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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 27, Issue 2, October 2014 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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28

Universal Biquad Filter Employing CFOAs

Kasim K. Abdalla

AbstractA new universal multiple inputs single output (MISO) type biquad employing three current feed-back operational

amplifiers (CFOAs) is presented. The circuit having three inputs and one output can realize all the five basic filtering functions

namely, low pass (LP), high pass (HP), band pass (BP), Notch-filter (NF) and all pass (AP) in voltage mode. The proposed

circuit enjoys the following features: orthogonal control of resonance angular frequency (o) and quality factor (Q), low active

and passive sensitivities and low-output impedances. The workability of the proposed circuit has been confirmed by PSPICE

simulations based upon AD844 type CFOAs.

Index TermsBiquad filters, Current feedback operational amplifier, Analog circuit design, Voltage-mode filters, Analog signal

processing.

1 INTRODUCTION

devices such as current conveyors (CCIIs), current

feedback operational amplifiers (CFOAs) and opera-

tional transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) have been re-

ported [1-15]. Universal biquad filters (i.e., those capable

of simultaneously realizing low-pass, high-pass, band-

pass, band-reject, and all pass responses from the same

configuration) have been widely investigated in litera-

ture. Multifunction active biquad filters may be used in

phase locked loop, FM stereo demodulators, touch tone

telephone and cross over networks used in three-way

high fidelity loud speakers [1] and the references cited

therein.

The transimpedance opamps, popularly known as cur-

rent feedback opamps (CFOAs), are receiving growing

attention as alternative building blocks for analog circuit

design, because they offer several advantages over the

traditional voltagemode opamps (VOAs). These ad-

vantages include, wider bandwidth, very high slew rates

a closed-loop bandwidth which is almost independent of

the closed loop gain, see [2-4] and the references cited

therein. Moreover, it has a low-impedance output which

makes the circuit cascadable without additional buffers

[5].

In the literature several voltage-mode biquadratic filters

are presented which uses different types of CFOAs [4-12].

A number of voltage-mode universal biquadratic filters

with multiple-input single-output [6, 8, 11] that are avail-

able. The voltage-mode filters with high-input impedance

are of great interest because they can be easily cascaded to

synthesize higher-order filters [11, 12].

In contrast to high input impedance multiple input single

output (MISO) type biquad using CFOA, recently, Ni-

koloudis and Psychalinos presented a high input imped-

gle output using four CFOAs, two capacitors and five

resistors and realized all five generic responses [11]. Ku-

mar and Pal presented a high input impedance voltage

mode universal biquad filter using three active two oper-

ational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), one CFOA

[12]. The universal biquad in [12] needs a floating capaci-

tor for realizing the five types of filter functions.

In this paper, a new three-high-impedance input ter-

minals and one-low-impedance output terminal voltage-

mode universal biquadratic filter using three CFOAs, two

capacitors and five resistors is presented. The new pro-

posed configuration although has same passive compo-

nents and realizes exactly the same standard filter re-

sponses but in contrast to the circuit of reference [11] uses

less active devices (only three CFOAs).

The current-feedback operational amplifier, such as

AD844 from Analog Devices Inc. [13], has gained the ac-

ceptance of researchers as a building block in circuit de-

sign. The circuit symbol of a CFOA is shown in Fig. 1.

VX

VY

IX

IY

X

Z

VW

Y

VZ

IZ

The CFOA can be described using the following matrix-

College, University of Babylon.

2014 JOT

www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

29

relations:

IY 0

V 1

X =

I Z 0

VW 0

0 0 0 VY

0 0 0 I X (1)

1 0 0 VZ

0 1 0 IW

realizing the universal biquadratic filter with three

v o = 1 G2 ( s 2 C C sC G + G G ) (7)

1 2

1 4

1 5

vin

G3

Thus, it is seen that the proposed circuit can realize all the

five generic filter responses.

The various parameters of the realized filters are given

by:

o =

R3 ;

1 +

R2

R3

; BW = 1

C2 R4

C1C 2 R1 R2 R5

Qo = R4

C 2 R3

C1 R1 R2 R5

R3 (8)

1 +

R2

independently of o by varying R4.

H oLP = 1; H oHP

a routine analysis of the circuit reveals the following ex-

pression of the output voltage vo in terms of the three in-

put voltages v1, v2 and v3:

G2

[v 3 ( s 2 C1C 2 + sC1G 4 ) v 2 sC1G1 + v1G1G5 ]

G3

vo =

G

G

s 2 C1C 2 + sC1G 4 (1 + 2 ) + G1G5 2

G3

G3

where Gi =1/Ri ; i =1 - 5

R3 R4

+

R3

R2 R1

(9)

=

; H oBP =

R2

R3

1 +

R2

width, Qo = quality factor and H o = gain.

3 NON-IDEAL ANALYSIS

(2) ix, vx = vy and vw = vz , where = (1- i) and i (i << 1)

denotes the current tracking error of a CFOA, = (1- v )

and v (v << l) is the input voltage tracking error, and =

(1- v ) and v (v << l) is the output voltage tracking error,

the centre frequency o, and quality factor Qo are given by

Fig. 2 as follows:

o = 1 2 3 1 2 3

Qo = 1 2 3 1 2 3 R4

vo = 1 (G G G2 ) (3)

1 5

vin

R3

C1C2 R1 R2 R5

C 2 R3

C1 R1 R2 R5

(10)

(11)

R

1 + 3 2 3 3

R2

G3

1 2

1 4

1 5

G3

G3

in

vo 1

G

=

( sC1G4 2 ) (4)

G3

vin

HPF: making v1 = 0, G1 = G4 and taking v2 = v3 = vin gives

o

3

o

1

Qo

C2

Qo

1

Qo

2

Qo

1

Qo

R4

S RQ2o

v o 1 G2

=

[vin3 ( s 2 C1C 2 + G1G5 )] (6)

vin G3

o

2

o

2

o

3

S = S = S = S = S = S =1 2

vo = 1 ( s 2 C C G2 ) (5)

1 2

vin

G3

a notch response which characterized by

o

1

=S

=S

=S

=1 2 S

,

=1

1 3 2 3

1

=

2

1 + 3 2 3

R3

R2

R3

R2

Qo

C1

=S

Qo

R1

= S RQ5o = 1 2

30

-10

BPF

-30

-40

-50

10

!

!

!!

= ! +

, ! = ! + !! , ! =

!!

!! , !

, !

!!

, !

!!

10

10

10

0

Phase Response, ___Gain

-50

-100

Gain (dB)

-150

0

-200

-250

-300

-350

!!

! !! ,

=

-50 3

10

1 1

1 R

(14)

+ 1 + 3

Rz1 Rz 2 R4 R2

R1R5 R2

R

1

+ 2 +

1 +

Rz1 R3 Rz 2 R3 R4 R4 (15)

C 2 R3

Qo = R4 .

.

C1 R1R2 R5

R3 R4 C 2 R4

1 + +

+

R2 Rz 2 C1 Rz1

To get a quantitative assessment of the amount of errors

introduced by the parasitics, it is found that with C1= C2 =

0.16 nF, R1 = R2 = R3 = R5 =10 k, R4 = 20 k and the typical

data sheet values of the various parasitics for bipolar

CFOAs (such as AD844) are: Rx = 50, Rz = 3 M, Ry = 2 M.

From an analysis of the circuit of Fig. 2, it is easy to find

that the non-ideal values of the parameters are found to

be ! = 620366 rad/s and ! = 0.9934 against their ideal

values of o = 625000 rad/s and Qo = 1 which shows the

errors to be around 0.74% and 0.66%, respectively.

4 SIMULATION RESULTS

To verify the potentialities of the proposed scheme, circuit

simulations of the presented multi-function filters have

been carried out. The commercial current feedback ampli-

fiers AD844 PSpice macro model with 12 V voltage sup-

ply is used to realize the CFOA in Fig. 2. To achieve the

MISO type filters with fo= 99 kHz and quality factor of Qo

= 1, the component values were selected C1 = C2 =0.16 nF,

R2 = R3 = R5 = 10 k , R4 =20 k , and R1 = 10 k for LP

10

-400

7

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

(b)

Fig. 3. The proposed configuration

The frequency responses of LPF, BPF, HPF, NF are shown

in Fig. 3 (a) and gain and phase responses of APF are

shown in Fig. 3 (b).

To test the input dynamic range of the proposed filters,

the simulation of the band-pass filter as an example has

10

Amplitude (Volts)

From (13), the non-ideal centre frequency ! and quality

factor ! are given by

(a)

R3

1

1

+

C1C2 R1R2 R5

C1C2

10

50

o =

Phase Response(Degree)

Frequency (Hz)

where ! =

HPF

-20

resistances of the CFOAs. The resulting expression is

G2

v3 {s 2C1C2 + s[C1 (Gz 2 + G4 ) + C2Gz1 ] + Gz1 ((Gz 2 + G4 ))}

G3

vo =

G

s 2C1C2 + C1 Gz1 + G4 1 + 2 + C2Gz1

G

3

(13)

v2G1(sC1 + Gz1 ) + v1G1G5 ]

G

G

+ Gz1 Gz 2 + G4 1 + 2 + G1G5 2

G3

G3

NF

LPF

Gain (dB)

1 3 2 3 3

(12)

R

1

2

R3

2

1 + 3 2 3 R

2

Q

found to be in the range 0 S x 0 1, as shown in (12),

the circuit, thus, enjoys low sensitivities.

An alternative non-ideal analysis of the proposed circuit

-5

-10

0

Vout

Vin

0.5

1.5

Time (sec)

2.5

3

-5

x 10

proposed circuit for 100 kHz sinusoidal input voltage amplitude of

8 V.

Fig. 4 shows that the input dynamic range of the filter

extends up to amplitude of 8 V without significant distor-

tion. The dependence of the output harmonic distortion

on the input signal amplitude is illustrated in Fig. 5.

For input signal amplitudes lower than 10 V, the total

harmonic distortion has been found to be of less than

4.5%. The obtained results show that the circuit operates

properly even at signal amplitudes of about 10 V.

31

quality factor and gain tuning. Fig. 6 shows the simula-

tion results for variation of fo while keeping Qo and gain

(Ho) fixed for different values of fo as shown in Table 1.

10

Qo=1

Qo=2

Qo=4

input voltage amplitude of the band-pass filter realized from the

proposed configuration.

Gain (dB)

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60 3

10

TABLE 1

BPF PASSIVE ELEMENTS VALUES FOR FREQUENCY, QUALITY

FACTOR AND GAIN TUNING

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

kHz) and gain (Ho =1) fixed for BPF.

20

H=1

H=3

H=10

10

Gain (dB)

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50 3

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

kHz) and quality factor (Qo=1) fixed for BPF

as shown in Table 1. Fig. 8 shows the simulation results

for variation of gain (Ho) while keeping Qo and fo fixed

for different values of fo as shown in Table 1.These simula-

tions are done with C1 = C2 = 100 pF and R2 = R3 = 10 k.

10

Gain (dB)

0

-10

-20

-30

fo=100kHz

fo=170kHz

fo=300kHz

-40

-50 3

10

10

10

Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Fig. 6. Variation of fo while keeping quality factor (Qo =1) and gain

(Ho =1) fixed for BPF.

shows that, although the two circuits have same passive

components (two grounded capacitors, four floating resis-

tors and one grounded resistor) and same unity gain in

LPF and the circuit of [11] has two matching conditions in

APF while the proposed circuit has three matching condi-

tions in HP, BP and AP but the proposed circuit is better

than the circuit of [11] because it has low active compo-

nents (three CFOAs) and uses three input terminals in-

stead of four input terminals.

32

5 CONCLUSION

In this paper, a new three CFOAs-based MISO-type uni-

versal VM biquad filter is presented. The circuit has three

inputs and one output which can realize all the five basic

filtering functions simultaneously without changing the

circuit topology. The proposed circuit enjoys the follow-

ing features: orthogonal control of resonance angular fre-

quency (o) and quality factor (Qo), low active and pas-

sive sensitivities and high input impedance and low out-

put impedances which can be easily cascaded to produce

higher order filter realizations.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

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(AEU), vol. 59, pp. 311-318, 2005.

C. Toumazou, and A. Pyane, Current feedback opamp: A

blessing in disguise?, IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., vol. 10, pp.

4347, 1994.

R. Senani, Realization of a class of analog signal pro-

cessing/signal generation circuits: Novel configurations using

current feedback op-amps, Frequenz: J. Telecommun., vol. 52,

pp. 196206, 1998.

S. A. Mahmoud and A. M. Soliman, New MOS-C Biquad Filter

Using the Current Feedback Operational Amplifier, IEEE

Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Fundamental Theory and

Applications, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1510-1512, 1999.

J. W. Horng, and M. H. Lee, High input impedance voltage-

mode lowpass, bandpass and highpass filter using current-

feedback amplifiers, Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 947-

948, 1997.

S. I. Liu and D. S. Wu, New Current-Feedback Amplifier-

Based Universal Biquadratic Filter, IEEE Transactions on In-

strumentation and Measurement, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 915-917, 1995.

S. I. Liu, High input impedance filters with low component

spread using current-feedback amplifiers, Electronics Letters,

vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1042-1043, 1995.

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using two current-feedback amplifiers. Int. J. Electronics, vol. 80,

no. 6, pp. 753-756, 1996.

A. K. Singh and R. Senani, CFOA-based state-variable biquad

and its high-frequency compensation, IEICE Electronics Ex-

press, vol. 2, no. 7, pp.232-238, 2005.

V. K. Singh, A. K. Singh, D. R. Bhaskar and R. Senani, New

Universal Biquads Employing CFOAs, IEEE Transactions on

Circuits and SystemsII: express briefs, vol. 53, no. 11, 1299-1303,

2006.

S. Nikoloudis and C. Psychalinos, Multiple Input Single Out-

put Universal Biquad Filter with Current Feedback Operational

Amplifiers, Circuits Syst Signal Process, vol. 29, pp. 11671180,

2010.

K. Kumar and K. Pal, High input impedance voltage mode

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vol. 48, pp. 292-296, 2010.

Analog Devices, 60 MHz 2000 V/s Monolithic Op Amp AD844

Data sheet, Revision E, 2003. http://www. ana-

log.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/AD844.pdf

Controlled Current-mode second order Sinusoidal Oscillators

Using MO-OTAs & Grounded Capacitors, Circuits and Sys-

tems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 65-73, 2011.

[15] K. K. Abdalla, D. R. Bhaskar and R. Senani, Configuration for

Realizing a Current-Mode Universal Filter and Dual-Mode

Quadrature SRCO, IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 6, no.

3, pp. 159-167, 2012.

Kasim K. Abdalla received B.Sc. in electrical engineering and

M.Tech. in Communication Engineering from Technical University,

Baghdad, Iraq and Ph.D. from Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi, India. He

has been with Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering

College, University of Babylon, Iraq since 2006. His research interests include electronic communications, analog signal processing

and analog integrated circuit.

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