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Centrifugal castings accounts for 15% of the total casting output.

This technique uses the


centrifugal force generated by rotating cylindrical mold which throws molten metal against a
mold wall to form the desired shape. It is used primarily for the production of hollow
components, but solid parts can also be created. In this technique high density grains tend
towards the outer surface while non-metallic inclusions and evolved gases towards the inner
surface of hollow castings. This casting procedure eliminates gating systems and produce
castings of high quality and integrity. Centrifugal castings have three main types:
1) True Centrifugal Castings: This method is characterised by an outer cylindrical
mold with no cores. The process can be vertical, horizontal, or inclined. The mold
rotation speed is in the range 300-3000 rpm. Outer diameter casting is very fined
grained while inside diameter has impurities that can be machined away. It is used to
produce cylindrical, tubular, or ring-shaped castings. This method results in high-
quality defect-free castings without shrinkage. Advantages of Centrifugal Catings are
as follows.
a) Due to its flexibility in casting composition, it is applicable to nearly all
components with the exception of high carbon steels C 0.40 to 0.85%.
b) Castings can be manufactured with a wide range of microstructures tailored to
meet the demands of specific applications.
c) Horizontal centrifugal castings give the dimensional flexibility in outside diameter
up to 1.6 m and wall thickness to 200 mm.
d) High quality Class 1 casings can be produced.
e) Superior mechanical properties to those of static castings due to finer grains
resulting from the process.

2) Semi-centrifugal (Centrifugal mold) casting: Here a mold is rotated around its axis
of symmetry. Molds of semi-centrifugal castings often contain cores for making of
internal surfaces. Directional solidification is obtained by proper gating system as in
static castings. Due to centrifugal force, mold cavities are filled completely and hence
results in high quality castings free of voids and porosity. Castings of this type include
gear blanks, pulley sheaves, wheels, electric motor rotors etc.

3) Centrifuge (Centrifuge Die) casting: This method is typically used to produce valve
bodies and bonnets, plugs, yoges, brackets, and wide variety of industrial castings. In
this method, the casting cavities are arranged about the center of axis of rotation, thus
enabling multiple castings. Centrifuge casting is often used in conjunction with
investment castings and silicon rubber castings.




Defects in Centrifugal castings: The main types of defects are the following.
a) Segregation bonding: It occurs only in true centrifugal, generally where the casting
wall thickness exceeds 50 to 75 mm.
b) Bonding: This defect is more prevalent in alloys with a wide solidification range and
greater solidification shrinkage. Bands are annular segregated zones of melting
constituents. Most alloys are susceptible to banding, but the wider the solidification
range and the greater the solidification shrinkage, the more pronounced the effects
may be. It has been associated with very low speeds.
c) Raining: It occurs if the mold is rotated at too low a speed or if the metal is poured
into the mold too fast. It occurs in horizontal centrifugal castings and here the metal
actually rains or falls from the top of mold to the bottom.
d) Vibration defects: Vibration of the moulding component causes a laminated casting. It
can be held to a minimum by proper mounting, careful balancing of moulds, and
frequent inspection of rollers, bearings, and other equipment.

Applications: The main types of products produced by Centrifugal casting machines include
pipe and tubes, alloyed irons, steel, high speed steel, iron and steel cylinder liners, grey iron
piston rings, grey iron brake drums, and alloy and super-alloy seal rings and valve seats for
the auto industry, heat resistant steel cracking tubes for petroleum refinery and radiant
heating tubes and furnace rolls for heat treatment furnaces.
Vertical machines are mainly used for shorter parts, such bushings, gear blanks, rings, shorter
rolls, wheels, aluminium and copper electric motor rotors, jewelleries, and vacuum titanium
alloy parts and many different small round parts such as balls, valve bodies and rings for
machinery industry. Extra-long rolls and conical bushings can also be produced. Centrifugal
casting is also employed to ensure good filling in investment casting.