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Differences from past papers

Umbra and Penumbra


Umbra and Penumbra are distinct parts of a shadow created by an opaque object which is
placed in the path of a source of light.
Umbra in latin means shadow whereas penumbra means almost (paene) shadow. Thet are
commonly used for the shadow created during a solar or lunar eclipse.
The area of total darkness is called Umbra and the area of partial darkness is called
penumbra.
Draw diagram
Hard and Heavy water:
Hard water is that water which contains a great amount of salts and other solvents. Hard
water cant produce lather with soap and cant be used for drinking, washing or cooking.
In the case of Heavy water deuterium isotope of hydrogen combines with oxygen.
Deuterium isotope is heavier than the protium isotope of hydrogen which is present in
normal water. The chemical formula is D2O. Has a density of 1.11 g/cm3 and a boiling point
of 101.4 degree. Used in atomic reactors as moderator.
H.C Urey in 1930 discovered it.
Lava and Magma:
Magma refers to molten rock present inside the Earths crust. Its a viscous liquid.
When magma flows out from the earth crust to the surface of Earth, its called lava.
Myopia and Hyperopia:
Myopia and Hyperopia both are vision defects. A person having Myopia isnt able to focus
objects that are far away. Myopia is also called short sightedness. The image is formed
short/in front of the retina. It results in blurred vision. Concave lenses
In case of Hyperopia a person isnt able to focus objects which are near and therefore its
also called far sightedness. In this case the image of the object is formed beyond the retina.
It results in blurred vision. Convex lenses used
Bothe these defects can be solved using lenses or glasses.
Smog and smoke:
Smoke is formed when something is burned. Its a by-product of fires. Used for fumigation
in pest control, in military and communication (smoke signals).
Smog is a combination of smoke particles and fog particles. Results because of pollution. Is
an air pollutant. Term first used in London in 1900s. Its caused because of burning of coal,
transportation emissions and volcanic eruptions.
http://www.deq.louisiana.gov/portal/PROGRAMS/OzoneActionProgram/OzoneFactsandExp
eriments/WhatisSmog.aspx (MORE FOR SMOG)

Fog and mist:
Fog is a collection of liquid water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the
Earth's surface.
[1]
The term "fog" is typically distinguished from the more generic term "cloud" in
that fog is low-lying, and the moisture in the fog is often generated locally (such as from a nearby
body of water, like a lake or the ocean, or from nearby moist ground or marshes).
[2]

Fog is distinguished from mist only by its visibility, as expressed in the resulting decrease
in visibility: Fog reduces visibility to less than 1 km (5/8 statute mile), whereas mist reduces
visibility to no less than 1 km.
Periscope and Perimeter:
Periscope is an instrument for observation above, over or through an object or obstacle that
hinders direct line-of-sight. It is made of two mirrors placed in a tube at opposite ends at an
angle of 45 degree. More complex periscopes use prisms which allow magnification or
reduction of the image. They are used in submarines.


Perimeter is the length which surrounds a two dimensional space. The space can be
anything from a square to a circle. It can be said that the perimeter is the length of the
outline. The word perimeter comes from the greek word peri (around) and meter (space). In
case of circle its called circumference.
For a circle perimeter =2 pie R or pie D
Triangle = a + b + c
X-rays, visible light and Gamma rays:
X rays are a type of electromagnetic radiations which are used for medical purposes. They
have a wavelength in the range of 0.01-10nm. They have higher wavelength than gamma
rays.
X rays are widely used in medical applications. The X-rays are used to map the interior of
human body using the diffraction of X-rays. X-rays are produced by collision of a high energy
electron beam with a metal. The rapid deceleration of the electrons causes high energy
photons to be emitted. This is called the braking radiation. The high energy electrons also
knock out bound electrons from inner energy levels. The electrons at outer energy levels
transit to the lower level to stabilize the atom. This causes a characteristic emission with
peaks at specific wavelengths.

Visible light is obviously the most useful type of electromagnetic radiation as it is the basis
of human vision. Visible light is obviously the most useful type of electromagnetic radiation
as it is the basis of human vision.

X rays are high energy electromagnetic waves, but visible light is medium energy
electromagnetic waves.
The visible spectrum is very narrow compared to the X-ray spectrum.
X rays can penetrate the human body but visible light is not capable of doing that.

Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic radiations. Have shorter wavelength but great
penetrating power. Not used in medical applications

Byte
The byte /bat/ is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most
commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a
single character of text in a computer[1][2] and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit
of memory in many computer architectures. The size of the byte has historically been hardware
dependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size. The de facto standard of
eight bits is a convenient power of two permitting the values 0 through 255 for one byte. Many
types of applications use information representable in eight or fewer bits and processor designers
optimize for this common usage.
BIT
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only
one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. These
values are most commonly represented as 0and1. The term bit is a portmanteau of binary digit.

Ram:
Random Access Memory or RAM is a form of data storage that can be accessed randomly at any
time, in any order and from any physical location, allowing quick access and manipulation.
RAM allows the computer to read data quickly to run applications. It allows reading and writing.
RAM is volatile i.e. its contents are lost when the device is powered off.
Static and dynamic ram.
ROM:
Read-only memory or ROM is also a form of data storage that cannot be easily altered or
reprogrammed. Stores instructions that are not necessary for re-booting up to make the computer
operate when it is switched off. They are hardwired.
ROM stores the program required to initially boot the computer. It only allows reading
It is non-volatile i.e. its contents are retained even when the device is powered off.
Prom, Eprom, EEprom
Absorption:
It is the chemical integration of one chemical into another or we can say it is the assimilation of one
element with the bulk of solid or liquid. It has a uniform rate of reaction and is an endothermic
process. The concentration is same throughout the material.
Adsorption:
Its the process in which one substance holds another in its surface through physical bond or the
accumulation of molecular species on the surface of another material. Its an exothermic process
and the concentration is greater on the surface. Favoured by low temperature. Is a surface
phenomenon.



Abbreviations
SONAR: sound navigation and ranging
GUT: grand unification theory
BTU: british thermal unit
BASIC: beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code
LDL: low density lipoprotein
SARS: severe acute respiratory syndrome
CNS: central nervous system
PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene
Other questions
Animals and plants:
Similarities
Both are living things
Both animals and plants are eukaryotes
Both animals and plants are made up of cells
Both have the ability to reproduce
Both contain the cell organelles as mitochondria, ribosomes, golgi bodies etc.
Mitosis and meiosis in both
Differences
Animals dont have a cell wall. Plants have a cell wall made of cellulose of chitin
Animals have the ability to move from one place to another voluntarily. Plants dont.
Plants are autotrophs (can prepare their own food by photosynthesis). Animals are heterotrophs.
Animals only have sexual reproduction. Plants have asexual and sexual both.
Plant has only one vacuole, animal has many.