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Master of Arts in Communication : Corporate Communication Studies

Course : Advanced Communication Theory (1408ACT04)
Session Topic : Integrasi Teori & Penelitian
Course: Advanced Communication Theory
By Dr. Rino Boer Ph.D
LSPR eLearning Program
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Hal 3
Part 1 Panduan
Part 2 Scope of Communication Field
Part 3 Eksplikasi
Part 4 Rumusan Masalah
Part1 : Panduan
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Pengenalan tentang berbagai kajian komunikasi akan
sangat membantu dalam penentuan topik penelitian.
Pilihan topik disesuaikan dengan minat dan hal2x yang
dekat dengan lingkungan Anda sehari-hari baik di
pekerjaan maupun dalam kehidupan sosial.
Pengenalan dan selanjutnya pemahaman tentang kajian
komunikasi akan sangat membantu dalam meng-
integrasikan teori/konsep ke dalam penelitian yang akan
Panduan : Umum
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Pengenalan mendasar terhadap 19 scope of
communication fields.
Kesalahan-kesalahan yang harus dihindari dalam
pembuatan rumusan masalah di BAB I.
Panduan : Materi For Today !
Part2 : Scope of Communication Field
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Inquiry into the communication associated with
contemporary popular culture.
Acosta-Alzuru & Kreshel (2002):
Interview mothers and daughters about the American girl
marketing of a line of dolls, accessories and books,
inquiring about an identity as an American girl.
Communication: Popular
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Communication : American Girl
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Public Communication : Inquiry into the communication
between speakers and their audiences in public speaking
Behnke & Sawyer (2001): Examined the role of
physiological arousal in speech anxiety.
Public Relations: Inquiry into the communication between
organization and specified public.
Boyd (2001): Used Boeings corporate rhetoric as a case
study to examined how the rhetorical boundary between
public and private spheres is fuzzy.
Communication : Public
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Communication : Public > Glossophobia
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Communication : PR professional
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Communication Policy & Law: Inquiry to the role of lawmaking and
policy making relevant to various communication systems.
Wackwitz (2002):
Engaged in critical textual analysis of the majority opinion of
Supreme Court Justice
Findings : Identified underlying assumptions about the potential
influence of mass media in the interpretation of freedom speech.
Communication & Technology : Inquiry into the communication
process in existing or emerging new technologies.
Wright (2002):
Conducted an online survey to studies the motive of participants
in 20 different online support groups.
Finding: A desire to pass the time correlated with daily time
spent online with the support group.
Communication : Policy, Law & Technology
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statement ini?
Communication : Human Interaction & Technology
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Inquiry into the structure and functions of media systems in
various nations.
Tanner (2001):
Conducted a content analysis of an online forum devoted
to discussion of the arrest of the Chilean ex-dictator,
Augusto Pinochet.
Argued that this forum functioned as a public space to
shape public opinion and collective memories.
Communication : Comparative Media Systems
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Communication : Political Voice
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Communication : Cross-Cultural & Development
Cross-Cultural Communication : Inquiry into communication
practises of people of different nation cultures.
Oetzel et al. (2001): Examined face and facework during
conflicts across four national cultures: China, Germany,
Japan and United States.
Development Communication :Inquiry into communication in
national development.
Papa et al (2000): Employed several methods to study
how the education content of the radio soap opera
achieved social change in village in India.
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Communication : Family
Inquiry into communication between family members.
Miller & Lee (2001): Studied how parents communication
disappointment to sons and daughter.
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Communication : Group
Inquiry into communication between member of a task
group or work teams.
Pavvit & Johnson (2002):
Examined the extent to which group discussion feature
spiraling returning to proposal discussed earlier in the
course of the meeting.
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Communication : Group Think theory !
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Communication : Health & Instructional
Health Communication : Inquiry into communication
messages focused on health promotion and health care.
Morgan & Miller (2002):Examined factors relevant to
successful communication campaigns to encourage the
public to participate in organ donation (giving the gift of
Instructional Communication: Inquiry into the communication
process associated with learning contexts.
Braun (2001):Presented a case study about service
learning in an organizational communication course.
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Communication : Inter & Intra personal
Inter-personal Communication : Inquiry into communication
between people in everyday social & personal relationship, including
acquaintances, friends, romantic and marital partners.
Caughlin (2002): Examined relationship between a demand-
withdraw pattern of communication between spouses and their
marital satisfaction.
Intra-personal Communication : Inquiry into cognitive processes
related to production or interpretation of behavior.
Smith & Ellis (2001):
Examined peoples reports of memorable messages from others
that came to mind when self-assessing their own actions.
Example: a message to do your best after achieving a major
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Communication : Language & Social Interactions, Legal
Language and Social Interactions: Inquiry into the particulars of
how talk is enacted in specific situations or cultural groups.
Montana in Carbaughs (1999) ethnographic studies : Learn
about the cultural meaning of listening among Blackfeet people.
Legal Communication: Inquiry into communication in legal contexts.
Reinard & Arsenault (2000):
Conducted an experiment on voirdire, the questioning of
potential jurors to determine their fitness to serve on a given jury.
Findings : Certain kinds of questions affected juror's perceptions
on defendant guilty.
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Communication : Mass
Inquiry into the mediated communication process, including
the electronic, cinematic, and print media.
Berger (2001):
Examined how news media uses quantitative depictions of
trends in ways calculated to increase their drama;
Thereby making things seem worse than they are.
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Communication : Mass > Human Rights Activist mati ditembak tahun 1965!
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Communication : Organizational
Inquiry into the communicative messages between
organizational members.
Kirby & Krone (2002):
Conducted a qualitative study of how organizational
members talk about various work-family benefits affected
the use of such benefits.
Findings : When co-worker complaint about having to
work harder to cover for using family leave, they could
affect fellow workers decision against use of those
initiatives in the future.
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Communication : Political
Inquiry into the communication associated with politics and
publics argument.
Benoit & Hansen (2001):
Findings : questions journalist ask of presidential
candidates during televised debates do not reflect the
issues of interest to voters as represented in issue-based
public opinion polls.
Part3 : Eksplikasi
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Melakukan Kajian Mendalam terhadap konsep-konsep
pokok yang akan digunakan di dalam thesis; yang
kemudian akan menghubungkan antara BAB 1 & 2.
Tahapan Pembuatan BAB I:
Tentukan interest awal - research topics.
Eksplikasi : Lakukan Literature Review
Buat rumusan masalah research problem.
Integrasi antara teori dan rancangan penelitian
komunikasi dilakukan melalui proses EKSPLIKASI
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Eksplikasi (cont.)
Penjelasan yang detail mengenai konsep-konsep pokok
yang rencananya akan digunakan di dalam thesis.
Menyangkut: Kronologis penggunaan konsep dari awal
hingga sekarang dan sesuai dengan konteks
When this is done, the resulting interpretation, the
interpretive discourse will be organized chronologically
rather than logically !
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Dasar untuk melakukan eksplikasi : Literature Review
Comprehensive survey of what researchers have already
done in your topic area.
Main tools:
Scholarly journal (SAGE, WILEY etc.)
Books (ebooks or hardcopy)
Others: Google scholars etc.
Part4 : Rumusan Masalah
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum
Kesalahan umum dalam membuat rumusan
> Kesalahan01: Rumusan masalah hanya mengacu pada kasus
permasalahan, tanpa suatu konsepsi permasalahan yg jelas.
Bagaimana pengaruh iklan politik Partai Golkar dalam
membentuk sikap yang positif Mahasiswa LSPR terhadap partai
tersebut ?
Analisis isi acara talk shows di tiga televisi swasta
Menjelaskan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi mahasiswa
menggunakan internet.
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Tidak terkesan seperti penelitian pesanan atau lebih mengutamakan
manfaat praktis sehingga akan kehilangan roh sebagai tulisan
Pengaruh iklan Marlboro terhadap mahasiswa perokok di LSPR.
Agar konsepnya terlihat, dilakukan dengan fokus pada salah
satu dimensi konseptual tentang iklan Marlboro tersebut.
Misalnya menjadi: efektivitas penggunaan celebrity endorsement
dalam iklan: kasus iklan Marlboro.
Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
> Kesalahan02: Permasalahan kurang merujuk pada teori/
penelitian terdahulu yang terkait.
Kontroversi antar teori atau temuan studi terdahulu,
Masalah konseptual dan teoritik yang belum terjawab,
Faktor yang luput dijelaskan/diperinci/diperhitungkan oleh suatu
teori atau studi terkait.
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
> Kesalahan03: Identifikasi masalah hanya menunjuk pada
sekumpulan masalah yang menjadi indikator dari suatu konsep
Apakah mahasiswa mengetahui mekanisme penularan HIV/AIDS?
Bagaimana penerimaan mahasiswa terhadap penderita
Apakah mahasiswa menilai penderita HIV sebagai korban dari
kesalahan perilaku seks mereka sendiri?
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
pengetahuan, sikap,
dan tingkah-laku
mahasiswa terhadap
penderita HIV
sebagai korban
dari kesalahan
perilaku seks
mereka sendiri?
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
> Kesalahan04: Kekaburan antara manfaat dengan tujuan
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kinerja
wartawan dalam memberitakan konflik-konflik social
Seharusnya :
Tujuan penelitian sebenarnya adalah untuk mendapat gambaran
objektif pemberitaan mengenai konflik social.
Setelah itu, berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat diajukan sejumlah
rekomendasi untuk meningkatkan kemampuan wartawan dalam
membuat berita yang objektif.
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Rumusan Masalah: Kesalahan Umum (cont.)
> Kesalahan05: Masalah kurang researchable.
Bagaimana pengaruh tayangan kekerasan di TV terhadap
masa depan tingkah laku anak ?
Sejauh mana orang tua memahami permasalahan anak-
anak remaja mereka?
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Course : Advanced Communication Theory (1408ACT04)