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7 Memory Skills That Will Make You Way Smarter

By Drake Baer | Business Insider

Good Will Hunting

Learning ability is probably the most important skill you can have.

Take it from Peter Brown, Henry Roediger, and Mark McDaniel, authors of "Make It Stick: The
Science of Successful Learning."

"We need to keep learning and remembering all our lives," they write.
"Getting ahead at work takes mastery of job skills and difficult colleagues ... If you're good at
learning; you have an advantage in life."

And to learn something is to be able to remember it, say the authors, two of whom are psychology
professors at Washington University in St. Louis.

Unfortunately, lots of the techniques for learning that we pick up in school don't actually help with
long-term recall like cramming or highlighting.

To get over these bad habits, we scoured "Make It Stick" for learning tips.

But be warned: If it's difficult, it's good thing.

"Learning is deeper and more durable when it's effortful," the authors write. "Learning that's easy is
like writing in sand, here today and gone tomorrow."

Here are the takeaways:

Retrieval: Bring it back from memory.
When you're attempting to recall an idea, method, or technique from memory, you're retrieving.
Flash cards are a great example: They force you to recall an idea from memory, unlike a technique
like highlighting where you're not burning anything into your brain. The reason retrieval's so
effective is that it strengthens the neural pathways associated with a given concept.

Elaboration: Connect new ideas to what you already know.
When you try to put a new idea into your own words, you're elaborating.

"The more you can explain about the way your new learning relates to prior knowledge," the
authors write, "the stronger your grasp of the new learning will be, and the more connections you
create that will help you remember it later."

For instance, if you're in physics class and trying to understand heat transfer, try to tie the concept
into your real-life experiences, like by imagining how a warm cup of coffee disperses heat into your

Interleaving: Varying your subjects.
When you work on a variety of things at once, you're interleaving. If you're trying to understand a
subject from the basics of economics to hitting a pitch you're going to learn better if you mix
up your examples. A sports case: Batters who do batting practice with a mix of fastballs, change ups,
and curveballs hit for a higher average. The interleaving helps because when you're out there in the
wild, you need to first discern what kind of problem you're facing before you can start to find a
solution, like a ball coming from a pitcher's hand.

Generation: Answer before you have an answer.
When you try to give an answer before it's given to you, you're generating. "By wading into the
unknown first and puzzling through it, you are far more likely to learn and remember the solution
than if somebody first sat down to teach it to you," the authors write. In an academic setting, you
could work finding your own answers before class starts. In a professional setting, you could supply
your own ideas when you're stuck before talking with your boss.

Reflection: Evaluate what happened.
When you take a few moments to review what happened with a project or meeting, you're
reflecting. You might ask yourself a few questions: What went well? Where can you improve? What
does it remind you of? Harvard Business School researchers have found reflective writing to be super
powerful. Just 15 minutes of written reflection at the end of the day increased performance by 23%
for one group of employees.

Mnemonics: Use hacks to recall.
When you're using an acronym or image to recall something, you're using a mnemonic. The hall of
fame includes abbreviations Roy G. Biv for the colors of the spectrum (R ed, O range, Y ellow, G
reen, B lue, I ndigo, V iolet) and rhyming, like "in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue."

"Mnemonics are not tools for learning per se," the authors write, "but for creating mental structures
that make it easier to retrieve what you have learned."

Calibration: Know what you don't know.
When you get feedback that reveals your ignorance to you, you're calibrating. "Calibration is simply
the act of using an objective instrument to clear away illusions and adjust your judgment to better
reflect reality." This is necessary since we all suffer from "cognitive illusions": We think we
understand something when we really don't. So taking a quiz or gathering feedback from a
colleague helps you to identify those blind spots.

For a deeper dig into the science of learning, make sure to pick up "Make It Stick." It's an illuminating