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Dr. Aglaia Chandler


The Muscular System
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Functions
Moves bones and substances (blood, waste,
nutrients)
(The Skeleton CANNOT Move Itself.)
Maintains posture
Stabilizes & strengthens joints
Generates heat
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Functional Characteristics
1. Contractility: capacity to contract or shorten
2. Excitability: capacity to respond to stimulation
3. Extensibility: capacity to stretch
4. Elasticity: capacity to recoil
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Types of Muscle Tissue
Striated: regularly spaced bands (striae):
a. skeletal muscle (voluntary, multinucleate)
b. cardiac muscle (heart wall, fine striations,
one nucleus, branched cells with intercalated
disc)
Smooth (visceral): lacks striae, involuntary, one
elongated nucleus, found in the walls of organs of the
digestive tract, uterus, urinary bladder, glands, skin
INCLUDES MUSCLES TISSUE, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES,
AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE
A. Skeletal Muscle
Cells are long, cylindrical, striated, and multinucleate
B. Smooth Muscle
Cells are short, spindle-shaped, and non-striated, with a single, central nucleus
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Figure 7.10b
B. Smooth Muscle
C. Cardiac Muscle
Cells are short, branched, and striated, usually with a single nucleus.
Cells are interconnected by intercalated disc (gap junctions).
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Figure 7.10a
C. Cardiac Muscle
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A. SKELETAL MUSCLE
Organ with 2 main components:
1. muscle tissue
2. connective tissue
Skeletal Muscle is Responsible for moving parts of the
body, such as the limbs, trunk, and face.
SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE GENERALLY
ATTACHED TO BONES AND ARE AT WORK EVERY
TIME WE MAKE A MOVE.
SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
VOLUNTARY (CONSCIOUS) MOVEMENT.
A Skeletal Muscle is made of Elongated Cells called
MUSCLE FIBERS. Varying movements require
Contraction of variable numbers of Muscles Fibers in a
Muscle.
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Muscle Structure
Actin/Myosin
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Skeletal Muscle fibers are grouped into dense bundles called FASCICLES.
A group of Fascicles are bound together by Connective Tissue to form a MUSCLE.
Because they are so long and slender, they are often called MUSCLE FIBERS
rather than Muscle Cells.
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(on and between
muscle fibers)
(surrounds each
fascicle)
(covers all
fascicles)
Deep fascia: over epimysium; covers all muscle
Superficial fascia: hypodermis between muscle and skin
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Myofibril - composed of bundles of myofilaments
(Actin and Myosin).
Endomysium- areolar CT covering each muscle
fiber and binding it to its neighbors.
Perimysium- dense irregular CT covering muscle
fascicles.
Fascicles- bundles of muscle fibers surrounded by
perimysium.
Epimysium- covering of dense irregular CT
surrounding the entire muscle.
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Muscle Attachment to Bones
3 different ways:
a. directly to periosteum (ex. Origin of brachialis-
--anterior part of humerous; insertion has a small tendon)
b. by means of tendon ( ex. Triceps branchii)
c. with an aponeurosis (linea alba---connects rectus
abdominis muscles)
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Muscle Fiber
Muscle --- fascicles (fasciculus) --- muscle fiber (cell) --- myofibril --- myofilament
Skeletal Muscle
Whole Muscle
Single Muscle Fiber
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The contractile elements of muscle fibers are myofibrils.
Myofibrils have organized units (sarcomeres) composed of
the myofilaments actin (thin) and myosin (thick).
smallest contractile unit of muscle fiber: the functional unit
(holds actin filaments)
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Myofibrils
Muscle Fiber Components
Ultrastructure of skeletal muscle
Each muscle fiber composed of myofilaments:
1. Contractile proteins: Actin and Myosin.
2. Regulatory proteins: Troponin and Tropomyosin.
3. Elastic proteins: Titin (connectin) spring-like
proteins, aid in relaxation after contraction.
4. Structural proteins: Nebulin keeps contractile
proteins (actin) aligned.
Sarcomere is contractile unit of skeletal muscle;
defined as the distance between 2 Z discs.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Anatomy Summary: Skeletal Muscles (Ultrastructure of Muscle)
(c)
(d)
Myofibril
A band
Z disk
Z disk
(f)
Z disk
I band
M line H zone
Z disk
Sarcomere
Thin filaments
Tropomyosin
Troponin
Actin chain
G-actin molecule
Myosin tail
Myosin
heads
Myosin molecule
Thick filaments
Hinge
region
(e)
Titin
Nebulin
Titin
M line Myosin
crossbridges
M line
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Anatomy Summary: Skeletal Muscles (Ultrastructure of Muscle)
(f)
Thin filaments
Tropomyosin
Troponin
Actin chain
G-actin molecule
Titin
Nebulin
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Actin only, light bands
Actin and myosin
The Sarcomere
The dark bands are the A and the
light ones are the I bands. The I
band shows a thin darker Z-line
within it; this actually is the
demarcation of the limit of the
contractile unit of skeletal
muscle, the sarcomere.
An A band contains both actin and myosin filaments; an I band
contains only actin filaments.
The Sarcomere
The Sarcomere
Bands and Zones
A band (Anisotropic band) composed of
overlapping actin and myosin filaments.
H zone composed of myosin filaments only.
M line bisects A band and H zone.
I band (Isotropic band) composed of actin
filaments only.
Z disc bisects I band.
Sarcomere = distance between 2 Z discs =
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Contractile Proteins: Major
Components of Myofibrils
Thick filament
Myosin Aggregate
Thin filament
G-Actin Polymer
(Globular -Actin)
Myosin head
Actin filament
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Complete Myosin Molecule
Tail is a helical coiled coil with 7 residue, non-polar pseudo-repeats
(at a & d : a b c d e f g)
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Single Myosin Head Structure
3 Chains: Heavy, ELC, RLC
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5 G-actin
monomers
1/2 Myosin Molecule
Actin/Myosin Complex
proteins contain all forms of 2 structure
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G-Actin
Bilobal, globular, binds adenosine nucleotide
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ATP hydrolysis necessary for polymerization
of G-Actin
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Muscle Contraction/Relaxation
Sliding filament theory explains the interaction of Actin & Myosin in muscle
fiber contraction ; ATP is necessary for the Myosin/Actin reaction
Thin actin filaments slide over the thick myosin filaments but do not shorten.
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4 Steps in
Movement
single ATP hydrolysis
=
single movement
binding - weak
interactions
ATP hydrolysis -
conformational change
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4 Steps in Movement
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Power Stroke
Contractile and Regulatory Proteins
Actin, Myosin, Troponin, Tropomyosin
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Regulation of Contraction of
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
oContraction triggered by release of Ca++ into sarcomere
ofrom sarcoplasmic reticulum
oTwo proteins [TroponinCa++ binding protein,
oTropomyosin--- binds to actin] interact with Ca++ to allow
omyosin to bond to actin
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Other Components of Myofibrils
Troponin Complex & Tropomyosin
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Contraction Triggered by Ca
+
Influx in a Muscle Cell
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Walk-Along
mechanism
for muscle
contraction
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Many small movement create
1 large movement
Skeletal Muscle Structure/ Organization
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Neuromuscular Junction
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A scanning electron microscope picture of a nerve ending. It has been
broken open to reveal vesicles (orange and blue) containing chemicals
used to pass messages in the nervous system.
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Sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER): functions to store Ca
++
in the lumen
T-tubule: invaginations of sarcolemma: take action potentials (signals) from
surface of cell into interior and cause release of Ca
++
from SR.
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Every muscle contraction is preceded by a nerve impulse from
the CNS.
Motor nerve
Muscle fibers
innervated by
single motor
neuron
Neuromuscular
junctions
Motor
unit
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Motor Units
muscle fibers in a skeletal muscle
innervated by a single neuron (all-or none
response)
Muscles are composed of many motor units
with different number of muscle fibers
Muscle fibers contract in all-or-none fashion.
Muscles respond in graded fashion: different
motor units activated; the higher the stimulus,
the more motor units are activated and the
higher the force of contraction
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Neuromuscular Junction
Neuromuscular Junction
Neuromuscular Transmission
When a nerve impulse reaches the neuromuscular
junction:
1. 1.Voltage-regulated calcium channels in the axon membrane
open and allow Ca
2+
to enter the terminal knob.
2. Ca
2+
inside the axon terminal causes some of the synaptic
vesicles to fuse with the axon membrane and release ACh
into the synaptic cleft (exocytosis).
3. ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft and attaches to ACh
receptors on the sarcolemma.
4. Binding of ACh to receptors on the sarcolemma initiates
an action potential in the muscle.
5. ACh is quickly destroyed by acetylcholinesterase (Ach-ase)
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Neuromuscular Junction
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Neuromuscular Junction
Excitation-contraction coupling
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Events at Neuromuscular Junction
Presynaptic terminal
Ach: acetylcholine
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Events at Neuromuscular Junction
Calcium Release in Excitation-
Contraction Coupling
Steps of Muscle Contraction
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Acetylcholine Receptors
Neuromuscular Junction Histology
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
Skeletal muscle is composed of 3 different fiber
types:
The fiber type is based on the biochemical process for
making ATP and how fast the fibers contract.
Red or slow oxidative fibers [dark staining (R)]
Intermediate or Fast oxidative fibers [lighter (I)
staining)
Fast glycolytic fibers [white (W) or non staining]
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
Fiber type characteristics
Slow oxidative (R):
Dark staining red in color = abundant myoglobin
Manufactures ATP by aerobic glycolysis
Contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue.
Ex. back muscles and support muscles
Intermediate Fast oxidative (I):
Stains less darkly than Red but slightly larger
Produce ATP via aerobic metabolism like slow
Contract faster and more powerfully than slow
Abundant in lower limbs = contract for long periods
White of Fast glycolytic fibers (W):
Stain a pale color due to little myoglobin.
Larger in diameter than other 2 types
Depend on anaerobic glycogenolysis to make ATP.
Contract rapidly and fatigue easier.
More prominent in upper limbs for large work loads.
Majority of fibers in body are white.
Fiber type characteristics
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
Functional Groups of Muscles
1. prime mover or agonist muscle whose contraction is
responsible for a particular movement
2. synergists muscles that assist the movement of the prime
mover or agonist
3. antagonist muscle whose action opposes that of the prime
mover or agonist
Origin - point of attachment where least movement
occurs.
Insertion point of attachment with greatest
movement.
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MUSCULAR MOVEMENT OF BONES
Skeleton Muscles generate Force and produce Movement only by
CONTRACTING or PULLING on Body Parts.
Individual Muscles can only PULL; they CANNOT PUSH.
Skeleton Muscles are joined to bone by TOUGH CONNECTIVE
TISSUE CALLED TENDONS.
TENDONS ATTACH MUSCLE TO BONE; THE ORIGIN IS THE
MORE STATIONARY BONE, THE INSERTION IS THE MORE
MOVABLE BONE.
Tendons are attached in such a way that they PULL on the Bones and
make them work like LEVERS. The movements of the Muscles and
Joints enable the Bones to act as LEVERS.
The Joint functions as a FULCRUM(The fixed point around which
the lever moves) and the Muscles provide the FORCE to move the
Lever.
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MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS.
When one Muscle or set of Muscles CONTRACTS, the other
RELAXES.
1. ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES. FLEXOR, A MUSCLE THAT
BENDS A JOINT. EXTENSOR, A MUSCLE THAT
STRAIGHTENS A JOINT.
A. When the BICEPS Muscle (on the front of the upper arm,
FLEXOR) CONTRACTS, it BENDS OR FLEXES THE ELBOW
JOINT.
B. When the TRICEPS Muscle (on the back of the upper arm,
EXTENSOR) CONTRACTS, it opens, or extends, the elbow joint.
C. A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.
ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES ARE OPPONENTS, MUSCLES
WHICH HAVE OPPOSING OR OPPOSITE FUNCTIONS. A muscle
pulls when it contracts, but exerts no force when it relaxes and
CANNOT PUSH. When one muscle Pulls a bone in one direction,
another muscle is needed to PULL the bone in the other direction.
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2. SYNERGISTIC MUSCLES ARE
THOSE WITH THE SAME FUNCTION,
OR THOSE THAT WORK TOGETHER
TO PERFORM A PARTICULAR
FUNCTION. They also stabilize a joint to
make a more precise movement possible.
MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS.
Examples:
Synergists in flexion of elbow:
biceps branchii : flexion of elbow
brachialis : flexion of elbow
Synergists in closing the jaw:
masseter: closes jaw
temporalis:closes jaw
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MUSCLE TONE.
A normal characteristic of all Skeleton Muscles is
that they remain in a state of PARTIAL
CONTRACTION.
At any given time, some Muscles are being
Stimulated while other are not. This causes a
TIGHTENED, or FIRMED Muscle and is known
as MUSCLE TONE (some motor units contract
out of phase).
Muscle Tone is responsible for keeping the back
and legs straight and the head upright even when
you are relaxed.
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Muscle Performance, Training, &
Fiber Recruitment
Disuse of a muscle, as in space travel (weightlessness), or a couch potato can
shrink a muscle by 20% in 2 weeks.
Weight Training can increase muscle mass to 150% of normal size.
How do muscles get bigger and better?
---By making more muscle proteins... nuclei of muscle control translation,
thus one needs more nuclei, but muscle cell nuclei don't divide.
----New nuclei come from independent adjacent cells (satellite stem cells).
---when muscles under rigorous exercise they "tear", and the damaged area
attracts satellite cells into the tears, depositing more nuclei.
---weight training leads to heterotrophy of muscles...... more nuclei equals muscle
enlargement due to more protein synthesis.
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Increase in size of trained muscle due to :
- greater ability of N.S. to recruit more motor units
- better neuromuscular coordination
- less fat (restricts movement
- more enzymes: increased capacity for nutrient
uptake; increased ATP production
Muscle Performance, Training, &
Fiber Recruitment
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Increase in endurance due to :
- better metabolism
- increased blood supply
- better heart pumping
Anabolic Steroids: modified testosterone increase in
body weight and total skeletal muscle mass
- side effects: irritability, testicular atrophy + sterility,
heart attack, stroke, abnormal liver function
Muscle Performance, Training, &
Fiber Recruitment
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Muscle Twitch
Muscles can not push, they may only CONTRACT (pull)
A muscle contraction is called a muscle TWITCH: contraction of a muscle
in response to a stimulus that causes an action potential in one or more
muscle fibers.
4 parts of a Muscle twitch [ Contraction cycle)
1) latent period - 5 msec time before the initiation of contraction
2) contraction - 40 msec muscle shortens & does its work
3) relaxation - 50 msec muscle elongates & returns to original position
4) refractory period - 2 msec time of recovery between stimulations of muscle
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Figure 7.6
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Definitions related to muscle contraction...
Summation - a 2nd contraction before 1st subsides
Tetany - sustained contractions (requires energy - ATP)
Fatigue - under repeat stimulation, contractions get feebler, lactate accumulates,
pH changes lead to stoppage of contractions that warms body
MUSCLE FATIGUE is a Physiological Inability of a muscle to contract.
Muscle fatigue is a result of a relative depletion of ATP.
When ATP is absent, a state of continuous contraction occurs.
This causes severe muscle cramps. Rigor mortis: rigid muscles after death due to low
ATP levels
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Figure 7.7b
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Figure 7.7c
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MUSCLE FATIGUE
1. Psychological Fatigue (CNS): most common
2. Muscular Fatigue (muscle fiber): depletion of ATP
3. Synaptic Fatigue (neuromuscular junction):
increase action potential frequency---more Ach
released than synthesized
4. Physiological Contracture: muscle unable to
contract or relax; caused by depletion of ATP due
to exercise
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OXYGEN DEBT
Temporary Lack of Oxygen. When this occurs Muscles will
switch from the normal Aerobic Respiration to a form of
Anaerobic Respiration called Lactic Acid Fermentation.
As the oxygen becomes Depleted, the muscle cells begin to
switch. Oxygen debt leads to the accumulation of Metabolic
Waste (Lactic Acid) in the muscle fibers, resulting in muscle
fatigue, pain, and even cramps. Eventually, the lactic acid
diffuses into the blood and is transported to the Liver.
Soreness after prolong exercise may be caused by Oxygen
Debt The body could not provide the Muscles the Oxygen
they needed to function properly.
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Muscle Energy Sources
Main source: ATP
Three ways to obtain ATP:
1. Creatine Phosphate: stored in the
muscle
2. Aerobic Respiration (O
2
)
3. Anaerobic Respiration (No O
2
)
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1. Creatine Phosphate
ADP + CP creatine + ATP
ATP + CP : 10-15 seconds
Muscle Energy Sources
2. Aerobic Respiration (O2)
C
6
H
12
O
6
+6O
2
+ 38 ADP +38P 6CO
2
+6H
2
O + ~ 38 ATP
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Muscle Energy Sources
3. Anaerobic Respiration
---during short intense exercise
Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid + 2 ATP
LDH enzyme
--- Lactic acid diffuses out of muscle into blood steam---liver: converts lactic acid
to Pyruvic acid ---Glucose
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Figure 7.9
Muscle Energy
Sources
Skeletal Muscle Fascicle Arrangements
fusiform thick in the middle and taper at the ends (biceps
brachii)
parallel muscle fibers are all parallel (rectus abdominis).
pennate fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a
central tendon (feather shaped) (deltoid, rectus femoris).
convergent spread out as a fan or converge to a point
(pectoralis major)
circular muscle fibers arranged concentrically (orbicularis
oris and orbicularis occuli)
Parallel and Pennate
Circular and Convergent
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Muscles
Muscles are at times grouped as to the regions where they
are found and function.
Intrinsic muscles are localized to a specific area (i.e. hand,
tongue, etc.). They function and are contained only within
that area.
Extrinsic muscles extend into other areas and are
responsible for movements of areas other than where they
are attached (iliopsoas, pectoralis, etc.)