Pharmacy Professionalism Toolkit for Students and Faculty

Provided by the American Pharmacists Association Academy of Student Pharmacists American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Committee on Student Professionalism Version 1.0 2004

2003-04 Committee Members
AACP Representatives Thomas Reinders, Co-chair (Virginia Commonwealth University) Robert Beardsley (University of Maryland) Nanci Murphy (University of Washington) Amy Schwartz (Nevada College of Pharmacy) APhA-ASP Representatives Amit Patel, Co-chair (University of Cincinnati) Gail Caballes (University of Washington) James Hobbs (University of Kentucky) Brea Olson (University of Tennessee) Andrew Traynor, (University of Minnesota) John Vinson (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREAMBLE.................................................................................................................................. 4
TEN TRAITS THAT DISTINGUISH A PROFESSIONAL.................................................................... 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSIONALISM TOOLKIT .................................................................. 7

STUDENT RECRUITMENT ...................................................................................................... 8
I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 8 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 10 A. Pre-Pharmacy Organizations................................................................................................... 10 B. Outreach Programs-Career Fairs............................................................................................. 11 C. Outreach Programs—Mentoring and Shadowing ................................................................... 12 D. Educating the Public on the Pharmacist’s Role in Health Care .............................................. 13 E. Professionalism Prerequisite................................................................................................... 14

ADMISSIONS ............................................................................................................................. 15
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 15 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 16 A. Application Process................................................................................................................. 16 B. Interview Process .................................................................................................................... 17 C. Staff Participation in the Admissions Process ........................................................................ 18

NEW STUDENTS....................................................................................................................... 19
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 19 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 21 A. Student Orientation ................................................................................................................. 21 B. Professionalism Orientation Booklet ...................................................................................... 23 C. Peer Mentoring Programs ....................................................................................................... 24 D. Introduction to Student Pharmacy Organizations ................................................................... 26 E. White Coat Ceremonies .......................................................................................................... 28 F. Public Affirmation of Professionalism.................................................................................... 30 G. Service Projects in Community............................................................................................... 32 H. Charity Fundraisers ................................................................................................................. 34 I. Outside Speakers to Reinforce Messages ............................................................................... 35 J. Introductory Pharmacy Courses ............................................................................................. 37 K. Student Portfolio Process ........................................................................................................ 39 L. Integration into Residence Life Programs (if relevant)........................................................... 40 M. Issues for 0 – 6 Programs (if relevant) .................................................................................... 41 N. Issues for Distance Learning Programs (if relevant)............................................................... 42 O. Issues for Religious-Affiliated Programs (if relevant)............................................................ 43

PROFESSIONAL YEARS 01, 02, 03 (DIDACTIC) ................................................................ 44
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 44 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 45 A. Honor System.......................................................................................................................... 45 B. Dress Code .............................................................................................................................. 46 C. Course Content and Structure ................................................................................................. 47 D. Classroom Demeanor.............................................................................................................. 49 E. Student Membership on School and College Committees...................................................... 50 F. Professional Demeanor: Faculty, Teaching Assistants, Preceptors, Staff & Administrators.. 51 G. Ethics Course Offering............................................................................................................ 52 H. Leadership and Political Advocacy Course Offering.............................................................. 53 I. Recognition and Awards......................................................................................................... 54 J. Cultivating Student and Faculty Relationships....................................................................... 55

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K. L. M. N. O. P.

Professional Pharmacy Organizations..................................................................................... 56 Student Leadership Council .................................................................................................... 57 Community Service Requirements (Service Learning) .......................................................... 58 Pinning / Professional Commitment Ceremony (End of P3) .................................................. 59 Faculty Retreat ........................................................................................................................ 60 Student Professionalism Assessment ...................................................................................... 61

EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION............................................................................................... 62
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 62 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 65 A. Student Orientation ................................................................................................................. 65 B. Faculty / Preceptor Orientation and Training Programs ......................................................... 67 C. Professional Portfolios ............................................................................................................ 70 D. Mentor Programs .................................................................................................................... 71 E. Service Learning..................................................................................................................... 72 F. Community and Hospital Practicums (Introductory Experiences) ......................................... 73 G. Classroom Workshops and/or Reflections .............................................................................. 74 I. Advanced Practicums ............................................................................................................. 77

EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES..................................................................................... 78
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 78 II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES................................................................................................................... 80 A. Professionalism Scholarships and Awards.............................................................................. 80 B. Professionalism Committees................................................................................................... 81 C. Patient-care Projects................................................................................................................ 83 D. Poster Presentations ................................................................................................................ 84 E. Patient Counseling Activities/Competitions ........................................................................... 85 F. Developing a Portfolio ............................................................................................................ 86 G. Honor Codes ........................................................................................................................... 87 H. Broadening the Scope of Practice ........................................................................................... 88 I. Leadership Conferences.......................................................................................................... 89 J. Mentor Programs .................................................................................................................... 90 K. Interprofessional Activities ..................................................................................................... 91 L. Etiquette Dinner ...................................................................................................................... 92 M. Monthly Column on Professionalism ..................................................................................... 93

APPENDIXES ............................................................................................................................. 94
Appendix A - Experiential Rotation Timeline (P1 - P3)......................................................................... 94 Appendix B - Experiential Rotation Timeline: P4.................................................................................. 95 Appendix C – Professionalism Competency in the Curriculum ............................................................. 96

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Preamble
Pharmaceutical care has been described as the “direct, responsible provision of medication-related care for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life.” Pharmaceutical care responsibilities include obtaining and reviewing the patient’s medication history, screening for potential adverse side effects or allergies, providing recommendations for appropriate therapy, educating patients on the proper use of their medications, monitoring the patient’s ability to take the medication correctly, monitoring the patient’s drug therapy over time, and collaborating with other health professionals and the patient to ensure that optimal health outcomes are achieved. Pharmaceutical care also involves the provision of services (e.g., administering immunizations) that improve access to health care and promote public health. At the core of patient-pharmacist relationships is a pledge to the patient (or covenant) that the pharmacist will exercise competent judgment and place the patient’s safety and welfare above all other considerations. It is a privilege to practice as a pharmacist and, as such, requires not only competence in the specialized knowledge and skills unique to our profession, but a continuing commitment to excellence, a respect and compassion for others, and adherence to high standards of ethical conduct. 1 In order to enhance pharmaceutical care, students, faculty and practitioners must enhance professionalism with pharmacy education and practice. To define professionalism, the committee looked to the material developed by the APhA-ASP/AACP Task Force on Professionalism. The following summarizes its important findings.

TEN TRAITS THAT DISTINGUISH A PROFESSIONAL
As defined in the 1999 APhA-ASP/AACP White Paper on Student Professionalism2, pharmacists and pharmacy students act professionally when they display the following behaviors as categorized into 10 broad traits 3 : 1. Knowledge and skills of a profession 2. Commitment to self-improvement of skills and knowledge 3. Service orientation 4. Pride in the profession 5. Covenantal relationship with client 6. Creativity and innovation 7. Conscience and trustworthiness 8. Accountability for his/her work 9. Ethically sound decision-making 10. Leadership

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ASHP Statement on Pharmaceutical Care APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 2000; 40:96-102. 3 Ten Marks of a Professional Working Smart. New York, NY: National Institute of Business Management, March 11, 1991; 17(5)

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Professional Knowledge, Skills and Behaviors • Performs responsibilities in a manner consistent with the school’s or college’s educational outcomes statement, the CAPE outcomes, NABP and ACPE competencies, professional associations’ competency statements and other professionalism documents • Interacts effectively with faculty, staff, other students, patients and their families, pharmacy colleagues and other health professionals Commitment to Self-Improvement and Life-Long Learning • Reflects critically on his or her actions and seeks to improve proficiency in all facets of his/her responsibilities • Accepts and responds to constructive feedback • Provides constructive feedback to others • Recognizes limitations and seeks help when necessary • Takes responsibility for learning; an active and self-directed learner • Does not participate in activities that compromise learning (disruptive behavior, cheating) • Maintains personal health and well-being Service Orientation/Altruism • Demonstrates concern for the welfare of others; uses skills and knowledge to improve their quality of life • Recognizes and avoids conflicts of interest • Provides service to the community and society-at-large • Offers to help others when they are busy or in need of assistance • Shares opportunities for recognition with others • Does not seek to profit unfairly from others • Puts patient needs above their own, e.g., staying as long as necessary to ensure appropriate care Continuing Commitment to Excellence and Pride in the Profession • Demonstrates dedication to his/her patients and the profession supported by a strong work ethic • Upholds the competent delivery of health care services; addresses lack of knowledge or skill in self and others • Conscientious; well-prepared for class and clinical rotations • Displays a consistent effort to exceed minimum requirements; demonstrates quality work Covenantal Relationship with the Patient and Respect for Others • Empathetic and responsive to the needs of the patient, the patient’s family and other members of the health care team • Respects a patient’s autonomy, privacy, and dignity • Involves the patient as a partner in his/her health care decisions; honors the patient’s values and belief systems • Respects and appreciates the diversity of his/her patients • Listens and communicates effectively • Maintains appropriate boundaries • Advocates for others • Non-judgmental; displays compassion and empathy • Skillful in establishing a rapport with patients and other health care team members • Contributes to team building • Maintains composure and adapts well to changing or stressful situations • Resolves conflicts fairly

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Creativity and Innovation • Contributes to quality improvement in all professional endeavors • Applies creative and innovative approaches to challenges • Contributes to the development of new knowledge and practices that advance pharmaceutical care Conscience and Trustworthiness • Demonstrates a high degree of integrity, truthfulness, and fairness • Uses time and resources appropriately • Truthful about facts or events • Does not hide errors Accountability • Demonstrates initiative, reliability and follow-through in fulfilling commitments • Promptly completes responsibilities in a timely manner (notifies appropriate individual of unexpected emergencies) • Responsible for, and accountable to others (e.g., patients their families, to society and the profession) • Accepts responsibility for one’s errors and explores ways to prevent errors from occurring in the future • Confronts individuals who demonstrate unprofessional behavior • Does not participate in activities that impair judgment or compromise patient care responsibilities • Accountable for his/her academic and professional performance Ethically Sound Decision-Making • Demonstrates an awareness of professional norms, laws, and behavior; knowledgeable of theories and principles underlying ethical conduct • Adheres to high ethical and moral standards • Able to cope with a high degree of complexity and uncertainty • Controls emotions appropriately even under stressful conditions; maintains personal boundaries • Prioritizes responsibilities properly Leadership • Contributes to the profession; actively involved in professional organizations or other venues • Proactive in solving social and professional challenges • Helps promote a culture of professionalism • Embraces and advocates for change that improves patient care • Encourages current and future pharmacists in their professional development

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSIONALISM TOOLKIT
The primary goal of the APhA-ASP/AACP Committee on Student Professionalism is to promote the professionalization of pharmacy students and faculty. To achieve this goal, the committee developed a resource of specific activities and strategies that students and administrators can utilize to effectively promote and assess professionalism on their own campuses. This document provides professionalism activities in six broad areas: • Recruitment • Admissions • New Students • Professional Years: P1, P2, P3 (Didactic) • Experiential Education • Extra-curricular Activities For each area, the committee has attempted to identify the “successful practices” used in the nation’s colleges and schools of pharmacy. Each section reviews what has worked well in the past and provides insights into possible problems that may occur when trying to implement these activities. Examples of pharmacy institutions that have experience with the program or policy are provided as reference points. The committee recognizes that other AACP member institutions may also implement similar tools, events, or programs, but committee members were not aware of these activities and apologize for any glaring oversights. The toolkit also references activities described in the abstracts submitted for the 2004 AACP School Poster Session. Although an abstract may include information about numerous professionalism activities within the institution, the toolkit may only highlight one of these activities. The activities and references in each area are not listed in any particular order. In developing this toolkit, the committee considered four key stages to addressing professionalism within colleges and schools of pharmacy: 1. Define attributes related to professionalism 2. Identify relevant behaviors that correspond to those attributes 3. Create a culture of professionalism in pharmacy schools and practice settings 4. Develop valid and reliable means of assessment and feedback. AACP and APhA-ASP committee members would like to see the Pharmacy Professionalism Toolkit serve as a living document and continue to evolve over time. Please contact Libby Ross, AACP Director of PharmCAS and Student Affairs, at Lross@aacp.org, if you would like to make a contribution to an existing activity in the list or suggest new ways to promote professionalism in pharmacy education.

“Knowledge is derived from the scientific method; wisdom is gained from human interactions.”
AAMC Council of Academic Societies

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STUDENT RECRUITMENT
Best Practice Guidelines Gail D. Caballes, University of Washington Nanci L. Murphy, University of Washington I. INTRODUCTION

Background
Pharmaceutical care as described by Hepler and Strand, promotes a “covenantal and caring relationship with patients.” To establish and foster successful patient relationships, a pharmacist must not only exercise sound professional judgment, but also demonstrate personal attributes such as integrity, accountability, and compassion. Prospective pharmacy students should become familiar with the unique roles and responsibilities of a pharmacist as early as possible. It is important to recruit students who embrace the pharmaceutical care philosophy and are willing to uphold the profession’s high standards of moral and ethical conduct. Students must also realize that professional development is an ongoing process and willingly engage in activities that will enhance their practice skills throughout their career. Practitioners, faculty members, current students and mentors may influence an applicant’s initial perception of the profession. It is therefore important that all contribute to enhancing (rather than undermining) an applicant’s understanding of professionalism and the core values fundamental to our profession. Recruitment activities offer a wide variety of opportunities to introduce professionalism. Many schools have hired individuals whose primary responsibility is to plan and oversee recruitment initiatives. Application materials, including information on school websites, should contain information on pharmacy’s evolving role in health care and the professional attributes that support patient-centered care. The Oath of the Pharmacist, the Pledge to Professionalism, the Pharmacist’s Code of Ethics, and the school’s internal documents on professional behavior, are examples of references that ought to be made available to prospective students. High school counselors and pre-pharmacy advisers should be knowledgeable on the academic and personal qualities that enhance future success. Presentations at career fairs, pre-pharmacy club meetings and other similar forums could include discussions on pharmaceutical care and the pharmacist’s integral role on the health care team.

Planning Elements
Each school must identify the best individuals to work on these initiatives. Since professionalism issues can arise in many ways and in different situations, appropriate steps must be taken to ensure the overall message is consistent with the college or school’s program expectations. Although the main introduction to professionalism is typically given prior to the start of the first professional year, it is important to discuss professionalism earlier to increase awareness of this issue. Students, faculty, staff, and practitioners are often invited to speak at area high schools, community colleges, and universities. Practitioners and pharmacy students delivering presentations at their former high schools and pre-pharmacy institutions, have been particularly well-received. Creating written materials, such as PowerPoint presentations, brochures and poster boards should involve collaboration with faculty, staff, students and practitioners. Presenters should be familiar with opportunities in the different areas of pharmacy (community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, academia, etc.) to ensure student interest areas area addressed. Discussion of the Code of Ethics, the Oath of the Pharmacist, and the Pledge to Professionalism, as well as a discussion of ethical issues, will help reinforce the high value the school places on professionalism.

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A PowerPoint template could be created for presentations or discussions with prospective students. This would ensure that an accurate and consistent message is delivered regardless of the presenter. Documenting what went well and what needs improvement will help subsequent presenters improve this activity in the future.

Timelines
Recruitment opportunities present themselves throughout the year. Students may request applications or visit the advising office at any time during the year. Scheduling visits with other schools and groups is not always feasible unless dates are set well in advance. For this reason, individual programs should create timelines that best fits their schedules. However, since the topic of professionalism is quite broad, adequate preparation is necessary. Pharmacy programs should enlist current students to participate in recruitment activities before they leave campus at the end of the school year. This will allow sufficient time to plan in the summer months when students may have more free time.

Promotion
In order for recruitment materials to be available by the start of the school year, promotion for committee chairs and members should occur towards the end of the preceding school year. Faculty participation should also be sought before the summer session begins.

Evaluation
Documentation of applicant responses regarding their understanding of professionalism will help in the evaluation of these initiatives.

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES

A.

Pre-Pharmacy Organizations

Description of activity
Pre-pharmacy organizations are typically composed of students interested in applying to pharmacy school. These organizations provide an excellent forum to explore career opportunities, learn about the school or college’s program of studies, and prepare for the admission process. Students can inquire about classes, internship opportunities, and receive advice on admissions. They may also participate in journal clubs or extracurricular activities planned by current pharmacy students.

Rationale
Before applying to a program, students often seek the advice of a college counselor or program advisor to answer technical questions on the admissions process and Pharm.D. degree requirements. Current student pharmacists, however, can provide other kinds of information. This would be a great opportunity to discuss the topic of professionalism, as well as involve pre-pharmacy students in activities that foster leadership, altruism and pride in the profession.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Activities promoting the importance of professionalism will raise awareness of this topic and create a baseline of expectations students may refer back to as they progress through the application process.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Pharmacy students who lead these discussions must be well-versed in professionalism issues and able to apply these tenets to different work environments and situations. Faculty advisors should also either be present and/or consulted before information is presented to pre-pharmacy students. • • •

Examples of programs and resources
Duquesne University Western University of Health Sciences University of Kentucky

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B.

Outreach Programs-Career Fairs

Description of activity
Career fairs provide a forum for high school and college students to explore different career options. This is an opportune time to discuss the evolving role of pharmacists and key attributes essential to the provision of pharmaceutical care.

Rationale
Although it is not uncommon for students to have identified a career goal while still in high school, many may be still trying to decide among the various choices in the health professions. Career fairs allow prospective students to explore current opportunities in the pharmacy profession.

Areas of professionalism addressed
This type of program helps increase awareness of the pharmacist’s role in health care and acquaints a prospective student on the profession’s expectations regarding professional behavior.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The issue of finding representatives to attend high school career fairs may be problematic since they are often scheduled on a weekday. If the fair spans the course of a day, finding students, faculty and practitioners to remain at a booth for this length of time presents a significant challenge.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • Rutgers University South Dakota State University University of Florida University of Tennessee “Keep your Options Open,” Iowa Pharmacists Association (Provides resources for those involved in recruitment activities): www.iarx.org/Resources?putlications/Options.aspx

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C.

Outreach Programs—Mentoring and Shadowing

Description of activity
Mentoring allows the prospective student to learn about the pharmacy program and the profession from a current student or a practitioner. Introducing middle and high school students to the pharmacy profession via job shadowing programs allows them to see first-hand the skills, attitudes and education necessary for a successful career as a pharmacist. Strong role models and mentors can help students overcome challenges to professionalism they may face in the future.

Rationale
Prospective students can experience for themselves the day-to day activities of the pharmacist and the challenges/opportunities this career presents. The mentor can share work experiences that require professional behavior and also discuss scenarios where unprofessional behavior was observed.

Areas of professionalism addressed
The mentor can explain expectations of professional behavior as it applies to different settings and situations.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Finding students and practitioners willing to donate time to take a prospective student “under their wing” presents the biggest challenge. If the plan is to create a structured mentor program, recruiting mentors needs to begin well in advance of the projected start date.

Examples of programs and resources
At Purdue University, for example, “freshmen are matched with an upper class pharmacy student who provides support, encouragement, and guidance. All freshmen are eligible to participate. First, second, and third professional year pharmacy students serve as mentors.” • • • • • • • • • Ohio State University - Early Admissions Pathway (EAP) Mentoring Program Auburn University University of Florida University of Pittsburgh Western University of Health Sciences University of Washington St. John’s University University of Wisconsin-Madison NACDS Pharmacies of Promise. www.pharmaciesofpromise.org

2004 AACP School Poster: “Professionalism Is More Than a White Coat: Beyond Rules and Rituals.” Cynthia J. Boyle, Jill A. Morgan, Robert S. Beardsley, University of Maryland.

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D.

Educating the Public on the Pharmacist’s Role in Health Care

Description of activity
There are a number of different ways pharmacy students and faculty can promote the role of pharmacists in health care, including use of the media, health fairs, career days, presentations, printed materials, videos, web sites, organized events, etc. Schools are encouraged to promote these public education activities to prospective pharmacy students.

Rationale
The public’s perception of the pharmacist needs to reflect current roles in patient care. Efforts should be made to emphasize the pharmacist’s role in improving health outcomes as well as the professional tenets central to pharmaceutical care. Schools should include language on professionalism in recruitment brochures, web pages and application materials. It is important that applicants are aware of the school’s expectations, in both academic performance and professional behaviors.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Pride in the profession, service orientation, raising the general public’s awareness on the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities required of a practicing pharmacist.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • Auburn University: http://pharmacy.auburn.edu/prospective_student professional_degree/expected-attributes.htm University of Washington’s Admission, Graduation and Academic Standards Document http://depts.washington.edu/pha/students/applciation/2004packet.pdf pg. 10-11 AACP website http://www.aacp.org St. John’s University- “Good Morning America” Long Island University “Today Show” http://www.brooklyn.liunet.edu/wn/2003/55.html University of Washington - “Northwest Afternoon” National Pharmacy Week activities – http://www.aphanet.org Canadian Pharmacists Association: Pharmacy Week site http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/hcp/resource_centre/pharmacist_awareness/resource_manual.cfm

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E.

Professionalism Prerequisite

Description of activity
Schools and colleges identify selected courses, i.e., biology, chemistry, calculus, etc. as prerequisites for admission to their programs. Students could also be asked to submit information on their professionalism traits as a required component of their application. Professional attributes could include: • Demonstrates a spirit of inquiry and curiosity (desire to learn beyond course expectations) • Demonstrates creativity (projects, extracurricular or work activities) • Demonstrates a capacity to achieve with an awareness of strengths and weaknesses • Demonstrates compassion and empathy • Works well on a team • Builds a good rapport with others • Strong problem-solving ability • Accountable and responsible • Good oral and written communication skills • Demonstrates an ability to cope with life’s situations • Decisive and resourceful • Displays strong ethics • Maintains composure in stressful or unfamiliar situations A portfolio could include a letter of recommendation from a supervisor, co-worker, faculty member, or patient, and a description of projects or volunteer experiences where these traits were demonstrated.

Rationale
It is hoped that students who demonstrate professional attributes prior to entering a pharmacy degree program will continue to value these behaviors as practitioners.

Areas of professionalism
Service orientation, creativity and innovation, trustworthiness, accountability for his/her work, leadership, compassion, etc.

Special issues involving promotion/planning and implementation
• • • Faculty approval Identifying what activities will count toward the prerequisite Evaluation of whether this prerequisite impacts success as a pharmacy student

Examples of programs and resources
• • See also topics under Admissions University of Washington

2004 AACP School Poster: “Achieving Professionalism in the Pharmacy Program at the University of Montana.” Lori J. Morin, Jean T. Carter, Gayle A. Cochran, University of Montana.

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ADMISSIONS
Best Practice Guidelines James Hobbs, University of Kentucky Thomas Reinders, Virginia Commonwealth University John Vinson, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

I. INTRODUCTION Background
The admissions process is tantamount to licensure as a pharmacist since the majority of students entering colleges and schools of pharmacy complete their degree. Thus, professionalism is an important element of the admissions process. In addition to academic preparedness, admission committees should evaluate an applicant’s potential to demonstrate and embrace the professional behaviors and attitudes necessary to provide quality patient care.

Planning Elements
Written documentation about the admissions process for pharmacy degree programs must be available to prospective applicants. The same information should be available to all prospective applicants regardless of the communication channel (e.g., written, verbal, electronic). An admissions committee should be formed to objectively assess an applicant’s credentials provided in a standardized format (e.g., PharmCAS, supplemental application forms).

Timelines
All information about the admissions process should be reviewed by administrators and faculty prior to the start of each admissions cycle, generally in the late summer or early fall. Updates or revisions should be provided as needed.

Promotion
Prospective applicants to colleges and schools of pharmacy are likely to receive general information about the profession and specific information about the admissions process from a variety of sources. Usual sources include websites (e.g., AACP, PharmCAS, or specific schools or colleges), academic advisors at colleges or universities and alumni.

Evaluation
The adequacy of the admissions process can be measured against standardized measures of achievement as students progress through the academic program and upon graduation. Standardized measures include grade point averages, grades within specific disciplines, participation in student organizations, and performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences, post-graduate study, and the type of employment upon graduation.

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
A.

Application Process

Description of activity
The application process is initiated by the completion of a formal application which can be centralized (e.g., PharmCAS) or decentralized with the submission of an application directly to the college or school. Many pharmacy institutions that utilize PharmCAS also require a supplemental application to capture school-specific information not captured on the standardized form.

Rationale
The formal application process serves as an appropriate and consistent means of obtaining information from prospective applicants.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Accountability and respect are the major components of professionalism addressed with the application process.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
Traditional assessment measures (e.g., grades, PCAT scores) are identified to determine an applicant’s suitability to pursue pharmacy as a career option. Since health professionals are called upon to provide a variety of health-related and civic services in their community, the application process should provide applicants with an opportunity to identify their participation in extracurricular activities. Additionally, these may be enhanced through the submission of reference letters from individuals who have known the applicant over a period of time and generally have observed the application of their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Admission offices may require letters from faculty, employers, advisors, and health professionals.

Examples of programs and resources
See also “Professionalism Prerequisite” under “Student Recruitment” header. 2004 AACP School Poster: “Professionalization as a Continuum: From Prepharmacy Student to Alumni.” Kenneth M. Hale, Robert W. Brueggemeier, Gerald L. Cable, Sylvan G. Frank, Milap C. Nahata, The Ohio State University.

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B.

Interview Process

Description of activity
An admissions interview is an organized event that facilitates a dialog between representatives from the School (e.g., faculty, students, alumni) with prospective applicants. These sessions can be arranged as part of the admissions process.

Rationale
Applicants should understand the need for evaluation by representatives from the school concerning their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Likewise, applicants should be able to interview school or college representatives about the suitability of their program for their particular needs.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Accountability, integrity, service, leadership, respect, and a personal commitment to life-long learning are the major components of professionalism addressed with the interview process.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
The interview process should be organized with a specific itinerary for each prospective applicant. Some colleges and schools begin with a presentation by the Dean or their representative that offers an overview of the program and incorporates the expectations of professionalism from students enrolled in the pharmacy degree program. The overview is generally followed by an assessment of the applicant through formal interviews, the preparation of an extemporaneous on-site essay, and the possible completion of one or more standardized assessment tools. The session may conclude with a tour of the college or school and the campus. Representatives serving as interviewers should participate in a formal orientation session to achieve a measure of uniformity among interviewers. Colleges and schools must consider the investment of time and resources that are required to conduct a formal training program for those participating as interviewers (e.g., faculty, alumni and students). Likewise, the institution should consider the investment of time and resources necessary to conduct interview sessions for prospective applicants. Strategies for the recruitment, reward and recognition of participating faculty, students and alumni must be considered. The admissions committee may develop a set of standardized interview questions to achieve a fair and consistent assessment of all applicants. The interview process should incorporate behavioral interviewing techniques that assess competencies determined to be key in pharmacy student success. Since pharmacists must be able to solve a variety of problems in their daily practice of the profession, special attention should be given to developing scenarios that involve common problem solving skills.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: “A Strategic Approach to Student Professional Development at the University of MissouriKansas City School of Pharmacy.” Maureen Knell, Mary L. Euler, Patricia A. Marken, University of Missouri- Kansas City.

Reference
Latif DA. Using the Structured Interview for a More Reliable Assessment of Pharmacy Student Applicants. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004; 68(1):21.

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C.

Staff Participation in the Admissions Process

Description of activity
Staff members, usually residing in the Office of the Dean, are the most likely individuals to serve as primary contacts throughout the admissions process. Their professionalism is critical in attracting quality applicants to the school or college. Colleges and schools should include staff members in training sessions related to promoting professionalism on campus.

Rationale
Staff members serve as ambassadors for the profession since they are the most frequent contact for applicants to schools or colleges. They must be knowledgeable about the admissions process and be familiar with sources of referral within their specific school or college.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Respect and accountability serve as major components of professionalism addressed by the interactions between staff members and prospective applicants.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
Schools and colleges must consider the investment of time and resources to fully develop the talent and expertise of their staff members. Staff should be encouraged or required to participate in training programs designed to enhance effective interactions with prospective applicants.

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New Students
Best Practice Guidelines Robert Beardsley, University of Maryland Brea Olson, University of Tennessee

I. INTRODUCTION
Experience has shown that it is important to discuss professionalism with new pharmacy students. Pharmacy students enter Doctor of Pharmacy degree programs from a variety of backgrounds and experiences. Some have been instructed about appropriate professional behavior while many have not. Thus, colleges and schools need to develop strategies to prepare new students for future development and expected behaviors. These strategies should define specific aspects of professionalism and expectations for professional behavior. Among other things, colleges and schools must describe the unique characteristics of professionalism within the new students’ culture. Characteristics may vary from school to school, so each institution must first decide what is important to share with new students and then determine the best approach to communicate this critical information. Arriving students may have preconceived ideas about what professionalism is and what is expected of professional students based on their past experiences. They may find that some former behaviors are not appropriate in a professional program. Colleges and schools must clearly articulate these important initial messages. Institutions should use faculty, administrators, and current students to reinforce these messages since new students observe as well as listen to current members of the academy. Schools should establish strategies unique to their environment to address these important concepts early in the student’s educational experience. When developing these strategies to address new students, schools should consider the following elements.

Planning Elements
Identify the best group of individuals to work on these initiatives within the institution. Some institutions use student leaders to speak to new students, while others use a combination of students, faculty, staff, and alumni. Colleges and schools may appoint a professional development committee to review all aspects of the institution’s environment and curriculum to assure that professionalism concepts are inculcated into every aspect of the pharmacy school culture. If a formal orientation is planned, the orientation planning committee (if relevant) must be involved. Unfortunately, some schools just use the lecture approach where the Dean addresses the new students and “tells like it is” without any other discussion. Experience has shown that the most effective planning requires both current students and faculty to work together. It is important to build on past experiences; or the experiences of other schools. Evaluate strategies and document past experiences for future planning.

Timelines
Experience has shown that efficient planning relies on effective timing. If a fall orientation session is scheduled, then the planning group needs to start in late May before the start of the summer break. In addition, planning must continue during the summer. The planning group must build on previous experiences and adjust timelines accordingly.

Promotion
Typically, new students are overwhelmed with new information and activities during their first months on campus. They must obtain new lodging arrangements, acquaint themselves with new academic courses, and adjust their personal lives. The planning group must “promote” professional activities appropriately to capture the attention of new students during this hectic time. Faculty, current students, and

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administrators are also busy. The planning group must work diligently to achieve cooperation from faculty, administrators, and current students. The planning group needs to start initial promotion at least 3 months in advance of each activity with intense promotion 6-weeks out and final promotion 1 week prior to the event.

Evaluation
Colleges and schools should assess the effectiveness the professionalism programs and logistical planning process of each activity for new students. It is critical to future development that planning groups evaluate the programs from the perspective of new students, current students and faculty participants and to share the results with future program planners.

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
Colleges and schools use the following activities to enhance professional development of new students. In order to assist individuals who would like to develop similar strategies, this section briefly describes each activity, its rationale, the areas of professionalism addressed, planning, promotion, implementation, resources, and references. A checklist of suggested planning steps is included for each activity.

A.

Student Orientation

Description of activity
Student orientation sessions offer a golden opportunity to introduce professionalism. Student orientations serve to teach new students about all aspects of student life as they segue into a professional curriculum. These sessions may be held over several days or an entire week. Faculty, staff, and current students often participate in this process and sometimes even serve as group leaders or mentors. Activities may include a mix of small group sessions and “lecture style” sessions. Small group sessions are especially important for conducting discussions about what professionalism entails. During orientation new students may learn more about professional student organizations, and they may even write a Pledge of Professionalism that is unique to their incoming class. As described below, White Coat ceremonies are often held at the conclusion of the orientation and serve as the official beginning of the professional pharmacy experience.

Rationale
Student orientation is the first exposure that new students have to pharmacy school. Most students are excited to begin a professional degree program, and they are eager to learn all that pharmacy school entails. Professionalism can be introduced to the new students in several different ways and can be modeled by both faculty and current students. By exposing incoming students to the importance of professionalism from the first day of school, this concept will become a part of their everyday life as pharmacy students.

Areas of professionalism addressed
The main focus for professionalism will be placed on expected professional behaviors and attitudes in the classroom and during school-sponsored events. Most colleges of pharmacy have an Honor Code and/or a dress code that will be introduced to students during this time. The roles of professional organizations within the school to promote professionalism can also be explained. School’s formal and informal policies related to appropriate behaviors are typically addressed.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
In order to involve faculty and current students in the orientation process, they must first be taught what is expected of them as leaders. Planning must begin during the spring, especially for students selected as orientation leaders. These leaders should meet together several times before the actual student orientation to discuss the schedule, format, and expectations.

Examples of programs and resources • University of Washington • University of Maryland • University of California – San Francisco

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2004 AACP School Posters: “Enhancing Professionalism by Engaging Pharmacy Students Early in their Education Experience.” Gary W. Bumgarner, Alan R. Spies, C. Scott Asbill, Valerie T. Prince, Samford University. “Creating a Culture of Professionalism: The First Step in a Life Long Journey.” Cynthia B. Watchmaker, Donald T. Kishi, Michael E. Winter, University of California, San Francisco. “Howard University Professionalism Workshop and White Coat Ceremony.” Anthony K. Wutoh, Joseph R. Ofosu, Olu A. Olusanya, E. Jeannette Andrews, Pedro J. Lecca, Howard University. “Developing Professionalism Through the Official and Unofficial Curriculum.” Regina G. Caldwell, Dwaine K. Green, Phyllis E. Nally, Peggy Piascik and William C. Lubawy, University of Kentucky. “Intentional Professionalization Strategies Across the Pharmacy Education Experience (or Baking the Perfect Soufflé).” Pamela U. Joyner, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “Enhancing the Professionalism of Pharmacy Students at the University of Washington.” Authors: Katherine Hale, Gail Caballes, Dana Hammer, Nanci Murphy, University of Washington.

Reference
Brown ME, Kirschenbaum HL, Bazil MK, et al. Orientation seminar for students entering the professional phase of the pharmacy curriculum. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 1998;62: 84S.

Checklist of Planning Steps
___ begin all planning no later than spring or 3 months ahead of time ___ determine dates, length, and format of student orientation ___ target areas of professionalism to be discussed ___ identify special programs to reinforce professional topics (White Coat Ceremony, Oath of a Pharmacist, Pledge of Professionalism) ___ identify outside speakers who may be involved ___ if applicable contact leaders of student organizations to inform them of how student organizations will be introduced to new students ___ if applicable, implement mentoring program to begin with student orientation ___ decide who will be involved in leading the orientation process (students, faculty, alumni) ___ assemble materials and packets for leaders and students ___ hold a training session for leaders to go over schedule, materials, and expectations ___ upon completion of orientation, gather feedback from new students and leaders ___ record ideas for improvement for the following year

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B.

Professionalism Orientation Booklet

Description of activity
Prepare a compilation of short stories, articles, and essays that emphasize the importance of professionalism and distribute the bound materials to all first-year pharmacy students upon matriculation or during the summer prior to their entry into the program. Discuss the contents of the booklet in small groups with faculty facilitation during orientation sessions when the students arrive on campus. In addition on in lieu of a professionalism orientation booklet, some schools have developed a journal club that develops a list of recommended readings on professionalism and ethics on a monthly or periodic basis.

Rationale
The professionalism orientation booklet gives students a tangible and accessible resource to learn the value of professionalism on campus and within a patient care environment.

Areas of professionalism addressed
This activity relates to all areas of professionalism.

Examples of programs and resources
• •

University of Mississippi – Coordinator for Student Professional Development The National Boards of Medical Examiners: The Behaviors of Professionalism

2004 AACP School Poster: “Enhancing Professionalism by Engaging Pharmacy Students Early in their Education Experience.” Gary W. Bumgarner, Alan R. Spies, C. Scott Asbill, Valerie T. Prince, Samford University.

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C. Peer Mentoring Programs Description of activity
Mentoring programs pair new students with existing students. Formal, structured programs, such as “Big Brother, Big Sister” programs, exist in many schools of pharmacy where new students are paired with current students. Informal mentoring exists as well but is more difficult to identify. Informal mentoring occurs in hallways, cafeterias, and social gatherings. In addition, pharmacy professional groups, such as fraternities, typically have mentoring programs to help new members adjust to professional education. In most formal programs, second year students are paired with first year students. Some schools assign mentors as soon as students are admitted into the program, while others wait until the start of classes. Another variation is to have student leaders mentor a group of 3 to 4 students so that students work in a group early on. These mentoring programs involve different levels of mentor involvement, such as sharing notes, textbooks, and other course related material; and advising new students about course selection and study habits. Effective mentors typically share their experiences and survival tips with the new students.

Rationale
Formal and informal programs are useful in assisting new students in adapting to new environments. They provide a sense of belonging, support, and hope as students adjust to a rigorous academic curriculum. A major benefit of these programs is that mentors can reinforce the professional values and beliefs discussed in other venues.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Mentors can articulate expectations of professional behavior. Mentors typically acquaint new students with the formal and informal channels of problem solving and networking within the school. They can also highlight the consequences of inappropriate behavior, many times, more effectively than a faculty member can.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Planning groups must identify current students who want to be mentors, also known as student ambassadors at some institutions. Some schools require all second year students to participate, which may cause difficulty in some cases. Mentors must be motivated to participate in this volunteer effort since it takes time and effort. The planning group must have reliable contact information for both mentors and new students so that they can communicate with each other. Planners should develop resource materials for both mentors and new students to use regarding the purpose of the mentoring program, strategies for mentoring, and expectations of both parties. Colleges and schools may hold luncheons or receptions during orientation or the first week of classes to bring mentors and new students together. Although mentoring relationships can continue for several years, experience has shown that in most cases these relationships weaken over time as new students become more comfortable in their environments. Schools should take steps to minimize mentors reinforcement of negative attitudes and beliefs, such working around the system, cheating, or cutting corners. Institutions should periodically assess both mentors and new students regarding the value and content of mentoring sessions.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: “Professionalization as a Continuum: From Prepharmacy Student to Alumni.” Kenneth M. Hale, Robert W. Brueggemeier, Gerald L. Cable, Sylvan G. Frank, Milap C. Nahata, The Ohio State University.

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References
Abernethy AD. A mentoring program for underrepresented-minority students at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. Acad Med 1999 74: 356-359 Kalet A, Krackov S, and Rey M. Mentoring for a New Era. Acad Med 2002 77: 1171-a-1172-a. Wright WR Jr, Dirsa AE, Martin SS. Physician mentoring: A process to maximize the success of new physicians and enhance synchronization of the group. J Med Prac Mgmt. 2002;18: 133-7. Yang TS, Fjortoft NF. Developing into a professional: Students' perspectives. Am J Pharm Educ. 1997; 61: 83S.

Checklist of planning steps ___ determine purpose of mentoring program, expectations, and procedures
___ planning should begin the spring prior to fall implementation ___ determine number of entering students ___ collect background information on entering students ___ meet with current students to recruit mentors ___ identify current students who will serve as mentors ___ collect background information on mentors ___ pair-up entering students with mentors based on common backgrounds if possible ___ communicate pairings to both mentors and entering students and also expectations ___ conduct an orientation program for mentors ___ include a segment dealing with mentoring in entering student orientation sessions ___ hold social activities involving both mentors and new students throughout the year if desired ___ monitor the success of the program and intervene when needed

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D. Introduction to Student Pharmacy Organizations Description of activity
The introduction of new students to pharmacy professional organizations may vary depending on the structure of the campus and the pharmacy program. Pharmacy schools may have several pharmacy organizations on campus, or only a few. One way to introduce these organizations is during the orientation sessions described earlier. Organizations may set up booths for students to come by and ask questions; develop presentations (PowerPoint, videos) of their respective organizations; or invite alumni and practicing pharmacists to meet with new students to reinforce the value of joining professional organizations. Because so much new information is presented during orientation, it is important to hold follow-up events during the first weeks of class. Events may include a chapter meeting or a social gathering, such as a pizza party, so that new students are able to meet the current students and pharmacists who are involved in the various organizations. Students often join organizations in which they feel they are able to make a difference, therefore, it is important to offer opportunities for new students to participate in and contribute to an organization’s activities. Opportunities can range from serving on a committee to representing the professional class on the executive council of that organization.

Rationale
An important part of any professional school should be hands-on learning in addition to classroom lectures and reading assignments. According to the White Paper, “Experience has shown that the attitudes and behaviors that characterize professionalism cannot be learned from a textbook or lecture.” Involvement in pharmacy student organizations helps students to develop certain qualities, including leadership, time management, and collaboration with others, that are important in the professional world. Other skills may be fine tuned through participation in events held by these organizations. For example, students may become more confident about taking patients’ blood pressures through participation in a hypertension event sponsored by a student pharmacy organization.

Areas of professionalism addressed
All areas of professionalism may be addressed through participation in student pharmacy organizations. Students will develop professional skills from these organizations that may be added to the professional knowledge gained in the classroom. New students will observe the professional behavior of current students, faculty and practicing pharmacists who are active in these organizations.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
If student organizations will be presented during orientation, the leaders in each organization must meet with the person in charge of planning the orientation in order to map out the best approach for the students at that campus. Planning should start several months before the actual orientation. Representatives of each student group should meet ahead of time to design a calendar of events so that activities planned by each organization do not conflict.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • American Pharmacists Association – Academy of Student Pharmacists (www.aphanet.org) American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (www.aacp.org) American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists (www.ashp.org) National Community Pharmacists Association (www.ncpa.com)

Reference
APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available on-line at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf

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Checklist of planning steps
___ determine the best approach for presenting student organizations to new students ___ planning should begin 3 months ahead of time ___ student organization leaders should meet together to determine the time frame and format for introducing their respective organizations ___ each group should assemble materials about their organization to give to new students ___ a calendar of events for all pharmacy student organizations should be made to prevent conflicting events ___ events should be scheduled in a manner to avoid conflicts with new students’ academic schedule

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E. White Coat Ceremonies Description of activity
In an effort to demonstrate professionalism, many colleges of pharmacy have implemented a White Coat ceremony for new students. These ceremonies are often held early in the students’ experience, for example during orientation, the first day of class, or some time during their first semester. Some schools hold the ceremony in the third year as students move from the didactic to the clinical portion of their Pharm.D. degree program. Each ceremony should be developed around the unique needs of each school. The White Coat ceremony may be planned during the day or in the evening. Often the ceremony is held in conjunction with a social event, such as a lunch, dinner, or reception. It is a time of celebration and remembrance. A keynote speaker may be invited as well as other prominent members of the community, such as legislators, campus administrators, or the president of the state pharmacy association. Many schools also include parents, spouses, current students, and faculty members in the celebration. In addition to giving each student a new white coat, the ceremony may include a time for students to recite the Oath of the Pharmacist or the Pledge of Professionalism. Several schools have new student class write its own oath or pledge to be recited at the ceremony.

Rationale
The “white coat” is a powerful symbol of the awesome responsibility that pharmacists have as health care providers. The presentation of the white coat to new students represents their passage into the pharmacy profession with all the opportunities and responsibilities associated with professionalism. The ceremony also provides an opportunity for the class to come together (to celebrate a significant event together) for the first time which is quite memorable for many students. Having family members and other important individuals participate also adds to this event.

Areas of professionalism addressed
The White Coat ceremony emphasizes the professional responsibility that pharmacists have as health care providers. Through the ceremony, new students will learn to take pride in being a part of the profession of pharmacy.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The important and special meaning of this ceremony can be lost if proper planning and preparations are not made. Ideally, both faculty members and current students should plan this ceremony. Allowing family to witness this event helps to demonstrate the important meaning of the ceremony. Selecting the best time and date is probably the most difficult task based on everyone’s busy schedules. The planning committee must prioritize which target groups are the most important. For example, if the goal is to have as many family members as possible involved, then the event needs to be scheduled during the weekend. If the group wants a large alumni turnout, then later in the evening on a weekday would be the best. This ceremony should be planned several months in advance, and invitations should be sent to students and family members with enough advance notice for them to make arrangements to travel to the school. Invitations to keynote speakers, alumni, and pharmacy state leaders should also be sent well ahead of time. In order to emphasize this special occasion, the ceremony should be held away from campus or at a special location on campus.

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Examples of programs and resources
• • • • University of Florida University of Maryland Howard University University of California – San Francisco

2004 AACP School Posters: “Successful Professionalization of Pharmacy Students at Mercer University.” James W. Bartling, Jordana L. Stephens, Mercer University Southern School of Pharmacy. “A Multi-faceted Approach to Enhancing Professionalism of Pharmacy Students.” Caroline Zeind, Michelle M. Kalis, Joseph M. Calomo, Martin Zdanowicz, Mehdi Boroujerdi, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Boston. “Enhancing the Professionalism of Pharmacy Students at the University of Washington.” Katherine Hale, Gail Caballes, Dana Hammer, Nanci Murphy, University of Washington.

References
Brown DL, Ferrill MJ, Pankaski MC. White Coat Ceremonies in U.S. Schools of Pharmacy. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2003;37(10):1414-19. APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf

Checklist of planning steps
___ identify a planning committee made up of students and faculty to coordinate the event ___ planning should begin 3 months in advance ___ identify target student group (new students and/or third professional year students) ___ decide on a date, time, and location ___ if applicable, contact possible sponsors for the event ___ determine target groups to attend (family, faculty, alumni, state pharmacy leaders, etc) ___ choose invitations and send 4-6 weeks in advance ___ choose the format for the event (dinner, luncheon, ceremony, etc) ___ reserve venue, caterer, AV equipment, etc ___ coordinate fittings and sales for the coats and choose patch, monogramming, etc ___ choose a keynote speaker, if applicable ___ plan the details for the ceremony and have programs printed for guests ___ have students recite Oath of a Pharmacist, Pledge of Professionalism, or unique pledge written by the students ___ insure all deposits and final payments are made for venue, caterer, equipment, white coats, etc ___ write thank you notes to keynote speaker, sponsors, and others who played an important role in the event ___ gather feedback and ideas to improve the event for the following year ___ maintain and update a notebook with all details of the planning process

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F. Public Affirmation of Professionalism Description of activity
In many institutions, students demonstrate public affirmation of professionalism in a variety of ways. Most common is through the reciting of the Oath of a Pharmacist or the Pledge of Professionalism in some type of public forum. Some schools incorporate this activity into important ceremonies, such as the White Coat ceremony, pinning ceremony, or graduation. Several schools have tapped into the creativity of their students by having them write their own pledge during the orientation sessions. Developing a pledge that is unique to each new class promotes creativity, ownership, and pride.

Rationale
As health care professionals, pharmacists must hold themselves to very high standards. By reciting or developing a pledge, new students are able to see early on the importance that our profession places on ethics and values.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Through public affirmation, students demonstrate pride for the profession of pharmacy and commitment to the caring of patients. They also have an opportunity to reflect on the various attributes of professionalism addressed in these pledges.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The Oath of a Pharmacist and Pledge of Professionalism can easily be distributed and recited at any professional ceremony, including the White Coat ceremony. However, more planning and preparation will be required when new students compose their own pledge. If the pledge will be recited during the White Coat ceremony, orientation is an ideal time for students to develop a class pledge. Special consideration should be given to discussing both the Oath and the Pledge in small groups before reciting so that students fully understand the meaning behind the vows they are saying and the commitments they are making.

Examples of programs and resources
• University of Washington 2004 AACP School Poster: “Our Prescription for Professionalism.” Mary Ann F. Kirkpatrick, Bernard J. Dunn School of Pharmacy of Shenandoah University.

Reference
APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf

Checklist of planning steps
___ evaluate current school programs at which public affirmation of professionalism can be made ___ consider implementing new programs, such as white coat ceremonies ___ choose the Oath or the Pharmacist or the Pledge of Professionalism, or have students create their own pledge

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If students write their own pledge: ___ choose the appropriate time within the curriculum for students to write the pledge ___ if new students will be writing the pledge, consider having them do this during orientation or during their introduction to pharmacy course ___ break students into small groups to begin the writing process and then bring the groups together to compose one pledge ___ choose student and faculty leaders to guide them in the writing process ___ plan a ceremony or event at which the students can recite their newly written pledge ___ display the pledge in the school/college of pharmacy

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G. Service Projects in Community Description of activity
Service in the community by pharmacy students can be demonstrated in countless ways. Students will most likely participate in service events through involvement in student pharmacy organizations. The types of service projects provided by pharmacy schools are endless since the need is so great in our communities. The most common projects include participation in community health fairs where students can volunteer their time and skills. Examples of specific events may include hypertension, blood glucose, and cholesterol screenings. Students may also hold education sessions for the public about relevant topics, such as asthma, immunizations, smoking cessation, cholesterol, healthy living, depression, or poison prevention. Students can demonstrate service in other ways such as donating pharmacy books for students in developing countries or donating diapers and other items for a shelter that cares for babies born with HIV. Many schools have formalized these efforts into required “Service Learning” components of the Pharm.D curriculum where students are required to participate in service projects.

Rationale
Professionalism can be demonstrated in the form of service to others. Pharmacists spend their careers serving and caring for patients. Participation in service projects prepares students to care for patients in the future. Through this service students develop practical skills that will guide them as practitioners. New students may feel intimidated about events that require skills performance. To address this issue, many schools pair new students with upperclassmen, so that they will be able to gain confidence and improve their own skills.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Service to others touches on many aspects of professionalism. These events allow students to increase their knowledge and skills while serving and giving to others.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Students can initiate the planning of some service events. Other events may already be planned within the community by other individuals or groups but call on pharmacy students to participate. Both types of events require early planning and promotion. New students may quickly become overwhelmed as they try to adjust to their course load and exam schedule. Therefore, advance planning and promotion are key to participation. In planning service events, it is preferable to first obtain the new students’ exam schedule to avoid major conflicts. Events may be announced in class, posted on bulletin boards, and sent via e-mail. New students may feel timid about participating in the events if they do not feel confident about their skills. To alleviate this problem, mock events can be planned at the beginning of the year by students and faculty. These mock events would give new students a chance to learn and practice the proper way to use a sphygmomanometer or a glucometer. Many new students may hesitate to participate because they are unfamiliar with the new town or city. Caravanning to events may help alleviate that fear.

Examples of programs and resources
See also next item “Charity Fundraisers” 2004 AACP School Poster: “Professionalism with Elderly Patients: The CARE Program”. Angela D. Solis, W. Arlyn Kloesel, Jamie C. Barner, Steve W. Leslie, Patrick J. Davis, Jennifer R. Myhra, Joanne F. Richards, The University of Texas at Austin.

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Checklist of planning steps
___ identify which pharmacy student groups are interested in holding community service events ___ choose one area of interest to begin (hypertension, diabetes, asthma, women’s health, smoking cessation, etc) ___ identify students who are interested and willing to be involved with these events ___ select one or two students to chair this project or committee ___ gather relevant materials (for example, if hypertension were chosen - sphygmomanometers, stethoscopes, and brochures from the American Heart Association) ___ contact a faculty member who has expertise in that area and who is willing to assist your group ___ hold training sessions for these students to familiarize them with the materials and various procedures (i.e. the proper way to take a blood pressure and how to counsel a patient) ___ contact local schools, churches, community centers, etc to offer your services ___ plan events that do not conflict with academic schedules ___ start advertising events a month in advance; make announcements in class, send information over e-mail, and post on school bulletin boards ___ determine the number of students who are needed to help with the event ___ post a sign-up sheet in a central location ___ make sure students arrive early and are dressed professionally, including white coats and students IDs or name badges ___ thank students who participated in the event ___ maintain a notebook with planning details for this event and contact information ___ a second topic may be addressed once the first is well established ___ several student organizations may consider teaming together to conduct events or small health fairs

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H. Charity Fundraisers Description of activity
In addition to the service projects listed in the previous items, students may also organize fundraising events to assist their community, institution, or professional student chapter. For example, students may decide to raise funds to help victims of a natural disaster (e.g., hurricane), a homeless or domestic abuse shelter, Make-A-Wish foundation, elementary or secondary schools, scholarships, existing charity organizations, etc. Possible fundraising activities include: • Cookbooks • T-shirts – attempt to reach a bigger audience than pharmacy. • Golf tournament • Chili cook-off • Bake sale • Crafts bazaar • Raffle/drawing using donated items • Silent auction using donated items • Flower sale • Breakfast sales - include coffee, juice, bagels, muffins, and/or pancakes • Car wash or car detailing • Yard sale • Annual Spaghetti Feed (e.g., Idaho State) • Las Vegas Night - Since it may be illegal to gamble real money, charge a cash cover and provide play money that may be used to gamble. At the end of the night, players use play money to obtain donated prizes.

Rationale
By raising money for a community, pharmacy students learn the value and reward of giving to others and the importance of putting others first.

Areas of professionalism addressed
As with the previous item, service to others touches on many aspects of professionalism. Fundraising for individuals in need provides students with a chance to serve the community and society at large through philanthropic endeavors and civic activities. Those in charge may also enhance their leadership, communication, and organizational skills.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Check with your institution and state laws to ensure your fundraising events are properly authorized by the appropriate state and institutional entities. Evaluate the effectiveness of the fundraising activities each year to ensure you select the ones that are most effective.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: “Preparing Leaders in Pharmacy”. Joseph F Steiner, Paul S. Cady, Andrew Gauss, Idaho State University College of Pharmacy.

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I. Outside Speakers to Reinforce Messages Description of activity
Many schools use opportunities, such as forums, convocations, White Coat ceremonies, to invite outside speakers to address pharmacy students. Some schools also invite monthly speaker events during the lunch hour. During these presentations, the outside speakers may have the opportunity to reinforce messages regarding professionalism. Speakers may include experienced health professionals, faculty, or patients with chronic or terminal conditions who share their perspective on what services they found helpful or harmful.

Rationale
The use of outside speakers reinforces messages from faculty members or current students, and adds to the credibility of those messages. Students typically appreciate an outside voice (some times more than a school-related speaker) articulating the ideals of professionalism. These visits also provide an opportunity for outside speakers to learn about issues within the academy and to meet with and to learn from students.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Professionalism issues in a variety of settings including practice sites or research specialties of the guest speaker.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Consider inviting speakers from within the pharmacy profession, other health profession disciplines, and other professions. Planners should communicate with presenters prior to their presentations to both understand what they will be discussing and to brief speakers on relevant issues or concerns of the anticipated audience. This approach will help the presenters target their presentations to meet specific needs of the audience.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: “Developing Professionalism Through the Official and Unofficial Curriculum.” Regina G. Caldwell, Dwaine K. Green, Phyllis E. Nally, Peggy Piascik and William C. Lubawy, University of Kentucky.

Reference
Purkerson Hammer D. Professional attitudes and behaviors: The “As and Bs” of professionalism. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2000; 64:455-464.

Checklist of planning steps
___ determine purpose of outside speakers and areas to be addressed (conduct a needs assessment by surveying faculty and students) ___ planning should begin 3 months ahead of time ___ select topics, appropriate dates, venues (large group, small seminars), and target audiences ___ collect a list of appropriate speakers to address selected topics ___ talk with people who may know or may have heard the speaker ___ collaborate with other schools about topics/programs which have been successful at their respective campuses ___ recruit outside speakers ___ communicate with the speaker to clarify specific topic, date, venue, and audience ___ promote the presentation at least 3 months prior to event; heavy promotion in last 6 weeks

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___ arrange all aspects of presentation (AV needs, food, reception space, etc) ___ evaluate the success of the program and make recommendations for future presentations ___ follow-up with a thank you note to speakers, and seek their feedback as well.

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J. Introductory Pharmacy Courses Description of activity
Many schools conduct courses that introduce new pharmacy students to the U.S. health care system in general and the pharmacy profession specifically. These courses provide an opportunity for reinforcement of professionalism-oriented material that was presented to students during orientation or similar experiences. This reinforcement is needed since new students tend to be overloaded with material during their first weeks in school. Within these courses, faculty members typically discuss specific areas of pharmacy practice and/or research. Hopefully, they will be able to highlight the professional issues within these settings during their presentations.

Rationale
Having professionalism reinforced in standard pharmacy courses increases the legitimacy of these concepts. This is especially true if they are placed in the context of actual practice.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Areas include: expected professional behavior is various practice settings; importance of being professional around patients and other health care providers; possible conflicts between business aspects of practice and professionalism; and ethical problem-solving.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Students and faculty monitoring professional development within the student body must communicate with the faculty who teach these introductory courses to not only reveal what students have been exposed to previously, but to monitor what will be discussed in the course.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: Professionalism with Elderly Patients: The CARE Program. Angela D. Solis, W. Arlyn Kloesel, Jamie C. Barner, Steve W. Leslie, Patrick J. Davis, Jennifer R. Myhra, Joanne F. Richards, The University of Texas at Austin.

References
Brandt B, Lubawy WC, Green D, Clements M. The professional development workshop: Orientation to pharmacy school. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 1998;62; 127S. Carter BL, Brunson BJ, Hatfield CL, Valuck RJ. Description of an introductory course designed to socialize pharmacy students. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2000;64: 166-172. Eckhardt JA. Effects of program design in the professional socialization of RN-BSN students. J. Prof. Nurs. 2002;18: 157-164. Klein EJ, Jackson JC, Kratz L, et al. Teaching professionalism to residents. Acad. Med. 2003; 78: 26-34. Manley HJ, Lindsey CC, Dugan JP, Knell ME. University of Missouri-Kansas City curricular model integrating instruction and assessment of general and professional abilities. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2001;65: 112S.

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Checklist of planning steps
___ determine purpose of introductory course ___ planning should begin at least one semester prior to course implementation ___ if the school has a peer-mentoring program in place, consider utilizing the mentors at various points throughout the introductory course ___ conduct a needs assessment by surveying faculty, practitioners, scientists, and students ___ determine exact content of course material ___ develop a course “map” showing relationship of course topics ___ identify faculty and guests to present selected material ___ meet with presenters to clarify specific topics, dates, and type of learning experience (lecture, small group, etc.) ___ prepare course outline and other course materials ___ monitor the success of the course periodically and make alterations if needed ___ evaluate the various aspects of the course by surveying students and faculty ___ make changes for future course offerings based on past experiences

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K. Student Portfolio Process Description of activity
Some schools have required new students to maintain a personal portfolio of matters and situations involving professional issues, among other things. This approach allows students to reflect on their own professional development and experiences. Students are typically asked to write about their personal feelings and thoughts about these issues. Colleges and schools may ask students to turn in their portfolios; some collect these portfolios anonymously, while others do not collect them using the honor system to ensure that students complete the assignment.

Rationale
Providing an opportunity for students to reflect on key issues appears to be an effective personal growth activity based on past experience. This process allows students the time to think about key issues rather than just plowing through the material.

Areas of professionalism addressed
This activity relates to all areas of professionalism. It provides an opportunity for students to write about personal growth experiences in a variety of settings, including the classroom, social activities, or work environments.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Faculty must determine the level of confidentiality maintained during these experiences. Faculty may feel that they do not need to read these portfolios, while others might feel that it is beneficial to learn about student perceptions about certain issues.

Examples of programs and resources

• Also see Portfolio activities under “New Students” and “Extracurricular Activities”. 2004 AACP School Poster: “A Multi-faceted Approach to Enhancing Professionalism of Pharmacy Students.” Caroline Zeind, Michelle M. Kalis, Joseph M. Calomo, Martin Zdanowicz, Mehdi Boroujerdi, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Boston.

References
Chesnut RJ. Personal SOAP notes: Use of a health professions tool for pharmacy students. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 1999;63: 83S. Medical Professionalism Project. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: A physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:243-246.

Checklist of planning steps ___ determine purpose of portfolios and faculty expectations
___ planning should begin 3 months ahead of time ___ determine procedures and processes to be used ___ develop outline of key areas to be addressed ___ draft an example for students if desired ___ create material for students informing them of process ___ meet with students to discuss procedures and expectations ___ if desired, have students turn in draft portfolio for review before final draft submission ___ assess final submissions ___ evaluate success of this process by surveying faculty and students and revisions as needed

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L.

Integration into Residence Life Programs (if relevant)

Description of activity
Some pharmacy schools are located on campuses with structured residence life programs. Schools must be aware of what information related to appropriate behavior is being discussed in residence life orientation programs and what behavioral issues are being monitored.

Rationale
Many schools feel that pharmacy students should conduct themselves in a professional manner outside the pharmacy school environment. Professional behavior should be expected in all environments, including campus housing. Residential life administrators should be aware of the school’s behavioral expectations.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Areas of professionalism include; learning the expectations for professional behavior in everyday personal life, working/living with individuals who are different than yourself, and leadership development in a structured living environment.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Schools must establish communication linkages with residence life programs. When monitoring pharmacy student behavior, schools must be careful not to be perceived as “Big Brother” while promoting appropriate behavior in residential living areas.

Examples of programs and resources
Schools should review campus residential life policies and procedures.

Checklist of planning steps ___ determine purpose of interaction with residence life personal and key areas for discussion
___ planning should begin during the summer prior to fall implementation ___ survey students to gather ideas about what types of professional programming interest them ___ review residency life material to discover areas of common interest ___ meet with residency life personnel to discuss key areas and expectations ___ establish procedures for future interaction between student affairs and residency life staff as issues arise ___ establish mechanisms to reinforce professionalism in student living environments ___ establish appropriate tracking and record keeping procedures ___ monitor the success of the program and meet periodically with residency life staff ___ conduct formal evaluation of strategies upon their completion and revise as needed

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M.

Issues for 0 – 6 Programs (if relevant)

Description of activity
Some pharmacy colleges or schools admit students into their professional programs directly from high school into a “0-6” or early assurance program. These programs have special issues that need to be considered given the fact that these students are at a different maturity level and have limited life experiences. Thus, orientation and first semester activities must be modified to deal with these specific needs.

Rationale
Faculty and students who are working with professionalism issues need to recognize that students respond to situations differently based on their level of experience and maturity. It is important for messages to be framed based on these factors.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Discussions regarding all areas of professionalism should be adjusted accordingly.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
It would be easy to stereotype students entering 0-6 programs in a certain way, so planners must spend time getting to know their audience and their own unique needs. These students may have certain tendencies, but planners should never try to predict behavior.

Examples of programs and resources
• • St. Louis College of Pharmacy University of the Sciences in Philadelphia

Checklist of planning steps
___ determine unique attributes of 0-6 programs related to professionalism ___ conduct a needs assessment by surveying incoming students, current students and faculty ___ collect background information on entering students ___ identify areas to be addressed ___ develop strategies to address these key areas ___ monitor the success of this approach and intervene when needed ___ evaluate strategies following their implementation and make revisions as needed

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N.

Issues for Distance Learning Programs (if relevant)

Description of activity
Pharmacy colleges and schools that offer distance-learning options for entry-level pharmacy degree students must provide opportunities for professionalism development within the non-traditional environment. In the development of these activities, colleges and schools should consider if the students who enroll in web-based or satellite programs have different perspectives and backgrounds as compared to students enrolled in a traditional classroom program. Distance learning programs should explore ways to include students in professionalism events offered to students on campus, including professional organizations, patient-care activities, honor codes, white coat ceremonies, mentoring opportunities, etc.

Rationale
The program delivery method should not interfere with a student’s ability to obtain the appropriate professionalism skills necessary to provide optimal patient care in a practice setting.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Discussions regarding all areas of professionalism should be adjusted accordingly.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Posters: “Establishing Professionalism in Pharmacy Distance Education.” Carol Anne Motycka, Tom Andrew Robertson, Erin Lyn St. Onge, Jennifer Schoelles Williams, Sven Allan Normann, L Douglas Ried, Michael W McKenzie, University of Florida. “Fostering Professional Development in a Multipathway Pharmacy Program.” Beverly A. Talluto, Joseph Ineck, Kenneth Keefner, Frances Moore, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions

Checklist of planning steps
___ determine unique attributes of distance learning programs related to professionalism ___ conduct a needs assessment by surveying incoming students, current students and faculty ___ collect background information on entering students ___ identify areas to be addressed ___ develop strategies to address these key areas ___ monitor the success of this approach and intervene when needed ___ evaluate strategies following their implementation and make revisions as needed

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O.

Issues for Religious-Affiliated Programs (if relevant)

Description of activity
Pharmacy colleges and schools in a religious-based institution may evaluate the overall relationship between student professionalism and religious beliefs and practices in an effort to improve health care outcomes. Institutions without religious affiliations may study, in the context of cultural competence, how the religious beliefs of patients may influence pharmaceutical care.

Rationale
Religious affiliated institutions may promote a relationship between student spirituality and professional behavior and attitudes.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Discussions regarding all areas of professionalism should be adjusted accordingly

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Posters: “Relationships Between Pharmacy Student Professionalism and Religious Background and Behavior.” B. DeeAnn Dugan, David A. Gettman, Wagdy W. Wahba, Seena L. Zieler-Brown, Christine R. Birnie, Katherine M. Heller, Palm Beach Atlantic University “Professionalism: Mind, Body and Spirit.” Barry Bleidt, Nancy Kawahara, Sharon Hanson, Rebecca Gryka, Gamal Hussein, Jennifer Hillman, Bruce Currie, and Avis Ericson. Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy.

References
Connors GJ, Tonigan JS, Miller WR. A measure of religious background and behavior for use in behavior change research. Psychol Addict Behav 1996;10(2):90-96 (ADAI jl) Musick DW, Woods S, Tipton S, Nora LM. “Toward a More Spiritual Approach to Medical Education” An of Behav Sci and Med Educ (2002), Vol. 8, No. 2, 101–104.

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Professional Years 01, 02, 03 (Didactic)
Best Practice Guidelines James Hobbs, University of Kentucky Thomas Reinders, Virginia Commonwealth University John Vinson, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

I. INTRODUCTION Background
Professionalism must be fostered throughout the curriculum of the Doctor of Pharmacy degree program. The initial three years of study provide many opportunities for developing and enhancing professional behavior in students. Students, faculty, administrators and staff associated with a school or college of pharmacy should serve as models of professionalism.

Planning Elements
Following an introduction to professionalism during the Doctor of Pharmacy program orientation, professional behavior must continue to be emphasized. This can be achieved as an integral part of the didactic course work and early professional practice experiences during the first three years of a pharmacy degree program. Student organizations, the school’s curriculum committee and the coordinator of the early professional practice experience rotations will play a major role in planning and developing activities and experiences that promote professionalism within the college or school.

Timelines
Specific activities related to promoting professionalism are suitable for advanced planning when included as part of a course or early professional practice experience. Such activities are generally planned at least a quarter or semester in advance.

Promotion
It is not uncommon for professionalism to be taken for granted in a professional degree program. During the first three years of study, students and faculty are in constant contact with each other. This affords an opportunity to reinforce professional behavior on a continuing basis. Creative approaches by students, faculty and administrators may be needed to maintain professionalism as an expected standard, especially during a time period when students are primarily gaining knowledge in traditional classroom and laboratory settings.

Evaluation
Course evaluations are a logical assessment tool, especially when a course contains criteria related to professionalism. For example, fellow students and the instructor can evaluate the participation and behavior of a student when a course employs group assignments. A global assessment of professionalism among students and faculty may be difficult to assess in an objective manner. However, formal or informal evaluation approaches can be employed to gauge the effectiveness of various initiatives to promote professional behavior among students and faculty.

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES A. Honor System

Description of activity
An honor system includes an honor pledge and a policy for promoting these values. Typically, the honor system consists of a policy or policies that describe the responsibilities of students, faculty and administrators in upholding academic integrity. At the same time there is a description about the rights of individuals to the due process offered by administrative hearings and appeals. In some systems, only students are involved in evaluating violations and determining the appropriate penalty or sanction. Other systems may involve a combination of students, faculty and administrators.

Rationale
An honor system provides the infrastructure for fostering honesty, truth and integrity among students. A system serves to inform and educate students about professional behavior and provides consequences in the event of an infraction.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Honesty, truth and integrity serve as core values for professionals. These values are fulfilled by an active honor system.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
An honor pledge should be developed and communicated to all students and faculty. For all pledged assignments, the student should be expected to sign a statement such as “On my honor, I have neither given nor received aid on this assignment.” A policy or policies should be developed to define violations (e.g., cheating, plagiarizing, facilitating academic honesty, abusing academic materials, stealing academic materials, lying related to academic matters); establish a formal hearing process; establish a list of responsibilities for participation in the process by students, faculty and administrators; establish penalties (e.g., honor probation, assignment of grades, suspension, expulsion); and, establish an appeals process.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • Ohio Northern University (conducted a survey on honor codes) University of Southern California Virginia Commonwealth University: http://www.students.vcu.edu/rg/policies/rg7honor.html Auburn University

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B.

Dress Code

Description of activity
The dress code for a school of college of pharmacy establishes an accepted standard of attire that promotes a professional image for students, faculty, staff and administrators. Ideally, a set of accepted standards should apply universally for all areas where students, faculty, staff and administrators interact (i.e., classrooms, laboratories, offices and patient care areas). In addition, colleges and schools can arrange a fashion show of dress-code do's and don'ts each year as part of the orientation programming for new students.

Rationale
Appropriate attire is important in creating an image that is consistent with the public’s expectation of a health professional. When students, faculty, staff and administrators dress as professionals an atmosphere of professionalism is created.

Areas of professionalism addressed
The perception of a well-groomed and properly attired individual creates a positive impression that can garner respect and confidence. Attention to proper grooming and attire may be viewed as an external sense of pride and commitment to the profession.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
Students, faculty and administrators should develop a dress code for their school or college. Personal care and appropriate attire standards must be identified. While such standards are usually intended to be selfregulated, sanctions for non-compliance with the standards should be established. Additional requirements may be specified for patient care settings and students must be willing to comply with any special standards identified by healthcare facilities providing early or advanced professional practice experiences.

Examples of programs and resources
• Auburn University 2004 AACP School Poster: “Howard University Professionalism Workshop and White Coat Ceremony.” Anthony K. Wutoh, Joseph R. Ofosu, Olu A. Olusanya, E. Jeannette Andrews, Pedro J. Lecca, Howard University.

Reference
Brandt LJ. On the value of an old dress code in the new millennium, Arch Intern Med. 2003; 63:12771281

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C. Course Content and Structure Description of activity
The content and structure of courses can enhance professionalism among students. Faculty should consider different strategies of instruction and evaluation depending on the type of course (e.g., basic science, administration science, clinical science) to promote professionalism.

Rationale
The majority of course offerings during the first three years of study are didactic in nature. This is an important time period for the professional development of students as future health care providers. While it may be difficult to identify specific topics related to professionalism for every course, others are ideal for developing attitudes and behaviors that foster professionalism (e.g., pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacy practice laboratories, pharmacy communications, pharmacy law and ethics). In other courses, the structure of the course can be arranged to facilitate self-directed learning and group projects requiring teamwork, both of which develop professional attitudes and behaviors in students. In all courses, the use of various evaluation methods can enhance professionalism.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Professionals should seek to attain excellence in the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to practice in the profession. A worthy goal for any course of study is the ability to produce a competent health professional. These values, instilled during a professional program, serve as a framework for life-long learning.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
As course coordinators, faculty must make a personal commitment to incorporating content or structure into their course to promote professionalism. For example, case-based learning helps students apply learned concepts to “real life” situations. Problem-based learning requires that the student analyze the entire patient situation, rather than merely focusing on one aspect of care. The introduction of this concept helps to facilitate active learning during the early and advanced professional practice experiences. The curriculum committees of schools and colleges should be charged with reviewing individual courses for evidence of either course content or structure that will enhance professionalism. Also, course coordinators should schedule examinations or other major assignments so that they do not conflict with state, regional and national professional meetings which students should be encouraged to attend. Additionally, teaching methods that use peer evaluations and self-evaluations are useful in promoting professionalism.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Posters: “Development, Adoption, and Implementation of a Curricular Competency Addressing Professionalism”. George E. Francisco, Lori J. Duke, Keith N. Herist, Charles H. McDuffie, Catherine A. White, University of Georgia. “Developing Professionalism Through the Official and Unofficial Curriculum”. Regina Caldwell, Dwaine Green, Phyllis E. Nally, Peggy Piascik, William C. Lubawy, University of Kentucky. “A Curricular Roadmap of Professionalism”. Carriann E. Richey, Sue Bierman, Trish S. Barton, Patricia Chase, Butler University. “Professionalism: A Critical Element in Pharmacy Education At the University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy.” L. Clifton Fuhrman Jr, Wayne E Buff, Farid Sadik, University of South Carolina.

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References
Berger BA, Butler SL, Duncan-Hewitt W, Felkey BG, Jungnickel PW, Krueger JL, Perry CR, Taylor C. Changing the Culture: An Institution-wide Approach to Instilling Professional Values. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004; 68(1): 22. Ellsworth A, LaVigne LL, Odegard PS. A Diabetes Education Program for Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2002; 66(4) 391. Wear D, Castellani B. The Development of Professionalism: Curriculum Matters. Acad Med. 2000 Jun; 75(6):602-11.

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D. Classroom Demeanor Description of activity
Students and faculty have a mutual responsibility for establishing a positive learning environment for effective instruction in the classroom and laboratory settings. Students are expected to conduct themselves in a civil manner at all times and faculty should identify the boundaries of acceptable behavior in their course syllabi.

Rationale
Professional courtesy is expected from students and faculty. Students are entitled to receive instruction that is free from the interference of others and faculty should set clear expectations for the elimination of such interferences (e.g., arriving late to class, conversations in class, the active ringing of cellular telephones).

Areas of professionalism addressed
Accountability to others is an important aspect of professionalism. Students who are accountable to their colleagues and faculty demonstrate respect for others. This type of behavior is central to professionalism.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
The school or college should develop guidelines or policy concerning student conduct in the instructional setting. Students and faculty should be held accountable for actions that hinder a positive learning environment. Faculty and administrators should develop guidelines for dealing with disruptive students and the consequences (e.g., sanctions, penalties) should be communicated to students. A standardized statement for each course syllabus in a given school or college can be considered. The elements of the statement might include: an overview of the honor system; the use of professional language at all times; adherence to a specified dress code; adherence to an attendance policy; preparing in advance for all course assignments; being accountable for personal conduct in the instructional setting; and submitting constructive comments on course and instructor evaluations.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: “Faculty and Student Perspectives on Classroom Incivility” Jennifer Clutter, West Virginia University School of Pharmacy, Charles Ponte, West Virginia University School of Pharmacy, W. Clarke Ridgway, Mary Stamatakis, Shelly Stump, West Virginia University.

References
Berger BA. Incivility. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2000;64:445-450. Berger BA (ed). Promoting Civility in Pharmacy Education. Pharmaceutical Products Press (Binghamton, NY) 2003.

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E.

Student Membership on School and College Committees

Description of activity
Most standing committees within schools and colleges exist to prepare future health care professionals. Students should be included as members of committees, except where a definite conflict of interest exists (e.g., academic performance committee that reviews the grades and determines academic progression for students)

Rationale
As future professionals, students should be involved with the decision making process that impacts their educational experience. Also, this type of involvement facilitates positive relationships between faculty and students.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Accountability and as sense of duty are important aspects of developing professionalism.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
The commitment to involve students on school or college committees must be supported by faculty and administrators. The process of selection and appointment will depend on the type of committee. An area for significant student input is the curriculum committee. Participation in curricular planning and assessment provides students with the knowledge of designing and maintaining a professional curriculum. Students on the admissions committee can assist in interviewing and determining the personal qualities of prospective students. Students on tenure and promotions committee can serve as a quality assurance measure concerning the teaching effectiveness of faculty being considered for promotion and tenure. • •

Examples of programs and resources
University of Mississippi: Pharmacy Student-Faculty Relations Committee Virginia Commonwealth University

2004 AACP School Poster: “Inculcation of Professionalism: The Nevada College of Pharmacy Experience.” Amy H Schwartz, Renee Coffman, Thomas H Wiser, Michael DeYoung, Thomas Metzger, Nevada College of Pharmacy

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F. Professional Demeanor: Faculty, Teaching Assistants, Preceptors, Staff & Administrators Description of activity
All members of the academic pharmacy community should be held to the same standards of professionalism as the student body. According to the AACP Excellence Series paper on professionalism, “…faculty, practitioners and others must act as role models to display or demonstrate the kinds of attitudes, values, and behaviors expected of students, and must take the lead in guiding and facilitating the professional socialization process.”

Rationale
Individuals associated with a college or school of pharmacy must exhibit professional behavior at all times since students may choose to emulate them. Students and graduates often identify individuals at their college or school of pharmacy who served as role models in shaping their professional behavior. Efforts should be made to reward and recognize positive models. Programs should be available for faculty and staff who desire or require professional behavior development.

Areas of professionalism addressed
All areas of professionalism (e.g., altruism, accountability, duty, honor, integrity, and respect for others) can be reflected by a diverse group of individuals employed by a school or college of pharmacy.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
The administration and faculty of the school or college should develop guidelines for the professional conduct of all individuals interacting with students. Examples of topic areas for guidelines include professional attire, conduct in the instructional setting and confidentiality.

Examples of programs and resources
• University of Mississippi - Guiding Professionalism Principles for Faculty (2001) http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/pharm_school/undergrad/handbook/section7.html#professionalism

See also information regarding “Faculty Retreat”

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G.

Ethics Course Offering

Description of activity
An ethics course related to pharmacy practice can examine and assess the types of ethical dilemmas that are encountered in pharmacy practice settings. Objectives of a required course might include: distinguishing ethical issues from other types of issues in pharmacy practice; identifying the morally relevant characteristics of a professional practice situation; identifying the options available to a pharmacist when addressing an ethical dilemma; providing justification for options; and, displaying the interaction skills need to apply ethical decisions to patient care situations in a sensitive and humane manner.

Rationale
Students entering the profession of pharmacy must be taught ethical decision-making with the understanding that confronting ethical issues is a recurring and lifelong process.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Ethical decision-making is a recognizable characteristic of a profession.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
A required course should be developed to engage students in the process of ethical decision-making through case studies and class discussions. Students should discuss and understand the APhA’s Code of Ethics as part of a course assignment.

Examples of programs and resources
• Creighton University - Center for Health Policy and Ethics 2004 AACP School Poster: “Achieving Professionalism in the Pharmacy Program at the University of Montana.” Lori J. Morin, Jean T. Carter, Gayle A. Cochran, University of Montana.

Reference
Purtilo R. Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions, 3rd edition. W.B. Saunders Company, 1999

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H.

Leadership and Political Advocacy Course Offering

Description of activity
An elective course can be offered to develop leadership and political advocacy skills for pharmacy students. The course can examine leadership through exploring health care issues and gaining direct experience in the political process and community action. Objectives can include defining and evaluating effective leadership, reviewing the management of student organizations, differentiating between legislation and regulation, identifying and analyzing current health care issues, discussing healthcare issues with individuals beyond the discipline of pharmacy and advocating a stance on state or national health care issues.

Rationale
Pharmacy students need effective leadership and political advocacy skills to deal with issues related to health care delivery. Strengthening the leadership ability of students enhances their professionalism and offers potential for future leadership within the profession and in the community.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Accountability, excellence and duty are elements of professionalism that can be experienced in a course focusing on leadership and political advocacy.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
An elective course can be initiated to develop leadership and political advocacy skills. The identification and recruitment of relevant speakers (e.g., member of a state board of pharmacy, state legislator, pharmacy association executive) is important for a successful course offering.

Examples of programs and resources
• University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy (PHMY-598) o Effective Leadership and Advocacy Syllabus http://www.pharmacy.umaryland.edu/courses/syllabi/PDF/PHMY%20598.pdf o Robert Beardsley, Ph.D. (rbeardsl@rx.umaryland.edu) o Cynthia Boyle, Pharm.D. (cboyle@rx.umaryland.edu) University of Kentucky University of Rhode Island.

• •

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I. Recognition and Awards Description of activity
Programs that recognize students for demonstrated excellence in academic and leadership activities may include scholarships, award ceremonies and established pharmacy societies such as Rho Chi and Phi Lambda Sigma.

Rationale
The recognition of excellence by faculty, administrators, practitioners and peers serves as a motivating force for achievement. Also, it serves to recognize those individuals who make a conscientious effort to exceed expectations.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Excellence and altruism are components of professionalism associated with recognition and rewards.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
Schools and colleges, usually through the use of endowed funds, provide scholarships to students based on academic merit and financial need. Specific criteria, often related to academic merit and demonstrated leadership ability, are defined to assist in determining scholarship recipients. Likewise, established awards may be created to recognize leadership and service contributions. Most schools and colleges present awards on annual basis, generally in conjunction with a senior banquet or graduation ceremony. Another common example of recognition is a Dean’s List of Distinguished Students. The list defines a specific population of students who have demonstrated stellar academic performance for a given semester. Students belonging to specific organizations may choose to name peers for awards based upon criteria established by the organization. In other situations, students may nominate and select outstanding instructors and preceptors.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • Rho Chi Society (www.rhochi.org) Phi Lamba Sigma (www.philambdasigma.org) APhA-ASP Mortar and Pestle Professionalism Award o Recognizes one student at each school and college of pharmacy nominated by the dean, who best exhibits characteristics inherent in a professional.

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J.

Cultivating Student and Faculty Relationships

Description of activity
A mutual respect between students and faculty can be established through structured activities within and outside the instruction setting. Several examples of interactions within the instructional setting include the development of a formal mentoring program and the ability of students to have access to faculty through appointments or established office hours. An example of an interaction outside the instructional setting includes faculty participation in extracurricular activities sponsored by student organizations such as picnics and other social events.

Rationale
Students and faculty must establish a professional relationship built upon mutual respect. Activities to enhance this relationship are important for faculty to model professionalism and for students to rely on faculty as mentors.

Areas of professionalism addressed
When faculty serve as professional role models and there is mutual respect between faculty members and students, all components of professionalism can be realized. However, accountability and respect will likely serve as the primary components through positive relations between students and faculty.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Creating opportunities for positive interactions between faculty and students requires a major commitment from students and faculty. Guidelines for developing and maintaining a formal mentoring program should be established. The time commitments of both groups are demanding and usually there is a reluctance to encroach on personal time, especially for participation in extracurricular or social events. Faculty must recognize the importance of participating in student events to establish a trusting relationship with students. Students must take the initiative to invite faculty to participate in their events and social activities. Often, faculty advisors to student organizations can serve as a liaison with other faculty, informing them about events and actively encouraging their participation.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Poster: • Professionalism in Pharmacy Education: The University of Southern California School of Pharmacy. Kathleen H. Besinque, University of Southern California.

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K.

Professional Pharmacy Organizations

Description of activity
Numerous professional organizations exist for students enrolled in schools and colleges of pharmacy. Most organizations are associated with national pharmacy organizations such as the American Pharmacists Association. Students may wish to create a chapter office within the student organization devoted to professional development.

Rationale
Student organizations serve as a major force in developing professionalism. Active participation in student organizations is critical for the professional development of a student enrolled in a school or college of pharmacy.

Areas of professionalism addressed
All areas of professionalism (e.g., altruism, accountability, duty, honor, integrity, and respect for others) can be addressed when students participate as active members of professional organizations.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
Sustaining membership in student organizations is a challenge due to the constant progression of students through a professional degree program. Students must be encouraged to join one or more organizations and actively participate by attending meetings and serving in a leadership capacity. In some schools and colleges there are a large number of organizations which can increase the opportunity for leadership experience. As the number of organizations increase, there is a greater need to promote cooperation among the organizations in an effort to avoid competition.

Examples of programs and resources
American Pharmacists Association Academy of Student Pharmacists

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L.

Student Leadership Council

Description of activity
Invite student leaders from the local professional pharmacy associations and fraternities to participate in monthly or periodic student council meeting. Representatives may also include elected leaders from each pre-professional or professional class. The council provides student leaders with an opportunity for additional professional development. The council may also encourage collaboration and discussion on common issues. With the help of faculty advisors, student representatives should develop a mission statement to guide the activities of the group. The group may come together to organize campus events, community service activities, fundraisers, or to advise the administration on issues related to student life.

Rationale
The leadership council provides opportunities for students to get involved in community and campusbased projects. Student leaders can enhance their negotiation and communication skills that may transfer to the workplace or community. Student leadership deepens each student's commitment to the values of the profession and may help to encourage other students to participate in a professional association.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • • Contributes to the profession, active in professional organization Take a proactive role in solving social issues Helps build and maintain a culture that promotes professionalism

Examples of programs and resources
University of Mississippi See also “Leadership Conferences” under the “Extracurricular Activities” section.

2004 AACP School Poster: “Fostering Professionalism through the Student Leadership Council” Anthony G. DelSignore, Joshua Gagne, Matthew LaCroix, Amy Talati, Katherine K. Orr, The Student Leadership Council, University of Rhode Island.

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M.

Community Service Requirements (Service Learning)

Description of activity
Community service projects promote altruism and service to others. These activities encourage students to embrace their roles as patient advocates and proactively address social issues affecting the health of their communities. Community service requirements or service learning are often included as part of the early pharmacy practice experiences conducted during the first three yeas of the curriculum. Further details can be found in the section entitled “new students.” • • Student Portfolio Process The student portfolio process is a continuing process throughout the professional curriculum. Further details can be found in the section entitled “new students.” Peer Mentoring Programs Participation in peer mentoring programs is a continuing process throughout the professional curriculum. Further details can be found in the section entitled “new students.” Outside Speakers The mailing of invitations to speakers outside the school or college is a continuing activity throughout the professional curriculum. Further details can be found in the section entitled “New Students.”

Areas of professionalism addressed
An understanding and respect for persons of diverse backgrounds, altruism, service to others, pride in the profession.

Examples of programs and resources
• Caring for Community: A National Medical Student Service Project -

www.aamc.org/about/awards/cfc.htm • APhA-ASP/HRSA-PSSC Awards Program - www.aphanet.org
2004 AACP School Poster: “Enhancing the Professionalism of Pharmacy Students at the University of Washington.”Katherine Hale, Gail Caballes, Dana Hammer, Nanci Murphy, University of Washington.

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N.

Pinning / Professional Commitment Ceremony (End of P3)

Description of activity
A pinning ceremony may be held for third professional year students in late Spring. This special event formally recognizes the students’ transition from the primarily didactic to full-time experiential curriculum. All P3 students should be required to attend. At the ceremony each student wears the lab jacket with school seal affixed that was presented to them at the White Coat Ceremony upon entry into the Pharm.D. degree program. Pharmacy school representatives present students with a specially designed lapel pin. After the pins are affixed, the students reconfirm the Pledge of Professionalism that was made upon entry three years earlier. Family, friends, faculty, staff and other students are invited to attend the ceremony. Following the ceremony, students and their guests may be invited to a reception featuring light refreshments.

Rationale
The end of the third year marks the end of didactic coursework. It is believed that the transition to fulltime experiential education is a significant step in professional development of the pharmacy student. During the fourth year in school, students translate the professionalism that has been acquired primarily in the classroom into various practice settings. Many students will visit the campus occasionally during P4. It is imperative that they renew their personal commitment to professionalism.

Areas of professionalism addressed
A Pinning Ceremony focuses on the need to extend the professional attitudes and behaviors developed in the classroom environment into the pharmacy practice setting. In one year the student will be a graduate and licensed pharmacist. Entering P4 is an appropriate time to fully accept one’s role as a professional health care provider in the community.

Special issues involving planning/promotion/implementation
A Pinning Ceremony is an important event and requires special attention. Funding and space are key issues that must be addressed. In order to purchase pins, print programs, and hold a nice reception adequate financial support is imperative. External sources of funding are available. If family, friends and others students are invited there must be ample space. In order to properly motivate the students as they move on to P4, it is important to identify a dynamic speaker. If the institution does not already have a pin for this purpose, colleges and schools may want to invite current students to submit a design that represents pharmacy, patient-care, and institutional pride.

Examples of programs and resources
2004 AACP School Posters: “Successful Professionalization of Pharmacy Students at Mercer University.” James W. Bartling, Jordana L. Stephens, Mercer University Southern School of Pharmacy. “Promoting Professionalism at the Raabe College of Pharmacy.” Kimberly A. Broedel-Zaugg, Jeffery C. Allison, Thomas P. Faulkner, Ohio Northern University.

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O.

Faculty Retreat

Description of activity
Dedicate all or a portion of a faculty retreat to the issue of student and faculty professionalism. Use the retreat to emphasize the importance of professionalism within the institution via group discussion and speakers. Clarify the institution’s expectations for professional behavior and attitudes among faculty, as well as students. Explore ways to promote and assess the level professionalism within the pharmacy college community.

Rationale
Pharmacy students learn professional behaviors by observing and imitating peers and faculty in and out of the classroom setting. The values of the profession may be idealized in lectures, but they are demonstrated and reinforced by faculty and preceptors in various settings. To effectively create a culture of professionalism throughout the institution, a school needs the support of its faculty.

Areas of professionalism addressed
All areas of professionalism may be addressed.

Examples of programs and resources
• University of Mississippi 2004 AACP School Posters: “Promoting Professionalism in Pharmacy Education at The University of Mississippi.” John P. Juergens, John P. Bentley, Alicia S. Bouldin, and Marvin C. Wilson, The University of Mississippi. “Achieving Professionalism in the Pharmacy Program at the University of Montana.” Lori J. Morin, Jean T. Carter, Gayle A. Cochran, University of Montana.

Reference
Piascik P, Lubawy W. Do as I Say...and as I Do. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 67(1): 4.

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P.

Student Professionalism Assessment

Description of activity
Valid and reliable assessment tools should be developed that evaluate professional behaviors as well as a student’s knowledge and skills. Evaluation should extend beyond the acquisition of knowledge by students to professionalization and the application of knowledge and skills in the care of patients in improving medication use. The college or school should insure the professionalization of its students throughout the educational continuum. As part of the assessment process, an institution may conduct a survey of graduating students.

Rationale
To ensure faculty and students are engaging in the most effective professionalism activities, the institution must annually assess the value of each related program and policy, and its impact on students, faculty, curriculum, culture, etc. • Dana Hammer (University of Washington) – “Behavioral Professionalism Assessment Form” • University of Georgia – Professionalism Competency Policy (Appendix C) • American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) – “Assessment of Professionalism Project” http://www.aamc.org/members/gea/professionalism.pdf • AAMC and the National Boards of Medical Examiners Report – “Embedding Professionalism in Medical Education: Assessment as a Tool for Implementation” • UIC College of Medicine - Medical Student Professionalism Evaluation Form 2004 AACP School Posters: “A Strategic Approach to Student Professional Development at the University of MissouriKansas City School of Pharmacy.” Maureen Knell, Mary L. Euler, Patricia A. Marken, University of Missouri- Kansas City. “Exit Surveys: An Assessment Tool in Pharm.D. Programs.” Corinne Ramaley, Sushma Ramsinghani, Munama Bazunga, Akima Howard, and Arcelia Johnson-Fannin, Hampton University. “Inculcation of Professionalism: The Nevada College of Pharmacy Experience.” Amy H Schwartz, Renee Coffman, Thomas H Wiser, Michael DeYoung, Thomas Metzger, Nevada College of Pharmacy

Examples of program and resources

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Experiential Education
Best Practice Guidelines Amit Patel, University of Cincinnati Amy Schwartz, Nevada College of Pharmacy

I. INTRODUCTION Background
Experiential education, introductory (early) and advanced, encompasses approximately one-third of the pharmacy curriculum. During these experiences, students are exposed to a variety of environments, pharmacists, other healthcare providers, staff and patient encounters. The impact of these experiences is multifold, involving most of the senses, thereby appealing to all learning styles (visual, auditory and adult). The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards encourage colleges and schools to develop introductory (early) and advanced experiences that help foster professional development and a zeal for the profession. The standards are purposefully broad based so colleges and schools can develop programming suited for their culture and mission. Preparing quality and competent healthcare providers is the goal of every academic program. Experiential Education Directors / Coordinators have the enormous responsibility of guiding and monitoring the professional development and behaviors of students. Additionally they are often asked to assist faculty and preceptors with identifying areas for continued professional development. Therefore much of the possible activities that will be described are for all involved with experiential education. The goal of this section is to highlight some of the activities that have been developed and provide resources (references or institution contact information).

Planning Elements
The planning of experiential education programming is institution-specific dependent on curricular design. Introductory experiences typically involve activities that emphasize the utility of didactic material in daily practice. These activities also introduce students to different career opportunities and issues faced once in practice. Along with professional development, a key goal of these activities is to ensure students are prepared for advanced experiences. Advanced experiences are more student-driven; however each institution requires specific, key rotations during which general competencies are to be mastered. Guidance in the selection of experiences is essential to ensure continued successful professional development. Although standardization of activities may not be possible across institutions, commonalities to consider during the planning stages include: • • • Design orientation programming for students, faculty and preceptors in parallel to ensure information is complementary Develop a process for disseminating information, whether new material, announcements or accomplishments (e.g. campus events, news from professional organization, information highlighted in lay press, etc.) throughout the academic calendar to students, faculty and preceptors Develop activities whereby faculty and preceptors can instill and reinforce professional elements

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• •

Encourage and facilitate mentoring (student: student, student: faculty/preceptor and faculty/preceptor: faculty/preceptor) Identify and/or develop opportunities for professional interaction and development o Service learning o Involvement in pharmacy organizations (state and national) o Political advocacy o Post-graduate education opportunities or other career development programs Utilize committees, advisory boards/councils or focus groups to ensure programming is sound and attaining institutional and societal goals and objectives

Timelines
Successful planning and implementation is dependent on the development of an accurate timeline. Appendix A is an example of an experiential education timeline outlining activities across all levels of the curriculum. Experiential Education Directors / Coordinators must develop timelines that best meet institutional and curricular needs. A challenge for many programs is maintaining communication and interaction with senior students enrolled in advanced experiences, Appendix B provides an example schedule coordinating activities between students, faculty and preceptors.

Promotion
A goal of all colleges and schools is to sustain a culture of professionalism (students, faculty, administrators and staff). Maintenance of communication and interaction between students, faculty / preceptors and Experiential Directors / Coordinators is essential to ensure continued engagement in the various experiential activities. Experiential Directors / Coordinators are challenged with finding appropriate and efficient methods for disseminating professional information. Some items require careful planning and promotion while others are more informative in nature. Development of a committee or task force may be prudent for activities that require planning, timelines and formal promotion. Below are examples of promotional activities supported by Experiential Education: • Use of email or web sites to disseminate materials, announcements and notifications of professional opportunities as they occur during the academic calendar • Publicly (college-, school- or university-wide) provide accolades to and/or announce the professional accomplishments of students, faculty and preceptors • Develop programming that promotes pride in the profession and professional socialization (e.g. Pharmacy Week) • Encourage and support opportunities for professional interaction and development o Participation in college/school/university-sponsored seminars o Attendance at professional meetings o Participation in career fairs o Attendance at award ceremonies

Evaluation
Evaluation is the cornerstone of every experiential education program. Experiential Education Directors / Coordinators have a tremendous responsibility ensuring and assisting with the maintenance of quality programming, faculty / preceptors and practice sites. The sequencing of the experiential curriculum provides a unique opportunity to (potentially) evaluate the progression of student professional attitudes and behaviors longitudinally. Lastly evaluations can be used collectively to promote programmatic enhancements (continuous quality improvements). Potential areas for evaluation include: • Professional attitudes of students, faculty and preceptors

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• • •

• •

Professional behaviors of students, faculty and preceptors Orientation and other training programs (students, faculty and preceptors) Experiential program goals, objectives and activities o Committees or task forces o Advisory board/council o Focus groups Site visits o Adequacy of site o Preceptor effectiveness Student attainment of curricular outcomes via annual proficiency exams, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), etc.

An assessment instrument to evaluate the professional behaviors of students has been developed and validated for use during experiential activities [Behavioral Professionalism Assessment Form – Experiential (BPAE)]. The validation of this instrument in the classroom setting is ongoing. Instruments have also been developed to ascertain professional attitudes, however none are yet validated. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy is currently involved with several initiatives to facilitate Experiential Education Directors / Coordinator efforts including the development of standardized evaluations. Standardization would also assist the efforts of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, possibly allowing for national comparisons.

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES A. Student Orientation

Description of activity
The goal of orientation is to provide an introduction to and review of the upcoming academic calendar and activities. The duration of orientation differs across institutions and academic years. Curricular content and experiential programming determine areas of review and discussion. Those institutions who offer experiential activities as part of a course will provide orientation differently than those who require distinct visits. Many combinations exist; however, the commonalities that all should address include: • Experiential education goals and objectives • Responsibilities of Experiential Education personnel and department policies and procedures • Student, preceptor and site responsibilities • Evaluation process

Rationale
Orientation provides a wonderful opportunity to introduce and reinforce professional attitudes, values and behaviors. Directors / Coordinators can use this time to review and discuss program culture and mission, policies and procedures and national professional conduct statements such as the Code of Ethics, Oath of a Pharmacist and Pharmacist Pledge of Professionalism. Annual repetition is encouraged as this material is often displaced in lieu of didactic materials.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • Define: profession, professional and professionalism Review Code of Ethics, Oath of a Pharmacist and Pharmacist Pledge of Professionalism Provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate attitudes and behaviors Develop professional communication skills o Cultural diversity o Verbal/nonverbal cues o Interactions with patients o Inter-professional relationships Encourage continual professional involvement o Community service o Pharmacy organizations o Political advocacy (e.g. Legislative Days) Emphasize the importance of life-long learning as an extension of professional development

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Traditionally orientation is implemented as a didactic lecture with very little exchange between lecturer and students. Incorporation of activities, workstations, etc. may enhance retention of materials. First day impressions are long-lasting therefore preparing materials well in advance of offering is encouraged. Lastly, institutions may want to consider obtaining student input regarding the types of activities that may be well received.

Examples of programs and resources
• • University of Washington University of Colorado

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References
Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Adopted June 14, 1997. APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf Campagna KD, Boh LE, Beck DE, et al. Standards and Guidelines for Pharmacy Practice Experience Programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 1994; 58 (Winter Supplement):35S–45S. Hammer DP, Berger BA, Beardsley RS, Easton MR. Student Professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 67(3):96.

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B.

Faculty / Preceptor Orientation and Training Programs

Description of activities
Similar to students, the goal of orientation is to provide an introduction to and review of the upcoming academic calendar and activities. Emphasis should be placed on effective teaching strategies and evaluation. Similar to student orientation, curricular content and experiential programming determine areas of review and discussion: • Experiential education goals and objectives • Responsibilities of Experiential Education personnel and department policies and procedures • Student, preceptor and site responsibilities • Portfolio review process and appropriate use of document • Mentoring and career counseling • Evaluation process Training programs focus more on faculty / preceptor development. Topic selection should be ascertained per needs assessment. Delivery of program materials will vary depending on subject matter, availability and resources. Other considerations when developing training programs include: • State, college or school requirements • Programming specific for new faculty / preceptors • Programming specific for ‘seasoned’ faculty / preceptors • Example program topics: o Rotation organization: coordinating site needs with program goals and objectives o Development of an orientation packet (including contact information, description of activities and responsibilities, overview of evaluation process, etc.) o Improving evaluation skills o Update on new teaching strategies o How to provide career counseling o Professional development incentives The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education is working with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to ascertain the utility of developing a national training program and certification process for preceptors. The creation of a training program would greatly assist Directors / Coordinators and help standardize learning experiences. It is anticipated that such an endeavor would have a positive impact on student professionalism.

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Rationale
Faculty / preceptors need to remain current regarding new activities, revisions in policies and procedures, and/or responsibilities. Student professionalism and the handling and evaluation of unprofessional behaviors should be reviewed and discussed. It should be emphasized that faculty / preceptor attitudes and behaviors play as much of a role in shaping student opinions as clinical proficiency and site activities. These opportunities provide an open forum for discussion of experiences from the previous year, to solicit feedback, and obtain ideas for future programming and delivery methods. Directors / Coordinators need to remain cognizant of faculty / preceptor issues and needs. They must be available to offer guidance, support and act as a mediator if difficulties should arise. Programming should be informative and reflective of daily practice.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • Define: profession, professional and professionalism Provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate attitudes and behaviors Define sexual harassment and institutional policies Demonstrate effective professional communication o Cultural diversity o Verbal/nonverbal cues o Interactions with patients o Inter-professional relationships Demonstrate and encourage continual professional involvement o Community service o Pharmacy organizations (state or local) o Political advocacy (e.g. Legislative Day)

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The largest challenge associated with developing programming for faculty / preceptors is availability, especially for those that reside at a distance. The use of technology may facilitate program delivery and assessment, the costs for which will vary based on availability and resources. Faculty / preceptors participation remains an area of uncertainty as motivation is based on personal interests.

Examples of programs and resources
• Texas State Board of Pharmacy in conjunction with Texas Pharmacy Programs has developed a preceptor certification process, which includes training programs. Information can be obtained at: http://www.utexas.edu/pharmacy/general/experiential/practitioner/edopps.html Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education / American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy: National Preceptor Training Program initiative (CPD)

2004 AACP School Posters: “Conversations about Teaching.” Nicholas G. Popovich, Susan L. Peverly, University of Illinois at Chicago. Professionalism at Auburn University’s Harrison School of Pharmacy. Bruce A. Berger, Wendy C. Duncan-Hewitt, R. Lee Evans, Paul W. Jungnickel, Robert E. Smith, Auburn University.

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References
Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Adopted June 14, 1997. APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf Campagna KD, Boh LE, Beck DE, et al. Standards and Guidelines for Pharmacy Practice Experience Programs. Am J Pharm Educ (1994) 58 (Winter Supplement):35S–45S. Hammer DP, Berger BA, Beardsley RS, Easton MR. Student Professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 67(3):96. Piascik P, Lubawy W. Do as I Say...and as I Do. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 67(1):4.

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C.

Professional Portfolios

Description of activity
Professional portfolios are living documents that highlight professional accomplishments. Portfolio content will vary depending on the individual: • Student: record of assignment completion and attainment of curricular objectives • Faculty: documentation for promotion and tenure • Preceptor: documentation for promotion and awards/acknowledgement Other items for inclusion include academic calendar, copy of intern license, HIPAA certification acknowledgement, immunization records, a copy of signed college / school Honor Codes, Oath of a Pharmacist and Code of Ethics, and evaluations. Portfolios can be maintained in hard copy or electronic format. Faculty / preceptors should review student portfolios at the beginning of advanced experiences to gain an appreciation of past experiences and current needs. The information contained in portfolios is confidential and should not be copied or distributed without authorization. Review of student portfolios is usually the focus of discussion, however it may be beneficial for faculty / preceptors to share theirs with students. Reciprocation makes the process more realistic, adding a purpose and value to the activity.

Rationale
The development of a professional portfolio is an expectation of students, faculty and preceptors. Portfolios allow individuals to assess and appreciate past experiences in order to identify areas for growth and development (i.e. life-long learning). Finally they serve as a tremendous resource for curriculum vitae and resume development.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • Self-direction / motivation Professional competence Life-long learning Confidentiality

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Manual portfolios require provision of binders with dividers and presentation regarding development, maintenance and use. Electronic portfolios necessitate provision of disc, CD or internet access codes (if maintained within a web site) and technology training.

Examples of programs and resources
• Midwestern University – Chicago (manual/hard copy) 2004 AACP School Poster: “A Multi-faceted Approach to Enhancing Professionalism of Pharmacy Students.” Caroline Zeind, Michelle M. Kalis, Joseph M. Calomo, Martin Zdanowicz, Mehdi Boroujerdi, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Boston.

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D.

Mentor Programs
Student: Student Faculty/ Preceptor: Student Faculty / Preceptor: Faculty / Preceptor

Description of activity
Coursework or other activities specifically designed to promote exchange between students, faculty and preceptors. Examples include: • Shadowing experiences: singular vs. longitudinal • Electronic communication either via email or discussion board • Formal events during professional meetings

Rationale
Mentor programs promote professional interaction and collegiality. The primary goal of mentor programs is to emphasize the benefits of professional involvement, networking, career counseling, etc. Mentoring provides a forum for open discussion between individuals on topics that may not be appropriate for open forum or listserv opinion. Evidence suggests these programs have the potential to reduce inconsistent socialization.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • Membership in professional organizations Pride in the profession Life-long learning Selflessness

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Professional organization affiliated programs may require membership for participation. The development of programs within academic institutions requires tremendous planning and resources. Committees and/or task forces are recommended to ensure assistance with program and activity development and implementation.

Examples of programs and resources
• Professional organizations: o APhA-ASP Virtual Mentoring Program http://www.aphanet.org/students/mentoring.new/whatisvm.html o ASHP Virtual Mentoring Exchange http://www.ashp.org/virtualmentoring/index.cfm?cfid=925260&CFToken=14907473 o ASCP Resource Network - http://www.ascp.com/member/network/ o ACCP mentoring program under development Examples of academic institutions with mentor programs o University of the Pacific o Shenandoah University (Non Traditional PharmD) o Creighton University

Reference
Haines S. The Mentor-Protégé Relationship. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 67(3):82.

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E.

Service Learning

Description of activity
Service learning programs are being developed to increase student awareness of cultural diversity and other societal issues. Medical management is often of secondary importance. Site and/or activity selection will depend on college and school missions, physical abilities, individual interests and/or collaborative initiatives or partnerships. Affiliate organizations include but are not limited to local pharmacies, medical facilities (hospitals, long-term care facilities, home health care, and hospices), professional organizations or fraternities, federal agencies (Public Health System), or religious organizations. Senior citizens, children and adolescents, indigent populations and mentally or physically challenged individuals are often identified as target audiences.

Rationale
Service learning programs help to increase student awareness of issues that are often overlooked, yet directly impact the provision of pharmaceutical care. An additional benefit associated with these activities is the enhanced visibility of pharmacists as healthcare providers.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • • • • • • • Community service Cultural awareness Empathy Ethical behavior / moral reasoning Selflessness Diplomacy Psychosocial awareness Pride in the profession Confidentiality Inter-professional involvement

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Similar to mentor programs, the development of these initiatives may require tremendous planning and resources. Committees and/or task forces are recommended to ensure assistance with program and activity development and implementation. Affiliation agreements may be required for student participation within practice sites (i.e. liability, HIPAA, etc.)

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • Additional service learning information under “Professional Years” Professional Organizations and Fraternities “My First Patient”, Butler University Nova Southeastern University Auburn University Butler University (“My First Patient”) Nova Southeastern Wilkes University

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F.

Community and Hospital Practicums (Introductory Experiences)

Description of activities
Introductory (early) experiences are an ACPE standard and therefore an expectation of all colleges and schools of pharmacy. Similar to the other activities mentioned previously, curricular structure, goals and objectives and duration of exposure will be institution–specific: • • • Number of visits and activities (based on resources) Shadowing experience(s) Formal experience(s): individual or group

Rationale
The purpose of these activities is three-fold: • Provide early exposure to a variety of pharmacy practice settings • Promote the integration of didactics with practice (thereby decreasing the propensity towards inconsistent socialization) • Facilitate student mentoring and career counseling

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • Numerous if not all (college- / school-dependent) These experiences afford the opportunity for student behavioral assessment. The Behavioral Professionalism Assessment Form – Experiential (BPAE) developed by Dana Hammer is a valid and reliable instrument utilized by many colleges and schools of pharmacy.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The depth and breadth of curricular content is institution-specific. Being an ACPE requirement for all colleges and schools necessitates curriculum committee oversight with full faculty approval. Planning, promotion and implementation typically are performed by Experiential Education Departments or similar entities.

Examples of programs and resources
Requirement for all colleges and schools of pharmacy

References
Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Adopted June 14, 1997. APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf Purkerson Hammer D, Mason HL, Chalmers RK, Popovich NG, Rupp MT. Development and testing of an instrument to assess behavioral professionalism of pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:141-151. Purkerson Hammer D. Professional attitudes and behaviors: The “As and Bs” of professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:455-464.

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G.

Classroom Workshops and/or Reflections

Description of activity
Classroom workshops and/or reflections afford students the opportunity to experience or be exposed to a variety of practice scenarios, beyond what may be observed during introductory or advanced experiences. Programming can be designed to promote awareness, foster the development of coping skills, and afford students the opportunity to work through inconsistencies identified between didactic material and professional experiences. A secondary objective is to share and discuss clinical cases and other scenarios with peers in a controlled, nurturing environment. Example topics for workshops and/or reflections include: • Current events in pharmacy practice • Role playing activities (clinical or professional) • Identifying and developing career interests o Career Pathway Program (APhA) o Post-graduate education opportunities o Practitioner roundtables o Curriculum vitae / resume development and employment strategies • Preparation of journal club and case presentations • Benefits of professional organizations and leadership opportunities

Rationale
The goal of these experiences is to reduce inconsistent socialization. Directors / Coordinators, faculty and preceptors should consistently reinforce and support didactic offerings and describe their relationship to and/or place in daily practice. Discussions with students afford the opportunity to resolve any discrepancies that may be identified, thus promoting a clearer appreciation of pharmacist roles and responsibilities. These sessions can also be used to enhance student awareness of current events, career, professional growth, and leadership opportunities.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Numerous; activity-dependent

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Planning and implementation requirements are similar to other didactic offerings.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • Class websites or discussion boards Student presentations: grand rounds, in-house seminars, etc. Colloquia: mandatory campus sessions for students involved with advanced experiences

2004 AACP School Posters: “Professionalism Is More Than a White Coat: Beyond Rules and Rituals.” Cynthia J. Boyle, Jill A. Morgan, Robert S. Beardsley, University of Maryland “Professionalism: Mind, Body and Spirit.” Barry Bleidt, Nancy Kawahara, Sharon Hanson, Rebecca Gryka, Gamal Hussein, Jennifer Hillman, Bruce Currie, and Avis Ericson. Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy.

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“Encouraging Professional Development in Pharmacy Education.” Cynthia P Koh-Knox, Steven A Scott. Purdue University School of Pharmacy. “Professionalism: A Critical Element in Pharmacy Education.” L Clifton Fuhrman Jr, Wayne E Buff, Farid Sadik. University of South Carolina.

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H.

Inter-professional Experiences

Description of activity
Inter-professional experiences involve students and faculty from a variety of health disciplines. The goal for pharmacy students is to gain an appreciation of how other health care providers approach patient care. Activities range from case discussions to inter-professional patient care rounds (depending on student level and institution capabilities).

Rationale
Inter-professional experiences broaden student perspectives and promote pharmaceutical care. In addition these activities have been endorsed and encouraged by the Institute of Medicine (reference provided below).

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • • • • • • • • • • Empathy Ethical behavior / moral reasoning Respect of self, peers and property Selflessness Communicate assertively Cooperative and diplomatic Appropriate attire and hygiene Cultural and psychosocial awareness Critical thinking Confidentiality Interdisciplinary involvement

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
See also “Service Learning”

Examples of programs and resources
• • Creighton University University of Cincinnati

Reference
Ann C. Greiner, Elisa Knebel, Editors, Committee on the Health Professions Education Summit. IOM Report: Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality (2003); Accessible at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309087236/html/

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I.

Advanced Practicums

Description of activities
Advanced practicums are an ACPE standard and therefore an expectation of all colleges and schools of pharmacy. Activities vary according to college and school curricular goals and objectives and opportunities within practice locales. Practicum duration varies from four to six weeks, depending on institution and/or practice site logistics.

Rationale
Advanced practicums build on introductory experiences, further solidifying the purposes previously outlined. In addition, advanced practicums provide students the opportunity to obtain professional practice experience under the guidance of a pharmacist.

Areas of professionalism addressed
• • Numerous if not all (college- / school-dependent) These experiences afford the opportunity for student behavioral assessment. The Behavioral Professionalism Assessment Form – Experiential (BPAE) developed by Dana Hammer, is a valid and reliable instrument utilized by many colleges and schools of pharmacy.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The depth and breadth of experiences are practice site- and preceptor-dependent. Being an ACPE requirement for all colleges and schools necessitates full faculty approval when determining required, selective versus elective experiences. Planning, promotion and implementation are performed by Experiential Education Departments or similar entities.

Examples of programs and resources
Requirement for all colleges and schools of pharmacy

References
Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Adopted June 14, 1997. APhA-ASP/AACP-COD Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:96-102. Also available at: http://www.aphanet.org/students/whitepaper.pdf Campagna KD, Boh LE, Beck DE, et al. Standards and Guidelines for Pharmacy Practice Experience Programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 1994, 58(Winter Supplement):35S–45S. Purkerson Hammer D, Mason HL, Chalmers RK, Popovich NG, Rupp MT. Development and testing of an instrument to assess behavioral professionalism of pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:141-151. Purkerson Hammer D. Professional attitudes and behaviors: The “As and Bs” of professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:455-464.

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Extracurricular Activities
Best Practice Guidelines Gail D. Caballes, University of Washington Nanci L. Murphy, University of Washington

I. INTRODUCTION Background
Extracurricular activities help build professional responsibility and leadership skills through active involvement in professional organizations, patient advocacy programs and community service. Advocating for appropriate legislation and regulations that ensure quality health care, addressing problematic workplace issues, and creating new practice models that improve patient outcomes, are examples of ways students can impact current professional challenges. Core values, attitudes and behaviors that embody professionalism, such as respect and compassion for others, integrity, work ethic, accountability, leadership, working well with others, altruism, and pride in the profession, are often strengthened by participation in extracurricular activities. Schools should create a learning environment that values student involvement and fosters the development of desired professional behaviors. Extracurricular activities, such as service learning and patient-care projects, can help make learning more meaningful by linking theory to practice. Student pharmacists should be aware that as healthcare providers they must demonstrate professional competence, provide compassionate health care, place the needs of their patients above their own, solve complex problems, work effectively on health teams and adapt successfully to change. They may be more likely to make informed and responsible ethical decisions if they are aware of professional norms, laws, and ethical principles. Attention should also be directed at reducing negative influences (at both the school and practice setting) that undermine student professionalism. Honor or conduct codes should include standards related to both academic and professional integrity with published processes in place to address unprofessional behaviors. Schools should offer a variety of professionalism activities throughout the educational continuum. Many schools plan white coat ceremonies for their students as part of the orientation process. Schools may also host a program at the end of the 2nd or 3rd year that allow students to reaffirm their professionalism vows and discuss challenges they have faced since entering pharmacy school. The Oath of the Pharmacist is often recited at graduation ceremonies to remind students of their responsibility to serve others, with “dignity, integrity and honor.” Serving on faculty-student school committees, provides students an opportunity to contribute to the quality improvement of their program. Participating in professional organizations at a local, regional or national level, not only helps students improve leadership and team building skills, but also provides the opportunity for them to truly “make a difference” in their profession.

Planning Elements
Advanced planning is key to a successful event. If faculty and practitioner participation is desired, it is important that they are informed of project dates, well in advance of the planned activity. Besides increasing faculty, student and practitioner participation in student events, early planning helps schools with numerous student organizations prevent scheduling conflicts. This allows students the flexibility to participate in several organizations’ activities.

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As the role of the pharmacist continues to evolve, extracurricular activities should familiarize students to these changing roles. Students may enter pharmacy programs unaware of the full range of practice opportunities available in their state. Events should allow students to hone skills in counseling, health screenings, immunizations, and so forth. Several schools have created an administrative position in the Dean’s Office that oversees the design and assessment of student professional development initiatives.

Timelines
Advance notice of activities is an important planning element. When possible, student organizations and committees should provide a schedule of events at the beginning of each school term/year to promote better attendance. Notifying students of even tentative activity dates is helpful in mapping a general schedule. Since this issue presents a challenge each year, student leaders should build on past experiences to determine the most successful strategy.

Promotion
Early planning and scheduling is beneficial for the planning committee as well. The earlier a date is set, the sooner important planning elements (e.g., promotional and recruitment activities) can be initiated. Notifying the faculty in the previous quarter of upcoming plans for an important event might allow for adjustments in the exam schedule if a conflict occurs.

Evaluation
Evaluation of the activity can benefit that activity in subsequent years. It is especially important to include an assessment of what aspects of the event went well and what needs improvement. This document can serve as a reference to troubleshoot problems in future events.

Reference
Slack and Murphy “Faculty Influence and other Factors Association with Student Membership in Professional Organizations”AJPE, 59, 125-130(1995).

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II. POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES A. Professionalism Scholarships and Awards Description of activity
Professionalism scholarships/ awards can be treated either as a combined or separate entity. A recognition award may be presented to a student or faculty member who has demonstrated exceptional professional behavior. This award can be offered annually to one student per class for a total of four awards per year with the award for a 4th year student presented at his or her graduation ceremonies. Nominations may be made by a student’s peers, instructors, the various deans, or practitioners.

Rationale
Offered annually, this recognition award can serve to encourage students to work on their professional and personal development as they progress through the program. The award also demonstrates to the educational and professional community, the value the school places on pharmacy professionalism.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Criteria for the award should be determined by each school, but could include: • Relates well to faculty, staff and other students in a learning environment • Demonstrating a commitment to the profession supported by a strong worth ethic • Cheerfully provides service to the community through philanthropic endeavors and civic responsibilities • Demonstrating a continuing commitment to excellence and follow-through in fulfilling commitments • Consistently exceeds expected performance • Contributes to a culture that promotes professionalism. The award can reflect any of the following depending on the award criteria: • Different individual areas of professionalism • Recognizes a student who exemplifies the highest standards of professionalism. • Recognizes a student with the greatest improvement in professional behavior

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
The school or college should establish a committee to develop the award criteria and select the award recipients. If a scholarship is to be established, sources of funding also need to be identified.

• • • • • • •

Examples of programs and resources
APhA-ASP Mortar and Pestle Professionalism Award University of Washington - Professionalism Recognition Award criteria Humanism in Medicine Award – http://www.aamc.org/about/awards/humanism.htm Campbell University (scholarship based on participation) Purdue University Ohio Northern University Ohio State University

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B. Professionalism Committees Description of activity
Professionalism committees can serve as the catalyst for professionalism activities in the school. Many schools have created professionalism committees specifically for this purpose. Although not all current committees are called professional committees per se they may perform similar duties.

Rationale
A separate committee designed to foster a “culture of professionalism” can help give this issue the attention it requires. A professionalism committee, after defining professionalism and professional behavior, could help promote professional development on their campus. Whether this means organizing campus activities that promote professionalism or rendering decisions on honor code violations, this committee would oversee and respond to issues related to professionalism.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Professionalism committees perform a self-regulating function; students accept a shared responsibility for professionalism at their schools.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Committees may consist of faculty or deans, members of each student organization, as well as representatives from each pharmacy class. Although representation from these groups is very important, arranging meeting times that accommodate the different class schedules, exam dates, and for some schools, different campuses, may be a challenge. Selection of members and committee chair(s) are at the discretion of each school or college of pharmacy. However, the chair or co-chairs should themselves, represent high standards of professional behavior and be familiar with the professionalism concerns of their school.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • • • University of Mississippi – “Report of the Student-Faculty Relations Committee on Developing Professionalism in Students” Duquesne University Mercer University University of California, San Francisco University of Washington Virginia Commonwealth University Purdue University Nevada College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston

2004 AACP School Posters: “Promoting Professionalism in Pharmacy Education at The University of Mississippi.” John P. Juergens, John P. Bentley, Alicia S. Bouldin, and Marvin C. Wilson, The University of Mississippi. “A Strategic Approach to Student Professional Development at the University of MissouriKansas City School of Pharmacy.” Maureen Knell, Mary L. Euler, Patricia A. Marken, University of Missouri- Kansas City.

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Reference
Berger BA, Butler SL, Duncan-Hewitt W, Felkey BG, Jungnickel PW, Krueger JL, Perry CR, Taylor C. Changing the Culture: An Institution-wide Approach to Instilling Professional Values. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004; 68(1): 22

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C. Patient-care Projects Description of activity
Patient-care projects involve pharmacists, faculty and pharmacy students performing a wide range of clinical activities. This could include bone-density, cholesterol, and diabetes screening, as well as monitoring blood pressure, determining body fat composition, and providing counseling on emergency contraception, smoking cessation, stroke prevention and so forth. Patient-care projects can take place on campus, at health fairs, local pharmacies or other community locations.

Rationale
The role of the pharmacist has greatly evolved. Patient-care projects broaden access to health care and raise public awareness on the pharmacist’s role in community health.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Pharmacy students, under the supervision of pharmacist preceptors, are responsible for performing screenings, counseling on the results, and answering questions patients may have regarding their health conditions. This requires a student who is knowledgeable, listens, and is able to deliver adequate and accurate information in a competent manner. Commitment to excellence; pride in the profession and serving patients and society-at-large are other professionalism areas addressed.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
Students need to be competent in the planned activities, which often require additional training. Cost of supplies and transportation are also other important considerations. Since pharmacist preceptors are necessary to supervise screenings, advanced planning and early notification is imperative.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • • Operation Immunization (APhA-ASP) Operation Diabetes (APhA-ASP) World Asthma Day (ASHP) Legislative Day Screenings Kick Butts Day Breast Cancer Awareness Poison Prevention Elder Care Programs Disease State Screenings: blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol levels Caring for Community: A National Medical Student Service Project:


• • • • •

www.aamc.org/about/awards/cfc.htm
HHS Secretary’s Award for Innovations in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention competition University of Iowa University of Washington University of Rhode Island University of Southern California

2004 AACP School Posters: “Promoting Professionalism at the Raabe College of Pharmacy.” Kimberly A. Broedel-Zaugg, Jeffery C. Allison, Thomas P. Faulkner, Ohio Northern University. “Professionalism in Pharmacy Education: The University of Southern California School of Pharmacy.” Kathleen H. Besinque, University of Southern California.

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D. Poster Presentations Description of activity
Posters that highlight research projects or practice innovations are often displayed at various local, state or national association meetings. Posters can be created on individual student projects or research, as well as other unique activities the student is involved in.

Rationale
Posters not only serve as a means to share new information and ideas, but also to recognize outstanding students. Enhanced presentation skills and practice creating posters are made possible with this activity.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Advancing knowledge through scholarship is an important part of professional development. Students should not only possess the knowledge to make them competent pharmacists but also effectively deliver their message to a diverse population.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
It is not unusual for a project and subsequent poster to be completed as an extracurricular project. Time management and coping skills may be tested when combining these activities with a full academic course load. Posters are typically presented at out-of-state conferences or meetings, which can conflict with a student’s class schedule and are often expensive to attend.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • Pharmacy Student Research Conference AACP-Novo Nordisk Pharmacy Practice Diabetes Program ASHP Midyear Meeting AACP Meeting APhA Meeting ACCP Meeting ASCP Meeting University of Washington AACP Merck Scholar Program (now discontinued)

2004 AACP School Poster: “A Curricular Roadmap of Professionalism.” Carriann E. Richey, Sue Bierman, Trish S. Barton, Patricia Chase, Butler University.

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E.

Patient Counseling Activities/Competitions

Description of activity
Patient counseling activities include any event that allows student pharmacists to provide patients with important health information, under the supervision of a licensed preceptor. This could include information regarding medications, health conditions, as a component of healthcare screenings, and so forth. Participation in these activities helps students gain confidence in their patient counseling skills and respond to patient concerns with sensitivity and compassion.

Rationale
Patient counseling occurs throughout the day, every day at pharmacy worksites. Not only does counseling involve information on drug therapy (directions for use, safety concerns, expected outcomes, etc.) but it also involves how this information is delivered, how well the pharmacist is able to listen to what the patient has to say, and how caring the pharmacist actually is toward the patient’s concerns. The best way for a student to learn the art of patient counseling is to practice and receive helpful feedback from their preceptors.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Counseling practice allows students the opportunity to strengthen their communication skills, listening skills, and professional behavior. It also helps students learn how to build patient relationships, honoring patient privacy, autonomy and dignity.

Special issues involving planning / promotion / implementation
In order for students to carry out counseling projects that serve the public, there needs to be pharmacists willing to act as preceptors to oversee the student’s activity. Counseling competitions require professors and/or pharmacists wiling to serve as judges for long hours of pre-taped counseling. Both activities involve varied, unpaid time commitments

Examples of programs and resources
APhA-ASP National Patient Counseling Competition

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F.

Developing a Portfolio

Description of activity
Self-assessment and reflection are important components of continued professional development. Many schools are utilizing portfolios (electronic or paper) as an important method to encourage student reflection. One plan developed by Dr. Renae Chesnut at Drake University uses personal “SOAP” notes (see below).

Rationale
Providing an opportunity for students to actively reflect on key issues appears to be effective in fostering personal and professional growth. This activity also encourages students to strive for self-improvement and assume responsibility for their own professional development.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Commitment to self-improvement; pride in the profession (advancing the level of health care by serving patients and society-at-large

Examples of programs and resources
• Personal “SOAP” Notes – Renae Chesnut (Drake University) SOAP notes have been recognized by health professionals as a consistent and complete method to effectively document, evaluate, and communicate a patient care plan. This concept has been applied to a self-assessment and goal setting exercise for pharmacy students. As part of the requirements for an orientation course, students complete the SOAP notes on-line document. In these Personal SOAP Notes, the students list the following:

Subjective thoughts on pharmacy, their progress in the curriculum, and their professional
development;

Objective measures including grade points and the scores from various assessment
instruments;

Assessment of future development needs; and a Plan for accomplishing those goals.
The on-line form eliminates the need for several reflective papers, and students are able to easily track their completion of the course requirements. In addition, the students become accustomed to the use of this tool prior to entering the professional course work. This health care documentation tool provides a framework for pharmacy student portfolios which allows the opportunity for student self-assessment, development, and goal-setting.

Examples of programs and resources
See also “Professional Portfolio” under “New Students” • Drake University • Purdue University • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences at Boston • Creighton University

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G. Honor Codes Description of activity
Honor codes state the school’s policies regarding academic integrity and professional behavior. Zimmerman and Kier, surveyed the nation’s pharmacy schools and found that 76% of the pharmacy schools who responded to their survey enforce honor codes. Schools who report stricter penalties, such as mandatory dismissal also appear to have fewer infractions than other institutions.

Rationale
The high degree of respect given to pharmacists is based on the public’s trust and confidence in our integrity. Students are considered members of the profession when they enter pharmacy school and are expected to demonstrate high standards of ethical conduct. Ignoring infractions of the honor code could affect the student body in several ways. If students feel the honor code is not taken seriously, the number of infractions could increase. Also, students who demonstrate ethical conduct may experience a decline in morale if unprofessional behavior is not addressed.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Integrity, honesty, accountability, respect for the rights of others

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • Ohio Northern University Auburn University University of Southern California Creighton University

2004 AACP School Poster: “A Survey of Adoption and Implementation of Honor Codes at US Colleges of Pharmacy, poster presentation, Zimmerman N, Kier, K, The Raabe College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern University.”

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H.

Broadening the Scope of Practice

Description of activity
Student pharmacists should be encouraged to take an active role in developing or changing policies that improve health care delivery. Through political advocacy, students have the opportunity to influence future directions of practice.

Rationale
Experience has shown that having the opportunity to act as change agents in school, gives students the confidence to continue these activities as practitioners.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Creativity and innovation, commitment to self- improvement of skills and knowledge, pride in the profession, leadership

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • See also “Political Advocacy” course offerings Legislative Days “Fix the Law Project”, Dr. Tom Hazlet. University of Washington NCPA Pruitt-Schutte Student Business Plan Competition-Tom Murray Leadership Project: University of Washington (Shelby Bottemiller, Elizabeth Cox, Nicole Klosterman, Sonj Hammes, Khanh Hoa Tran)

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I. Leadership Conferences Description of activity
Leadership conferences are designed to enhance both individual and group leadership skills and provide opportunities for networking. Speakers may include CEOs and VPs of health organizations or professional organizations, legislators, and community leaders. An interactive workshop familiarizes students with important leadership skills. Students are then given the opportunity to solve professional challenges by working on project in small groups.

Rationale
The purpose of these conferences is to help participants strengthen their leadership and team-building skills and to apply these skills in completing an assigned group project.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Creativity and innovation, service orientation, commitment to self-improvement of skills and knowledge, conflict resolution, leadership

Special issues involving programming and implementation
• • • • Funding Selection of students If a joint conference between two or more pharmacy schools, identifying a conference site with overnight accommodations Travel arrangements- although the University of Maryland has taken advantage of technology to link schools

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • Cardinal Health Student Leadership Conference Dr. Renae Chesnut, Drake University Dr. Robert Johnson, Auburn University Dr. Robert Beardsley, University of Maryland Dr. Bill Fassett, Washington State University Dr. Nanci Murphy, University of Washington Dr. Keith Marciniak, APhA-ASP

Loma Linda University Schools with branch campuses

References
Bazil M, Kirschenbaum, “Student Membership on Standing Committees at Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy”, Am J Pharm Educ;62, Spring 1998 pg. 66-71. 2002-2003 Successful Practices in Pharmaceutical Education

http://www.aacp.org/Docs/MainNavigation/Resources/4945_LeadershipDevelopment.pdf

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J. Mentor Programs Description of activity
The responsibilities of a mentor may include, exposing a student to new opportunities, assisting the student in defining goals, nurturing his or her natural talents, providing regular feedback, and modeling professional values and behaviors. Many schools invite practitioners to lecture in the classroom or act as course facilitators, to encourage interactions between students and positive role models. Structured mentor programs may be available through schools or professional organizations.

Rationale
Mentoring can benefit the mentor and mentee in terms of professional development and growth.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Multiple areas.

Examples of programs and resources
• • • • • • • • • See also other Mentoring sections in “New Student” and “Extracurricular” sections Virtual Mentors o APhA, ASHP, NCPA, ASCP state pharmacy associations (Texas) Alumni mentor programs o University of Michigan o University of Washington. New student mentor programs o MAPS (Mentoring and Activities for Pharmacy Students) Monster Trak o Drake University o http://www.monstertrak.monster.com/

What is a successful mentor? o http://www.tshp.org/Programs/LDP-Mentor/WhatIsAMentor.asp
Professional Development Advisor Program o University of Missouri at Kansas City Auburn University University of California, San Francisco University of Florida

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K. Interprofessional Activities Description of activity
The Institute of Medicine in its recent report, “Bridge to Quality” states the importance of creating effective interprofessional teams. Participating in joint activities often helps students from different health professions become familiar with and appreciate each other’s area of expertise. It is believed that this heightened awareness and respect enhances their future collaboration as practitioners.

Rationale
“Health care professionals need better preparation in order to provide the highest quality and safest care, and to function at optimum levels in a changing and increasingly complex 21st century health system” Ann Greiner, Institute of Medicine

Areas of professionalism addressed
Ability to communicate and interact effectively with patients, family, colleagues and other health professionals

Examples of programs and resources
• • • White coat ceremonies with other professions (Midwestern-Glendale) Orientation ceremony with other health sciences students that describes the different roles of each health professional- Chatauqua (University of Washington) Interprofessional patient projects to help reduce health disparities, chronic health problems o University of Iowa Mobile Clinic o University of Washington- A Collaborative Effort to Provide Quality Care to the Homeless

http://www.aacp.org/Docs/MainNavigation/NewsRoom/5430_AACPAugust

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L.

Etiquette Dinner

Description of activity
A professional etiquette dinner offers instruction in basic table manners and appropriate dining in a business setting. The dinner should represent what might be served at a typical meal for business purposes, including a salad or appetizer, entrée, and dessert. Require participants to wear professional business attire. Make the experience as close to a real restaurant as possible. Arrange to have waiters, hosts or hostesses. Before each course, provide instruction on proper utensil selection and table manners. Provide a checklist of proper dining behavior and as well as worst-case scenario examples consisting of things that could happen. Allow for ample time for questions from the student guests.

Rationale
Table manners are an integral part of non-verbal communication. Formality in dress, grammar, and manner fosters better respect for the individual.

Areas of professionalism addressed
This activity helps student demonstrate self-confidence, courteous behavior, appropriate boundaries in work or learning situations, and ability to communicate and interact effectively with patients, family, colleagues and other health professionals.

Examples of programs and resources
• University of Maryland 2004 AACP School Poster: “Intentional Professionalization Strategies Across the Pharmacy Education Experience (or Baking the Perfect Soufflé).” Pamela U. Joyner, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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M.

Monthly Column on Professionalism

Description of activity
Devote a monthly or periodic column to particular professionalism issue in college and student publications, such as Pharmacy Student, chapter newsletters, and state association publications. The column may help pharmacy leaders raise awareness of professionalism issues to students, faculty and practitioners.

Rationale
The column will consistently emphasize the importance of professionalism to those within the pharmacy community and will provide resources and discussion to address common professionalism dilemmas.

Areas of professionalism addressed
Pride in the profession, service orientation, raising the general public’s awareness on the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities required of a practicing pharmacist.

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Appendixes
Appendix A - Experiential Rotation Timeline (P1 - P3)
Month P1 Activities Orientation: -Early Experience -Portfolios -Mentoring Programs (examples): -History of Pharmacy -Professionalism -Cultural diversity -Interdisciplinary care P2 Activities Orientation: -Early Experience -Portfolio review -Mentoring Programs (examples): -Review professionalism, cultural diversity and interdisciplinary care Community / Hospital Site Visit(s) Mentoring activity Community / Hospital Site Visit(s) Community / Hospital Site Visit(s) P3 Activities Orientation: -Early Experience -Portfolio review -Mentoring Programs (examples): -Review professionalism, cultural diversity and interdisciplinary care -Career opportunities -Development of CV / resume and interviewing skills Mentoring activity Faculty / Clinical Site Visits: Ambulatory Care, Long-term Care, Internal Medicine and/or Critical Care Career fair Introduction to Advanced Practicums Community / Hospital Shadowing Programs: -Assessment of career interests Community / Hospital Site Visit(s) Cont. Community / Hospital Site Visit(s) Cont. Site selection Faculty / Clinical Site Visits Cont. Faculty / Clinical Site Visits Cont.

August

September

October

Mentoring activity Service Learning

November December

January

February March April May June Annual proficiency exams / OSCE

Annual proficiency exams / OSCE

Annual proficiency exams / OSCE Begin P4 rotations

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Appendix B - Experiential Rotation Timeline: P4
Month Student Rotation orientation: -Mentoring -Evaluation process -Professional organization involvement -Service learning Begin rotations Portfolio review (ongoing) Faculty / Preceptor Rotation orientation: -Mentoring -Evaluation process -Professional organization involvement -Service learning Begin rotations Portfolio review (ongoing) Career counseling (ongoing) Advisory board meeting Programs (examples): -Post-graduate education -Career opportunities -Development of CV/resumes and interviewing skills -Financial planning Mentoring activity Employment / residency update for students attending ACCP and/or ASHP Meetings Career fair Pharmacy Week – consider activity Preceptor training Employment / residency update for students attending ACCP and/or ASHP Meetings Career fair Advisory board meeting

June

July August

September

October

November December January February March April May June

Mentoring activity

Mentoring activity Advisory board meeting

Programs (examples): -Transitions -Life-long learning tips Awards ceremony NAPLEX review Annual proficiency exams / OSCE Senior survey Graduation

Preceptor training Awards ceremony Advisory board meeting Assist with NAPLEX review and annual proficiency exams / OSCE Graduation

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Appendix C – Professionalism Competency in the Curriculum
Provided by the University of Georgia Fulfilling Professionalism Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum In a professional school, the curriculum of study consists of knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes/behaviors. The curricular goals and objectives of the Doctor of Pharmacy program at the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy are articulated in the document entitled, Competency Statements, Terminal Objectives, and Enabling Objectives for the Doctor of Pharmacy Program. Procedures for addressing academic competency and progression associated with students’ knowledge, skills, and abilities are addressed in the College’s Progression Policy. Procedures for addressing attitudes, i.e., professional competency, are addressed by the following policy. Professional behavior is expected among all students of the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy in order to fulfill curricular requirements for graduation. Professional attitudes/behaviors, as well as examples of unprofessional behavior, are discussed with students during Orientation, stated in various course syllabi, and reinforced at selected points throughout the academic year. Students who exhibit appropriate behaviors/attitudes progress in the professional components of the curriculum, whereas students who do not display competence in professional behaviors and attitudes are subject to informal and/or formal corrective action. Any student, faculty, staff member, or individual associated with the College’s academic programs may report a student for lack of professional behavior to the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. Under usual circumstances, the incident should have been brought to the student’s attention and resolution attempted before reporting the incident to the Assistant Dean. Upon receiving a report regarding unprofessional behavior, the Assistant Dean will determine the legitimacy of the report in accordance with his/her interpretation of Competency Statement 10 (in the College’s document on educational outcomes, Competency Statements, Terminal Objectives, and Enabling Objectives for the Doctor of Pharmacy Program), the severity of the incident, and the urgency by which it needs to be addressed administratively. Depending on the nature of the behavior, the Assistant Dean may act on a single behavioral report or wait to act until he/she receives multiple reports of unprofessional behavior on a student. Once the Assistant Dean determines that administrative action is warranted, each case will be addressed in the following manner: 1. For the first action to address unprofessional behavior, the Assistant Dean will meet with the student to counsel him/her on the seriousness of the behavior and the potential consequences to the student of such actions, including potential dismissal from the College of Pharmacy for repeated unprofessional behavior. The discussion will also include strategies to correct the behavior or address the problem. Following the session, the student and Assistant Dean will sign and date a statement acknowledging the student’s behavior and his/her awareness of potential consequences for similar behavior in the future. The Assistant Dean will notify the person(s) who initiated the complaint that the student has been counseled. For the next reported offense, the Assistant Dean will notify the student and the chair of College of Pharmacy Professionalism Committee. The student will appear before the Professionalism Committee to discuss the behavior. Following this session, the committee

2.

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may recommend to the Associate Dean that the student be placed on professional probation in the College of Pharmacy, a final warning of the impending consequences of a third offense. 3. For subsequent problems with professionalism, the Assistant Dean will notify the student and the Professionalism Committee. After meeting with the student, the Professionalism Committee will recommend to the Associate Dean an appropriate course of action. The outcome will be based on the type of unprofessional behavior and whether this is a new behavior problem or continuation of an ongoing problem. Possible outcomes will be professional probation, continued professional probation, suspension from the Doctor of Pharmacy program for up to one year, or dismissal from the College of Pharmacy. Students who receive continued professional probation or suspension will be dismissed from the College of Pharmacy upon further problems with unprofessional behavior. Students may appeal decisions of the Professionalism Committee to the Dean of the College of Pharmacy.

4.

UGA PROFESSIONALISM COMPETENCY STATEMENT Demonstrate professional behaviors and values TO 10.1 (Characterization) Display professional behavior toward faculty, staff, peers, patients, and other health professionals in the classroom, laboratory, and clinical settings. (Organization) Modify behavior to interact effectively in classroom, laboratory, and clinical settings.
• • • • • • • Shows courtesy to faculty, staff, peers, patients, and other health professionals Asks appropriate questions Asks questions in a respectful manner Does not initiate or participate in extraneous conversations Focuses on assignments Demonstrates ability to prioritize projects Demonstrates preparedness to interact in classroom, laboratory, and clinical settings

EO 10.1.1

EO.10.1.2

(Organization) Modify behavior to communicate effectively with faculty, staff, peers, patients, and other health professionals.
• • • • • Demonstrates courtesy and respect in verbal and written communications Uses language appropriate to the academic setting Addresses faculty, staff, peers, patients, and other health professionals with the appropriate name and/or title Displays body language appropriate to the person and setting Takes initiative to update personal information (changes in name, address, phone number) in various University and College databases

EO 10.1.2.1
• • • •

(Organization) Demonstrate skills of conflict resolution.
Demonstrates diplomacy in expressing opinions/ideas Resolves conflicts independently, effectively, and positively Defends ideas/positions when appropriate Addresses problems/issues initially with those involved (before bringing in outside sources)

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EO 10.1.2.2
• • • •

(Synthesis) Formulate constructive evaluation of others= performance.
Demonstrates use of appropriate and professional language Constructs a positive written/oral evaluation of others, pointing out strengths and weaknesses Evaluates others in a direct, concise, clear, and honest manner Focuses the evaluation on the individual’s performance without making comparisons to others

EO 10.1.2.3
• •

(Organization) Display positive attitude when receiving constructive criticism.
Acknowledges criticism and determines the validity Formulates a plan for corrective action

EO 10.1.2.4
• •

(Valuing) Formulate written communications with professional content and tone.
Uses clear, concise, professional, and appropriate language Differentiates the appropriate use and legality of various types of written communication (e.g., e-mail, letter, memo, chart)

EO 10.1.2.5
• • • • •

(Organization) Demonstrate confidence in actions and communications.
Takes initiative when appropriate Identifies situations where assistance is needed Defends ideas/positions when appropriate Demonstrates poise/demeanor appropriate to one’s experience level Responds quickly, accurately, and decisively under pressure.

EO 10.1.3

(Organization) Show regard for persons in authority in classroom, laboratory, and clinical settings.
• • • • Challenges authority in an appropriate time, place, and manner Demonstrates regard for the other person’s position, responsibilities, time, commitments, knowledge, and accomplishments Accepts decisions of persons in authority Differentiates decisions for which the other person has final authority

EO 10.1.4

(Organization) Demonstrate dependability to carry out responsibilities.
• • • • Completes assigned tasks in a timely manner Completes tasks/assignments independently without supervision Completes tasks/assignments without reminders or interventions Acknowledges, clarifies, and carries out assignments and responsibilities

EO 10.1.5

(Valuing) Differentiate appropriate interpersonal interactions with respect to culture, race, religion, ethnic origin, and gender.
• • • • Demonstrates sensitivity toward others with choice of language, tone, and inflection Demonstrates sensitivity in tone of written and verbal communications Demonstrates appropriate physical interactions, including body language Demonstrates a tolerance of diversity

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EO 10.1.6

(Organization) Demonstrate regard for differing values and abilities among peers, other health care professionals, and patients.
• • Shows respect for others’ beliefs, opinions, choices, values, and socioeconomic status Demonstrates tolerance of others’ physical, mental, and social limitations

EO 10.1.7

(Characterization) Act with honesty and integrity in academic matters and professional relationships.
• • • • • • Demonstrates high moral and ethical standards Adheres to UGA Culture of Honesty policy Encourages honesty and integrity from peers Shows willingness to admit mistakes Shows willingness to admit deficiencies in knowledge and/or practice skills Shows willingness to seek corrective action for mistakes

EO 10.1.7.1
• • • • •

(Characterization) Demonstrate attitude of service by putting others= needs above one=s own.
Demonstrates sense of commitment Demonstrates commitment to the profession and its special needs Shows sensitivity to others’ requests/needs Demonstrates willingness to accommodate others’ needs or seeks alternative solutions Shows empathy toward others

EO 10.1.7.2
• • • •

(Characterization) Demonstrate a desire to exceed expectations.
Demonstrates pride in accomplishments Demonstrates professional involvement Demonstrates initiative to take on additional tasks without expectation of compensation Shows willingness to follow up after completing a task or assignment

EO 10.1.8

(Characterization) Promote appropriate drug-taking behavior.
• • • • • • • • Recommends medications only when appropriate. Dispenses medications in accordance with established rules, regulations, or laws Does not abuse/misuse prescription drugs Does not abuse/misuse nonprescription drugs Does not use illegal drugs/substances Does not abuse alcohol Seeks treatment for potential substance abuse problems Refers others for substance abuse problems

EO 10.1.9

(Characterization) Demonstrate professional interactions with patients
• • • • Demonstrates concern, empathy, and respect for patients Demonstrates willingness and ability to listen to patients Recognizes and respects patients’ needs for personal space Asks appropriate questions and provides factual information

EO 10.1.9.1 patient.

(Comprehension) Describe the covenantal relationship between a pharmacist and

Maintains nonjudgmental demeanor with patients

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• • • •

Shows respect for patient confidentiality Adheres to rules, regulations, and laws governing patient confidentiality Acts in the patient’s best interests Demonstrates tolerance of diversity

EO 10.1.9.2
• •

(Analysis) Identify instances when one=s values and motivation are in conflict with those of the patient.
Considers cost, benefit, risks, and side effects in relation to the patient’s health care needs Considers the patient’s cultural, religious, socioeconomic, and lifestyle needs when making recommendations

EO 10.1.9.3
• • •

(Organization) Relate to patients in a caring and compassionate manner.
Shows concern for patients Shows respect for patients’ culture, religion, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle Formulates empathetic responses to patients

EO 10.1.9.4
• •

(Organization) Demonstrate ethical standards related to pharmacy practice.
Identifies references/sources containing ethical standards related to pharmacy practice Develops an acceptable basis for formulating personal ethical standards

EO 10.1.10

(Characterization) Exhibit fitting behavior when representing the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy in extracurricular activities and professional meetings outside the College of Pharmacy.
• • • • Adheres to UGA student conduct regulations Dresses in an appropriate professional manner Attends and participates in program sessions Demonstrates courtesy and respect to others in meetings and programs

TO 10.2

(Characterization) Demonstrate punctuality in academic and professional environments.
• • • Arrives prepared and on time for required classes, labs, and experiences Notifies instructor or preceptor in advance or at earliest possible time with regard to absence or tardiness Notifies preceptor in advance for information about upcoming rotation

EO 10.2.1

(Responding) Adhere to established times for classes, laboratories, clerkships, and meetings.
• • • • Acknowledges academic priorities over personal commitments Shows respect for professors’ and preceptors responsibilities/time commitments outside of established class/meeting times Performs throughout the allotted times for class, labs, and experiences Asks permission from professor or preceptor to alter established schedule and accepts final decision

EO 10.2.2

(Responding) Comply with established verbal and written deadlines.
• • Keeps up-to-date with deadlines Shows responsibility for maintaining information regarding assignments

100

Completes assignments without reminders

EO 10.2.3

(Responding) Respond to requests (written requests, verbal questions, e-mails, telephone calls) in a timely fashion.
• • • Demonstrates responsibility to check mail, e-mail, voice mail, and other forms of communication on a regular basis in order to receive requests/assignments Acknowledges established deadlines or sets deadlines appropriate to the request Completes assignments on time or within an acceptable time frame

EO 10.2.4

(Responding) Perform pharmaceutical care responsibilities in a timely manner.
• • Prioritizes tasks in relation to a patient’s needs Performs tasks in a timeframe consistent with a patient’s needs.

TO 10.3

(Characterization) Maintain a professional appearance when representing the College of Pharmacy.
• • • Takes into account perceptions and values of patients and other health professionals when determining one’s professional appearance Follows established guidelines in classroom, laboratory, and patient care settings regarding appearance Takes initiative to identify appropriate appearance when guidelines are unclear or not specified

EO 10.3.1

(Valuing) Modify dress appropriate to classroom, laboratory, clinical, and professional settings.
• • • Adheres to established guidelines regarding dress, jewelry, and body adornments Recognizes and respects authority of faculty and preceptors with regard to determining appropriateness of dress, jewelry, and body adornments Values the importance of dress, jewelry, and body adornments for conducting effective patient interactions

EO 10.3.2

(Valuing) Maintain personal hygiene and grooming appropriate to the academic or professional environment.
• • • Follows established guidelines regarding personal hygiene and grooming Considers health implications for others with regard to personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing, cologne, tobacco products) Values the importance of personal hygiene and grooming for effective interpersonal interactions

TO 10.4

(Responding) Comply with student health requirements for working with patients in various health care environments.
• • • Demonstrates awareness of various health requirements regarding personal and patient health and safety Complies with requirements for routine medical test (e.g., PPD, drug screening) needed for working in various health care settings Complies with deadlines for fulfilling student health requirements

TO 10.5

(Organization) Maintain appropriate records (e.g. intern license, CPR certification, immunizations, insurance, skills) to demonstrate professional competence.

101

• •

Produces records upon request from authorized faculty, staff, preceptors, or health care facilities Maintains appropriate renewals of credentials and licenses

TO 10.6

(Responding) Comply with federal, state, University, College of Pharmacy and institutional requirements regarding confidentiality of information.
• • • Completes required training related to confidentiality of information States regulations regarding confidentiality of patient information States requirements for maintaining confidentiality of institutional data

TO 10.7

(Characterization) Produce quality work in academic and professional settings.
• • • • Takes initiative to have standard of work defined Responds to constructive criticism to improve quality of work Takes initiative to prepare adequately for classes, labs, meetings, or experience training Demonstrates completeness in carrying out assignments

EO 10.7.1

(Organization) Utilize time efficiently.
• • • • Conducts personal business outside established times for classes, labs, or experience training unless authorized Demonstrates good organizational skills Prioritizes responsibilities in carrying out assignments Demonstrates ability for multi-tasking

EO 10.7.2

(Organization) Demonstrate self-direction in completing assignments.
• • • Seeks assistance from faculty, TA’s, or preceptors to clarify assignments or directions Maintains focus in completing assignments Demonstrates ability to work independently

EO 10.7.3

(Characterization) Demonstrate accountability for decisions.
• • • Accepts responsibility for personal, academic, and patient-care decisions Provides rationale for decisions in a professional manner Documents actions and outcomes of decisions

EO 10.7.4

(Characterization) Demonstrate characteristics of lifelong learning.
• • • • Keeps abreast of changes in drug therapy and disease management Keeps abreast of changes in laws, rules, and regulations pertaining to the practice of pharmacy Takes initiative to research questions or problems independently Critically evaluates the accuracy and validity of information related to patient care

102

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