Doc Adams

Daniel Lucius "Doc" Adams (November 1, 1814 – Jan-
uary 3, 1899) was an American baseball player and ex-
ecutive who is regarded by historians as an important fig-
ure in the sport’s early years. For most of his career he
was a member of the New York Knickerbockers. He
first played for the New York Base Ball Club in 1840 and
started his Knickerbockers career five years later, contin-
uing to play for the club into his forties and to take part
in inter-squad practice games and matches against oppos-
ing teams. Researchers have called Adams the creator of
the shortstop position, which he used to field short throws
fromoutfielders. In addition to his playing career, Adams
manufactured baseballs and oversaw bat production; he
also occasionally acted as an umpire.
From 1847 to 1861, the Knickerbockers selected Adams
as their president six times, and as a vice president, trea-
surer, or director in six other years. As president of
the club, Adams was an advocate of rule changes in
baseball that resulted in nine-man teams and nine-inning
games. When the National Association of Base Ball Play-
ers (NABBP) was formed in 1858, he led the rules and
regulations committee of the new organization. In his
role, Adams ruled that the field’s bases should be 90 feet
(27 m) apart, the modern distance, and supported the
elimination of the “bound rule”, which allowed for balls
caught after one bounce to be recorded as outs. He re-
signed from his positions with the Knickerbockers and
NABBP in 1862. Adams’ contributions in creating base-
ball’s rules went largely unrecognized for decades after
his 1899 death, but in 1980 a letter about himappeared in
The NewYork Times; by 1993, researcher John Thorn had
written about Adams’ role. Other historians have given
himcredit for helping to develop the sport, and Thorn has
called Adams “first among the Fathers of Baseball”.
[1]
A graduate of Yale University and Harvard Medical
School, Adams began working in the medical field in the
late 1830s, and practiced in New York City during his
time as a member of the Knickerbockers. In 1865, he left
medicine and later became a bank president and member
of the Connecticut legislature. He and his wife had five
children.
1 Early life
Born in Mont Vernon, New Hampshire, on November 1,
1814, Adams was the fourth of Daniel and Nancy Adams’
five children.
[2]
The elder Daniel Adams was a physician
and author; he wrote a math textbook that was widely
used in the United States in the early- to mid-1800s.
After being schooled at Kimball Union Academy in
New Hampshire from 1826 to 1828 and Amherst, Mas-
sachusetts’ Mount Pleasant Classical Institution, Adams
attended three colleges from 1831 to 1838. He studied
at Amherst College for two years,
[3][4]
then transferred to
Yale University, where he acquired a bachelor’s degree
upon his graduation in 1835.
[5][6]
Nancy Adams, Daniel’s
sister, indicated in a letter penned in the early 1830s that
he began playing with “bats and balls” by this time.
[7][8]
Adams continued his studies at Harvard Medical School
through 1838, obtaining an MD.
[9][10]
Following his time
in college, he joined his father’s medical practice. The
pair worked in Mont Vernon, before the younger Adams
relocated twice, first to Boston and then to New York
City. Adams also worked for the NewYork Dispensaries,
which provided medical care to poor residents.
[3]
His field
of employment gave rise to his nickname of “Doc”, which
was given as “Dock” at the time.
[11]
2 Playing career
According to baseball historian John Thorn, 1839 is the
year Adams became a baseball player. In an 1896 inter-
view in The Sporting News, Adams said that “soon after
going to New York I began to play base ball just for ex-
ercise, with a number of other young medical men.”
[12]
Starting in 1840, he was a player with the New York Base
Ball Club.
[8]
This team began play five years earlier than
the New York Knickerbockers, who are credited in sev-
eral baseball histories as pioneering the modern version
of baseball.
[13]
Adams played an early form of the game,
but Thorn writes that he “understood [it] to be baseball,
no matter what it was called”.
[12]
Adams received an invitation to become a member of the
Knickerbockers a month or so after the team’s Septem-
ber 23, 1845, creation.
[14]
He accepted and joined the
club along with other men in the medical field; he later
said that players from the New York Base Ball Club were
behind the formation of the Knickerbockers.
[12]
Records
of the club’s practice games indicate that he was a mem-
ber of the Knickerbockers by November 18, 1845. In an
inter-squad game held that day, which was the Knicker-
bockers’ last of the year, Adams scored nine runs for
his team as they defeated a side picked by William R.
Wheaton, 51–42.
[15]
The club organized its first game
against outside opposition in 1846; at a June 5 meeting
Adams was selected to a three-man committee whose
1
2 3 PLAYING STYLE
The Knickerbockers during a practice session, as depicted by
Homer Davenport. Adams took leadership in pushing other club
members to attend practice.
aim was to set up a game against the New York Base
Ball Club. The committee’s efforts were successful, and
a game was scheduled on June 19.
[16]
Adams participated
in the contest, which the Knickerbockers lost 23–1. Bat-
ting second in the Knickerbockers’ lineup, he made one
out and did not score a run.
[17]
The Knickerbockers did not play any known games
against other clubs from 1847 to 1850. During these
years, the team split its players into two squads, which
played against each other twice per week.
[9]
According
to Adams, he often attempted to compel members of the
Knickerbockers to attend the sessions. He was only occa-
sionally successful, and when few Knickerbockers came,
they played variants of baseball that required fewer play-
ers than regular games.
[18]
Twice in June 1851, the club
played against the Washington Base Ball Club, winning
by scores of 21–11 and 22–20. No individual statistics
are available for the first game;
[19]
Adams scored twice
for the Knickerbockers in the second. In 1853, Adams
played in two games against the Gotham Ball Club, tal-
lying seven runs in a pair of victories.
[20]
The two clubs
met three times from June to October 1854, and Adams
had one run in each game. After splitting the first two
contests, their October 26, 1854, game lasted 12 innings
before being suspended due to darkness with the score
tied 12–12; both teams fell short of the 21 runs that were
required to win a game under the rules of the time.
[21][22]
Following two November games against the Eagle Base
Ball Club that Adams is not known to have participated
in, he returned to the Knickerbockers’ lineup for a June
1, 1855, game against Gotham and scored three times,
although Gotham prevailed, 21–12.
[23][24]
He took part
in two other 1855 games against Eagle and Gotham, re-
spectively, scoring five runs total as the Knickerbockers
won both contests. Adams competed four times for the
club against outside opponents in 1856 as it won once,
lost twice, and had one tie; he scored ten times, and
records for two games showed that his defensive position
was shortstop. The Knickerbockers had a 2–2 win–loss
record in competitive games during 1857 that Adams par-
ticipated in. Playing three times at shortstop and once at
first base defensively, he contributed 12 runs offensively,
including a six-run effort in the Knickerbockers’ 37–23
victory over the Empire club on June 24. In 1858, Adams
made four appearances for the Knickerbockers against
outside opposition and scored nine runs, but the team
went 1–3 in the games. He varied his defensive position-
ing between second base, third base, and shortstop.
[25]
3 Playing style
1B
2B
3B
SS
RF LF
CF
C
P
Adams has been credited as the creator of the shortstop position
(highlighted).
As a player, Adams created the concept of the short-
stop position, according to Thorn and Baseball Hall of
Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
[12][26]
In the first five
years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded any-
where from eight to eleven players. The only infielders
were the players covering each of the bases; if there were
more than eight players, extra outfielders were some-
times used. The outfielders had difficulty throwing base-
balls into the infield, because of the balls’ light weight.
Adams’ shortstop position, at which he started playing in
3
about 1849 or 1850, was used to field throws from the
outfielders and throw to the three infielders.
[12][27]
With
the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to-
ward the infield, since the distance the balls could travel
increased.
[12]
Prior to the invention of the shortstop, large
gaps existed in the defensive positioning of infields; de-
fensive players tended to stand by bases, leaving empty
space in between them for batters. The shortstop filled
one of the two gaps.
[28]
Adams hit left-handed; he said that his batted balls occa-
sionally went into a river by the Elysian Fields, the ground
in Hoboken, NewJersey, where the Knickerbockers prac-
ticed and played.
[29]
Adams had a long on-field career
with the Knickerbockers; he remained a player with the
team until 1859.
[30]
He did not limit his play to short-
stop; he fielded at every position except pitcher.
[9]
Little
is known about the relative performance of early baseball
players, and the game was largely recreational, as opposed
to competitive. Thorn speculates that Adams may have
been “the best player of the 1840s”, citing his lengthy
playing career as evidence.
[31]
4 Equipment maker and umpire
In addition to playing the game, Adams was involved in
the production of early baseball equipment. He person-
ally manufactured baseballs for a period of time, sup-
plying many New York City-based clubs. Adams found
that the ball became “livelier” when it was more tightly
stitched; this meant that it traveled further when batted or
thrown.
[12][32]
According to author Peter Morris, Adams’
ball-manufacturing efforts helped to keep the Knicker-
bockers in operation during their first few years, as they
would otherwise have had difficulty finding balls.
[33]
In
later years Adams gathered rubber from old galoshes for
the insides of baseballs. A tanner then used horsehide
to create the balls.
[8]
As late as 1863, Adams was one
of the three most prominent makers of baseballs in New
York, continuing to produce them by hand.
[34]
Adams
also played a role in producing baseball bats, choosing
which wood to use and overseeing the manufacturing
process.
[8]
Adams also worked occasionally as an umpire in signif-
icant games.
[9]
One notable example was the final con-
test of a three-game series between all-star teams from
Brooklyn and New York City, held on September 10,
1858, in Long Island. During the game, which the New
York City all-stars won 29–18, Adams became the first
umpire to use a new rule allowing for a strike to be called
against a batter who did not swing at a pitch in the strike
zone. Previously, strikes were only called when a batter
swung at a pitch and missed. Three batters were ruled out
on strikes called by Adams in the game.
[35][36]
Otherwise,
the called strike rule was not applied often in its first few
years of existence.
[37]
5 Knickerbockers and NABBP ex-
ecutive
The Knickerbockers held elections annually to deter-
mine who would serve as officials. At the club’s sec-
ond election, held on May 5, 1846, Adams was named
the Knickerbockers’ vice president. At an April 1847
meeting, he became the president of the team, and was
re-elected in 1848 and 1849.
[38]
He was the leader of a
“Committee to Revive the Constitution and By-Laws” of
baseball in 1848.
[12]
Adams was not chosen as an officer
in 1851, but the next year was named one of the club’s
three treasurers; he was elected to the same position the
following two years.
[39]
The number of baseball teams in
the New York City area started to grow during the early
1850s, as the Washington Base Ball Club (also known
as the Gotham Ball Club) and Eagle Base Ball Club were
founded or reorganized.
[40]
The Eagle Base Ball Club, de-
siring a unified set of rules, sent a message to the Knicker-
bockers requesting that a committee be formed. Adams
was one of the three Knickerbockers members selected
to be on the committee, and the clubs agreed on a set of
rules, which were presented at the Knickerbockers’ meet-
ing on April 1, 1854. At the same meeting, Adams was
voted into the position of club director.
[41]
After again being named a director in 1855, Adams be-
came president of the Knickerbockers for the fourth time,
winning an election held at the club’s April 5, 1856,
meeting. He remained the team’s president in 1857,
and after not being named as an officer the next three
years, was elected president in 1861.
[42]
During his time
as the club’s president, the Knickerbockers’ organization
was emulated by newly formed teams, and Adams him-
self was considered a “respected” figure by members of
other clubs.
[26][43]
According to author Andrew J. Schiff,
Adams was among the most powerful baseball figures
of the era.
[44]
Concurrently, Adams maintained his New
York City medical practice.
[10]
5.1 Number of players and game length
A supporter of nine-man baseball teams, Adams favored
a measure in 1856 which allowed for players from out-
side the Knickerbockers to join their intrasquad games
when 17 or fewer team members appeared. No rules ex-
isted at the time regarding team size, but official games
between clubs were typically played with nine men per
club. The proposal was defeated by a 13–11 vote, in fa-
vor of a rule forbidding non-club members to play if there
were 14 players (seven per team).
[45]
A two-man committee was created with the aim of work-
ing with the Eagle and Washington clubs to resolve the
debate over how many players to field in official games.
Duncan F. Curry and William F. Ladd were chosen as
the committee members, but Ladd withdrew and Adams
was named as a substitute. His partner on the committee,
4 5 KNICKERBOCKERS AND NABBP EXECUTIVE
Duncan Curry and Adams were on opposite sides of the Knicker-
bockers’ debates on roster size and game length.
Curry, had led the opposition to nine-man teams. Adams
and Curry also differed on another issue: the length of
games.
[45]
At the time, a baseball game lasted until one
of the teams had 21 runs; that team was awarded the
victory.
[8]
A change in how games were won was deemed
necessary after the suspended game in 1854. Adams fa-
vored nine-inning games, while Curry wanted contests
to last seven innings. According to Thorn, a convention
was scheduled for February 25, 1857, and Adams joined
a three-man committee tasked with encouraging local
clubs to send delegates. The Knickerbockers had voted
among themselves to back seven-inning games, but at the
convention the other teams backed a motion for nine-
inning contests, which passed; in March, the Knicker-
bockers changed their rules to match those passed at the
convention.
[46]
Journalist Alfred Henry Spink provided
an alternate account of the convention’s details, writing
that it took place on January 22 and had delegates from
14 clubs. Spink wrote that Adams was voted president
of the convention, and that a committee produced regu-
lations which gained formal approval on February 3.
[47]
In May 1857, Adams presided over a player convention
where nine-inning games were officially made part of the
rules of baseball for participating teams.
[1]
5.2 Distance between bases and campaign
against bound rule
In March 1858, the National Association of Base Ball
Players (NABBP) was formed at another convention.
[1]
Adams was one of the Knickerbockers’ two delegates,
having been selected at a February meeting attended by
representatives from 25 clubs.
[48]
He held the chairman-
ship of the association’s rules and regulations commit-
tee, and drafted the new organization’s initial set of rules.
These included a clarification of the prescribed distance
between bases, which under Knickerbocker Rules had
been set at “forty-two paces” between home plate and
second base, and “forty-two paces, equidistant” between
first and third base.
[40]
Historians differ on whether the
bases were roughly 90 feet (27 m) apart, or a shorter
distance.
[49]
Thorn has written that the pace itself may
have been “an imprecise and variable measure, to gauge
distances by 'stepping off',” and Adams described the rule
as “rather vague.”
[40]
As rules committee chairman for
the new NABBP, Adams made the baselines 90 feet (27
m) from one base to another, the distance seen in mod-
ern baseball. He ruled on the distance between home
plate and the pitcher’s mound as well, making them 45
feet (14 m) apart.
[1]
In addition, the committee mandated
that clubs have nine players per side, which became the
norm.
[26][50]
It also created the called strike rule, in an ef-
fort to reduce pitch totals and the time required to play
games.
[51]
Adams campaigned for a further change in the rules of
baseball, involving when outs were recorded. At the time,
an out was allowed when the ball was caught by a fielder
after one bounce; this was known as the “bound rule”.
[52]
Adams supported a ban on such outs, calling his preferred
rule “the fly-game”.
[1]
Under the style of play he backed,
when a fly ball was hit a fielder would have to catch the ball
before it touched the ground for an out to be made. This
was similar to rules on catches in cricket, and would serve
to increase the level of skill required fromfielders.
[53]
The
Knickerbockers had enacted a rule mandating the “fly-
catch” by 1857.
[54]
The rule change was proposed to the NABBP annually by
Adams but did not pass. At the 1858 NABBP convention,
a vote on eliminating the bound rule was unsuccessful.
[55]
Opponents raised concerns that the proposal would dra-
matically lengthen game times.
[54]
Despite his support for
the fly rule, in 1858 Adams successfully motioned for
NABBP regulations, including outs on bounces, to ap-
ply to the Knickerbockers. He did so because he was re-
luctant to oppose the rules of the NABBP. Shortly after
his motion, he organized a Knickerbockers meeting to
discuss the fly rule and “obtain a reconsideration” of the
newly passed resolution. At the meeting, the Knicker-
bockers decided to exclude outs on bounces from their
practice games and contests against teams that supported
the fly rule.
[55]
In future years, the club remained an ad-
vocate of eliminating the bound rule, but Adams’ con-
5
tinued efforts were rejected. A split in the rules and
regulations committee caused it to avoid supporting the
fly game at the NABBP’s 1859 convention, and votes
at the 1860 and 1861 conventions maintained the bound
rule.
[56]
Adams’ final comments about the regulation at an
NABBP convention indicated that he believed it would
soon be modified.
[1]
The bound rule started losing sup-
port by 1863, after Adams left the Knickerbockers, and
outs on bounced balls were outlawed in 1864.
[8][57]
5.3 Retirement
In addition to his other roles, Adams regularly served as a
delegate on behalf of the Knickerbockers at the NABBP’s
annual meetings.
[55]
He remained with the Knickerbock-
ers in an executive role until March 26, 1862, when he
retired having served 12 years overall in various non-
playing capacities.
[9][58]
Upon leaving his position, the
club named him an honorary member.
[26]
He received a
scroll from the Knickerbockers, which referred to him
as “The Nestor of Ball Players”, alluding to a mythi-
cal king known for offering advice.
[8][26]
Adams also re-
signed from his role as rules committee chairman of the
NABBP.
[58]
6 Later life
Adams and Cornelia Cook married in 1861, and re-
mained together until Adams’ death.
[10]
The couple had
five children; the first, a son named Charles, died less
than a month after his birth in 1864. The others, two
sons (Frank and Roger) and two daughters (Catharine and
Mary), were born between 1866 and 1874.
[59]
Adams
continued to maintain his medical practice during his
baseball career, but was forced to abandon it in 1865 af-
ter he began suffering health issues.
[3]
After relocating
to Ridgefield, Connecticut,
[6]
he went on to become “one
of the leading citizens of the Connecticut village,” ac-
cording to author William J. Ryczek.
[58]
Adams served
as a Republican legislator in the Connecticut House of
Representatives for the town. Sources variously report
that he was a representative only during 1870 or for sev-
eral terms.
[5][60]
Adams contributed to the creation of the
Ridgefield Land Improvement Association, and to a com-
mittee overseeing construction of a town house.
[61]
In
1871, he accepted a job with the Ridgefield Savings Bank
as the company’s first president. After working there un-
til 1879, Adams took a break from his duties; during this
time, he helped found Ridgefield’s library and served as
its treasurer. In 1884, he returned to the Ridgefield Na-
tional Bank and remained president there until mid-1886.
Adams and his family relocated to a house in NewHaven,
Connecticut, in 1888.
[3][26]
Although no longer actively involved in baseball, Adams
was still a follower of the sport. He played in an exhi-
bition as late as 1875, and stories exist that he played
recreationally into the following decade.
[3][26]
Late in his
life, he said of the growth of baseball, “We pioneers
never expected to see the game so universal as it has
now become.”
[1]
Adams contracted pneumonia following
a bout of influenza, and died on January 3, 1899, at the
age of 84.
[3]
He was buried at New Haven’s Evergreen
Cemetery.
[7]
7 Legacy
Media reports that Abner Doubleday invented baseball led to a
story on Adams appearing in The New York Times in 1980.
For decades after Adams’ death, his role in codifying
baseball’s early rules was largely unremembered. Thorn
included Adams among a group of “powerfully influ-
ential figures” from the period—also including Louis
Wadsworth and Wheaton—who he writes “went unrec-
ognized in their lifetimes and became mysteries to future
generations.”
[62]
Alexander Cartwright was more widely
recognized as a pioneering figure for the sport. The Base-
ball Hall of Fame has claimed that Cartwright was the
inventor of 90-foot (27 m) baselines and the nine-inning
game. However, by the time conventions led by Adams
had enacted those rules in the late 1850s, Cartwright had
traveled to California and was no longer a member of
the Knickerbockers.
[26][63]
Adams is said to have avoided
“campaigning for credit” for rules changes after he left
the Knickerbockers; researcher Gary O'Maxfield said of
him that he “didn't like to brag.”
[8]
Several of the rules
approved at the conventions survived to modern base-
ball, including the 90-foot (27 m) baseline distance. The
45-foot (14 m) distance from home plate to the pitching
mound, however, did not last through the 19th century;
6 8 REFERENCES
it was pushed back 5 feet (1.5 m) in 1880.
[28]
The short-
stop position, which for Adams was located between the
infielders and outfielders, was later played in the infield,
between second and third base. Dickey Pearce was the
first player to field in that area, and his ability to prevent
base hits in the formerly unoccupied territory convinced
other teams to employ similar tactics.
[64]
The Hartford Courant points to 1980 as a year when
Adams started to gain greater attention for his achieve-
ments. A share of the New York Mets was purchased
by Nelson Doubleday that year, and claims that Abner
Doubleday invented baseball in 1839, which are consid-
ered flawed by modern researchers, were reported by the
media.
[7][8][65]
After the Doubleday reports in 1980, The
New York Times received a letter from the great-grandson
of Adams that the Courant said attempted “to try to set
the record straight.”
[8]
The newspaper ran the letter in
its April 13 issue, and added a 1939 piece by Roger
Adams.
[3]
In 1993, Thorn published research on Adams’
contributions in the encyclopedia Total Baseball.
[66]
Various historians have given Adams recognition as an
important figure from the early years of baseball. Thorn
has written that he “may be counted as first among the Fa-
thers of Baseball.”
[1]
O'Maxfield said of Adams: “With-
out [him], we wouldn't have the game we know and love
as baseball today.”
[8]
The “father” label was rejected by
Ryczek; he wrote that Adams did not conceive the sport,
but called him a “collaborator” in its development.
[67]
On July 31, 2014, the Society for American Baseball
Research announced that it had chosen Adams as its
2014 “Overlooked 19th Century Baseball Legend”.
[68]
Eric Miklich has called him worthy of induction into the
Baseball Hall of Fame for his role as a pioneer. He says
of Adams, “Should he be in the Hall of Fame? Abso-
lutely. You ask anyone who knows about 19th century
baseball. They'll laugh at Cartwright. Abner Doubleday,
they won't even talk about. But they all knowDoc Adams.
He was the glue that held things together in the early part
of baseball.”
[26]
8 References
[1] Thorn 1993, p. 7.
[2] Smith 1907, pp. 255–256.
[3] Thorn, John. “Doc Adams”. Society for American Base-
ball Research. Archived from the original on May 17,
2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
[4] Geroud 1880, p. 61.
[5] Thayer, William Roscoe; Castle, William Richards;
Howe, Mark Antony De Wolfe; Pier, Arthur Stan-
wood; De Voto, Bernard Augustine; Morrison, Theodore
(March 1899). “Non-Academic”. The Harvard Gradu-
ates’ Magazine: 475. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
[6] Morris, Ryczek, Finkel, Levin & Malatzky 2013, p. 18.
[7] Beach, Randall (July 9, 2011). “Randall Beach: Take me
out to the gentle game, with 'Doc' Adams and no muffin
ball”. New Haven Register. Archived from the original on
May 7, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
[8] Amore, Dom (September 10, 2011). “Doc Adams Fi-
nally Recognized As A Founder Of Baseball”. Hartford
Courant. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
[9] Husman 2000, p. 5.
[10] “Obituary Record Of Graduates Of Yale University De-
ceased During the Academical Year Ending in June,
1899” (PDF). Yale University. June 27, 1899. p. 591.
Retrieved February 5, 2012.
[11] Thorn 2011, p. 30.
[12] Thorn 1993, p. 6.
[13] Thorn 1993, pp. 5–6.
[14] Thorn 2011, pp. 31, 36.
[15] Freyer & Rucker 2005, p. 11.
[16] Freyer & Rucker 2005, pp. 12–13.
[17] Ryczek 2009, p. 45.
[18] Morris 2008, pp. 30–31.
[19] Freyer & Rucker 2005, p. 14.
[20] Ryczek 2009, pp. 226–227.
[21] Ryczek 2009, pp. 227–228.
[22] Spink 2000, p. 56.
[23] Ryczek 2009, p. 228.
[24] Freyer & Rucker 2005, p. 16.
[25] Ryczek 2009, pp. 229–233.
[26] Miller, Robert (September 26, 2009). “The Ridgefield
man who helped invent baseball”. The News-Times. Re-
trieved November 30, 2011.
[27] Miller, Robert (September 26, 2009). "'Doc' Adams
legacy; The position of shortstop”. The News-Times.
Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved
December 2, 2011.
[28] Schiff 2008, p. 48.
[29] Ward & Burns 1994, pp. 4–5.
[30] Thorn 2011, p. 106.
[31] Thorn 2011, pp. 105–106.
[32] Hample 2011, p. 92.
[33] Morris 2008, pp. 10, 31.
[34] Hample 2011, p. 94.
[35] Thorn 2011, pp. 75, 116, 119.
[36] Morris 2008, p. 71.
7
[37] Ryczek 2009, p. 181.
[38] Freyer & Rucker 2005, pp. 11–13.
[39] Freyer & Rucker 2005, pp. 13–14.
[40] Thorn 1993, pp. 6–7.
[41] Freyer & Rucker 2005, p. 15.
[42] Freyer & Rucker 2005, pp. 16–19.
[43] Ryczek 2009, p. 67.
[44] Schiff 2008, p. 47.
[45] Thorn 2011, pp. 51–52.
[46] Thorn 2011, pp. 52–53.
[47] Spink 2000, p. 58.
[48] Freyer & Rucker 2005, p. 18.
[49] Ryczek 2009, p. 34.
[50] Thorn 2011, p. 51.
[51] Morris, Ryczek, Finkel, Levin & Malatzky 2013, p. 3.
[52] Morris 2008, p. 67.
[53] Ryczek 2009, pp. 174–175.
[54] Schiff 2008, p. 54.
[55] Ryczek 2009, p. 175.
[56] Ryczek 2009, pp. 175–177.
[57] Ryczek 2009, pp. 177–178.
[58] Ryczek 2009, p. 35.
[59] Smith 1907, pp. 256–257.
[60] “Members of the Connecticut General Assembly: Search
Results”. Connecticut State Library. Retrieved August
28, 2012. Site does not support direct linking. Search for
“Adams” to find results.
[61] Murphy, Tim (July 26, 2012). “Group hoping to get for-
mer Ridgefielder Adams into baseball Hall”. The Ridge-
field Press. Archived from the original on August 27,
2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
[62] Thorn 2011, pp. 83–84.
[63] Thorn 1993, pp. 5–7.
[64] Cash 2002, pp. 13, 210.
[65] Morris 2008, p. 227.
[66] Holtzman, Jerome (April 13, 1993). “King Of Diamond
History Holds Court Here”. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved
May 27, 2012.
[67] Ryczek 2009, p. 36.
[68] “SABR44: Doc Adams selected as Overlooked 19th Cen-
tury Baseball Legend for 2014”. Society for American
Baseball Research. July 31, 2014. Retrieved August 2,
2014.
9 Bibliography
• Cash, Jon David (2002). Before They Were Cardi-
nals: Major League Baseball in Nineteenth-Century
St. Louis. Columbia, Missouri: University of Mis-
souri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1401-0.
• Freyer, John; Rucker, Mark (2005). Peverelly’s Na-
tional Game. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia
Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-3404-6.
• Geroud, Samuel Lankton, ed. (1880). The Gen-
eral Catalogue and a Brief History of Kimball Union
Academy. Claremont, New Hampshire: Claremont
Manufacturing Co.
• Hample, Zack (2011). The Baseball: Stunts, Scan-
dals, and Secrets Beneath the Stitches. New York
City: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-307-47545-9.
• Husman, John R. (2000). “Adams, Daniel Lu-
cius”. In Porter, David L. Biographical Dictionary
of American Sports: Baseball (A–F). Westport, Con-
necticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-
313-31174-9.
• Morris, Peter; Ryczek, William J.; Finkel, Jan;
Levin, Leonard; Malatzky, Richard, ed. (2013).
Base Ball Founders: The Clubs, Players and Cities
of the Northeast That Established the Game. Jef-
ferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company.
ISBN 978-0-7864-7430-1.
• Morris, Peter (2008). But Didn't We Have Fun?: An
Informal History of Baseball’s Pioneer Era, 1843–
1870. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 978-1-56663-
849-4.
• Ryczek, William J. (2009). Baseball’s First Inning:
A History of the National Pastime Through the Civil
War. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland &
Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-4194-5.
• Schiff, Andrew J. (2008). “The Father of Baseball":
A Biography of Henry Chadwick. Jefferson, North
Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-
7864-3216-5.
• Smith, Charles James (1907). History of the Town
of Mont Vernon, New Hampshire. Boston: Blan-
chard Printing Co.
• Spink, Alfred Henry (2000) [1911]. The National
Game: Second Edition. Carbondale, Illinois: South-
ern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-
2304-3.
• Thorn, John (2011). Baseball in the Garden of Eden:
The Secret History of the Early Game. New York
City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-9403-
4.
8 10 EXTERNAL LINKS
• Thorn, John (1993). “The True Father of Base-
ball”. In Thorn, John; Palmer, Pete. Total Base-
ball: The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Baseball (3 ed.).
New York City: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-
273189-0.
• Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (1994). Baseball:
An Illustrated History. New York City: Random
House. ISBN 978-0-679-76541-7.
10 External links
• Official website
9
11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
11.1 Text
• Doc Adams Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doc_Adams?oldid=631959287 Contributors: Nikkimaria, Ian Rose, Jprg1966, Ohcon-
fucius, Mr Stephen, Magioladitis, KConWiki, Neonblak, Tis herself, GimmeBot, Eggishorn, Gciriani, Another Believer, Penale52, Gi-
ants2008, Drpickem, PM800, Sarastro1, GA bot, Faolin42, Nihilianth, Helpful Pixie Bot, George Ponderevo, Mark Arsten, Mathew-
Townsend, Br'er Rabbit, Zziccardi, Lekoren, TFA Protector Bot, OccultZone and Ksapiratheepan
11.2 Images
• File:Baseball_SS.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Baseball_SS.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contribu-
tors: Own work Original artist: Surachit
• File:Cscr-featured.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e7/Cscr-featured.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
• File:Duncan_Curry.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Duncan_Curry.jpg License: Public domain Con-
tributors: Spalding, Albert. America’s National Game, American Sports Publishing Company, p. 54. Original artist: Not provided
• File:Gen._Abner_Doubleday_-_NARA_-_528393.tif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Gen._Abner_
Doubleday_-_NARA_-_528393.tif License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: Mathew Brady
• File:Knickerbocker_practice.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Knickerbocker_practice.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: Spalding, Albert. “America’s National Game”, American Sports Publishing Company, p. 50. Original artist:
Homer Davenport (1867-1912)
11.3 Content license
• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0