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Political Ideology of Yemen

Framework of Presidential Representative Democratic Republic

President of Yemen is the Head of State, while Prime Minister (who is appointed by President) is Head
of Government. President is elected by popular vote from atleast 2 candidates supported by Parliament.
Presidential Term of office is of 7 years and Parliamentary Term of Elected Office is of 6 years.
Notionally, Yemen has a multi-party system but in reality it is completely dominated by one party, the
General Peoples Congress and has been since unification.
Executive Power is vested with the Government. Legislative Power is vested in both the Government
and Parliament. Judiciary is theoretically independent but is prone to interference from the Executive
Yemen is a republic with Bicameral Legislature.
Under the constitution, the people who share power include:
- Elected President
- Elected 301-seat House of Representatives
- Appointed 111-member Shura Council
Political Background
For Hundreds of Years, Yemen was ruled by Imams. Imams and Kings of Yemen were religious
leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam. Secular and Religious Rule from 897
This Rule existed until the Republican Revolution in 1962 and came to an end with the assassination of
Iman Yehia. This son succeeded him, but the political situation ended with the North Yemen Civil War
and setting of new Republic Regime.
In North, pro-republican and pro-monarch forces fought to come into power. While South was
under British Control
In 1960s British sought to incorporate all of the Aden Protectorate territories into the
Federation. Together with several states, they formed the Protectorate of South Arabia.
In 1963 Fighting between Egyptian and British Led Saudi financed Guerillas in the Yemen Arab
Republic led to the formation of National Liberation Front who hoped to drive the British out of
Saudi Arabia
1n 1964 British announced their intention to hand over power to Federation of Saudi Arabia
except that the military would remain
In the meantime, hostilities increased and there were around 280-500 guerilla attacks.
In 1966 - British Government announced that all British forces would be withdrawn at
In response security situation deteriorated with the creation of the socialist Front for the
Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) which started to attack the NLF in a bid for power,
as well as attacking the British
The Royal Marines, who had been the first British troops to occupy Aden in 1839, were the last
to leave. The Federation of South Arabia collapsed and Southern Yemen became independent
as the People's Republic of South Yemen.
Since then, Yemen has suffered from a highly fractured political landscape, which is the legacy
of the regime of President Ali Abd Allah Saleh, who came to power in 1978 and formally
resigned his office in February 2012
Major political happenings
The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on 22 May 1990 with Saleh becoming
President and al-Baidh Vice President. For the first time in centuries, much of Greater
Yemenwas politically united. A 30-month transitional period for completing,
the unification of the two political and economic systems was set.

A unity constitution was agreed upon in May 1990 and ratified by the populace in May
1991, which affirmed Yemen's commitment to free elections, a multiparty political
system, the right to own private property, equality under the law, and respect of basic
human rights.

In early 1993, the two former ruling parties, the GPC and the YSP, merged to create a
single political party with an overall majority in the new House of Representatives.

In January 1994, representatives of the main political parties signed a document of
pledge and accord in Amman, Jordan, that was designed to resolve the ongoing crisis.
Despite this, clashes intensified until civil war broke out in early May 1994.

Yemeni Uprising
The 2011 Yemeni protests followed the initial stages of the Arab Spring and began
simultaneously with the Egyptian Revolution. The protests were initially against
unemployment, economic conditions and corruption, as well as against the
government's proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen.

Houthi Insurgency
In northern Yemen, where a large Shia Zaydi population lives, Saleh's regime has for
decades alienated this community through discriminatory religious and political policies.
Saleh, with the help of some elements in Saudi Arabia, had promoted strongly anti-Zaydi
groups of Salafi Muslims in this region.

This ultimately dragged the Saudi Arabian military into the fray, leading to considerable
property destruction and a large refugee problem. In 2011, as Saleh's power waned in
the provinces as a result of the uprising against him, the Houthis took control over large
areas of the north, but still remain outside the political framework of government.

Links we can refer to:

Current Scenario
For Yemen, a fragile state facing an insurgency in its north, an independence
movement in its south, deep poverty and an alarming expansion of Al-Qaeda
within its borders, the Arab Spring, with its calls for sweeping political change,
added a new layer of complexity to the countrys long-running troubles.
Youth-led street protests for democracy were met with repression, and then
military clashes erupted between supporters and opponents of the
longstanding President, Ali Abdullah Saleh. The fighting brought more blood-
shed and destruction while distracting from the other security challenges in the
UN-mediated political agreement, for Yemens leaders to turn the recent
political turmoil into an opportunity to begin moving the country in the direction
of greater stability and peace
By early March 2012, a number of important steps forward had been taken: the
swearing in of an interim power-sharing government, the establishment of a
bipartisan committee to oversee immediate and long-term stabilization
measures including the standing down of rival militias. Interim President
Abdrabu Mansur Hadi
UN Benomar saw a movement still hungry for change but also open to
dialogue on the way forward in Yemen. The voices of the youth must be
heard, he said
Meanwhile, Benomar has also called on the international community to
upscale its level of support for Yemens political, economic, humanitarian and
security needs and has indicated that the UN system agencies, funds,
programmes would be retooling its assistance with an eye toward
supporting implementation of the transition plans.
The situation in Yemen remains highly fragile. Now is not the time for
complacency, the UN envoy said.
Charactersketch of colonel
Supporter and loyalist of Saleh
Mr Hadi's transitional government has since struggled to contain an Al Qaeda insurgency while trying to
remove Saleh loyalists from key positions.
But many Yemenis are frustrated with the slow pace of progress and the National Dialogue Conference
(NDC) launched in March aims to address their grievances.
Key points to note for Negotiation/ Communication
- Westerners use a logical approach, Arabs use personal and emotional appeal - Arabs dont like facts
- Arabs have superiority complex, religion strongly influences politics and behavior
- Conservative
- Importance to impress others with integrity
- Arabs take their time, arrive late
- Weak must be respected and protected
- Friend is a person who cannot refuse your request nor can you refuse their.
- Talk a lot about their Family and Connections Uncle is in the army, etc etc. If the Arab boasts
about his connections, then he is showing of his value of personal relationships.
- Do not appear detached and reluctant to accept favours
- Expect regular praise for their done, NO Criticism
- Lavish gifts are considered Bribes, you dont give gifts. Gifts are given by close friends and if
acquaintances give gifts then it is considered an insult
- Closer Personal Distance, maintain good eye contact
- Like Flattery
- Dont be shy, and if you talk less it wont be appreciated, louder volumes also are preferred
Stages of Negotiation
1. Exploration
- Objective of this Phase would be to quote the colonel and establish a sense of
friendship as Arabs expect sincerity and friend for them is a person who cannot refuse your
request nor can you refuse their
o Greetings light handshake, sometimes handshake might linger and lead to hand
o Indirect style of communication over direct. Avoiding confrontation and saving face is
o Polite and Respectful and Listen intently
o Closer Personal Distance, maintain good eye contact
2. Bidding
- Objective: Building relationships starting with small favours which constantly become big ones
o Dont quote a price from your side, wait for him to quote a price
o Lavish gifts are considered Bribes, you dont give gifts. Gifts are given by close friends
and if acquaintances give gifts then it is considered an insult
o Importance to impress others with integrity
3. Bargaining
Redundant stage because Yemenis dont like Bargaining.
4. Settling
Dont close the connection established as if it is a formal business deal, Leave the door
open for future business