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REINFORCED CONCRETE COUNCIL


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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.


Checked
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

Page

30-Oct-2014
Revision

chg

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

IDEALISED STRUCTURE and FORCE DIAGRAMS

101
Job No

R68

DESIGN STATUS:

NOT VALID

WARNING :
Passive pressure should
only be considered if it
can be guaranteed that
there will be no future
excavation in front of
the wall.

DIMENSIONS (mm)
H=
4000
B=
3000
Hw =
1500
BI =
1200
Hp =
300
BN =
500
Hn =
1000
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
N/mm
gm =
fcu =
35
N/mm
gm =
fy =
460
cover to tension steel =
Max allowable design surface crack width (W) =
Concrete density =
SOIL PROPERTIES
Design angle of int'l friction of retained mat'l () =
Design cohesion of retained mat'l (C ) =
Density of retained mat'l (q ) =
Submerged Density of retained mat'l (qs ) =
Design angle of int'l friction of base mat'l (b) =
Design cohesion of base material (Cb ) =
Density of base material (qb ) =
Allowable gross ground bearing pressure (GBP) =
LOADINGS

Surcharge load -- live (SQK) =


Surcharge load -- dead (SGK) =
Line load -- live (LQK) =
Line load -- dead (LGK) =
Distance of line load from wall (X) =

LATERAL FORCES (unfactored)

PE =
PS(GK) =
PS(QK) =
PL(GK) =
PL(QK) =
PW =
Total
PP =

Ka =
Kp =
Kpc =
Kac =

Tw =
Tb =
TN =

500
1000
500

1.5
1.05
50
0.3
24

concrete
steel
mm
mm
kN/m

30
0
20
5.00
20
10
10
200

degree
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m
degree
kN/m
kN/m
kN/m

(0.2 or 0.3
mm only)

Wall Geometry

10
10
10.3
43
0
0.33
2.04
2.86
1.15

(Only granular backfil considered, "C" = zero)


[default=2/3*q (only apply when Hw
13.33
>0) ] =
ASSUMPTIONS

a) Wall friction is zero


b) Minimum active earth pressure = 0.25qH
c) Granular backfill
d)Does not include check of rotational slide/slope failure
kN/m
e)Does not include effect of seepage of ground
water beneath the wall.
f)Does not include deflection check of wall due to
kN/m
kN/m
lateral earth pressures
mm
h) Design not intended for walls over 3.0 m high
i) Does not include check for temp. or shrinkage effects
[ default ka = (1-SIN )/(1+SIN )0.33
]
=
[ default kp = (1+SIN b)/(1-SIN b)
2.04] =
[ default kpc = 2kp0.5 ] =
2.86
[ 2ka0.5 ]

Force

Lever arm

Moment about TOE

gf

Fult

Mult

(kN)
47.71
13.33
13.33
0.00
0.00

(m)
LE = 1.432
LS = 2.00
LS = 2.00
LL = 4.00
LL = 4.00

(kNm)
68.30
26.67
26.67
0.00
0.00

1.40
1.40
1.60
1.40
1.60

(kN)
66.79
18.67
21.33
0.00
0.00

(kNm)
95.62
37.33
42.67
0.00
0.00

5.63

1.40

11.25

LW = 0.50

85.62

-9.49

127.26

(LP-HN) = -0.85

8.11

1.00

15.75

7.88

122.54

183.49

-9.49

8.11

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Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

chg

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

EXTERNAL STABILITY
OVERTURNING about TOE
(using overall factor of safety instead of partial safety factor)
Overturning
Moments

Lateral FORCE (kN)

PE =
PS(GK) =
PS(QK) =
PL(GK) =
PL(QK) =
PW =
P =
Pp =

47.71
13.33
13.33
0.00
0.00
11.25

Lever arm (m)

LE =
LS =
LS =
LL =
LL =
LW =

Moment (kNm)

1.33
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
0.50

63.61
26.67
26.67
0.00
0.00
5.63

102
Job No

R68

STABILITY CHECKS :

FAILURE

F.O.S = 1.50
LOADING OPTION
(select critical load combination)
EARTH
PS(GK)
Warning:
PS(QK)
PL(GK)

PL(QK)
PW

85.62

-9.49

(LP-HN) = -0.85

8.11
Mo = 130.68

Restoring
Moments

Vertical FORCE (kN)

Wall =
Base =
Nib =
Earth =
Water =
Surcharge =
Line load =
V =

Lever arm (m)

Moment (kNm)

1.45
1.50
0.75
2.35
2.35
2.35
1.70

48.58
63.00
5.25
160.39
15.28
61.10
90.61
Mr = 444.20

33.50
42.00
7.00
68.25
6.50
26.00
53.30
236.55

Warning:
ALLOW BUOYANCY OF BASE

Factor of Safety, Mr / Mo =
SLIDING

(using overall factor of safety instead of partial safety factor)


Sum of LATERAL FORCES, P =

85.62

3.40

> 1.50

F.O.S =

1.50

OK

kN
Red'n factor for passive force = 1.00

PASSIVE FORCE, Pp x Reduction factor (1) =


-9.49 kN
BASE FRICTION ( V TANb + B Cb ) = -116.10 kN
Sum of FORCES RESISTING SLIDING, Pr = -125.58 kN

Factor of Safety, Pr / P =

1.47

< 1.50

FAIL

Taking moments about centre of base (anticlockwise "+") :


GROUND BEARING FAILURE
Vertical FORCES (kN) Lever arm (m)

Wall =
Base =
Nib =
Earth =
Water =
Surcharge=
Line load =
V =

36.00
72.00
12.00
68.25
6.50
26.00
53.30
274.05

0.05
0.00
0.75
-0.85
-0.85
-0.85
-0.20

BEARING PRESSURE (KN/m)

Moment (kNm)

0.00
0

1.80
0.00
9.00
-58.01
-5.53
-22.10
-10.66
Mv = -85.50

3.00

50

100

Moment due to LATERAL FORCES, Mo =

130.68

kNm

Resultant Moment, M = Mv + Mo =

45.18

kNm

Eccentricity from base centre, M / V =


Therefore, MAXIMUM Gross Bearing Pressure (GRP) =

0.19
109

m
kN/m

150

< 200

OK

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

chg

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

R68

BASE - unloaded side ( per metre length )


gf =
V ult =
M ult =

1.44
119.77
109.13

BS8110

(default = ult mt / non-factored mt.1.44


)=
kN
kNm
( '+' TENSION AT BOTTOM FACE)
mm2
mm
mm
mm2

d=
z=
As' =
Mres =

942
894.90
0
525.51

mm
mm
mm2
kNm

> 109.13

OK

100 As/bd =
vc =
Vres =

0.14%
0.37
347.70

N/mm2
kN

> 119.77

OK

f=

centres =
Asprov =
MOMENT of RESISTANCE :

SHEAR RESISTANCE:

reference

1300
16
150
1340

Min. As =

BOTTOM REINFORCEMENT :

104
Job No

Table 3.25

< 766
> 1300

OK
OK

3.12.11.2.7(b)

3.4.4.4

Table 3.8
3.5.5.2

CHECK CRACK WIDTH TO BS8110/BS8007


(Temperature
:
and shrinkage effects not included)

X=
Acr =

175.85
86.81

em = -0.00131

mm
mm

W=

BS8007

-0.31 mm
NO CRACKING

< 0.30

OK

App. B.2

BASE - loaded side ( per metre length )


V ult =
M ult =

113.83
-21.98

kN
kNm

(TENSION - TOP FACE)


1300
16
150
1340

mm2
mm
mm
mm2

d=
z=
As' =
Mres =

942
894.90
0
525.51

mm
mm
mm2
kNm

> -21.98

OK

100 As/bd =
vc =
Vres =

0.14%
0.37
347.70

N/mm2
kN

> 113.83

OK

Min. As =
f=
centres =
Asprov =

TOP REINFORCEMENT :

MOMENT RESISTANCE :

SHEAR RESISTANCE:

Table 3.25

< 766
> 1300

OK
OK

3.12.11.2.7(b)

3.4.4.4

Table 3.8
3.5.5.2

CHECK CRACK WIDTH to BS8100/ BS8007


(Temperature
:
and shrinkage effects not included)

X=
Acr =

175.85
86.81

em = -0.00172

mm
mm

W=

-0.41

BS8007

mm

< 0.30

OK

REINFORCEMENT SUMMARY for BASE

TOP (DESIGN)
BOTTOM (DESIGN)
TRANSVERSE

Type

Centers

As

Min. As

T
T
T

mm
16
16
12

mm
150
150
200

mm2
1340
1340
565

mm2
1300
1300
1300

OK
OK
As < 1300

App. B.2

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RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986


Checked etc. Revision
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

chg

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

Job No

R68

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF REINFORCEMENT


No.

Type

Dia

Length

Unit Wt

Weight

WALL

VERTICAL - External face


VERTICAL - Internal face
TRANSVERSE (Ext.& Int.)

7
7
42

T
T
T

12
20
12

3096
3160
1000

0.888
2.466
0.888

19.24
54.55
37.29

BASE

TOP (MAIN)
BOTTOM (MAIN)
TRANSVERSE ( T & B )
WALL STARTERS (Ext.)
WALL STARTERS (Int.)

7
7
32
7
7

T
T
T
T
T

16
16
12
12
20

3128
3128
1000
2055
2375

1.578
1.578
0.888
0.888
2.466

34.56
34.56
28.41
12.77
41.00

NIB

(assume same reinforcement as wall)


INTERNAL FACE (MAIN)
7
EXTERNAL FACE (MAIN)
7
TRANSVERSE (EXT.+ INT.) 14

T
T
T

12
20
12

1596
1660
1000

0.888
2.466
0.888

9.92
28.66
12.43

SUMMARY

Approx total reinforcement per metre length of wall (kg)

105

313.4

Project
Location

Diagrams

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
DATA FOR DIAGRAMS I
Grid line 1
RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.sheet 1 of 2
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

Made by rc

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

Job No R68
Date 30-Oct-14

DESIGN STATUS: NOT VALID

IF(ABS(ECCY)>B/1000/2,"BEARING FAIL",IF(ABS(ECCY)>(B/1000)/6,(2*VL)/(3*((B/1000)/2-ABS(ECCY))),(VL/(B/1000)*(1+(6*ABS(ECCY))/(B/1000)))))

IF(ECCY>(B/1000)/6,IF(XX>(B/1000/2-ECCY)*3,0,(((B/1000/2-ECCY)*3-XX)/((B/1000/2-ECCY)*3))*BP),((VL/(B/1000)*(1-(6*ECCY)/(B/1000))))+(B/1000-XX)/(B/1000)*(BP-(VL/(B/1000)*(1(6*ECCY)/(B/1000)))))
3

KN/M^2

1 88.89
0 108.97
3
BEARING PRESSURE
DIAGRAM
0.3 102.95
3
0.6 96.92
3
M
0.9 90.90
3
0
5
1.2 84.87
3
0.00
1.5 78.85
3
50.00
1.8 72.83
3
2.1 66.80
3
100.00
2.4 60.78
3
150.00
2.7 54.75
3
3 48.73
3
3 0.00
0
IF(ECCY<0,B/1000-B/1000/50*B24,B/1000/50*B24)
88.89
0 0.00 108.971
BEARING PRESSURE DIAGRAM
1 0.06 107.766
2 0.12 106.561
M
3 0.18 105.356
4 0.24 104.151
0.00
3.00
0
5 0.30 102.947
6 0.36 101.742
50
7 0.42 100.537
8 0.48 99.332
9 0.54 98.127
100
10 0.60 96.922
11 0.66 95.718
150
12 0.72 94.513
13 0.78 93.308
14 0.84 92.103
15 0.90 90.898
16 0.96 89.693
88.89
17 1.02 88.489
BP
0
108.97
18 1.08 87.284
BPE
1.2
84.874
19 1.14 86.079
BPI
1.7
74.834
20 1.20 84.874
BPZ
3
48.729
21 1.26 83.669
22 1.32 82.464
23 1.38 81.260
24 1.44 80.055
25 1.50 78.850
26 1.56 77.645
27 1.62 76.440
28 1.68 75.236
29 1.74 74.031
30 1.80 72.826
31 1.86 71.621
32 1.92 70.416
33 1.98 69.211
34 2.04 68.007
35 2.10 66.802
36 2.16 65.597
37 2.22 64.392
38 2.28 63.187
39 2.34 61.982
40 2.40 60.778
41 2.46 59.573
42 2.52 58.368
43 2.58 57.163
44 2.64 55.958
45 2.70 54.753
46 2.76 53.549
47 2.82 52.344
48 2.88 51.139
49 2.94 49.934
50 3.00 48.729
KN/M^2

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Page 5

108.971
107.766
106.561
105.356
104.151
102.947
101.742
100.537
99.332
98.127
96.922
95.718
94.513
93.308
92.103
90.898
89.693
88.489
87.284
86.079
84.874
83.669
82.464
81.260
80.055
78.850
77.645
76.440
75.236
74.031
72.826
71.621
70.416
69.211
68.007
66.802
65.597
64.392
63.187
61.982
60.778
59.573
58.368
57.163
55.958
54.753
53.549
52.344
51.139
49.934
48.729

0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

6.538
6.466
6.394
6.321
6.249
6.177
6.105
6.032
5.960
5.888
5.815
5.743
5.671
5.598
5.526
5.454
5.382
5.309
5.237
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
######

9.284
8.794
8.312
7.839
7.374
6.918
6.471
6.032
5.602
5.181
4.769
4.365
3.970
3.583
3.205
2.836
2.476
2.124
1.781
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
######

0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

6.538
6.466
6.394
6.321
6.249
6.177
6.105
6.032
5.960
5.888
5.815
5.743
5.671
5.598
5.526
5.454
5.382
5.309
5.237
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
######

0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

6.538
6.466
6.394
6.321
6.249
6.177
6.105
6.032
5.960
5.888
5.815
5.743
5.671
5.598
5.526
5.454
5.382
5.309
5.237
5.165
5.092
5.020
4.948
4.876
4.803
4.731
4.659
4.586
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
######

Diagrams

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
DATA FOR DIAGRAMS II
Grid line 1
RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.sheet 1 of 2
Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

MTE= 29.37
MTLG= 0.00
MTLQ= 0.00
MTSG=
15
MTSQ= 15.00
MTW= 0.21

5000

3000

MOMENT
20
40 DIAGRAM
60
80

100

0.60

WALL (M)

1.20

1.80

2.40

3.00

WALL GEOMETRY
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
-1000
-2000
4000

0
1000
1000
4000
4000
1000
1000
0
0
-1000
-1000
0
0

ULT. MT (KNM)

0.00

3000

0
0
1200
1200
1700
1700
3000
3000
1000
1000
500
500
0

0.00
0.06
0.12
0.18
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.42
0.48
0.54
0.60
0.66
0.72
0.78
0.84
0.90
0.96
1.02
1.08
1.14
1.20
1.26
1.32
1.38
1.44
1.50
1.56
1.62
1.68
1.74
1.80
1.86
1.92
1.98
2.04
2.10
2.16
2.22
2.28
2.34
2.40
2.46
2.52
2.58
2.64
2.70
2.76
2.82
2.88
2.94
3.00

2000

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

UTM= 86.42
86.42
0.00
0
0.06
0.0264
0.12
0.1056
0.18
0.2376
0.24
0.4224
0.30
0.66
0.36
0.9504
0.42
1.2936
0.48
1.6896
0.54
2.1384
0.60
2.64
0.66
3.1944
0.72
3.8016
0.78
4.4616
0.84
5.1744
0.90
5.94
0.96
6.7584
1.02
7.6296
1.08
8.5536
1.14
9.5304
1.20
10.56
1.26
11.642
1.32
12.778
1.38
13.966
1.44
15.206
1.50
16.5
1.56
18.073
1.62
19.735
1.68
21.488
1.74
23.333
1.80
25.272
1.86
27.308
1.92
29.442
1.98
31.677
2.04
34.014
2.10
36.456
2.16
39.004
2.22
41.661
2.28
44.429
2.34
47.309
2.40
50.304
2.46
53.415
2.52
56.644
2.58
59.978
2.64
63.416
2.70
66.96
2.76
70.616
2.82
74.386
2.88
78.274
2.94
82.283
3.00
86.416

YY= 3

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

1000

Location

WALL (mm)

Project

BASE ( mm)

Page 6

Made by rc

Job No R68
Date 30-Oct-14

Project
Location

Spreadsheets to BS 8110etc
Grid line 1

CRACK WIDTH CALCULATIONS

RETAINING WALL design to BS 8110:1997, BS 8002:1994. BS 8004:1986 etc.


Made

Originated from 'RCC62.xls' v2.3

WALL
MR=
As/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

MR=
AsBB/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

15.06
MIN SPACING=
0.005
MSBB=
138.01
MSBT=
3.752E+09
0.0004
0.0004
0.0005179
86.046864
-0.02
-0.0001
15.06
0.0014
175.85
1.366E+10
0.0003
0.0003
0.0016535
86.810337
-0.31
-0.0013

MR=
AsBB/bd=
X=
Ic=
STS=
ST1=
ST2=
Acr=
W=

em=

1999-2002 BCA for RCC

650
766
766

ASreq = 484.4
ASBBreq =0.01
ASBTreq =0.01

15.06
0.0014
175.85
1.366E+10
-0.0001
-0.0001
0.0016535
86.810337
-0.4119
-0.0017

Page 7

by rc

Job No R68
Date 30-Oct-14

fs = 70.926Asprov%= 0.476
fs = 0.0023Asprov%= 0.1423
fs = 0.0023Asprov%= 0.1423

Notes

Disclaimer
All advice or information from the British Cement Association and/or Reinforced Concrete
Council is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents
and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence)
for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by the BCA, RCC or their
subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Users should note that all BCA software and
publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they
are in possession of the latest version.
Status of spreadsheet
This spreadsheet is shareware. It may be distributed freely, but
Public release version. may not be used for commercial purposes until the user has

registered with the RCC.

Revision history RCC62 Retaining Wall.xls

Date

Version

Action

Names of sides of base on DESIGN sheet changed from


"outside" and " inside" to "unloaded" and "loaded".
########RCC62 v2.2
Correction when distance X to line load 0.

21-Oct-04RCC62 v2.3

Size (kB)
580
565

########RCC62 v2.1

DETR logo replaced by DTI.

563

11-Oct-02RCC62 v2.0

Version 2 enhancements

583

########RCC62 v1.4
########RCC62 v1.3

Data! Main graphic changed to jpeg


Crack width calculation to outer base amended
Buoyance option + notes added. Passive pressure reduction
15-Apr-01RCC62 v1.2
factor rectified
Crack width w for top of inner base amended. Notes re crack
########RCC62 v1.1
widths and cracking added in DATA!
First public release.
6-Aug-99RCC62 v1.0
Includes b version comments

Page 8

365
365
398
398
398

Notes

Page 9

Notes

Size (kB)

Page 10

Notes

Page 11

Notes

Page 12