the failure of very young children to learn language from educational videos, such as “Baby Einstein”, without interacting with parents 109 . The social bonding with parents is a necessary condition for very young children to learn. In conclusion, human education is

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a human instinct, involving hyper social bonding. Education in a human society should conform to such instinct. Another important nature of education is that human education is sacred in the sense that without proper education, human society perishes. Education as the learning of sacred text is a core principle in all great religions that last for thousands years. Education essentially allows individuals and human societies to survive. Education provides individuals survival techniques to survive in society, and education provides human society the cultural link from generations to generations. Education is more important than national defense, because without national defense, a nation perishes, and without education, a society perishes. Teachers should be respected as soldiers are respected in society. A special national day should be designated for teachers as a special national day is designated for soldiers. 10.2. Elementary and Secondary Education Formal education is necessary for a society to become a highly technical modern society. For modern society, all or a part of public elementary and secondary education is compulsory and free. Formal education becomes also a way for social mobility to equalize different social-economic classes, so basic education, including tertiary education, has to be accessible and affordable for social-economic equality. The main tasks in the teaching of elementary and secondary education are social knowledge-skill, technical knowledge-skill, and career preparation. The approaches to deal with such three tasks are collectivistic education and individualistic education to reflect collectivistic society and individualistic society, respectively. In social knowledge-skill, collectivistic education emphasizes collectivistic relation, while individualistic education stresses individualistic achievement. In technical knowledgeskill, collectivistic education emphasizes memorization as a way to learn cumulative technical knowledge-skill in the past, while individualistic education stresses creativity for individuals to create new technical knowledge-skill. In career preparation, collectivistic education provides a career preparation framework for students’ careers that meet individual needs and society’s needs, while individualistic education allows students to choose freely their career paths. Elementary and Secondary Education
COLLECTIVISTIC EDUCATION collectivistic relation memorization framework INDIVIDUALISTIC EDUCATION individualistic achievement creativity free choice

Social Knowledge-Skill Technical Knowledge-Skill Career Preparation

In advanced countries, the education in Japan and Germany represents collectivistic education, while the education in America represents individualistic education. In elementary and secondary schools in America, the emphasis of the education is individual-oriented individualistic social life for individualistic achievement. In elementary and secondary school in Japan and Germany, the emphasis of the education is group-oriented collectivistic social life for collectivistic relation. In Germany, education provide a career preparation framework that involves the whole society, so

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after elementary and secondary education, students have clear career paths that meet both individual needs and society’s needs. American elementary and secondary education in general does not provide such career preparation framework. The two educations are mirror images of each other. It is interesting to note that American education is moving toward standardized curriculum, rote memorization, and nationalized testing, while other countries’ education is moving toward creativity110. Education system reflects the type of society, and at the same time, education system also reinforces the type of society. American individualistic education along with the great wealth has created the best and the most creative research institutes and hightech companies in the world. However, the industrial leadership positions cannot be sustained by Americans, because American education system does not provide the framework with all different jobs to maintain industrial leadership positions. The American industrial leadership positions are either replaced by other nations or maintained by people from other nations whose education system provides the framework for all different jobs. In America, Kodak, the inventor and leader of photographic film products and digital photography, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, because its leadership position was replaced by the companies in other nations. To keep the leadership positions, the American global companies outsource not only production but also research and development to other nations for the lack of scientists, engineers, and technicians to maintain the leadership positions. American individualistic education system contributes the gross income inequality in American society. 10.3. Balanced Elementary and Secondary Education Obviously, an optimal society requires balanced and timely education system. Such balanced and timely education system should also follow human development from childhood to adulthood. Education is like learning language. The age window to learn language is fixed. Beyond certain ages, learning language becomes much more difficult. In the same way, the age windows to learn different types of education are fixed. At different ages, different types of education are learned. As described before, human education, especially early education, has a strong component of social bonding. Such social bonding in early education is the base for primarily collectivistic education in elementary and secondary education in civilized society, and individualistic education is secondary. Individualistic education increases gradually with increasing ages. Significant amount of individualistic education is introduced in senior secondary education to prepare eventually individualistic career in early adulthood. The balanced and timely education system follows such path. Pre-elementary education is typically non-compulsory and collectivistic. It is a transition from a small social group involving mostly nuclear family to a social group outside of familiar family. It should be warm and largely informal. Teachers encourage and organize non-academic group activities, so children get to like social group outside of family and group activities. Elementary school is the start of academic learning. The emphasis is learning cooperative social group. To foster social group, each class (25 to 40 students) has the same students, same teacher, and same class room for at least two years. Since young children get accustom to small social group, class groups are organized into small subgroups (4 to 8 students), which are the basic units of instruction, discipline, and other

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activities. Many activities are organized by class groups and subgroups. They learn cooperation, mutual assistance, adaptation of individual views and interests to group goals, and standards of behavior. Academic learning method is mostly memorization and repetition, which can be easily carried out by class groups and subgroups. Academic and behavior learning is taught by teachers, and practiced in school class groups and subgroups as well as at home with parents. If home is not available for learning, school provides volunteer mentors after school. Learning, therefore, is motivated by teachers, school social group, and parents or mentors, resulting in a good environment for learning. The early years in elementary school allows students to learn socialization and cooperation in social group and good study habit motivated by multiple sources. The grading system in the early years of elementary school is relatively undifferentiated, such as pass-need improvement. Individualistic achievement is not the emphasis. Education is certainly not limited to compulsory elementary and secondary education. Many parents feel that their children need more exposure to individualistic achievement. Many schools outside of the compulsory education provide such individualistic achievement in non-academic subjects and accelerated or remedial academic subjects. At the same time, many parents feel that their children need more exposure to cooperative social group. Many group-oriented religious, group-training, and charity organizations provide such cooperative opportunities to have high moral and cooperative social groups. The learning for individualistic achievement increases with the ages of students. The grading system becomes more differentiated. Students express more of their own individual creativity and critical thinking. While they continue to be motivated by teachers, school social group, and home in their studies, increasingly, they are motivated by individualistic achievement. The schools for older children encourage individualistic achievement by various rewards for individualistic achievement. Competitive hierarchy is formed by highly differentiated grading system and various critical examinations. By the end of the compulsory education, they learn well individualistic achievement. More importantly, they learn to adapt collectivistic social life and individualistic social life to different social situations. Vocational education or vocational education and training (VET) is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques. Many countries in Europe have career preparation frameworks for elementary and secondary education. A typical framework starts with senior secondary education that is divided into vocational education and training (VET) program and professional education and training (PET) program. VET prepares trainees to develop expertise in a particular group of techniques for jobs that are based on practical activities. VET often involves apprenticeships. In Germany, the “dual system” for senior secondary education involves a balanced curriculum of structured apprenticeship training within a company and parttime classroom in vocational and general subjects. Apprenticeships instill employable skills, and provide a transition to a young person’s first job. At the end of VET, a highlyregarded certification qualification is often awarded. In Germany, such technical vocation education helps Germany’s economy to maintain a highly skilled workforce to

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support a large number of small and medium-sized companies involved in exportoriented activities, resulting in being the second largest exporting country. Tertiary vocational education is available for further training. VET allows students to enter job market to be productive to society sooner than PET, and indirectly allows students to establish families and settle down sooner. PET requires tertiary education in order to enter professions that require theory and abstract conceptual knowledge. Typically, there are much more VET students than PET students. In Germany, roughly two-thirds of people under the age of 22 choose to enter into apprenticeships. People who prefer collectivistic relation in terms of establishing family and community tie over individualistic achievement take VET. People who prefer individualistic achievement over establishing family and community tie take PET. There should not be significant difference in terms of reward, status, and the potential for advancement between these two career paths. Many countries outside of Europe do not have career preparation framework in elementary and secondary education. Tertiary education provides VET and PET. Since tertiary education is typically not compulsory and highly controlled, career preparation involves free choice. The free choice career preparation framework often leads to the disconnection between the entrance and the graduation in tertiary education, and the disconnection between education system and employment111. About 70 per cent of U.S. high school graduates go on to study at a four-year college, but only about 60 per cent of U.S. university students actually complete a bachelor’s degree (or its equivalent) in any field within six years of matriculation. In countries like Germany, youth unemployment is less than half the U.S. level. 10.4. The Four Stages of Life To have a balanced society without too much emphasis in one social life is to look at the natural development of life stages. Confucius understood the stages in life. 吾十有五而志於學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順, 七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。 (论语為政篇) At fifteen my heart was set on learning; at thirty I stood firm; at forty I had no more doubts; at fifty I knew the mandate of heaven; At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth; at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing the norm. (The Analects Chapter 2) Different stages of life have the stage social lives that are the core social lives of the stages. In the modern time, the four stages for social lives are pre-adulthood, early adulthood, middle aged adulthood, and late adulthood112 as described by John Kotre and Elizabeth Hall. The four stages of life can be designed to experience all three different social lives as the stage social lives. The most suitable stage social life for each stage of growth is as follows.

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Four Stages of Life
Stage Pre-adulthood Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Social Transition From family to social group outside of family small group to large group Succession large group to small group Biological Transition maturity Fertility uphill to downhill None Stage Social Life collectivistic social life individualistic social life collectivistic social life harmonious social life

Pre-adulthood is divided into infancy, childhood and adolescence. Family is the most important social group for infancy and childhood, while peer group becomes the most important social group for adolescence. Adolescents form their own groups, girls with girls and boys with boys. Within a group, early adolescents typically have similar attitudes toward school, music, dress, and drugs. This adolescent social group is important for the learning of social group. It is place to learn the independence from family, the formation of bonds with the people who share the similar attitudes, the observation of certain rules and rituals in a group, the sharing of responsibility and success with people in the group, and the expansion of normal social activity throng a social group. The brain becomes fully grow during adolescence. The brain is capable of think of many possibilities at the same time, abstraction independent of concrete objects, and logical reasoning. It is possible for late adolescents to form a self identity113 in terms of abstraction in a broad social context independent of a concrete social group. The self identity includes the location of ability, the type of people whom they like or dislike, and the kind of future that they want to have. Toward the end of adolescence, such social identity also includes value and religious belief. Social group identity is important for the collectivistic social life. The stage social life for adolescence is the collectivistic social life. In the compulsory elementary and secondary education, children in pre-adulthood learn both collectivistic social life and individualistic social life in terms of cooperative social group and competitive social hierarchy. The core social life, however, is collectivistic social life. Modern society has significant numbers of laws to protect children of preadulthood before the age of eighteen because they belong to social group, and are not able to make independent individualistic decisions. By the end of adolescence, adolescents are ready to be independent physically, sexually, emotionally, and intellectually. From a biological point of view, adulthood is the season of fertility, the time that demands a response to the newly emerged power to conceive and bear children. It has as much to do with raising children to reproductive age as it do with bringing them into the world. Biologically, adulthood means that we are at the height of our physical powers, ready to make the investment of energy that children will require. The stage social life for early adulthood is the individualistic social life to establish their places in society. The term, middle adulthood, referred originally to the period between the beginning of the empty nest and the onset of old age. Yet the boundaries of this stage have always been ambiguous. The end point of middle adulthood is as vague as its beginning. Today, most of us say the season ends at sixty-five, the official age of retirement.

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For other primates, the timing of downhill signifies the closeness of death. For example, female chimpanzees have only about potentially five years to live after menopause. For human, the transition from uphill to downhill represents a succession of power of reproduction from middle adults to early adults. The succession appears fairly early in human potential life. The succession has to be early for human, because for human, the responsibility of reproduction includes not only the birth of a child but also the care of a child for about fifteen years. It does not make sense for a middle adult to have an infant without the presence and the strength to take care the child for about fifteen years, and it makes more sense to increase the survival rate of the third generation by assisting the parenthood of one's early adult children and relatives. Because of this extensive time span of parenthood, the early succession is necessary. A long-live elder means a long-live source of benevolence. (In the highly individualistic society, people in middle adulthood becomes the time for excessive greed because of their high positions in society.) Not only do human live an inordinate number of years before reproduction begins, they are granted an absolutely outlandish stretch of time after reproduction ends. Mate fertility diminishes in the second half of life, though it does not come to a clear-cut end. Female fertility does end abruptly. When women experience menopause at about fifty, their child bearing years are over. If a female chimpanzee could live a life as woman, the chimpanzee would have menopause at the age of eighty or ninety. William Hamilton 114 noted that, "the behavior of a post-reproductive animal may be expected to be entirely altruistic." The post-reproductive elders thus tend to be more generous and compassion, especially, when elders are respected as leaders and advisers in society. The stage social life for middle adulthood is the collectivistic social life for the current society and for the future society. The long-term contribution to benefit the coming generations called "generativity" by Erik Erikson 115. Biologically, late adulthood is like an extension of middle adulthood without a sharp biological change, as long as one is healthy. High percentage of those over sixty-five do not have limitation in their daily activities. By age eighty-five, nearly half of elders have no limitation in their daily activities. Socially, late adults move farther and farther away from the large social group activities. They can form small social group. Social network is very important for physical and mental health. Many studies indicate that social network is the most important factor for physical health. It is even more important than smoking and drinking. A high quality network can help a person to go through difficult time. In a small social group, the harmonious social life becomes the stage social life. Late adulthood is the time for social harmonious cooperation among people and personal harmonious cooperation within the mind of a person. The spirit is the harmonious spirit for the harmonious social life and the spiritual life. The harmonious spirit directs people to do the right things, and to have faith in the spiritual life. During late adulthood, people tend to change what can be changed and accept what cannot be changed. All regretful and sad events are put in a broad perspective. The life story turns into a satisfactory story. The learning from the life experiences can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom. Every generation wants to write a satisfactory life story for the whole society. The learning from the life experiences for the whole society can be then passed to the future generation as wisdom.

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11. The Postmodern Mental Health
This chapter deals with the postmodern mental health. Mental disorders are common. In the United States, in a given year approximately one quarter (26.2%) of adults are diagnosable for one or more disorders116. While mental disorders are widespread in the population, the main burden of illness is concentrated among a much smaller proportion (about 6 percent, or 1 in 17) who suffer from a seriously debilitating mental illness. It is important to understand mental disorders. In Chapter 11, mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. The chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The misdirected mental functions include the addiction instincts, the defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freezeobsession), and the mental process during sleep. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized by these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes. 11.1. Mental Overreaction How do normal social lives turn into mental disorders? The causes of mental disorders are complex. If it were simply, human evolution would have eliminated mental disorders. Each cause by itself is relatively harmless, but the combination of a number of harmless causes can result in harmful mental disorders. Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life

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pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer, so the enhancers enhance social life with the response of pleasure. Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. For adult yin and yang social lives, the social-life enhancers are bond, expressive, systemization, and domination with the corresponding social-life stressor: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. Genes provide proper controls of pleasure response or stress response to continue the repetition of the enhancers or to the avoidance of the stressors, and then the social lives can return to normal. Through evolution, genes provide optimal normal pleasure response and stress response for normal environment, so majority of people have normal genes that are most suitable for normal environment. Most people have optimal normal pleasure response and normal stress response. At the same time, variant genes exist. The variant as hypo pleasure response that result in low enhancer or hypo stress response that results in high stressor are less adaptive than the variant as hyper pleasure response or hyper stress response. Hyper pleasure response allows the high repetition of the enhancers at the expense of safety, and hyper stress response allows high repetition of avoidance of the stressors at the expense of internal energy reservoir. In normal environment, such variant genes are adaptive, even though they are not optimal. For normal environment, few people have the adaptive variant gene with adaptive level of hyper pleasure response or hyper stress response, while most people have the genes with optimal normal genes with optimal normal levels of pleasure and stress. The immune system participates in the development of the nervous system. Immune system too has optimal normal immune response gene for normal condition and adaptive hyper immune response gene as a variant. For normal environment, most people have the genes with optimal normal immune response, and few people have the genes with adaptive hyper immune response. Different environments cause genes to express differently. The normal adjustment for genetic expression to adjust to different environments is epigenetic adjustment117 by which environments alter heritable gene expression via methods other than altering the underlying DNA sequence. Under epigenetic adjustment, genetic expression become more pleasure response to adjust to more chronic pleasurable environment, genetic expression become more stress response to adjust to more chronic stressful environment, and genetic expression become more immune response to adjust to more chronic infective environment. To genes, chronic environmental effects become norms to which genetic expressions are adjusted. The chronic adverse environments for the hyper pleasure response and the hyper stress response nervous systems come mostly from childhood experiences, such as indulgence, physical illness, abuse, and neglect, during the development of the nervous system. The chronic adverse environments for the hyper immune nervous system come mostly from infections in mother during the fetal brain development. The infection triggers the response of maternal immune system whose immune molecules enter in the fetal brain to trigger the hyper immune response to interference the brain development, resulting in the underconnectivity of neural cells. Normal response genes have more room for adverse epigenetic adjustment before the genetic expression becomes severely maladaptive for

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normal environment. In some cases, severely chronic adverse epigenetic adjustment can make even normal genes to produce maladaptive genetic expression. In the threefold typology by C. Robert Cloninger118, the three types are novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The threefold typology has been used to diagnose mental disorders. The person high in novelty seeking is impulsive and exploratory, and eager to take up new interests, but neglects details and quickly becomes distracted and bored. Novelty seeking corresponds to the hyper pleasure response nervous system. People high in harm avoidance are cautious, tense, inhibited, easily fatigable, shy and apprehensive worriers. Harm avoidance corresponds to the hyper stress response nervous system. The individual high in reward dependence is eager to please and help others, is warm, sympathetic and sensitive to social cues. The person low in reward dependence are tough minded, emotionally independent, and socially detached. Low in reward dependence corresponds to the hyper immune nervous system with the underconnectivity of neural cells that have problems to deal with complex reality in society. In the final step, when the chronic maladaptive hyper nervous systems reach the critical high maladaptive levels, mental overreactions are formed by triggering the misdirected mental functions. The chronic maladaptive hyper pleasure response nervous system triggers the misdirected addiction instincts, resulting in hyper pleasure response mental overreaction, when the chronic enhancer is transformed in the addiction. The chronic maladaptive hyper stress response nervous system triggers the misdirected defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freeze-obsession), resulting in the hyper stress response mental overreaction, when the chronic stressor is transformed into the predator. The chronic maladaptive hyper immune nervous with underconnectivity of the nervous connection triggers the misdirected mental process during sleep, resulting in delusional mental overreaction, when the mental process of wakefulness is transformed into the mental process of sleep. People with mental overreactions have socially acceptable behaviors. Many people with mental overreactions are highly successful in society because of mental overreaction that normal people do not have. People with mental overreactions with the maladaptive nervous system are maladaptive in normal environment, but society sometimes provides abnormal environment for people with mental overreaction to thrive. Mental overreactions are like autoimmune disorders where misdirected immune function to normal body tissues is harmful to body. In mental overreactions, misdirected mental functions to normal mental state of wakefulness are harmful to the mind. Mental overreactions caused by defensive survival instincts are posited by Stephen Porges in the Polyvagal theory119. The intrusion of the mental process during sleep into wakefulness in people with mental disorder was described by Claude Gottesmann who finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors120. Chronic mental overreaction causes the extensive reconstruction of the brain to reflect the usage and under-usage of neural connections by mental overreaction, resulting in the disordered nervous system, which is mental disorder. People with the maladaptive nervous system attempt to adapt, and people with the disordered nervous system fail to attempt to adapt. The development of mental disorder is described by the diagram below.

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The Development of Mental Disorder hyper response gene chronic adverse environment

maladaptive nervous system chronic maladaptive nervous system misdirected mental function

mental overreaction chronic mental overreaction mental disorder (disordered nervous system)

Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of three causes: the hyper pleasure, stress, or immune response genes, the chronic adverse environments (experiences or infections), and the misdirected addiction instincts, defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freeze-obsession), or mental process during sleep. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. Mental overreactions are described in the table as follows.

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Mental Overreaction
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancers/ pleasure response Stressor Stress response Role Idealized SelfImage Hyper stress response mental overreaction Defensive survival instinct Role Idealized SelfImage delusional mental overreaction Role Idealized SelfImage hyper pleasure response mental overreaction Role Idealized SelfImage Passive amiable bond Dynamic expressive expressive Passive analytical systemization Yang Dynamic driver domination

disconnection despair friend loyalist depression

injustice paranoid communicator peacemaker manipulation

disorganization anxiety systemizer idealist obsession

repression unfulfillment driver leader mania

flight-freeze sufferer loner delusional depression delusional sufferer imaginative loner bond addiction

manipulative manipulator strategist delusional manipulation delusional manipulator imaginative strategist expressive addiction expressive addict celebrity

obsessive sectarian devotee delusional obsession

rage rebel hero delusional mania

delusional sectarian imaginative devotee systemization addiction systemization addict super geek

delusional rebel imaginative hero domination addiction

bond addict super lover

domination addict adventurer

As in the table above, the three types of mental overreactions are the hyper stress response, the delusional, and the hyper pleasure response mental overreactions. There are four enhancers-stressors, so there are total 12 subtypes of mental overreactions, including four hyper stress response mental overreactions (depression, manipulation, obsession, and mania), four delusional mental overreactions (delusional depression, delusional manipulation, delusional obsession, and delusional mania), and four hyper pleasure response mental overreactions (bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction). 11.1.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Overreactions Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with

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urgently. Stress response is in the following order: 1) the limbic system, 2) the hypothalamus, 3) the pituitary gland, and 4) the adrenal glands. The four systems constitute the LHPA axis. Under normal stress response, the LHPA axis has a negative feedback loop to minimize the glucocorticoid stress hormones produced by the LHPA axis. Under chronic stress response, the glucocorticoid stress hormones increase. The level of stress response as the level of the glucocorticoid stress hormones decreases with the increasing numbers of the hippocampal glucocoricoid receptors, which are affected by the serotonin 1a receptor (5-HT1a), the serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2a), and the reuptake of serotonin. The numbers of the receptors are controlled by the epigenetic adjustment that is affected by chronic stress, resulting in the high stress response nervous system triggered by chronic stressful environment. The adverse epigenetic adjustment occurs mostly during childhood that is the time for the brain development. The childhood adverse environments include physical illness, abuse, and neglect. In experiments by Michael Meaney121, the offspring of female rats displaying less nurturing behavior (low licking and grooming compared to high licking and grooming) had fewer hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, resulting in higher anxiety-related behavior. The best-known hyper stress response gene involves a variant gene in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). The short allele of 5-HTTLPR has been associated with decreased serotonin transporter availability, resulting in lower reuptake of serotonin. In several studies, individuals carrying this short allele have shown greater risk for depression in the face of adverse life events, including childhood maltreatment, although recent meta-analyses have questioned these findings122. Another hyper stress response gene is the "A" (adenine) variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR gene)123. The "G" (guanine) variant is the normal stress response OXTR gene. Oxytocin is a hormone that increases in response to stress and is associated with good social skills such as empathy and enjoying the company of others. People with the 'A' variant scored substantially higher on depression. The combination of hyper stress response gene and chronic adverse environment results in maladaptive hyper nervous system. In the final step, when the chronic maladaptive hyper nervous systems reaches the critical high maladaptive levels, the hyper stress response mental overreactions are formed by triggering the misdirected defensive survival instincts124, when the chronic stressor is transformed into the predator. In human and many other animals, the defensive survival instincts are developed to deal with real or potential predators. For real predators, the defensive survival instincts are the freeze, flight, and fight instincts. The freeze instinct is to instinctively immobilize to fake death under attack by predator. The flight instinct is to run away from predator. The fight instinct is to fight against predator. The fight instinct also includes the maternal fight instinct to fight against predator in order to protect the children. For potential predator, the defensive survival instinct is the obsessive instinct to focus intensively and obsessively potential predator, and ignore all other nonessential objects. The triggering of the defensive survival instincts changes stressors into predators. The result is the mental overreaction to stressor. Initially, people with mental overreaction are within socially acceptable range. People with mental overreaction can be quite successful in society, sometimes because of the acceptable mental overreaction. The stressor in the yin passive social life (bond) is disconnection to disrupt bond as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to disconnection is despair as the stress response

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to prompt attention to disconnection, so disconnection can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the flight-freeze instinct, which is the defensive survival instinct of a helpless prey to the attack from a predator. The corresponding behavior is flightfreeze as depression for withdrawn behavior (flight) and inactivity (freeze). Depression is the mental overreaction to disconnection as the stressor. For human, depression can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally depression. The role for people with the mental overreaction of depression is sufferer. A person with the role of sufferer can rationalize the role as loner to avoid detestable people. The stressor in yin dynamic social life (expressive) is injustice to disrupt expressive as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to injustice is paranoid as the stress response to prompt attention to injustice, so injustice can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the manipulative instinct, which relates to the maternal fight instinct as the defensive survival instinct to deceive and attack stealthily a predator, such as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. The corresponding behavior is manipulation. Manipulation is the mental overreaction to injustice as the stressor. For human, manipulation can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally manipulation. The role for people with the mental overreaction of manipulation is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The stressor in the yang passive social life (systemization) is disorganization to disrupt systemization as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to disorganization is anxiety as the stress response to prompt attention to disorganization, so disorganization can be dealt with urgently. With disorganization, systemization suffers from anxiety. Chronic stress response triggers the obsessive instinct as the defensive survival instinct, which focuses in only one critically important potential predator, and ignores all other objects in a highly uncertain and competitive environment. The corresponding behavior is obsession. Obsession is the mental overreaction to disorganization as the stressor. For human, obsession can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally obsession. The role for people with the mental overreaction of obsession is sectarian. A person with the role of sectarian rationalizes the role as devotee. The stressor of the yang dynamic social life (domination) is repression to disrupt domination as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to repression is unfulfillment as the stress response to prompt attention to repression, so repression can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the rage instinct, which relates to the fight instinct as the defensive survival instinct to fight manically against a predator. The corresponding behavior is mania. Mania is the mental overreaction to repression as the stressor. For human, mania can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally mania. The role for people with the mental overreaction of mania is rebel. A person with the role of rebel can rationalize the role as hero. 11.1.2. Delusional Mental Overreactions The hyper immune response nervous system as the underconnective nervous system for mental disorders is derived from dysfunctional immune system in the nervous system as proposed by A. Kimberley McAllister125. The immune and nervous systems

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are in a complicated relationship. During healthy development independent of immune and inflammatory processes, immune molecules, such as cytokines and MHCI, play integral roles in the central nervous system by mediating essential nervous system function of connectivity such as activity-dependent refinement of connections, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and homeostasis. The immune system appears to influence the nervous system during typical functioning and in disease. Chronic infection or severe illness may disrupt the balance of normal neural–immune cross-talk, resulting in permanent underconnectivie nervous system in the brain during development, and/or contributing to pathology later in life. The underconnective nervous system does not have full connectivity in the nervous system because of the dysfunctional inflammatory immune system that cannot function normally to mediate essential nervous system function of connectivity. The participations of different immune molecules in the development of connectivity in the nervous system are different for different parts of the brain and at different stages of the nervous development, so different disorders of underconnectivity affect different parts of the brain and occur at different ages. Gender also plays a role in some disorders of the dysfunctional immune system largely due to gender-related hormones. For example, multiple sclerosis (MS) is two to three times as common in females as in males, so gender can also play a role in some mental disorders from underconnectivity derived from the dysfunctional immune system. In addition to environmental factor, such as infection during the prenatal period 126 , the hyper immune response gene 127 is an important factor. The underconnective nervous system derived from the dysfunctional immune system in the brain is shown in the mouse model by Limin Shi128. Adult offspring of pregnant mice given intra-nasal influenza virus on embryonic day 9.5 exhibit behavioral abnormalities including a deficit in social interaction, reluctance to interact with a novel object, deficient prepulse inhibition and increased anxiety under mildly stressful conditions. Such abnormal withdrawn behavior is similar to those associated with autism and schizophrenia. Because the virus was not detected in the fetus in this mouse model, it is the maternal immune response to influenza infection that causes these behavioral abnormalities. The combination of hyper immune response gene and chronic adverse environment (infection) results in the maladaptive hyper immune response nervous system. The chronic maladaptive hyper immune response nervous system triggers the mental process of sleep. For humans, the wakefulness-sleep boundary is porous. The broken wakefulnesssleep boundary allows the excessive intrusion of the mental state of sleep into the mental state of wakefulness. Sleep is a natural state of rest seen in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Daily life consists of wakefulness and sleep. In all mammals and birds, sleep has two phases: REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. Each phase has its own physiological, neurological and psychological features. They flow together to form sleep cycles. It is likely that sleep fulfills multiple functions. One of the functions is memory consolidation. Numerous studies have suggested that REM sleep is important for the consolidation of procedural memory for skill and spatial memory129. NREM sleep appears to be important for the consolidation of declarative memory for facts and knowledge 130, 131.

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During wakefulness, the thinking process is the control-reality process. The prefrontal cortex is the control center for concentration, motivation and focus. The prefrontal cortex involves differentiation and comparison among conflicting thoughts, determination of future consequences of current activities, definition of a goal and course of action, and prediction of outcomes and expectation. The reason for such function of control is that the prefrontal cortex is highly interconnected with much of the brain, including extensive connections with other cortical regions, as well as subcortical areas for cognition, emotion, and instinct. The information collected from different areas is stored in short-term working memory, and the prefrontal cortex integrates the information in working memory. In contrast to the control-reality process during the wakefulness, the thinking process during sleep is the uncontrol-metaphor process. The mental state is uncontrolled, because during NREM sleep, the prefrontal cortex and most other mental functions are hypoactive, and during REM sleep, the prefrontal cortex is inactivated. Since the primary sensual functions are hypoactive or inactivated, the mind has no direct contact with immediate reality as sense input. The reality that is stored in memory cannot be processed fully by the hypoactive or inactivated working memory in the prefrontal cortex that collects all relevant items in memory. The result of thinking during sleep is metaphor instead of reality. Metaphor is defined as the unreal combination of real items due to the lack of or insufficient working memory. The result is the uncontrol-metaphor process. Reality is processed through the primary sensual cortex such as primary visual cortex region in the occipital lobe. During wakefulness, the thinking process is busy solving various problems from sense input and unconscious input. The mind is preoccupied consciously and unconsciously by challenging tasks in exploratory activity and unsettling emotion. During sleep, the mind continues to be preoccupied by challenging task and unsettling emotion as during wakefulness. Such continuation of mental activities during wakefulness and during sleep is posited the cognitive theory of dream 132 by William Domhoff for challenging tasks and in the expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming by Joe Griffin 133 for unsettling emotion. In the cognitive theory of dream, dream content is for the most part coherent, consistent, and continuous with waking concerns, and dreams are the quintessential cognitive simulation because they are experienced as real while they are happening. In the expectation fulfillment theory of dream, all arousals of the autonomic nervous system — the generation of an emotion, however slight — are the expectations that require fulfillment to de-arousal, and dreams metaphorically fulfill the expectations that are not fulfilled during wakefulness to complete the arousal — de-arousal process. The uncontrol-metaphor process in NREM sleep is adapted to work on challenging tasks by consolidating declarative memory. The uncontrol-metaphor process in REM sleep is adapted to relieve temporarily unsettling emotion including the stress during learning procedure to consolidate procedural memory during sleep and during wakefulness. Long-term memory includes procedural memory and declarative memory. Procedural memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body. Procedural memory learning requires repeating a complex activity many times to produce the skill automatically. It is

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encoded and probably stored by the cerebellum and the striatum. Declarative memory is to recall consciously facts and knowledge. Declarative memory includes episodic memory for specific personal experiences and semantic memory for factual information. It is encoded mainly by the hippocampus, and consolidated and stored in the temporal cortex and elsewhere. Because of different areas for procedural memory and declarative memory, people are still able to form new procedural memories (such as playing the piano, for example), but cannot remember the events during which they happened or were learned. Long term memory, unlike short term memory, requires the construction of new proteins. This protein initiates and enhances the new synaptic connection that reinforces the expressive strength between neurons. Memory consolidation is to transform novel memories from a relatively fragile state to a more robust and stable condition. Memory consolidation involves both the strengthening of traces representing new details of experience, and the parallel integration of information extracted from new experiences with previously acquired consolidated memory. Memory consolidation can be done during wakefulness. Sleep accelerates memory consolidation In NREM, the average brain activity decreases. An area such as the reticular activating system which is the area involved in arousal and wakening, is hypoactive. Areas involved in muscle movement are hypoactive. But, regions, such as the hippocampus, involved in the consolidation and retrieval of declarative memory is still active, but the pathways that bring information to and from this region are hypoactive, therefore isolating them. The prefrontal cortex is hypoactive. The thinking process in NREM is the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process. NREM is hypoactive, similar to rest during wakefulness. Rest is important to repair bodily functions. During NREM dream, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is partially reactivated. In such hypoactive state, the limited working memory in the prefrontal cortex can only process the mental challenging task, such as exploration in unfamiliar environment during wakefulness134 as observed in the experiment with rat, resulting in memory consolidation of declarative memory with the active hippocampus. In the experiment by Robert Stickgold 135 , college students practiced a virtual maze task on a computer, and they were instructed to remember the location of a particular tree in the maze. Afterward, some of students took a nap, and reported the dreams during the NREM sleep. The students who had found the maze task challenging by their poor performances in initial trials had the dreams about the maze task. The dreams were metaphorical, such as seeing people at particular locations in a maze or hearing music that had played in the lab during testing. In the second trials, they found the tree much faster than they had in initial trials. Task-related thoughts during wakefulness, in contrast, did not predict improved performance. The experiment shows that the metaphorical NREM dream focus in challenging task, and accelerates the consolidation of declarative memory. The focus in challenging task during NREM sleep is even better than during wakefulness. Without the full capacity of the prefrontal cortex, NREM sleep is unlikely to solve any difficult problems in exploration. With the limited working memory, all other mental activities are fragmented during NREM sleep. NREM sleep uses the uncontrolmetaphor-hypoactive process for the hypoactive brain. NREM sleep is characterized as focused activity surrounded by fragmented activities in the hypoactive mental state.

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NREM dreams are like thinking about something during the day for a brief period of time. NREM sleep increases with exploratory activity during wakefulness136. After about 90 minutes into NREM sleep, REM sleep occurs. During REM sleep, the brain is activated by the excretion of acetylcholine in the pons. An area of gray matter, located at the occipito-temporo-parital junction is activated. This is where the brain performs the highest level of processing of perceptual information. The emotional brain (the limbic system) and memory and sensory processes connected to simple vision and hearing are activated. However, the primary visual cortex region, the encoding of declarative memory by the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex are inactivated 137 . During REM sleep, the right brain that processes image, intuition, and unfamiliar activities is more active than the left brain that processes language, precision, and familiar activities. Without the control of the prefrontal cortex and the space of working memory and with active emotion and processing of perceptual information, the thinking process in REM is the uncontrol-metaphor-active process to produce free and metaphorical expression of unsettling emotion, resulting in the temporary relief of stressanxiety by releasing unhealthy suppressed stress-anxiety. (There is much aggression in REM dreams with the inactivated prefrontal cortex, and much friendliness in NREM dreams with partially reactivated prefrontal cortex.138.) The deprivation of REM sleep results in extreme tiredness, irritability, and even hallucination. The stress-anxiety in complex procedural memory learning process hinders the memory consolidation in procedural memory, so the relaxing and refresh mind accelerates the memory consolidation of procedural memory during REM sleep and during wakefulness after sufficient REM sleep. For a long time it was believed that the consolidation of procedural memories took place solely as a function of time, but some studies suggest that the memory consolidation for certain forms of learning is exclusively enhanced during periods of REM sleep 139 . The inactivated encoding of declarative memory by the hippocampus does not allow REM sleep to consolidate declarative memory. However, since emotion in the emotion and motivation parts in the limbic system (particularly the amygdale that encodes the emotional part of emotional declarative memory) is activated during REM sleep, some studies support that REM sleep helps consolidate highly emotional declarative memories140. REM sleep uses the uncontrol-metaphor-active process for the active brain. From the perspective of wakefulness, REM sleep is characterized as emotional, active, metaphorical, and uncontrolled mental state. REM dreams are comparable to thinking deeply about something. REM dreams are more likely to occur, and more elaborate, metaphorical, emotional, and motivational, and more involved in visual images than NREM dreams141. REM sleep increases with the preoccupation of unsettling emotion142, because REM sleep allows temporary relief of stress-anxiety. People with major depression often go to REM sleep quickly to rely on REM sleep for relief, resulting in actually worse depression during wakefulness, because the need for the improvement during wakefulness decreases 143 and severe stress-anxiety during wakefulness can be reduced only through the conscious prefrontal cortex during wakefulness. As yang social life and yin social life during wakefulness, yang (male) sleep and yin (female) sleep occur as RNEM sleep and REM sleep, respectively. Males are much more interested in challenging task as in NREM dream, while females have much more

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unsettling emotion as in REM dream. Some parts of the brain are constructed for yin social life and yin sleep, while some parts of the brain are constructed for yang social life and yang sleep. Wakefulness with the control-reality process and sleep with the uncontrolmetaphor process are in very different mental states. There is the waking-sleeping boundary to separate two different mental states. For human, the wakefulness-sleep boundary is much weaker than other animals. Human language communication is much more elaborate than other animals. To detect lie in language communication, a listener must explore all subtle loosely connected details in the language communication from a speaker who may lie. The result is the detective instinct as theory of mind. In theory of mind, a listener must suppress one’s own position, and thinks as the mind of a speaker who may lie. The way to do it is to trigger momentarily the uncontrol-metaphor process in REM sleep by suppressing the control from the prefrontal cortex, encoding declarative memory, and the process of familiar events in the left brain to allow subtle loosely connected details to appear, and then switch back the control-reality process to examine all the subtle details that appear. Theory of mind is the sequential combination of the control-reality process and the uncontrol-metaphor process. For human, the emergence of theory of mind is after the proficiency of language at about four years old. No other animals have theory of mind. The human wakefulness-sleep boundary is porous by this uncontrol-metaphor process in theory of mind. The combination of the control-reality process and the uncontrol-metaphor process brings about the highly imaginative human mind, including humor that is unique to human. Each one of the processes alone cannot bring about the highly imaginative human mind. At the same time, human mind is susceptible to the broken wakefulnesssleep boundary by the underconnective nervous system. Without full connectivity in the nervous system, the underconnective nervous system cannot cope with complex reality. For non-humans and humans as in the mouse model by Limin Shi, a response to complex reality is the abnormal withdrawn behavior. The underconnective nervous system is similar to the uncontrol-metaphor process that has limited capacity to control and connect all items in reality during sleep. Humans have the porous waking-sleeping boundary. The combination of the five factors, the uncontrol-metaphor process during sleep, the underconnective nervous system, the similarity between the underconnective nervous system and the uncontrol-metaphor process during sleep, the porous waking-sleeping boundary, and complex reality, triggers abnormally the uncontrol-metaphor process during wakefulness, resulting in abnormal dreamlike delusional disorganized thinking during wakefulness as described by Claude Gottesmann who finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors144. The two major behaviors for the mental disorders, such autism and schizophrenia, are the withdrawn behavior from the underconnective nervous system and the delusional behavior during wakefulness from the uncontrol-metaphor process. There is no animal model for delusional schizophrenia, because non-humans do not have the porous wakingsleeping boundary. The triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor-active process from REM sleep produces delusional, active, elaborate, and disorganized thinking as REM dream, while the triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process from NRM sleep produces

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delusional, hypoactive, focused, and disorganized thinking as NREM dream. Delusional behaviors likely bring about stress-anxiety that triggers the defensive survival instincts, so the triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor process and the triggering of the defensive survival instincts occur at the same time. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the flight-freeze instinct, the delusional yin passive social lifer has delusional depression as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional sufferer, and the idealized self-image of imaginative loner. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-active process and the manipulative instinct, the delusional yin dynamic social lifer has delusional manipulation as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional manipulator, and the idealized self-image of imaginative delusional strategist. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the obsessive instinct, the delusional yang passive social lifer has delusional obsession as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional sectarian, and the idealized self-image of imaginative devotee. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the rage instinct, the delusional yang dynamic social lifer has delusional mania as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional rebel, and the idealized self-image of imaginative hero. 11.1.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Overreactions Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer, so the enhancers enhance social life with pleasure response. The major pleasure response system is the medial forebrain bundle as it courses through the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmentum produces the most robust rewarding effects. The major pleasure-neurotransmitter is dopamine in ventral tegmental dopamine system. The adverse environment for pleasure response is chronic pleasure. Chronic pleasure blunts pleasure response, so increasing pleasure is needed to be satisfied. In the experiments for chronic pleasure, chronic usage of addictive drug, such as cocaine that generates dopamine as the pleasure neurotransmitter. In the experiment by Peter Thanos145, chronic use of cocaine depleted the dopamine D2 receptor in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. With the depletion of the dopamine D2 receptors, the pleasure response was blunted. Rats used more self-administered cocaine. The addition of the dopamine D2 receptors by the injection of a special virus can reduce use of cocaine by 75 percent in rats that self-administer cocaine. Chronic pleasure environment changes the adaptive pleasure response nervous system to the maladaptive pleasure response nervous system by the need of very high level of pleasure. The transformation into the hyper pleasure response mental overreaction requires the hyper stress-pleasure connection to bring about the hyper stressinduced pleasure response nervous system 146 . The normal stress-pleasure connection involves the extremely stressful environment in the struggle for survival. During the struggle for survival, the body automatically triggers pleasure response as the secretion of painkillers (opium-like endorphin and enkephalin) to eliminate any pain resulted from injury or insufficient oxygen in the body, so the struggle for survival can continue without the interference of pain.

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The hyper stress-pleasure connection connects the stress response system and the pleasure response system to allow the triggering of pleasure response even under not extremely stressful condition. The hyper stress-pleasure connection brings about the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system. Stress includes novelty and risk. People with the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system prefer novel and risky pleasure, and get tired of old and ordinary pleasure easily. They are low stress, novelty-seeking and risk-seeking people. Novelty-seeking behavior is probably affected by the combination of several variant genes for the hyper stress-induced pleasure response genes, including the DRD4 C-521T 147 relating to dopamine and MAOA gene 148 relating to norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. The chronic adverse environment is the chronic stress-induced pleasure such as chronic thrill-seeking behavior as predator or as victim. The combination of the hyper stress-induced pleasure response gene and the chronic adverse stress-induced pleasure response environment brings about the maladaptive hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system that needs a high level of stressinduced pleasure response. When the chronic maladaptive stress-induced pleasure response nervous system reaches a critical level, addiction instinct is triggered to form the hyper stress-induced pleasure response mental disorder, when the enhancer becomes the addiction. Addiction instinct involves the stress-pleasure connection. The stress-pleasure connection is a double edge connection: pleasure response at the end of stress response and stress response at the end of pleasure response. Stress response at the end of pleasure response is the withdrawal symptom as in a drug addict without drug. This stress response is abnormal, because it is not the response to a stressful environment as normal stress response. Therefore, people with addiction have low normal stress response under normal condition, and has high abnormal stress response during withdrawal symptom. The withdrawn symptom forces an addict to seek pleasure response just to minimize miserable stress in the withdrawal symptom. Addiction instinct adapts to a prolonged surge of food and sex. The withdrawal symptom in addiction instinct is to maintain the behavior that causes a surge of pleasure from the sources such food and sex in order to take the advantage of the surge of food and sex. The enhancer in the yin passive social life (bond) is disconnection to enhance bond. The instinctive reaction to bond is pleasure response to continue bond. Chronic pleasure response of bond triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is bond addiction. Bond addiction is the mental overreaction to bond as the enhancer. For human, bond addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally bond addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of bond addiction is bond addict. A person with the role of bond addict can rationalize the role as super lover. The enhancer in yin dynamic social life (expressive) is expressive. The instinctive reaction to expressive is pleasure response to continue expressive. Chronic pleasure response of expressive triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is expressive addiction. Expressive addiction is the mental overreaction to expressive as the enhancer. For human, expressive addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally expressive addiction. The role for people with the mental

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overreaction of expressive addiction is expressive addict. A person with the role of expressive addict can rationalize the role as celebrity. The enhancer in the yang passive social life (systemization) is systemization. The instinctive reaction to systemization is pleasure response to continue systemization. Chronic pleasure response of systemization triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is systemization addiction. Systemization addiction is the mental overreaction to systemization as the enhancer. For human, systemization addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally systemization addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of systemization addiction is systemization addict. A person with the role of systemization addict rationalizes the role as super geek. The enhancer of the yang dynamic social life (domination) is domination. The instinctive reaction to domination is pleasure response to continue domination. Chronic pleasure response of domination triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is domination addiction. Domination addiction is the mental overreaction to domination as the enhancer. For human, domination addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally domination addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of domination addiction is domination addict. A person with the role of domination addict can rationalize the role as adventurer. 11.1.4. Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy Initially, the mental overreactions are within the socially acceptable range. A person with the mental overreaction can even be very successful in society. However, people with the mental overreactions typically cause problems in families and close social circles. Since people with the mental overreactions continue function well in society, it is difficult to accept the deep intrapsychic therapies to deliberately change the personality of a person with the mental overreaction, especially, when the mental overreaction is what makes the person with the mental overreaction successful in society. At this point, a suitable therapy is interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) rather than intrapsychic therapy to deal with such interpersonal problems. IPT focuses on the interpersonal context and on building interpersonal skills. IPT aims to change a person's interpersonal behavior by fostering adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations. Formal and informal psychotherapy for stress-anxiety is still useful to prevent the deterioration of the mental overreactions into mental disorders, and possibly let the brain itself to repair the maladaptive hyper stress response nervous system. Important drugs in the drug-based treatment for the therapy of stress-anxiety are antidepressant drugs to modulate the neurotransmitters (monoamines) in the brain. The most common method to prevent the mental overreactions is from moral and religious teachings. Religions provide the sources of divine power and faith, religious community support, and religious meditation to decrease stress-anxiety and addiction. With reduced stress-anxiety and addiction, people are less likely to have mental overreactions of addiction, delusion and desperate struggle for survival. 11.2. Mental Disorders Mental disorder is the result of the chronic mental overreaction. The chronic mental overreactions lead to mental disorders that are outside of socially acceptable range.

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In people with mental disorders, the brain is reconstructed to reflect the usage and underusage of the mental overreaction, resulting in the disordered nervous system. While the disordered nervous system is difficult to be recovered, psychotherapy can minimize the effects of the system. The three types of mental disorders are the hyper stress response, the delusional, and the hyper pleasure response mental disorders. There are four enhancers-stressors, so there are total 12 subtypes of mental disorders, including four hyper stress response mental disorders (depression, manipulation, obsession, and mania), four delusional mental disorders (delusional depression, delusional manipulation, delusional obsession, and delusional mania), and four hyper pleasure response mental disorders (bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction). Each subtype of mental disorders is represented at least one example of the mental disorders. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes of mental disorders. Mental Disorders
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancer stressor stress response hyper stress response mental disorder defensive survival instinct hyper stress response mental disorder (example) subtype of mental disorders delusional mental disorder delusional mental disorder (example) hyper pleasure response mental disorder hyper pleasure response mental disorders (example) Passive amiable bond disconnection despair depression flight-freeze major depression Dynamic expressive expressive injustice paranoid manipulation manipulative BPD Yang Passive analytical systemization disorganization anxiety obsession obsessive panic, phobias, OCD, PTSD anxiety delusional obsession autism systemization addiction Asperger Symptom Dynamic driver domination repression unfulfillment mania rage manic depression mania delusional mania delusional mania domination addiction psychopath

unipolar depression delusional depression catatonic schizophrenia bond addiction

paranoid delusional manipulation paranoid schizophrenia expressive addiction histrionic personality disorder

nymphomania

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), An estimated 22.1 percent of Americans ages 18 and older about one in five (or over 44 million) adults - suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year. About 5 percent of adults are affected so seriously by mental illness that it interferes with their ability to function in society. Mental health disorders account for four of the top 10 causes of disability in developed market economies, such as the US, worldwide,

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and include: major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), representing the unipolar depression, the paranoid, the anxiety, and the mania subtypes, respectively. There are five major psychotherapies 149 : biological therapy, psychodynamic therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and humanistic-experiential therapy for the four subtypes of mental disorders. 11.2.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Disorders The chronic hyper stress response mental overreactions lead to the hyper stress response mental disorders. The brain is reconstructed to reflect the usage and the underusage of neural structures by chronic mental overreactions, resulting in the disorder hyper stress response nervous system. The four subtypes of the mental disorders are the unipolar depression, paranoid, anxiety, and mania subtypes. 11.2.1.1. Unipolar Depression Subtype The common feature of the mental disorders is depression without other significant symptoms. The unipolar depression subtype includes major depression. Lifetime prevalence for major depression in the general population is 10% to 25% for women and from 5% to 12% for men. In any year, 5% to 9% of women will have this disorder and from 2% to 3% of men will have it. If one of a pair of identical twins has an affective disorder, there is a 60% chance that the other twin will develop a similar condition, compared to only a 15 per cent chance in non-identical twins. For both genders it is most common in those who are 25-44 years of age, and least common for those over the age of 65. For about two-thirds of those individuals who have a major depressive episode they will recover completely. The other one-third may recover only partially or not at all. Major depression is an episodic disorder. That is, it occurs in episodes that come and go. Major depression is characterized by a depressed mood, a lack of interest in activities, changes in weight and sleep, insomnia or excessive sleeping, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death and suicide. If people experience the majority of these symptoms for longer than a two-week period, they may be diagnosed with major depression. Major depression lasts from weeks to a lifelong disorder with recurrent major depressive episodes. Another form of unipolar depression is dysthymia. Dysthymia is a less severe but usually more long-lasting subtype of depression compared to major depression. The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy, medication, and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for people under 18, while electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is only used as a last resort. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with associated self-neglect or a significant risk of harm to self or others. Drugs used to treat depression are called antidepressants. Common types of antidepressants include selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, bupropion, and

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monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Antidepressants modulate neurotransmitters for reducing stress-anxiety from stress response, and allow the brain itself to repair the disrupted neural network. Many forms of psychotherapy are effectively used to help depressed individuals, including some short-term (10 to 20 weeks) therapies. Psychodynamic therapy focuses primarily in revealing the unconscious content of a patient's psyche as the source of the pattern of inadequate ways of coping (maladaptive coping mechanisms) in negative or self-injurious behavior. The revelation helps a patient to resolve the problems through verbal give-and-take with the therapist. Psychodynamic therapy repairs the disrupted neural network by identifying the unconscious source of the mental overreaction for the disrupted neural network. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) teaches clients to challenge self-defeating and negative but enduring ways of thinking (cognitions) and change counter-productive behaviors. Research suggested that CBT could perform as well or better than antidepressants in patients with moderate to severe depression. CBT may be effective in depressed adolescents. CBT is particularly beneficial in preventing relapse. Interpersonal therapy (IPT) focuses on the patient's disturbed personal relationships that both cause and exacerbate the depression. IPT aims to change a person's interpersonal behavior by fostering adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations. CBT and IPT repair the disrupted neural network by correcting cognition and behavior in the mental overreaction triggered by the flight-freeze instinct. In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), pulses of electricity are sent through the brain via two electrodes to induce a seizure while the patient is under a brief period of general anaesthesia. It is usually used as the last resort after the lack of response to antidepressant medication and psychotherapy. ECT is probably more effective than antidepressants for depression in the immediate short-term. It requires ECT along with psychotherapy for the best outcome to prevent relapse. Common initial adverse effects from ECT include short and long-term memory loss, disorientation and headache, but memory disturbance after ECT usually resolves within one month. This procedure is thought to affect levels of neurotransmitters and possibly the disrupted neural network by the temporary loss of memory, and allows the brain to return to the normal condition temporarily. 11.2.1.2. Paranoid Subtype The chronic manipulation mental overreaction leads to the paranoid subtype of mental disorder. The common feature of the mental disorders is paranoid. The extreme mental overreaction often triggers more than one defensive survival instinct to produce the combination of different subtypes of mental disorders. In the paranoid subtype, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the combination of the paranoid subtype and the unipolar depression subtype. Borderline personality disorder as the combination of the paranoid subtype and the unipolar depression subtype of mental disorder is characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships (idealization and devaluation episodes), self-image, identity, and behavior, self-image, and behavior. Individuals with BPD are often described as deliberately manipulative or difficult, and they also experience inner pain and despair, powerlessness, and defensive reactions. BPD patient has strong

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rejection sensitivity and poor executive control of emotion and behavior. Adults who have antisocial personality disorder, formerly also called sociopaths, may be more likely to also have BPD. Historically, BPD has been thought to be a set of symptoms that include both mood problems (neuroses) and distortions of reality (psychosis), and therefore was thought to be on the borderline between mood problems and schizophrenia. Personality disorder is characterized by consistently problematic ways of thinking, feeling, and interacting.. Some have suggested that BPD should be renamed as emotionally unstable personality disorder. While less well known than schizophrenia or bipolar manicdepression, BPD is more common, affecting 6% of adults, men as often as women in general, women more than men in treatment populations. Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood. Regardless of gender, people in their 20s are at higher risk for BPD than those older or younger. A major twin study found that if one identical twin met criteria for BPD, the other also met criteria in 35 percent of cases. People that have BPD influenced by genes usually have a close relative with the disorder. The environmental factors include childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, or separation from caregivers or loved ones. With help, many improve over time with 86% remission rate 10 years after treatment, and are eventually able to lead productive lives. People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships, fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and motives of other people150. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas151, people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game. In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the preypredator relation is that money represents resource. It shows a great distrust to any action from other people. The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy, although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms. Therapists are discouraged from diagnosing anyone before the age of 18, due to adolescence and a stilldeveloping personality. A number of techniques have been studied for borderline personality disorder including cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on helping the person understand how their thoughts and behaviors affect each other. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) focuses on how the person's symptoms are related to the problems that person has in relating to others. Psychoanalytic therapy, which seeks to help the individual understand and better manage his or her ways of defending against negative emotions in the context of current rather than past relationships, has been found to be effective in addressing BPD. Being manipulative, people with BPD are seen as among the most challenging groups of patients. People with BPD are described as “difficult,” “treatment resistant,” “manipulative,” “demanding” and “attention seeking". To deal with difficult patients, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) by Marsha Linehan 152 finds synthesis in various

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contradictions, or dialectics. For instance, therapists must accept patients just as they are (angry, confrontational, hurting) within the context of trying to teach them how to change. It combines the contradictory (dialectical) approaches of loving acceptance for dealing with depression and toughness for dealing with manipulation. The therapist specifically addresses four areas that tend to be particularly problematic for individuals with BPD: self-image, impulsive behaviors, mood instability, and problems in relating to others. To address those areas, treatment with DBT tries to build four major behavioral skill areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. DBT was developed specifically to treat BPD, and this technique has looked promising in treatment studies. Medications are often prescribed based on specific co-morbid symptoms shown by the individual patient. Antidepressant drugs and mood stabilizers (such as lithium and GABA enhancer) may be helpful for depressed and/or labile mood. Antipsychotic drugs may also be used when there are distortions in thinking. Medications do not manage BPD in its entirety. 11.2.1. 3. Anxiety Subtype The chronic obsession mental overreaction leads to the anxiety subtype of mental disorder. The common feature of the mental disorders is anxiety. In the United States the prevalence of anxiety disorders for adults is about 18.1%. Five major types of anxiety disorders are generalized anxiety disorder (GAD 3.1% of adult Americans), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD 1%), panic disorder (2.7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD 3.5%), and social phobia (or social anxiety disorder). Nearly threequarters of those with an anxiety disorder will have their first episode by age 21.5. Individuals who have an anxiety disorder typically have a family history of other members who have suffered from some type of anxiety disorder as well. Individuals with generalized anxiety have a tendency to worry about events, situations, and other variables in life on an excessive level without rational reason to worry. They worry about things to come, and the problems are often exaggerated and viewed in a more complicated manner than they really should be. They experience physical issues such as tension in the muscles, sweating, and even headaches. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often find themselves consistently performing behaviors that are repetitive due to the fact that they experience repetitively distressing thoughts. Common symptoms include the fear of being unclean and the possibility of making a mistake. Individuals with panic disorder experience attacks of nervousness and a high level of fear. Such anxiety results in potentially dangerous physiological responses, such as breathing complications, a fast heart rate, and profuse sweating. Common symptoms of this form of anxiety include feeling the sensation of terror, pain in the stomach, and even the fear of dying. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur in the aftermath of a traumatic or life-threatening event. Symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks or nightmares about what happened, hypervigilance, startling easily, withdrawing from others, and avoiding situations that remind you of the event. When the symptoms last

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more than a few weeks and become an ongoing problem, they might be PTSD. Some people with PTSD don’t show any symptoms for weeks or months. Social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations or only one type of situation, such speaking in formal or informal situations or eating or drinking in front of others. People with social phobia have a chronic fear of being watched and judged by others and being embarrassed or humiliated by their own actions. Their fear interferes with ordinary activities. Physical symptoms include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking. The treatments to anxiety disorder include psychotherapy, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication. CBT is the treatment of choice. The central component in CBT is gradual exposure therapy. People are shown proof in the real world that their dysfunctional thought processes are unrealistic. The proof is by the exposure of patients to the things they fear in a structured, sensitive manner. Often, a hierarchy of feared steps is constructed and the patient is exposed to each step sequentially. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants are frequently considered as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders. A number of anxiolytics reduce anxiety by modulating the GABA receptors. People with anxiety disorders may have preexisting overactive amygdale. The PET (Positron Emission Tomography) images showed that people with SAD had increased blood flow in their amygdala, a part of the limbic system associated with fear. In contrast, the PET images of people without SAD showed increased blood flow to the cerebral cortex, an area associated with thinking and evaluation. 11.2.1.4. Mania Subtype The mania subtype of mental disorders is derived from the chronic mania mental overreaction. The common feature of the mental disorders is mania. The mania subtype includes manic depression and delusional mania. Manic depression (bipolar disorder) is the combination of extreme depression and extreme mania. Different people with bipolar disorder have different proportions of extreme depression and extreme mania. Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression, mania, or mixed state that typically recur and become more frequent across the life span. In most patients, these episodes, especially early in the course of illness, are separated by well periods during which there are few to no symptoms. The symptoms of mania include elevated (high) mood, irritability, overly-inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, increased talkativeness; racing thoughts; distractibility, increased goal-directed activity, and excessive involvement in risky behaviors or activities. In mixed state, the symptoms of depression and mania are present at the same time. Depressed mood accompanies manic activation. About one percent of the American population in a given year has bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is the fifth leading cause of disability worldwide. People with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of having an anxiety disorder. Bipolar disorder typically emerges in late adolescence or early adulthood. Males may develop bipolar disorder earlier in life compared to females. Bipolar disorder is equally common in women and men. If one of a pair of identical twins has unipolar depression or bipolar

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disorder, there is a 67% chance that the other twin will develop unipolar depression or bipolar disorder, compared to only a 19 per cent chance in non-identical twins. After the onset of bipolar disorder, the brain is reconstructed to reflect the rage instinct and the flight-freeze instinct. The instinctive behaviors from both instincts have little use for the integration function from the prefrontal cortex and memory from the temporary lobes as well as overall broad functions of the brain, resulting in dysfunction and loss of neurons. Studies using positron emission tomography (PET) have found abnormal activity in specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex for integration function, basal ganglia for procedural learning and action selection, and temporal lobes for memory during manic and depressive episodes 153 . There is evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) abnormalities in bipolar disorder due to stress154. The loss of the brain tissue is shown in the analyses of MRI studies in bipolar disorder that reports an increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles due to the loss of the brain tissue155. Interpersonal therapy for bipolar disorder includes Psychoeducation (PE), Family Focused Therapy (FFT), and Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). PE involves teaching patients with bipolar disorder about their illness and its treatment. FFT employs strategies to reduce the level of distress within the family that may either contribute to or result from the ill person's symptoms. IPSRT uses techniques aimed at regularizing daily routines and improving interpersonal relationships. CognitiveBehavioral Therapy (CBT) helps patients modify detrimental or inappropriate thought patterns and behaviors associated with bipolar disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be used as the last resort short-term therapy. Medications serve two different purposes: medications to existing symptoms and medications for preventing symptoms from returning. Medications to treat mania are called neuroleptics. Medications to treat depressant are antidepressant medications. Symptoms of psychotic are treated with antipsychotic medications. Medications to prevent symptoms from returning are mood stabilizer, including lithium and alternative mood stabilizers. 11.2.2. Delusional Mental Disorders The combination of the genetic factors and the adverse environments leads to the underconnective nervous system. The underconnective nervous system does not have full connectivity in the nervous system because of the dysfunctional inflammatory immune system that cannot function normally to mediate essential nervous system functions of connectivity. The participations of different immune molecules in the development of connectivity in the nervous system are different for different parts of the brain and at different stages of the nervous development, so different disorders of underconnectivity affect different parts of the brain and occur at different ages. Gender also plays a role in some disorders of the dysfunctional immune system due to largely gender-related hormones. For example, multiple sclerosis (MS) is two to three times as common in females as in males. For autism and schizophrenia, the affected parts of the brain are different, the onsets of the disorders are different in ages, and genders affect the differences in prevalence and the age of onset.

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In terms of connectivity, autism may relate to the dysfunctional meditation of activity-dependent refinement of connections during early childhood central nervous system development by immune molecules, while schizophrenia may relate to dysfunctional regulation of synaptic transmission 156 between hippocampal and cortical neurons during late adolescence by immune molecules. Consequently, the main problem with autism is neuron connection, while the main problem with schizophrenia is the transmission of neurotransmitters. As a result, the problem of schizophrenia can be minimized by the simple control of neurotransmitters through medication, but the problem of autism cannot be minimized by simple control of neurotransmitters through medication. In terms of gender-related hormones, testosterone in the fetal brain along with all other factors may induce the dysfunctional immune system to bring about autism that occurs more frequently in males than females. It may also contribute to autism as the “extreme male brain” 157 (by Baron-Cohen) in such way that higher amount of testosterone in the fetal brain has higher chance to induce the dysfunctional immune system to bring about autism. In the genetic factor, there is a close relation between autism and schizophrenia. The findings in the MHC (gene for immune system) variants common for both autism and schizophrenia add to the growing genetic evidence suggesting that autism and schizophrenia share underlying molecular mechanisms 158 , 159 . Growing evidence suggests the most important environmental factor is maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy. The migration of maternal immune molecules with or without maternal viral infection into the fetal brain brings about the dysfunctional immune system in the fetal brain. 11.2.2.1 Schizophrenia Triggering both the uncontrol-metaphor process from sleep and the defensive survival instincts, schizophrenia is the delusional version of BPD with the intrusion of the mental states of NREM sleep and REM sleep. Schizophrenia comprises a group of psychotic illnesses, characterized by disturbances in perception, thinking, emotional reaction and behavior, along with extensive withdrawal of interest in other people and the outside world. Different people with schizophrenia have different proportions of different symptoms, including positive (paranoid), negative (catatonic), and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. Negative symptoms are more depressive in nature and also more debilitating. They include lack of motivation, inability to communicate, inability to relate, and inability to experience pleasure. Cognitive symptoms include inability to accurately receive and process information. The negative and cognitive symptoms are the hardest to treat and the most debilitating. As the paranoid type, positive symptom corresponds to the intrusion of the mental state of REM sleep. As the unipolar depression subtype, negative symptom corresponds to the intrusion of the mental state of NREM sleep. Some people with schizophrenia have purely negative symptom. Cognitive symptom corresponds to the suppressed controlreality process that is common to all people with schizophrenia. Unlike hyper stress response mental disorder, there is no animal model for schizophrenia. C. Gottesmann

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finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors. Schizophrenia in all populations is about 1 per cent. The chance of an individual being schizophrenic rises to 10 per cent if a parent or sibling has the illness. An identical twin has a 45 per cent chance of developing schizophrenia if his or her co-twin has been diagnosed with it; suggesting both genetic component and other factors. Schizophrenia affects men and women with equal frequency. Schizophrenia often first appears in men in their late teens or early twenties. In contrast, women are generally affected in their twenties or early thirties. After the onset of schizophrenia when REM sleep intrudes wakefulness, the brain of schizophrenia is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of REM sleep into wakefulness. During REM sleep, the prefrontal cortex, left brain, and hippocampus are suppressed. The observations of the brain of schizophrenia include the reduced prefrontal cortex160, the reduced mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus for the connection directly to the prefrontal cortex161, the mental deficit in the left brain162, and the reduced hippocampus in people with schizophrenia. In terms of neurotransmitter, as in REM sleep, schizophrenia has significant decrease of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, in parallel with significant increase in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens163. Corresponding to the negative symptom, NREM sleep is simply hypo-REM sleep with hypo-active brain. People normally have NREM sleep and REM sleep rebound as the increase of NREM or REM sleep after the NREM or REM sleep deprivation the night before. The intrusion of the mental state of sleep in wakefulness in schizophrenia eliminates the rebound. People with schizophrenia of the dominating negative symptoms have deficient NREM sleep and the absence of the NREM sleep rebound as NREM sleep intrudes wakefulness164. During the acute schizophrenic episodes, people with schizophrenia of the dominating positive symptoms have the absence of the REM sleep rebound 165 as REM sleep intrudes wakefulness. The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, which primarily suppresses striatal (mesolimbic) dopamine possibly to increase dopamine in the prefrontal cortex 166 . Antipsychotic medication can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7–14 days, but fail to significantly reduce the negative symptoms. Different antipsychotic medications suppress dopamine differently with different side effects. In addition to medication, psychotherapy, psychosocial, and vocational and social rehabilitation are important in treatment. CBT helps patients with symptoms that do not go away even when they take medication. The CBT therapist teaches people with schizophrenia how to test the reality of their thoughts and perceptions, how to "not listen" to their voices, and how to manage their symptoms overall. CBT can help reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse. Delusional bipolar is derived from the combination of the uncontrol-metaphor process and the flight-freeze-rage instinct. Randomness caused by severe depression and mania triggers the uncontrol-metaphor process. It is observed sometimes in severe mania or depression is accompanied by periods of psychosis. Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Psychotic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder typically reflect the extreme mood state at the time.

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11.2.2.2. Autism Autism is the delusional anxiety subtype mental disorder by the obsessive instinct and the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process from NREM sleep. Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. Gene or the prenatal period plays the most important role in autism as shown in identical twin studies showing 90 percent chance of autism by both twins. Autism affects boys 3 - 4 times more often than girls. After the onset of schizophrenia, the brain of schizophrenia is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of REM sleep that is characterized as active and random activity. Similarly, after the onset of autism, the brain of autism is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of NREM sleep that is characterized by focused activity surrounded by hypoactive and random activity. The behavior of autism corresponds to NREM dream that is characterized by focused mental activity surrounded by hypoactive and random activities. Such behavior shown in a brainwave study that suggested that adults with autism have local overconnectivity in the cortex and underconnectivity between the frontal lobe and the rest of the cortex 167 . Other study suggests the underconnectivity is mainly within each hemisphere of the cortex and that autism is a disorder of the association cortex168. Since the onset of autism is in childhood, the plasticity of the brain not only reconstructs wakefulness but also sleep. Children with autism have less total sleep with more time spent in NREM sleep and less time in REM sleep169. Focused activity can sometimes result in the extraordinarily rare talents of prodigious autistic savants170 and superior skills in perception and attention, relative to the general population171. To correct focused activity surrounded by random and hypoactive activity requires an early, intensive, appropriate treatment program. Most programs build on the interests of the child in a highly structured schedule of constructive activities to broaden focused activity and correct random and hypoactive activity. Medications are used only for specific symptoms, and do not deal with overall disorder of autism. 11.2.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Disorders The subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders are bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction. They are all hyper stress-induced pleasure response mental disorders. People with these mental disorders are low stress, novelty-seeking, and risk-seeking people in their specific pleasure responses, and they are addicted to their specific pleasure responses. For drug addicts, addictive drugs instead of addictive behaviors cause the hyper pleasure response mental disorders. Since only 10 percent of people who experiment with drug become drug addict, the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system plays an important role in drug addiction. 11.2.3.1. Bond Addiction Subtype

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People with bond addiction maintain the addictive behavior by the miserable withdrawal symptom in the absence of the addictive novel and risky bond. One example of the bond addiction mental disorders is nymphomania. Nymphomania is a mental disorder marked by compulsive risky sexual behavior such as promiscuity to form sexual bonds with people. The withdrawal symptom forces the people with nymphomania to engage in the compulsion repeatedly to form sexual bonds with people. Nymphomania can happen to any adult, though it is more common in women and homosexual men. The concept of nymphomania is being increasingly replaced with a new and more scientifically accepted concept of hyper sexuality. Hyper sexuality is considered as a strong inclination to engage in sexual activity, which is more than normal clinical levels of acceptance. Treatment for nymphomania involves psychotherapy and medication. Medications for nymphomania include antidepressants or antianxiety or antipsychotic medications for the stress response in the withdrawal symptom. 11.2.3.2. Expressive Addiction Subtype People with the expressive addiction need the attention of audience for their expressive addiction, so the expressive addiction is same as the attention addiction. The attention addiction disorders include histrionic personality disorder for mostly women and narcissistic personality disorder mostly for men. For people with histrionic personality disorder, the way to get attention is through good appearance, excessive emotionality (liveliness, drama, and enthusiasm), attention-seeking, and seductive behavior. For people with narcissistic personality disorder, the way to get attention is through personal adequacy (talent), power, prestige vanity, and self-centeredness. While histrionic personality disorder needs to get attention indiscriminately, positive attention (admiration) or negative attention (notoriety), to be noticed, narcissistic personality disorder needs only positive attention to be in the inner circle of top social echelon. For people with histrionic personality disorder, the old attention can get boring easily, so they continuously seek the novel attention. As a result, they have shallow social relationship without deep commitment. Since they are typically risk-takers, they are not afraid of losing old relationships. In doing so, they hurt their loved ones. People with narcissistic personality disorder look down at people outside of the inner circle in top social echelon, and are hypersensitive to criticism. Their attitudes are offensive. Histrionic personality disorder is more prevalent in females than males. It occurs about 2 to 3 percent in the general population. Narcissistic personality disorder occurs about 0.5 to 1 percent in general population. The addictive attention makes psychotherapy difficult to get pass the need of attention during psychotherapy. Like most personality disorders, people with histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders typically will experience few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s. 11.2.3.3. Systemization Addiction Subtype People with systemization addiction have the stress-pleasure connection that allows them to turn the stress response in the failure of systemization into pleasure

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response, so they take pleasure instead of stress to systemize novel data. They are compulsive to systemize novel data to the detriment of other pleasure responses such social interaction and physical activity. One example is Asperger Syndrome (AS). In the digital technological advanced countries where social interaction and physical activity are in decline and digital systemization is in demand, AS and AS-like personality become increasingly common. AS is more common in men than in women. People with AS do not withdraw from the world in the way that people with autism withdraw. They will often approach other people. They do not have problem with language development, and their speeches tend to be verbose. However, since they take pleasure in often boring systemization instead of socialization and physical activity, they often find themselves isolated. Although people with AS often have difficulty socially, many have above-average intelligence. They may excel in fields such as computer programming and science. People with AS include Albert Einstein, Andy Warhol and Emily Dickinson. There is no delay in their cognitive development, ability to take care of themselves, or curiosity about their environment. Treatments for children with AS teach skills by building on a series of simple steps, using highly structured activities. Important tasks or points in social skill and motor skill are repeated over time to help reinforce certain behaviors. 11.2.3.4. Domination Addiction Subtype People with domination addiction are compulsive to engage in risky and novel dominating adventures that they feel they can dominate. The domination addiction mental disorders include pathological gambling, kleptomania, and psychopath. Gambling is risk-taking. The pleasure from chronic winnings triggers addictive pathological gambling. Addictive gamblers feel they have control over gambling. Pathological gambling is being unable to resist impulses to gamble, which can lead to severe personal or social consequences. The fMRI study of the reactions of pathological gamblers showed that monetary reward in a gambling-like experiment produces brain activation very similar to that observed in a cocaine addict receiving an infusion of cocaine172. Most treatment for pathological gambling involves counseling, step-based programs, self-help, peer-support, medication, or a combination of these. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a commonly used treatment for gambling problems. Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, GA uses a 12-step model that emphasizes a mutual-support approach. To get away with crime is risk-taking. The pleasure from chronic getting away with stealing triggers addictive kleptomania to steal compulsively that provides the emotional rush experience and the emotional withdraw symptom. Kleptomania is the irresistible urge to steal items that usually have little value. People with pathological gambling and kleptomania regret what they do, but the emotional rush experience and the stress response from the withdraw symptom force them to repeat what they have regretted. Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for kleptomania. In general, cognitive behavioral therapy helps patient identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones.

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Controlling and dominating totally other people is risky. Chronic pleasure the control of social relation can triggers addiction instinct for the addictive domination of social relation, resulting in psychopath. Psychopaths use charisma, manipulation, intimidation, sexual intercourse and violence control others and to satisfy their addictive domination of control by social relation. They are impulsive and irresponsible, often failing to keep a job or relationship. They are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. About one percent of the US population is psychopaths 173. Most of people with psychopath are men. People with psychopath are intact in cognitive empathy, but deficient in emotional empathy. In an fMRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl174, a certain part of the brain in criminal psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people, indicating extremely low stress with respect to cruelty. People with psychopath show a poor neural connection between the amygdala for emotional reactions and emotional learning and the prefrontal cortex for impulse control, decision-making, emotional learning and behavioral adaptation175. 11.2.4. Religions and Mental Disorders Religion plays an important role in the prevention of mental disorders in society and the minimization of the symptoms of mental disorders. 11.2.4.1. Mental Health of Religious Group Some religions and sects cannot keep the essential sanity of social groups under chronic adverse environment, resulting in the disintegration of the social groups. How can some religious groups keep their sanity under chronic adverse environment, and survive? Like individuals, religious groups can suffer from the hyper stress response social disorders, the delusional response social disorders, and the hyper pleasure response social disorders under chronic adverse environment, resulting in the self-destruction of social group like suicide of individual. In social disorders, a social group allows people to behave like people with mental disorders under chronic adverse environment. The key to hold the sanity of social group without self-destruction is the right core belief. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have lasted for a long time under chronic adverse environment, while many other religious groups under similar environment were selfdestructed by social disorders. The right core belief for them is derived from the strong faith in God. The strong faith in God for justice and as the protector and comforter of the religious group minimizes hyper stress response, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of depression, extreme paranoid, anxiety, and mania. The strong faith in God as a living being instead of man-made idol minimizes delusional response as manmade delusion, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of delusional depression, delusional paranoid, delusional anxiety, and delusional mania. The strong faith in God as the ultimate happiness minimizes hyper pleasure response to earthly pleasure, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction. The mental

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health of the social group from the three religions provides a model for individuals in the modern age to maintain mental health of society and individuals. 11.2.4.2. Mental Disorders and Religious Community In compassionate religious community, people should have compassionate toward people with mental disorders, for almost all adults have experienced some symptoms of mental disorders in their lives. Whenever people with mental disorders need help, people help them. Otherwise, people share harmonious relationship with them as with all other people. Harmonious relationship consists of the hyper bond (empathy) instinct to bond eagerly with other people and the detective instinct to detect other people’s need and intention from the perspective of other people. With the influence of harmonious relationship, people with mental disorders can get out of their narrow preoccupation of self and disorder, and move toward normalcy with broad perspective and broad socialization. Harmonious religious community is a sanctuary for people with mental disorders and sinners.

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12. The Postmodern Religious System

In the past fifty years in traditionally Christian countries, the church attendance has greatly decreased, and the percentage of non-religious has increased significantly, particularly among young people. Non-religious people do not have any affiliation with established religion. They derive their worldview and value system primarily from alternative, secular, cultural or otherwise non-revealed systems rather than traditional religious systems. Non-religious includes all kinds of atheists, agnostics, and theists. The percentage of non-religious in the world is about 16% as the third largest group behind Christianity (33%) and Islam (21%). In the USA, the percentage of non-religious is about the same as in the world. Europe has a much greater percentage of non-religious. 12.1. The Diminishing Dominance of Religion In the West, the rapid increase in non-religious indicates the diminishing dominance of religion. The diminishing dominance of religion coincides with modernization starting from the Renaissance. Modernization is the transformation of a society from a rural and agrarian condition to an urban and industrial one. The three most important factors in modernization are individualism, pluralism, and industrialization that were outside of the major traditional religions established before the modern period. Individualism, pluralism, and industrialization in the modern period diminished the dominance of religion. Individualism from the individualistic society of Classical Greece for individualistic achievement was introduced during the Renaissance. It was outside of the major traditional religions, including the collectivistic religions (Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, and Islam) and the harmonious religions (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity). Pluralism is derived from communication, transportation, and migration. Before modernization, most people lived in isolated social group, so the major traditional religions were able to overcome pluralism by maintaining one religion or one system of religions in one isolated social group. The modern pluralism by advanced modern communication, transportation, and migration has broken down the barriers among isolated social groups. The old major traditional religions that worked well in isolated social group cannot deal this modern pluralism without barriers among isolated social groups. Being outside of the major traditional religions, pluralism brings about the diminishing dominance of religion. The major traditional religions were developed in agricultural society with its agricultural gender-family-social structure. The industrial

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gender-family-social structure is different from the agricultural structure, resulting in diminishing the dominance of religion. Before the modern period, religion dominated ideology, expression, and community. Since the Renaissance, religion in the West first lost its dominance in ideology, then in expression, and finally in community. The result after the lost of the ideological dominance, the expressive dominance, and the community dominance is the significant conversion to non-religious. the diminishing ideological dominance In the West, the diminishing ideological dominance started from the Renaissance. The major traditional religions are collectivistic religions or harmonious religions. Individualism from the individualistic society for individualistic achievement is outside of the major traditional religions. Individualism produces science and technology, divided religion with different degrees of individualism, nationalism, and capitalism. Science is a part of individualism for individualistic achievement in the understanding of nature. Science itself has little interest for the collectivistic relation of human society. Later, modern science based on rationalism and empiricism became independent from religion. The rise of modern scientific understanding of nature diminished the dominance of religion. The rise of the modern technology, particularly in medical technology, diminished further the dominance of religion. Protestantism from the Reformation has a higher degree of individualism than Catholicism. Within Protestantism, there are the Protestant denominations with different degrees of individualism. The result is the divided Christianity. The same thing happened to Judaism and Islam, resulting in the different denominations of Judaism and Islam with different degrees of individualism. The result is the divided Judaism and Islam. Divided religions diminish the dominance of religion. Individualism later produced secular nationalism and capitalism. The reverse of capitalism is secular socialism. Nationalism, capitalism, and socialism diminish the dominance of the major traditional religions. The modern pluralism by advanced modern communication, transportation, and migration has broken down the barriers among isolated social groups. The major traditional religions that work well in isolated social group cannot deal this modern pluralism. The result is secular democracy for the highly pluralistic society such as the early USA to deal with pluralism of religions. Secular democracy diminishes the dominance of religion. Industrialization in the modern period changes the roles of gender, family, and government from the agricultural society. The nature of work in the industrial society equalizes a great deal the roles of man and woman, unlike that the nature of agricultural work favors the dominance of man. In the industrial society, the role of family in production is much less important than the production in the agricultural society. The marriage in the agricultural society involved not only the union between one man and one woman but also the future of production and consumption of all the relatives of the man and the woman. The marriage had to be carefully arranged by the families of the man and the woman. The couples had to have as many children as possible to provide the workers in the farm, unlike the modern industrial couples without the need to have as many children as possible. The major traditional religions that were evolved in the agricultural society have to change their ways to deal with the highly liberated gender-

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family structure in the industrial society. The liberation of the gender-family structure diminishes the dominance of religion. A traditional society is hierarchical dominated by rulers and religious leaders. Rulers dominate politics, economics, and military, while religious leaders provide cohesive and coherent ideology, expression, and community. A characteristic of industrialization is division of labor, dividing a society into highly specialized institutions. A modern society from industrialization is a complex society with the interconnection among different highly specialized functional institutions, such as politics, public administration, the armed forces, law, economics, religion, education, health and the mass media.176. Each institution has its own core value. For an example, in industrial economics, the core value is rationalization to have maximum efficiency. Rationalization as a core value does not work well in other institutions. Because each is specialized, none of these institutions are dominant and there is no overall hierarchy of power. Globalization extends the collection of institutions globally, so no one nation is dominant as in traditional society. Inevitably, modern religion does not have the dominance as traditional religion. Modern religion is just one of the highly specialized functional institutions in a modern society. Because religion typically is slow to change, comparing to social trend, sometimes a part of religious ideology is in conflict with mainstream social trend, resulting in becoming a social deviation, and diminishing further its ideological dominance. the diminishing expressive dominance The modern expression in terms of literature, art, and music has also been affected by individualism, pluralism, and industrialization outside of the traditional religious expression. Before the twentieth century in the West, the diminishing ideological dominance of religion did not affect significantly the daily religious life, because religion continued to dominate expression and community, and to most people, religious ideology is less important than religious expression and community. The modern expression affected first only few people who could afford to enjoy the modern secular expression. Most people under the influence of religious expression predominately continued to have religious affiliation. In the twentieth century in the West, the prosperity and the mass media allowed common people to enjoy modern secular literature, art, music, and drama. The expressive dominance of religion started to be diminished by modern popular literature, art, music, and drama. The religious expression appears to be out of date and unappealing. In spite of the strong resistance from the major traditional religions against modern secular expression, modern secular expression has increasingly become more popular than religious expression. the diminishing community dominance The last stronghold of religion in the West was the religious community. After the World War II in the West, the governments in many countries, particularly in Europe, took over most material, educational, and psychological services that used to be performed mostly and explicitly by religion. Religious community loses its importance. The loss of all the ideological dominance, the expressive dominance, and the community dominance of religion results in the significant conversion to non-religious.

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12.2. The Modernization of Religion Modernization based on individualism, pluralism, and industrialization diminishes the dominance of religion. Modernization is essential for the improvement of living standard. Traditional religion faces a dilemma. When a traditional religion welcomes the improvement of living standard by modernization, it has to be diminished by accepting individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. When a traditional religion resists individualism, pluralism, and industrialization to produce modernization, it retards the improvement of living standard. Inevitably, the major traditional religions have to undergo the modernization of religion. For modernity, the value of unity is paramount. For post-modernity, the value of difference is crucial. As a result, instead of producing one unified postmodern religion, the modernization of religion produces three different postmodern religions. The three different postmodern religions from the modernization of religion are the postmodern modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the postmodern dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the postmodern complementary religion to be complementary to modernity. The postmodern modernized religion includes so-called progressive religions. It accepts and accommodates modernity and the diminishing dominance of religion. The postmodern dominating religion includes so-called conservative religions. It dominates modernity by the selective alliance with some parts of modernity. The postmodern complementary religion includes the postmodern harmonious religions. It involves the complementary domains for religion and modernity in such way that they are in different domains, but they need each other to have the whole society and whole person. 12.2.1. The Postmodern Modernized Religion The postmodern modernized religion accepts and accommodates modernity and the diminishing dominance of religion. It expands the interpretation of religion to include modernity in terms of individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. Since the major traditional religions were evolved in real human communities, many fundamental principles in human community are unchanged before and after the start of modernization. The expanded interpretation (the big umbrella) based on such fundamental principles can accommodate modernity. The so-called progressive religions adopt the postmodern modernized religion. The advantage of the postmodern modernized religion is the peaceful coexistence of religion and modernity. The disadvantages are the significant loss of the members who favor the dominant role of the major traditional religions and the lack of evangelical passion to attract new members. 12.2.2. The Postmodern Dominating Religion The postmodern dominating religion selectively allies with some parts of modernity in order to dominate modernity. It included so-called conservative religions. It includes the ideological, the expressive, and the community dominations. the ideological domination In the developed countries, the way for the major traditional religions to dominate modernity is to form some kinds of alliances with specific parts of modern ideologies.

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To dominate science, the postmodern dominating religion allies with some special science to produce the ideology of intelligent design for the domination of science by religion. To dominate modern political ideology, the postmodern dominating religion allies with nationalism during the wars, the political Right, or the political Left. The alliance with nationalism strengthened Christianity during the World War II and the early part of the Cold War in some countries in Europe and America during 1940s and 1950s. Some denominations of Judaism and Islam also ally with nationalism to strength religions. The alliance with the Right in America strengthened evangelical Christianity during late 1970s and 1980s. Such alliances allow the postmodern dominating religion to dominate modernity. the expressive domination To dominate the modern expression, the postmodern dominating religion allies with up-to-date expression in televangelism, multimedia presentation, upbeat sermon, lively music, and book-music publication. The postmodern dominating religion provides the attractive religious expression to compete effectively secular expression. the community domination Many churches have active charity programs and education programs to reach communities outside of churches. They become important parts of social welfare and education outside of the modern social welfare and education. The advantage of the postmodern dominating religion is to stop the rapid decline of religion, and continues to attract new members by its evangelical passion. The disadvantage is the antagonism between the religion and some parts of modernity. The antagonism stops further growth of the postmodern dominating religion after the initial rapid increase from the novel alliance and the novel religious expression and community. 12.2.3. The Postmodern Complementary Religion The postmodern complementary religion is to find proper complementary domains for religion and secularism, so they are in complementary domains, and they need each other to form a whole society and person. The modernization is highly urban, scientific, global, and complex. There are proper ideologies, expressions, and communities for modernity today. What modernity does not have are the small harmonious society, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation that the harmonious religion provides. At the same time, the harmonious religion cannot provide the modern highly urban, scientific, global, and complex society. Therefore, the harmonious religion and modernity are complementary to each other. The core value for the complementary religion consists of the harmonious society, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation provided by the postmodern harmonious religion. The core value for modernity consists of the checks and balances between collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement derived from the secular collectivistic society and the secular individualistic society. To have a whole person and a whole postmodern society, the postmodern harmonious religion and modernity need each other. The postmodern complementary religion is the postmodern harmonious religion, which will be discussed extensively in the next chapter.

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The Modernization of Religion
postmodern religions modernized religion dominating religion complementary religion with respect to modernity to accommodate modernity to dominate modernity to be complementary to modernity correspond to progressive religions conservative religions postmodern harmonious religion

12.3. The Postmodern Harmonious Religion The postmodern harmonious religion today in the secular world is in a similar situation as the early Christian church in the urban environment in the Roman Empire. The spread of early Christianity was through cities177. It provided extended family-like social groups, practical social services in the time of needs, and the harmonious mind in the chaotic urban society. In cities, it was more valuable to be a member of a Christian church than to be a Roman citizen. In the developing countries, the increasing urbanization brings about increasing popularity and devotion to Christianity178 in Africa, South America, and China. 12.3.1. The Core Value and the Bridge Value The core value for the postmodern harmonious religion consists of the harmonious society, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation. The core value for modernity consists of the checks and balances between collectivistic relation and individualistic achievement derived from the secular collectivistic society and the secular individualistic society. The postmodern harmonious religion does not live in isolation from modernity. While the postmodern harmonious religion does not need to dominate modernity, the postmodern harmonious religion needs the ideological relevancy, the expressive relevancy, and the community relevancy connecting to modernity. The relevancies constitute the necessary bridge value connecting to modernity. The value of the postmodern harmonious religion consists of both the core value and the bridge value as the relevancies to connect with modernity. the ideological relevancy In the scientific relevancy, the postmodern harmonious religion is aware of science, but does not intend to dominate science based on rationalism and empiricism. The postmodern harmonious religion indicates that science is human science based on human rationalism and empiricism. Human uses the set of physical laws in the humanrelated universe for human rationalism. Human uses human-related matter and energy in verification for human empiricism. The supernatural transcends the set of physical laws in the human-related universe for human rationalism, and human-related matter and energy in verification for human empiricism. The supernatural and miracles are beyond human comprehension and experiment by human rationalism and empiricism. The postmodern harmonious religion believes that the supernatural and the supernatural miracles that are beyond human rationalism and empiricism intersect with the scientific path of human rationalism and empiricism. In the secular political ideological relevancy, the postmodern harmonious religion is aware of the secular ideologies, but does not intend to dominate secular political ideologies. The postmodern harmonious religion is impartial toward the Right, the Left,

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and nationalism, which are basically the ideologies of large social groups contrast to the small harmonious social group for the postmodern harmonious religion. The impartiality toward secular political ideologies prevents the extreme movements from the Right, the Left, and nationalism. The religious-modernity complementarity prescribes the separation between the postmodern harmonious religion and the secular state. The secular state does not promote any specific religion. The postmodern harmonious religion does not participate in government other than interfaith service and benediction. the expressive relevancy In the expressive relevancy, the expressions of the postmodern harmonious religion in literature, verbal expression, art, and music need to be attractive, but not extravagant. The attractive expressions of the religion are necessary to attract large group of people, and at the same time, they must be sincere, true, and beneficial to common people. The extravagant religious expressions tend to produce distortion that may be productive in the short term, but is counter productive in the long term. the community relevancy In the community relevancy, the charity and the education programs by the postmodern harmonious religion to reach the communities outside are important. The essential difference between the religious programs and the secular, particularly governmental programs is that the approach of religion is from the heart much more than the approach of secularism. The religious programs must maintain such characteristic; otherwise, the secular programs and the religious programs are the same. One example of the postmodern harmonious religion with both the core value and the bridge value is the fast growing mega-church in America. The bridge value to connect to the secular world is shown in the large group service on Sunday or weekend, and the core value is shown in the small group service on week days. On Sunday or weekend, anyone can attend the religious service to establish affirmative connection with God. No one forces a visitor to do anything. The service is simple, ritualistic, inclusive, and upbeat with good sermon, music, and multimedia presentation. To a visitor, it is almost like to go to see a free show. No one forces a visitor to do anything. On important religious days, the church provides elaborate religious performances for all people. The church also provides active charity and education programs. For the people who want to belong to a religious community for the core value, the church provides the small group service to allow people to socialize intimately, to study the religious doctrine extensively, and to practice the harmonious mind actively. This dual religious service for the bridge value and the core value attracts and serves different kinds of people, and becomes increasingly common among all Christian churches. 12.3.2. The Harmonious Society of God The postmodern harmonious religion is the most suitable postmodern religion. It fits well in the modern society with the highly specialized functional institutions. The postmodern harmonious religion occupies the highly specialized domain of the harmonious society, while modernity occupies the highly specialized domain of the collectivistic-individualistic societies. Furthermore, the postmodern harmonious

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religions return to the original harmonious religions before they assumed the dominance of the whole society. The core value of the postmodern harmonious religion resides in the harmonious society of God. It consists of the theology and the harmonious society from Christianity, the harmonious mind practice from Buddhism, and the harmonious adaptation from Daoism. The three obvious elements in the harmonious society of God are human, God, the interaction between human and God. Human The human social lives and society were evolved through natural selection. The two old human social lives are yin and yang, corresponding to female and male psychological characteristics of advanced sexual organisms, corresponding to collectivistic relation, and yang stands for individualistic achievement. Because of the high social barriers for the yin and the yang social lives, eager and free cooperation among individuals is not easy. Eager cooperation among human individuals is possible because the new human social life is harmony. Harmony in terms of harmonious cooperation is the unique new human social life that no other organisms have. In terms of evolution, the departure from other apes is bipedalism, which is the oldest of all hominid characteristics. With bipedalism, the walking hands turned into free hands for enhancing gestural language. Language reduced the social barriers from the old human yin-yang social lives, resulting in the hyper friendly instinct to facilitate eager cooperation, which had evolutionary competitive advantage. In terms of human evolution, the human brain grew larger rapidly to accommodate language and socialization skill. The prefrontal cortex grew even faster to control the old human social lives. The result is the harmonious social life with the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the hyper detection instinct for detecting lie associating with elaborate language, resulting in eager cooperation without lie. The society from the harmonious social life is the harmonious society as manifested in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The harmonious society follows the social behaviors in Humanist Manifesto III 179 that describe what human should be. • Life’s fulfillment emerges from individual participation in the service of humane ideals. • Humans are social by nature and find meaning in relationships. • Working to benefit society maximizes individual happiness. The Interaction The supernatural is known only through the interaction of the supernatural and the human society. Beyond the interaction, the seeking for the understanding of the supernatural is unnecessary. Jesus said, “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness (Matthew 6:33a).” The interaction is through supernatural selection. In supernatural selection, the supernatural selects human as the chosen species, the harmonious social life as the chosen social life, and the harmonious society as the chosen society. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), the supernatural selects the human harmonious society to survive by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the

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non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. During the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural revealed the abstract bond for bonding the isolated social groups to survive the harsh environment in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Without the abstract bond (symbolized by female figurines and cave paintings), human would have become extinct like Neanderthals. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society with the abstract bond is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. The harmonious social life works in small social group. The harmonious social life does not work in a large social group. The enlargement of social group by civilization from the Neolithic Revolution caused the deviation from the harmonious social life and society. The ideal human social behaviors as described in Humanist Manifesto III do not work well the large civilized social group. To prevent the activated dehumanized preypredator instinct in the civilized society, the moral religion as the transitional harmonious society of God was established in the Old Testament with the abstract morality through the supernatural miracle. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God with the abstract rebirth. The Organism Structure of the Harmonious Society of God The basic unit of social group in the harmonious society is a small social group less than about 35 people, because the harmonious cooperation works the best in a small social group. The structure of the harmonious society is like organism consisting of single cell or multiple cells. Single cell structure is like house church that exists as one small group of people unconnected to other group. Multiple cell structure is the harmonious society consisting of many small groups as the basic units. There are connections among cell groups. There are joint activities among cell groups, but the cell group activity is the essential activity to keep harmonious cooperation as reality, because the harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group. The Harmonist Manifesto for the Harmonious Society of God The harmonious society of God is interpreted by human evolution, human history, and psychology to describe the whole human society in the past, the present, and the future. The prehistoric harmonious society of God was the Garden of Eden, which is the prehistoric harmonious society of God. It existed as the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society. The fall of the prehistoric harmonious society of God resulted from the emergence of civilization that deviated from the harmonious society. The transitional harmonious society of God was the moral religion as Judaism where God was the high ruler. The moral religion maintained high morality in immoral civilization. Jesus Christ initiated the harmonious society of God through the sacrifice and the resurrection. The decline of the harmonious society of God later resulted from the rise of the state religion. The decline of the state religion resulted in the return of the harmonious society of God. The return and the future harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth in the three-branch Unified society consisting of the collectivistic society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The Harmonist Manifesto is as follows. 1. the name:

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society of God on earth. Jesus Christ is the head. the context The harmonious society of God is the harmonious society in the Unified society consisting of the collectivistic society, the individualistic society, and the harmonious society for collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The non-harmonious world consists of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society. the origin: The origin of the harmonious society of God is the interaction between God and humans. The interaction between humans and God is supernatural selection. Through the supernatural miracle (the non-representation of the natural physical laws), God selects the harmonious society as the chosen society by the divine revelation of the abstractness (the non-representation of the expression of the natural human mind), including the abstract bond, the abstract morality, and the abstract rebirth. The abstract rebirth leads to the harmonious society of God. the admission: Unlike the non-harmonious world, the harmonious society of God has the minimum social barrier among God and all people. The minimum social barrier was achieved by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ for all people on the cross to break down the high social barrier of the non-harmonious world. Everyone who accepts the salvation of Jesus Christ can be admitted to the harmonious society of God through the confession of disharmony sins, the repentance from disharmony sins, and the acceptance of the salvation. Because of the unique salvation through Jesus Christ to minimize the social barrier among God and all people, the salvation of Jesus Christ is the path to establish the harmonious relationship in the harmonious society of God. The cross is the great equalizer for all people. the missions: The first mission is to establish the harmonious relationship among God and all people. The second mission is to learn and practice the harmonious mind as sanctification from all sources. The third mission is to establish the harmonious adaptation that is to benefit without competing with the non-harmonious world and other religious traditions. the structure The social structure is the organism structure consisting of single cell group or multiple cell groups, which are small social groups. Harmonious cooperation works well in a small social group.

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13. The World Peace Narrative
As described by Edward O. Wilson in “The Social Conquest of Earth”, human is one of very few species in eusociety (harmonious society) that conquers the earth. Can human be a good steward of the earth? Can we achieve world peace among ourselves? In the world peace narrative, world peace is near through the balance and unity of the collectivistic, individualistic, and harmonious social interactions for collectivistic relation, individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively. The balance and unity of the three social interactions is the three-branch way. Human history is characterized as the progress toward world peace through the three-branch way. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance, the three-branch way was formed. In the Postmodern Period starting from the information revolution, world peace is near through the postmodern balanced unified economic, political, educational, mental disorder, and religious systems. The three social interactions are derived from natural selection, neuroscience and psychology. Natural selection in evolution can be individual, kin, or group selection for low, high, or vitally important benefit of cohesive social group to individuals, respectively. The principal bases for cooperation of individual, kin, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity, beneficial relatedness, and existential division of labor, respectively. The individuals in group selection are severely handicapped in terms of long term survival and reproduction outside of cohesive social group, but a cohesive social group of the handicapped individuals overcomes individual handicaps by communication and existential division of labor, and results in the group fitness far better than the group fitness of non-handicapped individuals without existential division of labor. Only few insects (ant, termite, bee, and wasp) and human are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, kin, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way. The results of the combinations of yin (collectivistic)-yang (individualistic) and the intragroup interactions (passive-dynamic) are bond (yin passive), expressive (yin dynamic), systemization (yang passive), domination (yang dynamic) corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life, and exists only in human and other eusocial insects. The instinct for the harmonious social life is the combination of the hyper bonding instinct and the hyper detection instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious social lives lead to the collectivistic, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. Diverging from the peacemaking bonobo-like common ancestor, the early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from hospitable forest to hospitable woodland. Living in hospitable woodland, early human ancestors were bipedal and harmonious. During hominid evolution, the usage of tools and the successful harmonious society allowed the Homo to become highly successful species adaptable in diverse environments.

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The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The Upper Paleolithic Revolution introduced formal religion to human society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the modern communication resulted in the unity among the three branches of human society. In the Postmodern Period, all major powers in the world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. For major powers in the world, the postmodern world is unified. The microcosm of the unified world is the European Union (EU). The European Union does not have the power of a central government to control all nations in the EU, but it sets the explicit and detailed standards for a stable democracy, a functioning market economy, a sustainable budget, and a clear environment. In the eurozone of the EU, the member states adopt the euro as legal tender. Each member country still elects its government, but the power of national governments is highly restricted by the standards set by the EU. The standards and the interconnection among member countries force poorly managed national governments to improve their governments, and force well managed national governments to help poorly national governments to survive during the difficult periods. The influences of the EU can even force the changes of member national governments. The national governments have to work with the EU. Gradually and globally, various global standards and interconnection among all countries will move the world toward the EU-like union. Even now no large or middle size country can act alone and against all other countries without severe consequences. In the Postmodern Period, permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems. The history of human society is expressed in the following chart.

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THE HISTORY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
the harmonious prehuman hominid society the human evolution the prehistoric harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Upper Paleolithic Revolution the prehistoric religious harmonious hunter-gatherer society the Neolithic Revolution
the Early Society

the individualistic society: the individualistic state + the state individualism

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic state + the state religion

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Modern Revolution the Modern Unified Society

the collectivistic society: the collectivistic party + the partisan socialism

the individualistic society: the individualistic party + the partisan capitalism

the harmonious society the harmonious religion

the Postmodern Revolution World Peace the postmodern balanced unified economic, political, educational, mental disorder, and religious systems

The Balanced Unified Economic System The balanced unified economy is adaptive economy that unifies collectivistic economy and individualistic economy. It involves economic evolutionary change in a cohesive society to adapt to sustainable economy. In economic evolutionary change, the evolved economic system is the old economic system with new economic emphases and de-emphases. Cohesive society includes the American, the German, and the Chinese models. Sustainable economy consists of cohesive society, economic robustness, and environmental protection. The Balanced Unified Political System

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In the postmodern political system, there are democracy (individualistic partisan politics) politics and meritocracy (collectivistic nonpartisan politics). Partisan politics is controlled by competitive political parties, typically representing collectivistic politics and individualistic politics. Nonpartisan politics is controlled by the professional political institute that provides education for public officials, and provides election process to elect public officials. In the partisan unified political system, the government is a popular semiprofessional government, the zero sum political competition leads potentially civil war, and the nonzero sum political competition brings about the unity of the system. In the nonpartisan unified political system, the government is a professional semi-popular government, the weak private sector leads potentially the collapse of the system, and the robust private sector leads to the unity of the system. Different cultures and different stages of economic development produce different suitable political systems. It is tragic to impose an unsuitable political system, resulting in the collapse of collective political system (meritocracy) or the civil war in individualistic political system (democracy). The best system is the mixed system. Democracy allows meritocracy in terms of technocrat to find technical solutions during a severe zero-sum partisan conflict. Meritocracy allows democracy in terms of local election to determine the merit of local officials. The Balanced Unified Education System The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. Elementary and secondary education is primarily collectivistic education, and individualistic education is secondary. Individualistic education increases gradually with increasing ages. Significant amount of individualistic education is introduced in senior secondary education to prepare eventually individualistic career in early adulthood. The Balanced Unified Mental Disorder System In mental disorder system, the identities include hyper stress response disorder, delusional disorder, and hyper pleasure response disorder. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The social values for hyper stress response disorder, delusional disorder, and hyper pleasure response disorder are struggle for survival, dream-like wakefulness, and the addiction of pleasure, respectively. The three types of mental disorders are further divided into 12 subtypes of mental disorders by the dynamic and the passive forms of collectivistic social life and individualistic social life. Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and misdirected mental functions. The optimal therapy includes the combination of biological therapy, religion, social compassionate attitude toward mental disorders, and various psychotherapy methods. The Balanced Unified Religious System

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In postmodern religious system, there are dominating religion, modernized religion, and complementary religion. The social values for religious identities relate to modernization. The major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the postmodern harmonious religions, respectively. The harmonious religion as harmonious society works well as a small social group, so the harmonious religion is necessary to separate from large social groups as collectivistic and individualistic societies. Historically, Jesus chose to lead the spiritual kingdom of God over the political kingdom of God, and Buddha chose to lead a spiritual monastery over a political kingdom. They did not serve both politics and religion. This separation between the harmonious religion and large social groups works well in the prevailing and optimal separation between religion and state. Therefore, the optimal religion is the harmonious religion consisting of Christian harmonious society, Buddhist harmonious mind, and Daoist harmonious adaptation. The historical religious identities in religion should be viewed in the context of the universal principles. In this way, the harmonious religion can be understood universally. The presence of God continues in the harmonious society to form the harmonious relationship between God and humans. Jesus Christ uniquely has brought the harmonious relationship instead of the collectivistic relationship and the individualistic relationship between God and humans. No one else has done it explicitly. Therefore, the one harmonious society is the harmonious society of God as described before. With the harmonious society alone, civilization is impossible, but without the harmonious society, civilization is prone to become extreme. Jesus said, “What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul? Or what can a man give in exchange for his soul?” (Mark 8:36-37) The gain of the world is the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power in the civilized society. The soul is harmonious cooperation in the harmonious society. For the prehistoric primitive hunters and gatherers, the harmonious human relationship instead of the accumulation of wealth, fame, pleasure, organization, and power was essential for human survival. The souls of prehistoric primitive hunters and gathers were harmonious human relationship. As the descendants of the prehistoric primitive hunters and gathers, we inherit the soul. Without the soul for the social connection through the harmonious human relation, human life is empty and miserable. The harmonious society prevents the extreme accumulations of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society in terms of totalitarianism and excessive greed, respectively.

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14. Summary
The unified theory of human society unifies all aspects of human society, and establishes the peaceful Unified Society for the future. The unified theory is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) human social history, and (3) the Postmodern Unified Society. (1) The unified theory is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from three-level selection, neuroscience and psychology. The harmonious social life that lowers conflicts in social interactions and exists only in humans is maximum eager cooperation without lie. The three human social lives result in the three-branch society of the collectivistic, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the harmonious society. The harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism). In the individualistic society, the state has the state individualism (Greek mythology and science). Later, the harmonious society without the state of a large social group was formed as the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek harmonious cooperation among people in small social groups. In the Modern Period starting from the Renaissance, the modern communication resulted in the unity among the three branches of human society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive economy. The inevitable outcomes of individualistic and collectivistic economies are economic collapses from economic corruption and economic mismanagement, respectively. Adaptive economy involves the economic adaptation to avoid economic corruption and mismanagement in cohesive society for sustainable economy. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is sectarian civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The optimal education system requires balanced and timely collectivistic and individualistic educations. In the postmodern mental health, mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The postmodern harmonious religion in the Unified Society represents the harmonious society separated from and complementary to collectivistic and individualistic societies. The way to world peace is through the deliberate restraint of violence and the balance and unity of the three-branch way.

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15. Reference
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179 Humanist Manifesto III, http://www.harvardhumanist.org/humanism/humanist-manifesto-iii

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