Solution of NMTC Final stage JUNIOR 2014

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Solution of NMTC Final stage JUNIOR 2014

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JUNIOR_2014

1. (a) p

1

, p

2

, ..............................p

2014

be an arbitrary rearrangements of 1,2,3 .........n . Show that

2 1

1

p p +

+

3 2

1

p p +

+....................+

2014 2013

1

p p +

>

2016

2013

(a) We have t ofind the minimum value of

2 1

P P

1

+

+

3 2

P P

1

+

+......+

2014 2013

P P

1

+

We have to make all term equal and denominator should be max

so above exp in greater than

2014 1

1

+

+

2013 2

1

+

+

2012 3

1

+

+......+

2013 2

1

+

=

2015

1

+

2015

1

+

2015

1

+.....+

2015

1

=

2015

2013

and

2015

2013

>

2016

2013

2 1

P P

1

+

+

3 2

P P

1

+

+......+

2014 2013

P P

1

+

>

2016

2013

1. (b) Find positive integers 'n' such that

1 n

+

1 + n

is rational.

Sol. Show that there is no positive integer n for which

1 n

+

1 n+

is rational

If possible, let there be a positive integer n for which

1 n

+

1 n+

is rational equal to

b

a

(say),

where a, b are positive integers. Then,

b

a

=

1 n

+

1 n+

..(1)

b

a

=

1 n 1 n

1

+ +

a

b

=

} 1 n 1 n }{ 1 n 1 n {

1 n 1 n

+ + +

+

=

) 1 n ( ) 1 n (

1 n 1 n

+

+

=

2

1 n 1 n +

a

b 2

=

1 n+

1 n

..(2)

Adding (1) and (2) and subtracting (2) from (1), we get

2

1 n+

=

b

a

+

a

b 2

and 2

1 n

=

b

a

a

b 2

1 n+

=

ab 2

b 2 a

2 2

+

and

1 n

=

ab 2

b 2 a

2 2

1 n+

and

1 n

are rational ( a,b are integers

ab 2

b 2 a

2 2

+

and

ab 2

b 2 a

2 2

are rational )

(n +1 are rational )

(n +1) and (n 1) are perfect squares if poisitive integers

This is not possible as any two perfect square differe at least by 3.

Hence, there is no positive integer n for which (

1 n

+

1 n+

) is rational.

2. ABCD is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle of centre O. Let BD bisect OC perpendicularly. P is a

point on the diagonal AC such that PC =OC. BP cuuts AD at E and the circle ABCD at F. Prove that

PF is the geometric mean of EF and BF.

Sol.

Since

PC OC BC = =

and

CP AB

is similar to

AFP A

. We have PF =AF. AF.

Next CB =CD =CP implies P is the incenter of

ABD A

. Then BF bisects

ABD yielding FAD =ADF call it u . Alternatively we have FAD =PBD =

1

2

FAD PBD PCD = = . Then

180 AFD ACD =

180 PCD =

180 2PBD =

180 2 = u

Hence,

ADF = u

, Also we see AFE =BFA and

EAF ADF ABF = u = =

which implev

AFE A

is similar

to

BFA A

. So

/ / AF EF BF AF =

. Then

PF AF EF BF = =

3. (a) The Fibonacci sequence is defined by F

0

=1, F

1

=1, F

n

=F

n1

+F

n2

for natural numbers n

>

2.

Show that ( )

3

1

3 3

2

7

+ +

n n n

F F F is divisible by F

n+3

Sol. (a) 7F

3

n+2

F

n

3

F

3

n+1

7 (F

n+3

F

n+1

)

3

F

n

3

F

3

n+1

7 (F

3

n+3

F

3

n+1

3F

n+3

F

n+1

(F

n+3

F

n+1

) F

3

n

F

3

n+1

F

3

n+3

and 3F

n+3

F

n+1

(F

n+3

F

n+1

) are

divisible by F

n+3

so we have

the check only

7 F

3

n+1

F

3

n

F

3

n+1

8 F

3

n+1

F

3

n

[(2F

n+1

)

3

+F

3

n

]

It have factor

(2F

n+1

+F

n

)

=F

n+1

+F

n+1

+F

n

=F

n+1

+F

n+2

=F

n+3

so whole expression is divisible by F

n+3

.

3. (b) If x, y, z are each greater than 1, Show that

2

4

) 1 ( y

x

+

2

4

) 1 ( z

y

+

2

2

) 1 ( x

z

>

48.

Sol. some correction z

2

should replaced by z

4

4. ABCD is a square E anf F are points on BC and CD respectively such that AE cuts the diagonal BD at

G and FG is perpendicular to AE. K is a point on FG such that AK =EF. Find the measure of the

angle EKF.

Sol..

C D

A B

E

F

8

7

6 45

5

4

G

45

45

a

1

2

By SAS

AABG ~ ACBG

AG =CG (CPCT)

Z4 =a

Z1 =45 +a (text Z of AAGB)

Z1 +Z2 =90

Z2 =90 (45 +a)

=45 a

ZGFC =Z2 +45

=90 a

Z5 =90 Z4

=90 a

In AFAC

Z5 =Z6 =90 a

FG =GC

By SAS

AAGK ~ AFGE

GK =GE

Z7 =Z8 =45

ZEKF =180 45 =135

5. (a) If none of a, b, c, x, y, z, is zero and

3

2

a

) z y ( x +

=

3

2

b

) x z ( y +

=

3

2

c

) y x ( z +

=

abc

xyz

=1 ,

prove that a

3

+b

3

+c

3

+abc =0

Sol. Given equation may be written as,

x

2

(y +z) =a

3

..(1)

y

2

(z +x) =b

3

..(2)

z

2

(x +y) =c

3

..(3)

xyz =abc

From (1), (2), (3),

x

2

y

2

z

2

(y +z)(z +x) (x +y) =a

3

b

3

c

3

a

2

b

2

c

2

(y +z) (z +x)(x +y) =a

3

b

3

c

3

or abc =(y +z) (z +x) (x +y)

=(yz +yx +z

2

+zx) (x +y)

=xyz +x

2

y +xz

2

+x

2

z +y

2

z +y

2

x +yz

2

+xyz

=2xyz +x

2

(y +z) +y

2

(z +x) +z

2

(x +y)

=2abc +a

3

+b

3

+c

3

Hence a

3

+b

3

+c

3

+abc =0

5.(b) Solve the equations

y

x

+

z

y

+

x

z

=

x

y

+

y

z

+

z

x

=x +y +z =3

Sol.

y

x

+

z

y

+

x

z

=

x

y

+

y

z

+

z

x

=x +y +z =3

Now

y

x

+

z

y

+

x

z

=

x

y

+

y

z

+

z

x

or x

2

z +y

2

x +z

2

y =y

2

z +z

2

x +x

2

y

or x

2

(y z) +y

2

(z x) +z

2

(x y) =0

or (x y) (y z) (z x) =0

x =y =z

Now

y

x

+

z

y

+

x

z

=3

Putting y =z, we get,

y

x

+1 +

x

y

=3

or

yx

y x

2 2

+

=2

or x

2

2xy +y

2

=0 or (x y)

2

=0

Again x +y +z =3

x +x +x =3

thus x =y = z =1

7. A mechant bought a quantity of cotton : this he exchanged for oil he sold. He observed that the

number of kg of cotton, the number of litres of oil obtained for each kg and the number of rupees for

which he sold formed a decreasing geometric progression. He calculated that if he had obtained 1 kg

more of cotton, one litre more of oil for each kg and Rs. 1 more each litre, he would have obtained Rs.

10169 more, whereas if he had obtained one kg less of cotton and one litre less of oil for each kg and

Rs. 1 less for each litre, he would obtained Rs. 9673 less. How much he actually received..?

Sol. let the merchant bought x kg of cotton and changed each kg for y litres of oil, and sold each llitre for z

rs, then he obtained xyz rupees

in the first case ATQ, we have

(x +1)(y +1)(z +1) =xyz +10169 ....................(1)

and by the 2nd case ATQ, we have

(x +1)(y 1)(z 1) =xyz 9673 ......................(2)

also x, y, z form a G.P so y

2

=xz

now from eq (1) and (2) we have

(yz +xy +zx) +(x +y +z) =10168 .................(3)

and (yz +xy +zx) (x +y +z) = 9672 .................(4)

on adding and subtracting equation no. (3) and (4)

yz +xy +zx =9920

x +y +z =248

now yz +xy +zx =9920

yz +xy +y

2

=9920 (y

2

=xz)

y(z +x +y) =9920

y =

248

9920

=40 zx =1600

z +x =248 40 =208 x =200 , z =8

thus he actually received =xyz =Rs. 64000

8. There are three towns A, B and C a personwalking from A to B , driving from B to C and riding from C to

A makes the journey in 15

2

1

hours, By driving from A to B, riding from B to C and walking from C to

A, he could make the journey in 12 hours. On foot he could make the journey in 22 hours, on horse

back in 8

4

1

hours and driving in 11 hours . To walk 1 KM, ride 1 KM and drive 1 KM , he takes

altogether half an hour, Find the rates at which he travels and the distance between the towns.

Sol. let total distance be x km and sspeed of walking, riding & driving be w, r d respectively..

ATQ. 22w =

4

33

r =11d =x

2w =

4

3

r =d

and

2

1 1 1 1

= + +

d w r

2

1 11 22

4

33

= + +

x x x

2

1

4

44 88 33

=

+ +

x

2

1

4

165

=

x

x =

2

165

km

So w =

22

x

=

22 2

165

=

4

15

, r =

33

4x

= 10 and d =

11

x

=

2

15

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