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Rendez-vous Phase of the Mars Sample Return

Mission

Imen GUEDDI

LARATSI Lab

National Engineering School of Monastir

University of Monastir

Monastir Ibn El Jazzar 5019, Tunisia

Email: imen.gueddi@gmail.com

Othman NASRI

SAGE Lab

National Engineering School of Sousse

University of Sousse

BP 264 Sousse Erriadh 4023, Tunisia

Email: othman.nasri@eniso.rnu.tn

Kamel BENOTHMAN

LARATSI Lab

National Engineering School of Monastir

University of Monastir

Monastir Ibn El Jazzar 5019, Tunisia

kamelbenothman@yahoo.fr

Philippe DAGUE

LRI Lab

University of Paris-Sud 11

CNRS & INRIA Saclay

Ile de France

Bt 650, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France

philippe.dague@lri.fr

AbstractThis paper presents a fault diagnosis system of

the chaser thrusters used during the rendez-vous phase of the

Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The Vertices Principal

Component Analysis (VPCA) has been adopted as an extension

method of the classical principal component analysis for interval

valued data. The VPCA has been used to estimate the relation-

ships between the various variables of the process. To ensure

the feasibility of the proposed FDI approach, a set of interval

valued data provided by the industrial high-delity simulator

of the MSR and representing the opening rates of the spacecraft

thrusters has been considered. The test results demonstrate that

the fault detection and isolation are successfully accomplished.

I. INTRODUCTION

In many industries, the good supervision and the au-

tonomous control are required for increasing their performance

specially toward increasing complexity and automation.

Accordingly, achieving safe and reliable operation for many

complex systems now requires fast and accurate methods for

detecting and diagnosing faults on the basis of process mea-

surements. This is particularly desired for aerospace systems.

Actually, aerospace is considered as the most critical area

of applications. Thus, autonomous spacecrafts have become a

key technology for increasing their survival capability. Various

researchers have developed diagnosis systems to detect and

isolate faults that can appear in a spacecraft [1], [2], [3], [4].

In fact, these diagnosis systems are mostly based on the

redundancy concept; hardware and analytical redundancy. The

rst one can be seen as a very expensive and a complex

approach. while the second one can be based, either, on a

mathematical model or on a model-free method that usually

does not require a detailed knowledge of the system. [5], [6],

[7]. Since nding the appropriate mathematical model for some

real complex system can be difcult or sometimes impossible.

The solution is, then, to use the analytical redundancy based

on a model-free method like the Principal Component Analysis

(PCA).

The (PCA) approach has been, recently, applied success-

fully in the monitoring and the diagnosis of many complex

systems [8], [9], [10], [11]. In fact, this approach includes a

nominal PCA model for normal operation conditions and a

PCA model for each faulty situation. A simple comparison

between the two models allows the generation of the residual

signals. The signal that does not exceed its threshold can

identify faults and the actual system situation.

The only remaining problem is that the standard diagnosis

methods have been mainly developed for the analysis of single

valued variables. However, in real life this type of data is the

result of a simplication that may, in many situations, cause

severe loss of information.

Vertices Principal Component Analysis (V PCA), and

Centers Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) are consid-

ered as the most common approaches that generalize Principal

Component Analysis (PCA) to interval valued data [12], [13],

[14].

In this paper, we will present a diagnosis approach for

spacecrafts thrusters based on the VPCA technique. In fact,

this same problem has been treated using the classical principal

component analysis method [4]. Since this approach is based

on single valued data witch eliminate to take into consideration

any possible uncertainty, as a solution, we have chosen to apply

the VPCA method as an extension of the classical PCA to

intervals valued data.

The paper is organized as follows. In section II, the VPCA

technique is presented. In section III, the fault detection and

isolation method based on the VPCA approach is introduced.

The Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is described in

section IV, with the results of thrusters fault detection and

isolation with the V PCA method. Conclusions and future

developments are presented in the last section.

II. VERTICES PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS:

VPCA

The Vertices Principal Component Analysis (V PCA) was

rst proposed by Chouakria. [14]. This approach consists in

performing a classical PCA on the vertices matrix.

Considering the interval data matrix X

I

,

X

I

= [X

1

, X

2

, . . . , X

N

]

T

R

(Nm)

with N observation

units characterized by m interval valued variables recorded on

the system under normal operation.

At an instant time k,

X

k

= ([x

1

(k), x

1

(k)], . . . , [x

m

(k), x

m

(k)])

T

(1)

with k = 1, . . . , N.

Each given observation, described with m interval valued

variables, can be represented as a hyperrectangle in R

m

with

2

m

vertices. For N observation the total number of vertices is

then N 2

m

.

The rst step of this method is to replace the interval valued

matrix X

I

(represented by eqution 2) by a single valued one

X

H

(represented by equation 3) with N 2

m

rows and m

columns.

X

I

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

x

1

(1), x

1

(1)

_

_

x

m

(1), x

m

(1)

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

_

x

1

(N), x

1

(N)

_

_

x

m

(N), x

m

(N)

_

_

_

_

_

_

(2)

X

H

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

x

1

(1) x

m

(1)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

1

(1) x

m

(1)

_

_

.

.

.

_

_

x

1

(N) x

m

(N)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x

1

(N) x

m

(N)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

(3)

Considering an example with 2 interval valued variables

and N observations. The interval data is given by:

X

I

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

x

1

(1), x

1

(k)

_ _

x

2

(1), x

2

(1)

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

_

x

1

(N), x

1

(N)

_ _

x

2

(N), x

2

(N)

_

_

_

_

_

_

:

:

N

N

N N

Fig. 1. Hypercube representation in a 2-dimensional space

Considering one observation, the corresponding space rep-

resentation is given by the rectangle in gure 1.

In an n-dimensional space, an hypercube can be described

with a matrix of 2

n

rows and n columns where the i

th

row

corresponds to the coordinates of the i

th

vertex.

According to this example, the interval data can be de-

scribed as:

X

H

=

_

_

_

_

_

x

1

x

2

x

1

x

2

x

1

x

2

x

1

x

2

_

_

_

_

_

Once the interval valued data matrix is transformed into a

single valued one, it is possible to apply the standard PCA.

A. The standard PCA

The PCA is considered as a very effective statistical

method in extracting information from the measured data [15],

[16]. Considering the data matrix X,

X = [x(1), x(2), . . . , x(N)]

T

R

(Nm)

gathering N sam-

ples of m observed variables recorded on the system under

normal operation.

At an instant time k,

x(k) = [x

1

(k), x

2

(k), . . . , x

m

(k)]

T

(4)

with k = 1, . . . , N.

The linear transformation of the data matrix X into a new

set of variables T is then given by:

T = XP and X = PT

T

(5)

where: T = [t

1

, t

2

, . . . , t

m

] R

(Nm)

and P =

[p

1

, p

1

, . . . , p

m

] R

(mm)

is the matrix of the eigenvectors

(called also principal vectors) associated with the eigenvalues

of the covariance matrix :

=

1

N

X

T

X (6)

The right choice of the number of principal components to

retain is a very important step in the process of developing a

PCA model. Several methods are to be adopted to determine

the required number (l) of principal components [17].

In this paper, two methods were exploited. The rst one

is based on minimizing the Variance of the Reconstruction

Error (V RE) [18]. The second one is based on maximizing

the Cumulative Percent of Variance (CPV ) [17]. In fact the

CPV method measures the percent variance captured by the

rst l principal components. A balance between retaining as

few principal components as possible and providing as much

of variance as possible is the key to an appropriate choice of

l.

Once l is xed, the number of used data is then reduced

to the rst l (l < m) variables which are the most signicant

components. The data and the two matrices T and P can be

partitioned into a principal part and a residual one:

T = [

T

[Nl]

T

[N(ml)]

] (7)

P = [

P

[ml]

P

[m(ml)]

] (8)

The data matrix can be partitioned as follows:

X =

P

T

T

+

P

T

T

=

X +

X (9)

where

X is the principal part of the data composed of the

rst l eigenvectors, while

X is the residual part of the data

composed of the remaining components.

X =

CX ;

X =

CX (10)

with

C =

P

P

T

and

C =

P

P

T

= (I

m

C), which are the

two vectors that form the PCA model.

B. The VPCA algorithm

Considering X

I

(see equation 2) the interval valued data

matrix.

1. For each sample k, describe for each X

k

the corresponding

single valued matrix X

H

k

composed of 2

m

rows and

m columns which elements are the coordinates of the

associated hypercubes vertices.

2. Construct the single valued matrix X

H

(see equation 3)

composed of N 2

m

rows and m columns and gathering

the N X

H

k

matrices.

3. Apply the standard PCA on X

H

(see equation 3). Let

T

1

, , T

l

(l m) be the l rst single valued principal

components (PC

S

).

4. Calculate the interval valued principal components (PC

I

)

T

I

1

, , T

I

l

. Let R

X

k

be the number of rows in X

H

associated with the k

th

observation X

k

and t

ij

, i R

X

k

be

the j

th

PC

S

associated with X

k

corresponding to the j

th

row of X

H

. The PC

I

j

corresponding to the k

th

observation

can be then represented by equation 11:

t

I

X

kj

=

_

t

kj

, t

kj

(11)

where:

t

kj

= min

iR

X

k

(t

ij

)

t

kj

= max

iR

X

k

(t

ij

)

Algorithm 1 summarizes the different steps of the VPCA

method. X

I

denotes the interval valued data matrix, m the

number of variables, N the number of observations, l the

retained number of principal components, PCs

S

and PCs

I

represent, respectively, the single and the interval valued

principal components.

Algorithm 1: VPCA generalized algorithm

Inputs : X

I

, m, N.

Outputs: l, PCs

S

, PCs

I

.

1 for (k = 1 to N) do

2 Calculate X

H

k

.

3 end

4 Reconstruct X

H

.

5 Apply PCA(X

H

).

6 Determine l.

7 Calculate PCs

S

.

8 Calculate PCs

I

.

III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS USING VPCA

A. Fault detection

Once the principal components are calculated, it is possible

to proceed to the fault detection step. Several indexes are used

to represent any variations in the data and thereby to detect

faults [9], [19]. We will then explain the process of fault

detection using the Squared Prediction Error (SPE) index that

operates in the residual subspace.

Since the SPE index operates in the residual subspace, then,

rst, it is necessary to determine PCs number for a system with

m variables and N 2

m

observations. Once the number of

required PCs l is chosen, the principal component matrix can

be then partitioned into the principal and the residual parts as

shown in equation 7:

At an instant time k

= k 2

m

, k

= 1, . . . , N 2

m

, the

SPE is given by equation 12:

SPE(k

) =

m

j=l+1

t

I

2

j

(k

) (12)

The system is declared in failure at an instant k

if;

SPE(k

)

2

(13)

where

2

according to [20].

B. Fault isolation

After achieving the fault detection step, it is necessary

to identify and isolate the faulty variables. Among various

strategies of fault localization we have chosen the variable re-

construction approach. This method assumes that each variable

is faulty and suggests to reconstruct it using the VPCA model

from the remaining variables [19], [21].

Let

R

be the matrix indicating the reconstruction di-

rection. It is built with 1 and 0 indicating respectively the

reconstructed variables from the non reconstructed ones.

At an instant k

equation 14:

X

R

(k

) = G

R

x(k

) (14)

with:

G

R

= I

m

R

(

T

R

R

)

1

T

R

(15)

Fig. 2. The MSR mission

(a) (b)

Fig. 3. (a): The MSR spacecraft, (b): The spacecrafts thrusters

R

= (I

m

C)

R

(16)

The residual vector can be dened by equation 17:

X

R

(k) = (I

m

C)

X

R

(k) = P

R

x(k) (17)

with:

P

R

= (I

m

C)

R

(

T

R

R

)

1

T

R

(18)

In order to isolate the faulty variable, the SPE index may be

computed by equation 19:

spe

R

(k

) = x

R

(k

)

T

P

P

T

x

R

(k

) (19)

The isolation index is then dened, by equation 20:

A

spe

R

(k

) =

spe

R

(k

)

(

2

(k

))

(20)

where R = 1, . . . , m corresponding to the reconstructed

variable and

2

is the spe

R

threshold. The variable for which

the isolation index is lower than one is declared faulty.

IV. APPLICATION

A. Mars Sample Return Mission

The MSR mission, as represented in gure 2, plans col-

lecting samples from Mars and then returning to earth. The

diagnosis process concerns only the 5

th

step of this mission.

This step is called the rendez-vous. Only the last 100 meters

of the rendez-vous/capture phase are considered the most

critical for the occurrence of failures.

In this phase, in order to control the orientation of the

chaser spacecraft (see gure 3.a), a Laser Image Detection

And Ranging (LIDAR) and a Radio Frequency Sensor (RFS)

are used. As the Orbiter Sample (OS) must remain in the eld

of vision of the Orbiter Module (OM) sensors, the difculty

will be in controlling the attitude, the movement and the two

axes describing the motion relative to the orbital plane.

Thrusters (gure 3.b) are considered as the most important

features of the propulsion system assuring the attitude control

of the spacecraft. These propulsive devices are capable of

generating a thrust (force) to control the attitude and a torque

to control the rotation (about the three axes of the spacecraft:

roll, pitch and yaw). To provide the system stabilization, the

thrusters must be placed about all three axes with at least two

thrusters in each one.

Therefore, the failure of one or more thrusters can cause

a spacecraft to lose its ability to maintain position and hence

potentially causing a mission failure. So, the objective of this

application is to detect and isolate the thrusters faults of the

MSR chaser spacecraft, considering that the propulsion system

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

1

]

X

1,2

1

X

1,1

1

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

2

]

X

1,1

2

X

1,2

2

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

3

]

X

1,2

3

X

1,1

3

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

4

]

X

1,2

4

X

1,1

4

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

5

]

X

1,1

5

X

1,2

5

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

6

]

X

1,1

6

X

1,2

6

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

7

]

X

1,2

7

X

1,1

7

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

(time)

[

X

8

]

X

1,2

8

X

1,1

8

Fig. 4. Thrusters measurment evolution, [X

1,1

] (blue) and [X

2,1

] (red)

is composed of 8 thrusters.

The fault diagnosis process of the spacecrafts thrusters

requires two sets of data, one to build the PCA model and

another to test the inuence of a fault in the residual and/or

the principal space.

B. VPCA Model

To build the VPCA model, two data matrices X

min

R

(Nm)

and X

max

R

(Nm)

, in the absence of faults in the

system, has been generated. These two matrices are the two

bounds of the general interval data matrix X

I

= [X].To test

the effectiveness of the fault detection and isolation method,

described previously, two types of faults have been considered.

1) fault1 in the rst thruster between 200s and 210s,

2) fault2 in the second thruster between 400s and 410s.

In this case study we consider [X

1,1

] and [X

2,1

], denoting

the interval valued data matrix in the presence of fault1 and

fault2 respectively, where N = 13514 is the number of

observations of the m = 8 chasers thrusters. The measurement

vectors represent the opening rate at a k time of the 8 thrusters.

Figure 4 represents the evolution of the measurement

vectors during an abnormal operating mode of the 8 nominal

thrusters. The simulation results conrm the presence of faults

in the spacecrafts thrusters.

Once the data matrix in the absence of faults is scaled

(using mean and standard deviations of the variables), the

VPCA model can be then built.

According to the V RE method the appropriate number of

PCs is l = 5 while with the CPV approach with l = 4 it

is possible to account for 99.99% of variance. Since the rst

aim of the principal component analysis is to reduce the data

representation space, we have adopted a system with l = 4

components.

C. Fault detection and isolation

Once the modeling phase is achieved, we will present the

fault detection and isolation results.

As explained previously, two faults in two different time

zones have been injected to the spacecrafts thrusters.

Figure 5 presents the evolution of the SPE detection index

applied on the thrusters measurement vector.

where:

SPE-Fault1 (blue curve) refers to the results of the

SPE detection index after the injection of the rst fault,

SPE-Fault2 (green curve) refers to the results of the

SPE detection index after the injection of the second

fault,

SPE-Threshold (red line) refers to the SPE indexs

threshold.

The simulation results in gure 5 show two principal

peaks exceeding the SPE threshold. Thus, two failures in the

thrusters may be considered. As explained, the VPCA method

consists on transforming an interval valued data matrix (with

m variables and N observations) into a new single valued one

(with m variables and N 2

m

observations). Then, if a fault

has been injected at an instant k, it will appear at an instant

k

= k 2

m

. As shown in gure 5 faults appear in two zones;

the srt one in the interval [5.12e+005, 5.376e+005] and the

second one in [1.024e + 006, 1.0496e + 006].

Once a fault is detected, it is important to locate the faulty

variable. To do so, we have used the variable reconstruction

approach.

Figure 6 and gure 7 present the evolution of the thrusters

isolation indices A

spe

R

, computed after the reconstruction of

each variable at an instant k of zone

1

and zone

2

respectively.

The evolution of the thrusters isolation indices A

spe

R

,

computed after the reconstruction of each variable in zone

1

and zone

2

, are presented respectively in gures 6 and 7. As

we can see, the two indexes A

spe

1

and A

spe

2

are lower than

1. These results conrm that the thrusters number 1 and 2 are

the faulty ones.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

x 10

6

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

X: 5.12e+005

Y: 0.1579

S

P

E

/

2

(time)

X: 1.024e+006

Y: 0.1432

SPE_Threshold

SPE_FAULT2

SPE_FAULT1

Fig. 5. Thrusters fault detection with SPE index

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

(m)

A

s

p

e

R

(

z

o

n

e

1

)

Fig. 6. Thrusers fault localization using the index A

spe

R

Z1

.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

(m)

A

s

p

e

R

(

z

o

n

e

2

)

Fig. 7. Thrusers fault localization using the index A

spe

R

Z2

.

V. CONCLUSION

The centers PCA and the vertices PCA are considered as

the most common method that extended the classical PCA to

interval valued data. In fact, the centers method is essentially

an analysis between the observations while the vertices method

is an analysis using both between and within observations

variations.

The present paper has presented a fault diagnosis process

based on the vertices principal component analysis. This

approach has been used to perform the fault detection and

isolation of spacecraft thrusters during the rendez-vous phase

of the Mars Sample Return mission.

In order to estimate the VPCA model, we have used

interval valued data matrix consisting of all measures of the

nominal spacecraft thrusters.

Once the VPCA model is built, and to put in evidence the

predened faults, we have applied the classical detection index

SPE to the new matrix of single valued data.

After the detection phase, an isolation fault approach, based

on the reconstruction principle highlighted the predened

thrusters faults.

According to this paper, the VPCA method is considered

computationally cumbersome since it requires the transforma-

tion of the interval valued data matrix into a single valued

data matrix. The number of rows of this matrix depends

exponentially on the number of variables and linearly on the

number of observation units.

The intended purpose of this research is then to develop a

new optimized approach that generalizes the principal compo-

nent analysis to interval valued data.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The research work presented in this paper falls within

a collaboration between the LRI (Laboratory for Computer

Science) and Thales Alenia Space. The authors would like to

thank Thales Alenia Space for providing the MSR high-delity

simulator.

REFERENCES

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Navigation & Control, pp. 1496-1510, 2013.

[2] Ch. Gao and G. Duan, Fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control

for nonlinear satellite attitude control systems, Aerospace Science and

Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9-15, 2014.

[3] H.M. Odendaal and Th. Jones, Actuator fault detection and isolation:

An optimised parity space approach, ELSEVIER, Control Engineering

Practice, vol. 26, pp. 222-232, 2014.

[4] M. REGAIEG, O. NASRI and Ph. DAGUE, Fault Detection and Iso-

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