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Comments on the glossary of the comedy , in Lia Brad Chisacof (ed.),


. (Athens: Panepistimiakes Ekdoseis Kyprou and Ekdoseis Gutenberg,
2011) [revised 26 August 2014]

Peter Mackridge

My purpose in compiling this document and publishing it on the Internet is not to cast aspersions on
any individual but rather to set the record straight and, by doing so, to make a positive contribution
to the understanding of this historically and linguistically important text and of the varieties of Greek
used in Phanariot circles in the late 18
th
century.
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There are a number of minor errors of transcription in the text of the play (mostly involving accents
and individual letters), but I have decided to confine my comments to the glossary except where a
doubtful or erroneous transcription of the manuscript is relevant. Many of my comments are
expressed in the form of advice to the editor when preparing a corrected edition.
In general:
letters that are consistently written by the author with diacritics over them should be
written as such in the glossary, e.g. , n , o : o\ct [dovlti], ktonct [kitabti], tvoo\\
[lnallx],
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headwords should be given in their dictionary form (nominative singular for nouns,
masculine nominative singular for adjectives, and first person singular present active (if
available) for verbs);
those headwords that are adjectives should not be accompanied by the definite article;
( in the ms should be transcribed o where it is represents the sound [ts]; despite the
edlLor's clalm Lo be followlng Lhls prlnclple (p. 33), she doesn'L do so ln pracLlce.
Angelou (8erLoldo)" = Giulio Cesare dalla Croce, Mnepr k Mneprv (nt. \kq
c\o) (Athens 1988).
Angelou (Kodrikas)" = ovotq kotk, pepe, nt. \kq c\o (Athens 1991).
Dehque" = l. D. Dehque, Aekv rp ypkk k yk yp. Dictionnaire grec-moderne
franais (Paris 1825).
ulmaras" = A. koo(, Ak, ntc\to k.C. Aqo (ALhens 1974).
lotelnos" = ulonyslos loLelnos' rp rp n Ak, vol. 3 (Vienna 1819) (contains many of
the elaborate terms used by the author to refer to the titles of dignitaries and details of court
ceremonial, processions etc.).
Coldonl (Gentillnl)" = Anna Gentillini Grinzato, Una traduzione neogreca inedita: Il vero amico di C.
Goldoni (Padua 1976).
Coldonl (Martini)" = Lidia Martini, Una traduzione neogreca inedita: La moglie saggia di C. Goldoni
(Padua 1976).
Coldonl (Levanonl)" = CrlsLlna Levanonl, Una traduzione neogreca inedita: La locandiera di C.
Goldoni (Padua 1977).

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I am grateful to the following for their advice on some of the material contained in this document: Marjolijne
Janssen, Tassos Kaplanis, Marc Lauxtermann, Laurent Mignon and Iraklis Millas. All errors are entirely my own
responsibility.
2
I say conslsLenLly"because someLlmes Lhe auLhor wrlLes a word wlLh a dlacrlLlc, and someLlmes Lhe same
word without it.
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kappler" = Matthias Kappler, 1otclsml oell AllposloJbo Jl cbotzl ecbtetls (Turin 1993).
kechagloglou" = l. kot\o, eypk vy, vol. 2 (Thessaloniki 2001).
kokklnakls"/"uchner" = Germanograecia zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts : die literarischen
bersetzungen von Konstantinos Kokkinakis und Ioannis Papadopoulos", in his book Von Herodas
zu Elytis: Studien zur griechischen Literaturtradition seit der Sptantike (Vienna etc. 2012) (on
konsLanLlnos kokklnakls' LranslaLlon of four plays by koLzebue [vlenna 1801]).
Koukkidis" = kuvo. kokkq, Aeyv pvkv ev npyvv ek rp 1upkk
(Athens 1960).
krlaras" = Aek rp evk epvk pu ypre, 1100-1669 (Thessaloniki
1968-).
amboukls" = l. 1. onokq, 1upkk ey rp N pvk, o , nt. k. l. koovq
(Athens 1988) [the volume includes words beginning A-K; no further volumes have been
published].
Papasynadinos" = Paolo Odorico (ed.), Conseils et mmoires de Synadinos prtre de Serrs en
Macdoine (XVIIe sicle) (Paris 1996..
lsLas" = o, zev rv vrekrv eprv (Athens 1971).
paLhls": G.N. Soutsos, evp uvepr, ed. Dimitris Spathis (Athens 1995).
Lavrlnos" = Atqot uotoq o Mto\ 8ovo (Atkv t o \to o \tko, ono
ntct q o tooo ko' o\qov, Legrand (ed.), Recueil de pomes historiques en grec
vulgaire relatifs la Turquie et aux principauts danubiennes (Paris 1877)).
vaglakakos" = Atkoo 8. 8otokko, zo\ t qv \cqv uv votkv notkv kot
otkovotkv uv o \\qvtko o (16
o
-19
o
ot.) (Athens 1990).
vlLLl" = l*** k****, pr nrer, nt. Mario Vitti (Athens 1989).

Each of the entries in the list below begins with the whole or part of one of the entries in the
glossary, quoted here within inverted commas.
'otk '. 1hls very flrst entry in the glossary is repeated, with a number of variations, four entries
further down.
'o(oto, o (25r) < ok. agzotar: okot'. The reference should be to 25v, while 37r should be
added. The more likely meanlng ln Lhe conLexL ls 'cases for conLalnlng prlmer' (see nexL enLry
below). There seems to be no word agzotar in Turkish. The more likely etymology is < o( t (see
the following entry below) < T oz oto + Greek t.
'o(, o (12v, 25r) < ok. aiz: noot'. The reference to 25r is erroneous. 1 oz (thus spelled)
means 'mouLh'. 1he word appears ln the text in two phrases:
o( t (12v) < oz oto [lit. 'mouLh-grass, muzzle-fodder'] 'primer', i.e. 'cap or cyllnder
containing a compound which responds to friction, an electric spark, etc., and ignites the
charge ln a carLrldge or exploslve' (OED) (cf. Koukkidis, s.v. ot(q, q, and Vagiakakos, p. 39,
s.v. ot(t/ot(t: 'tk nooq nto qotonotocvq u cvooo uv t
no\uv knookoovuv n\uv');
on ot( (q.v. below).
'otkov, o (41r) < ok. airna [sic for otoo] gitmek: noo\\u'. This is one of many
instances where a word belonging to one part of speech (here a noun or adjective) is interpreted
with the use of a different part of speech (here a verb). The phrase otoo gitmek is irrelevant to the
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context. In the text the nominalized adjective o otkov (< T ot 'heavy') seems to mean 'acLlng
slowly' (delaylng). Cf. otko 'gravemenLe' in Goldoni (Stevanoni), otcq 'serlo' ln CenLlllnl 1997:
490, and ot\kt 'vo cot kov ot' in Vitti.
'oto\ (3r) < \\.: ot(u, qv'. This is a misreading for ovo\, which is used by Rigas in zev
rv vrekrv eprv, where it is glossed by Pistas as '\tvu'. The rpkv ekv of the
Aacdemy of Athens defines one of the meanings of ovo\ as 'oovoot, vu', which is clearly
what is meant in this case.
'otv [sic for tv] tk\ kt otov [sic for otvov] (13r) < ok. yikil git: on '. The
Turkish phrase is misspelled and incomplete; it should be boyJl ykl qlt urdan 'go on, get out of
here', exacLly correspondlng Lo Creek 'v koo on u'. version of the same phrase, 't
tk\ oovv', is used in Hourmouzios, rukrp (1835), p. 129.
'oko\\, o (43v) < ok. aka: \ok ovoooo o voooo ake'. This is fanciful. In fact oko\\
is the T adverb akalli 'aL leasL'.
'o\t (oo < ok. alay cavus'. For (oo read ooo and for 'cavus' read 'avu'.
'ovkt, o (23r) < ok. entari: ov, cvo'. This is a garbled way of saying that ovkt is a
diminutive of ov < ok. entari: cvo.
'onq C\oooo (48v) < ok. Ak deniz: o too c\oo'. The symbol '<' is misused here, since
the Greek phrase is not phonologically derived from the Turkish term Akdeniz, but is a loan
translation of it. Akdeniz normally refers to the Mediterranean rather than the Aegean, although
'Aegean' flLs Lhe presenL conLexL.
'o(o, o (24r) < ok. acemi: octo. In the context o(o seems to be used in the sense of
its Turkish etymon: 'novlce, lnexperlenced' raLher Lhan 'clumsy' (cf. Koukkidis and Pamboukis, s.v.
o(o: 'oto').
'o(o, q (43u [sic for 45v] < kn. kq o uto // < ok. acza: o, kot (o.)'. The
whole entry is fanciful. The term is < Romanian agie 'offlce of Lhe Ag', Lhe Ag (o in the
Romanian Greek of the time, < T oo) being a cross between the minister of public order and the
commissioner of the Bucharest police (see l/definitie/agie and
http://dexonline.ro/definitie/ag%C4%83). Foteinos refers in many places to an oktov q (o
and Anocvov q (o and 1o q (o (Anocvov seems to have been a kind of
law court). Foteinos implies, however, that the Aq has special responsibility for the market. ''
(45v) should probably read o, and it should certainly be defined in the glossary.
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Foteinos
devotes a whole section to the office of Aq, pp. 488ff. See also Kechagioglou, s.v. co o:
'\o oq ovvo, otnnq q oo, otoovo'.
'ook\kt, o (94v)'. 1he reference should be 4r.
'o(o(u (38r, 44v) < ok. vasiyet: koo\nu, noou, k\qoo.' This word (which is
quite common in early modern Greek) also appears on 34v (where o(coto is wrongly
transcribed as ocoto) and 53v. It is < T vazgemek 'give up, cease from, abandon': 'v
o(o(u on ocvo' (38r) 'l'm noL glvlng up on you'. T vasiyet 'wlll, LesLamenL' ls lrrelevanL. Cf.
Koukkidis, s.v. o(ko(u/o(o(u; Pamboukis, s.v. o(to(u.
'ookvu (50r) < ok. varak: o \\o, . ovu'. 1hls enLry ls a llLLle confused. lL
should read: 'ookvu (50r) ovu < okt < ok. varak: \\o oo'. Also Kechagioglou
okuo.

3
Cf. egrand's glossary Lo Lavrlnos, p. 325, s.v. o.
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'ovu oo k\t (17r) o (u nco'. This is correct; the phrase corresponds exactly to T bo
kmok 'cope'. One could add its transitive counterpart, (u oo k\t (5v), corresponding to T
bo kotmok 'accompllsh'.
'k\ o(, o (12v) < ok. vekil harc: otuooo'. k\ (q (thus accented) is < 1
vekilhar 'ma[ordomo, sLeward ln a greaL house'. Cf. the entry for k\q in the zyvk glossary,
and Koukkidis, s.v. k\o(q, Pamboudis, s.v. kt\(q.
'\\c, ot (37r) < ok. velvele: uv'. 'uv' could lmply slmply 'volce', whereas \\c
means 'hubbub'.
'\ovo': read '\tov'.
'\o (38v) < \\. oookt'. 1he accenL ls mlsplaced, and Lhe eLymology ls nonsense. The entry
should read 'tc\o (38v) < v. vedelo: oot'.
'vtocvo, o (27v, 36r) < ok. gevende: t\tocvo'. (Spelled tocvo on p. 27v.)
lv(u/tv(u (which Kriaras glosses as 'tononu, vont(u') is attested since the 14
th

cent. Cypriot Assizes. Ducange (s.v. v(tv) and later lexicographers have derived it from French
gibet (cf. English gibbet). There appears to be no word gevende in Turkish.
'tk\, ot (39v) < ok. gedikli: oktk ntokcnq'. ln the context, tk\ is being used in
a particular Romanian Greek sense. loLelnos several Llmes uses Lhe word 'tk\', whlch on p.
449 he glosses as 'nqcot'; it seems from p. 535 that they mostly had strictly domestic duties
(stewards, butlers, valets, etc.). Cf. Rom. iedecliu/idicliu (http://dexonline.ro/definitie/iedecliu,
where the etymon is specified as 1 yedekli) and k\ ln kodrlkas' pepe (glossed by
Angelou as 'servanLs lf Lhe prlnce').
'vt, o (43v) < ok. gem: o\tvt'. In fact v, o < T yemeni 'klnd of peasanL shoe' (in
this context; it can also mean a kind of scarf). Cf. Koukkidis and Pamboukis, s.v. v.
' no\ovtvt \\ (16r) < T bulamandinmie devletli: vo o qv q o'. The
gloss is purely fanciful. In fact no\ovtvt \\ (the author writes no\ovtvt
and as separate words) = T yet bolomoJo m, e Jevletll? 'dldn'L you flnd a place, your excellency?'
'tok, vu (34v) < ok. yakmak: v\qoq'. Pere a phrase ls derlved from a 1urklsh verb that is
interpreted as a noun. T yokmok means 'Lo be sulLable, Lo look good'. Powever, l am unable Lo
lnLerpreL Lhe expresslon 'vu tok', and the editor may well be right to suggest it means 'Lo annoy,
boLher'. AL all evenLs, Lhls enLry should be merged wlLh 'tok, o (34v)', slnce here Loo Lhe noun ls
used in the phrase 'vu tok'. In his glossary to Katartzis, Dimaras interprets this phrase as
'nocu oo', buL l'm unable Lo say wheLher he ls rlghL.
'to\ov (34v) < ok. glnmek: ocoku'. In fact < T yolunda 'as lL/Lhey should be' (llL. 'on
its/their road'); an adverb has been misinterpreted as a verb. Puchner glosses to\ov as 'otk,
natrlich'.
'to\oo(tko, o (32v) cf. ok. yolsuz'. lor 'cf.' read '<'.
'tokto, o (28r) < ok. yukar: o nvu co'. In fact tokt, o < T yk 'large cupboard for
sLorlng beddlng'. Stevanoni glosses toko as 'alcova' (Coldonl (Levanonl). Cf. Koukkidis, s.v. toko,
Pamboukis, s.v. toko.
'too(u (20r, 25r) cf. ok. yumrukatmak: vu ot'. AcLually < 1 yrmek 'proceed
(nou), advance'. 1he related Turkish noun yotoyo 'advance, assaulL, onslaught' has glven Ck
tooot, familiar to historians and to Solomos scholars as the term for the sortie from Mesolongi
in 1826 (otherwise known as the oo). Cf. Pamboukis, s.v. to(u.
'kon, o (23v) cf ok. garbi: on q oq'. The author writes on, not kon. When
Mavrogenls says 'C kot c ov on' he means 'Lhe wlnd yesLerday was from Lhe wesL'.
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According to the Triandafyllidis dictionary, on is ultimately from Arabic, via either Venetian or
Turkish.
'kvtocvo, \. vtocvo'. 1hls enLry should be deleLed, slnce Lhe auLhor doesn'L spell Lhls
word with k.
'kt(oovq (21r) < ok. gemicilik'. To be precise, it is from kt( (< 1 gemici) + Greek suffix
oovq. With this Greek formation one can indeed compare T gemicilik.
'ktto (49v) < ok. ghyuwah (o.): oo, o'. Another fanciful derivation involving a
flcLlonal 'anclenL 1urklsh' word. ln facL an adverb (< T gya/gya 'supposedly') has been
misinterpreted as a noun. Cf. ulmaras' glossary Lo kaLarLzls: 'ktto = v'; also Kechagioglou,
Koukkidis and Pamboukis, s.v. ktto.
'ktooo(u (24r, 29r) cf. 1 gruLurmek: kovov(u ovvqoq'. ln facL < 1 qotomek 'meeL,
converse'.
'ktoo\okto, o (25v) < ok. gszlk: ovoo'. ln facL ktoo\okt (sic) cannot mean
this in the context, which consists of a list of weapons.
'o\, o (34r) < ok. tabla: oko, . otvto nqo. This word (usually spelled von\
in Greekand spelled o\ in this text) has no connection with T tabla 'clrcular Lray'. lL ls < 1 damla
'drop, paralyLlc sLroke'. In the context the second of these meanings is intended. It may be that the
editor consulted a Turkish-English dictionary and misinterpreted the English word stroke 'nqo,
onon\qo'. ln Lhe LexL Lhe word appears ln Lhe meLaphorlcal phrase 'o\ koovt'
expresslng a sudden emoLlonal shock, slmllarly ' koovt vo\' in G.N. Soutsos,
evp uvepr, p. 20, and 'nu kot koct kovcvo vo\' ln Coldonl
(Martini), p. 52.
'\'. pell \. The page reference is also incorrect.
'tvt, o [...]: q co o qvo'. It should be written tvt and glossed as something like
'Councll of LaLe'.
'tov \cn (17v) < ok. divan leb: oqv kq o tovto'. The meaning of this passage is highly
problematic. It is spoken by the elderly chief gate-keeper Matios, who frequently utters his thoughts
in a stream-of-consciousness manner which, together with his Greek-Turkish code-switching, makes
him difficult to understand. lf 'tov \cn' ls a slngle phrase, lL could to be composed of the words
divan (ad[.) 'perLalnlng Lo Lhe lmperlal Councll of LaLe' and lebe 'Lo Lhe edge'. However, in both the
manuscrlpL and Lhe edlLor's LranscrlpLlon we read: 'ooo tvt \cn,', wlLh an vu \o after
tvt and a question mark after \cn: besides, in the ms there is a large gap between tvt' and
'\cn,' as Lhough '\cn,' ls a compleLe uLLerance. (Maybe lL's slang?) Be this as it may, there is a
conLradlcLlon beLween Lhls enLry and a laLer one: '\cn (17v) < o. lepe: uoo'. The passage in
the text is especially puzzling, since Serbian has both a word lepe 'beauLlful' and a word divan
meanlng 'superb, dellghLful, sLunnlng, greaL, adorable, lovely'.
't(vt, o (39v) < ok. dzglnzslz [sic for dizginsiz]: oo\vuo (o'. 1 dizginsiz, which the editor
proposes as Lhe eLymon, means 'unbrldled', whlch seems plauslble ln Lhe conLexL, buL it cannot be
the etymon of t(vt. The clue to the meaning of t(vt is Rom. dizghin 'blow glven Lo a horse
with a spur or brldle' (http://dexonline.ro/definitie/dizghin), which makes it suddenly accelerate.
1he conLexL ('o o o cvo t(vt') musL mean 'hls hlghness spurs his horse' (or perhaps jerks
its bridle or whips it with the reins), thus causing it to gallop off at great speed.
't\t(u (32v) < ok. dillendrmek: vu oo to o\to'. erhaps read 't\vt(u', and
cerLalnly 'dlllendlrmek'. From the context it is clear that the verb is transitive, as the causative form
of the Turkish verb implies, i.e. 'make [someone] Lhe sub[ecL of gosslp' (Greek kooono\u).
'o/o, ot'. 1hls should read 'o, o'
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'oo(/oo( (12v, 17r) < ok. domuz: oovt'. 1hls enLry should be merged wlLh 'oo(
(12v) < ok. domuz: oovt'. T domuz means not only (literally) 'plg' buL also (metaphorically)
'obsLlnaLe, cunnlng and selflsh, splLeful, mallclous'. On 12v both the ms and the transcription have
voo(, not oo(. However, on 17r (and 41r) the author writes oo(q, the plural form of a
Hellenized masculine noun oo(q with the same metaphorical meaning. Pamboukis, s.v.
Aoo(q (surname) glosses Lhe word as '= oovt ntooq'. In addition, the phrase
'voo( ' (13r) lsn'L menLloned ln Lhe glossary. lL ls 1 domuz herif, lit. 'plg-fellow'.
'to \ (50r) < ok. yaman devlet: to ko'. 1he auLhor wrlLes tt \ct. The
conLexL ls: 't o tt \ct oo vo ovooq', meanlng 'ln Lhe days of your governmenL l
will be brought back to life'. 1hls comes in a flattering speech addressed to the prince. The Ottoman
expression fi eyym- Jevlet-i 'ln Lhe days of the government of' was used to indicate that
something had taken place during the reign of a certain sultan.
'\v(c': for 'elence' read 'elence'.
'(tkct': read '(tct'. Cf. Koukkidis, s.v. (tc/ (ttc 'oko\o, ntov, koonot'.
'k(toov (26v) cf. ok. lklzdourmak: nocu'. ln facL kt((u < T kzmok 'geL angry'
(lklzJootmok means 'glve blrLh Lo Lwins; (slang) be in greaL paln').
'kk(tkov, o (30r) < ok. ekmeki: u'. The word indeed comes from T ekmeki 'baker',
but the author ls uslng lL as an ad[ecLlve: 'kk(tkov oot'.
'\(t\kt, o < ok. eli: q noo. No page reference given. T eli means 'envoy'. 1he eLymon
should be elilik. In the context it means more llke 'mlsslon' (onooo\). (Also in lgas' zev,
where it is glossed as 'onooo\, oo\qoq'.)
'vq, o (40v) < ok. emin: ooo\c'. ueleLe ', o' and read 'ooo\'.
'ntvtoov (37r) cf. ok. bindirmek: ntt(oot. Mntvt(u is indeed from the T
causative verb bindirmek (Lherefore 'cf.' should be '<'), whlch means 'cause Lo mounL'.
'noo(u (23v) < ok. boaz: tooq ovv // ov'. The - may be the temporal
augment; the form that the author writes is noo(toov. This is one of the instances where the
editor tells us the meaning of the proposed Turkish etymon, but not of the Greek word that she is
supposed to be defining. Note that if booz is really the etymon, the verb ()noo(u is unusual
(if not unique) in being formed from a Turkish root + -u.
'n\ct( (33v) < ok. epeyl: no\ ko\.' The author writes n\cot(. This is clearly not an
adverb but a verb: n\o(u, the - being the augment. There is already an entry for n\o(u
(see below).
'\c (11r) < ok. hergele: oooo \oo'. l wonder wheLher Lhe phrase '\oo \c'
means 'a herd of horses' (\c being used as a synonym of n\o).
'no, o (17r, 47v) < ok. etpagi: oko\oo'. 1he gloss fits the context (Foteinos [435] glosses it
as ovoo), but etpagi doesn'L exlsL ln 1urklsh. The etymon is the Turkish plural noun etba
'followers, aLLendanLs', used in Greek as a singular. Cf. Pamboukis, s.v. n. Also cf. Angelou's
glossary to Kodrikas, pepe, s.v. n, and http://dexonline.ro/definitie/etpaia.
'vt t(v (13) < ok. efendimizin: ovo'. 1he phrase 'v vtt(v' (Lhe auLhor
correctly writes vtt(v as a slngle word) means 'our masLer's command': 1 efendimizin means
'of our masLer'.
'ov, o (32v) < \\. oov nt. tov, ovoo'. The author writes oov, not ov.
Besides, since he uses lL as an adverb ('badly, poorly'), Lhe lndlcaLlon ', o' should be deleLed.
'(ont\kt [...] q okqoq ooo'. In fact (ont\kt seems to mean something like 'pollclng'.
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'(nt kck (33v) < zapti gerek: nu o \cu'. The Greek ((nt kck) and Turkish (zapti gerek)
phrases given here in the glossary are meaningless. The full phrase in the text ls 'vovot (nt
kck ktn ', meanlng 'Lhey are held/seized firmly [= T zapt olurlar] as they should be [T gerek gibi
'as requlred']'. Cf. the phrase 'kck ktn' and Lhe enLry 'vtvot(v oktvv tvo( kck'; but
note there are two distinct but homonymous words gerek in Turkish: one is a conjunction
('wheLher or, boLh and', as on 23r), Lhe oLher an ad[ecLlve ('necessary', as on 17v and 33v).
'(nt, o (4r, 28v) < ok. zapt etmek: o\\ovu, tovu, tokocu'. On 28v the author
uses the phrase kvu (nt 'selze, hold flrmly', which is frequently found in Greek texts of the time
(sometimes in the form kvu (t), kvu being a translation of T etmek. Since kvu (nt is the
active equivalent of voot (nt, these two phrases should be treated in a single entry.
'(oc'. lor 23r read 23v.
'(o, q (15v) < ok. zev: o(o'. This is pure nonsense; the word is the well-known (,
o 'ploughman'; besides, the phrase that the author uses ls 'o (', which shows the word to
be masculine.
'(k\v(u (40r) < ok. zevk almak: took(u. The editor spells this item (which also appears
on 42r) with a but (kt (from the same Turkish root) with . The true etymon is T zevklenmek
'enjoy; make fun of'. In the context (in which it is a transitive verb) (k\v(u clearly has the latter
meaning; Pistas, in his edition of lgas' zev rv vrekrv eprv, glosses lL as 'koou,
ntno(u'; also Goldoni (Martini) and Goldoni (Stevanoni).
'(kt (11v) < ok. zevk: oq'. Although the Turkish word can lndeed mean 'LasLe', ln Lhe conLexL
the Greek word means 'fun, en[oymenL', noL 'LasLe'. 1hls noun ls frequenLly used in the same sense
in evp. Cf. Koukkidis, s.v. (ckt: 'ooqot, qov, oovtoo, ovno\o';
Kechaioglou, s.v. (ckt, Pamboukis, s.v. (ckt.
'(ono\kt, o (50r) < ok. zorba: oto, nuovo'. The immediate Turkish etymon is zotbolk
'use of force; violence, bullylng', which is of course derived from zorba. Cf. Koukkidis, s.v.
(ono\kt.
'(o\ot, o (53r) < ok. zulm: \o // koonoq, otko'. 1he gloss '\o' has sllpped ln
erroneously, perhaps because the editor was consulting a Turkish-English dictionary and
mlsundersLood Lhe Lngllsh noun 'wrong' (otko).
'tktc ntc (51r) < ok. ikide bi de: oot'. The author wrlLes 'tktc ntc'. The Turkish
phrase is ikide birde 'now and Lhen, all Lhe Llme'.
'tvtc\t, ot (34v) < o. infidelitatea: onto'. The author writes tvt\to [= tvt\tc],
presumably from a singular tvt\t. This item is more likely to have been borrowed from Italian
infidelit, or possibly French infidlit, than from Romanian, which in any case borrowed its word
from the French (see http://dexonline.ro/definitie/infidelitate).
't(o, ot (10) \. t( o\vt'. These Lwo Lerms don'L mean Lhe same Lhlng. l o (i.e. o) < T
l oos denotes a valet. For t( o\vt see below.
't( o\vt, o < ok. oglan'. No page reference is given. The Creek Lerm should be wrlLLen 't
o\vt', and Lhe 1urklsh eLymon should be wrlLLen 'l olan'. lL means elLher 'page ln ulLan's
palace' or 'youLh educaLed for servlce aL courL' (edhouse 1urklsh-English dictionary); Foteinos (535)
says the t( o\vto are domestic servants who are subordinate to the tk\ (see 'tk\'
above). Kechagioglou, s.v. too\vt: 'vo (o\tk) ok\oo'.
'kot\kt, o (11r) < ok. kad: totkoo'. The immediate etymon is koJlk 'Lhe offlce (ouo)
of a [udge' < koJ.
'ko(ovt(u (51r) \. ko(ov(u'. ko(ovt(u is from the Turkish causative verb kozooJtmok
'cause Lo galn or proflL'.
8

'ko(ov(u (39r) < ok. kazandrmak: k(u'. 1he 1urklsh eLymon ls kazanmak.
'ko\ono\kt, o (12v) < ok. kalabalk: n\o'. The etymon and the general meaning are correct,
but this word seems to have been used in a more specific technical meaning by the Phanariots. ln
evp it refers to the train or caravan of animals and vehicles transporting the new
prince, his family, his retinue and their baggage from Constantinople to Jassy, paLhls glosses lL as 'q
ovoo, q oko\oo // o, kooto, outk no ovoov tov onooo\'.
Similarly, on 12v it refers to the train or caravan taking Mavrogenis and his baggage to Bucharest. Cf.
Rom. calabalc '[formerly] baggage, especlally mlllLary'. The word is used again on 23r, where it
seems to mean a consignment of mail.
'ko\oo (21v) < to\. calumare: o\ovu ootv'. The nautical word caluma is used both as the
imperative of the verb calumare 'pay ouL a cable' and (ln veneLlan) as a noun Lo mean 'slowlng
down'. lL may be LhaL Lhe prlnce ls Lelllng annakls Lo slow down or calm down.
'kontvco ontvco, o (30r) o\\. < le cabinet: q kcvqoq'. It is clear from their contexts
LhaL Lhese Lerms refer Lo Lhe prlnce's prlvaLe sLudy raLher Lhan Lhe 'cablneL' (i.e. council of
ministers), which is equivalent to o tvt. Cf. ulmaras' glossary Lo kaLarLzls: 'kontvco = oo,
onoooto'.
'kono(oot (17r) cf ok. kapamak: k\vu'. The author uses the verb kono(u twice. In the first
case, the full phrase 'konooqkov \o o kovkto' (17r) means 'all Lhe lnns [military staging
posts] have been booked up'.
4
In the other (32r) 'konto o to' seems to mean that the
prince has bought up all the fish that is available in the market; the Redhouse Turkish-English
dlcLlonary glves 'to hoard' as one of Lhe meanlngs of kapamak, which may be what the author
intends here. On the other hand, it may be that in the second case the etymon is kapatmak 'acqulre
by trick or manoeuvre, geL someLhlng very cheap', alLhough in that case one would expect kono(u.
'kon\otocvo, o (33r) < ok. kapl: nvcvo'. The page reference is erroneous. The
immediate etymon of the verb kon\o(u is T kaplamak 'cover over'.
'koo(t (33v, 37v) < o. cartu: o ockt'. The reference to 35v is erroneous. On 37v the
author writes koo(o (plural). I wonder whether the singular should be koooo rather than
kooot. I doubt that the Greek word comes from Rom. cotto, which is < F cartouche.
'kooov (14v) < to\. cassaro, < to\. kasaro: noo (o o kooooo, o onoo
oqo(t qv oo konvo)'. The immediate etymon is Ven. cssaro 'quarLerdeck, poop deck'.
The Italian equivalent is cassero, whlle 'kasaro' ls pure lnvenLlon. 1he Creek Lerm ls noo, not
noo.
'k(o oko (45v) < to\. scazza scota < ok. eskaca iskota: oko\ont o oko oo onoo
okot to'. l don'L preLend Lo be an experL on Creek, lLallan and 1urklsh nauLlcal Lerms, buL (a)
the etymon should probably be the Venetian (or Levantine lingua franca) phrase cazza scota (an
order meaning 'haul ln Lhe sheeL', l.e. so as Lo geL the ship under way or increase the speed) and (b)
the Turkish term is derived from Venetian or lingua franca, and not the other way round. Venetian
scota and Italian scotta have the same origin and meaning as the English nautical term sheet (i.e.
rope attached to one of the lower corners of a sail). 1here should also be a separaLe enLry for oko,
which appears on 11v.
'ko(to(otv, (o (17v) < ok. ka yamasin: tk no\oo'. The proposed derivation and
meaning are fanciful: ko(to(otv is probably < 1 koomozso 'you can'L escape' (the t after the ( is
intended to show that the (t is pronounced [d]). I am unable to account for (o, which may be
colloquial Greek (< (o 'anlmals'), buL Lhe 1urklsh verb ls slngular.
'ktoct (37v) < ok. klyafeL'. ead 'kyafeL'.

4
kovkt[o]: ootutk kooto (Photeinos III 302), 'auberge' (Dehque).
9

'kt\kt (12r) < ok. klk: utk cvo'. The editor seems to be conflating two meanings:
'ouLward form' and 'dress, cosLume'. The author seems Lo mean 'cloLhlng'.
'ktnt(, o (43v, 53v) < T kibritci [read kibriti]: o cnoo o koookoo onuv'. The
author may be using ktn t( in its figurative sene: 'sLlngly person'.
'kto\okt (13v) < ok. kulbe: k\o ko\'. 1he edlLor also has an entry for 'kto\o
(33r)' (read 'kto\t (53v)', of whlch kto\okt is a diminutive). T kulbe means 'huL, shed' <
Greek ko\o. Kto\t is in fact < T klh 'conlcal haL'. Foteinos (420) describes a kto\t as
'nootc', buL he probably means 'conlcal'.
'kt\o(to (19r) < ok. krlang: \tvt'. 1he headword should be 'kt\ok(t, o'. 1 ktlooq
lndeed means 'swallow', but metaphorically it denotes a light, swift galley, which is what the author
intends. Cf. Angelou (Kodrikas): 'kt\ok(t = \o, o n\oo (kotv \tovoo)'. (l'm
unable Lo guaranLee LhaL '(kotv \tovoo)' ls correct here.) Cf. Pamboukis, s.v. kt\ok(t:
'cvo totoo oko oov o \tvt'; also Vagiakakos, pp. 91-2, kt\okot.
'ktko, o (20r) < ok. krk: to\cvo'. 1hls ls more llkely < 1 kt 'grey': cf. kt ot 'grey horse'
(Redhouse). T ktk would be more likely to become *ktktko in Greek.
'k(to (33v) < ok. kirizma: o\kt, o'. Both the etymology and the interpretation are
fanciful. Foteinos glosses the feminine noun k(to as 'konq\ov' (318). It is Rom. ctclom (or a
regional variant such as ctclm) 'lnn, Lavern', of lavonlc orlgln
5

(http://dexonline.ro/definitie/c%C3%A2rcium%C4%83,
http://dexonline.ro/lexem/cricim%C4%83/86349).
'ktonct (25r) < ok. kitap: t\o. The actual etymon o kton ct is T kitabet 'funcLlon of a
scrlbe'.
'ko\t o (44v) < ok. kolayi var: ocv on\ooov'. ead 'ko\o' and 'kolay'. 1he edlLor's
gloss is fine, but the full phrase that the author wrlLes ls 'ko\o o t!' 1he lasL word ls Lhe
emphatic Turkish exclamation ya (used in some Greek dialects), which is virtually untranslatable into
Lngllsh. AL Lhe end of a senLence lL means someLhlng llke 'lndeed'. See also 8ablnloLls' dlcLlonary s.v.
to
3
, sense 3.
'k\t, o (33v, 47r)'. Add 45v.
'ko\to, o (23r)'. The reference should be (25v).
'koocu (53v) < ok. kou: oo, koucu: oco'. 1he headword should be spelled koou.
The Turkish noun koo means 'race', noL 'qulckly'. In any case, the immediate etymon is neither of
the Turkish words listed, but T komok 'run'.
6
Cf. Koukkidis, s.v. koou.
'ko\c, o'. ead 'ko\c, o'.
'konnc o\ (43r) < ok. kubbe alt: ku on o \o'. The etymon is correct, but, according to
Redhouse, kobbe olt (llLerally 'space under Lhe dome') means 'Lhe aparLmenLs aL 1opkap aray
alace where counclls of sLaLe and publlc relaLlons used Lo be held'. In any case, both the Greek and
Turkish phrases are used as nouns: thus the headword should read 'konnc o\, o'.
'ko(u (42r) n\. zo ocou o\c ko(u q \o'. The entry doesn't say
what the headword means. The Turkish etymon of this familiar Greek verb is kurmak, which has a

5
In Bulgarian apparently kretchma: see PLF, The Broken Road.
6
Standard Greek verbs are normally formed from Turkish by adding [](u to the definite past stem of the
Turkish verb (root + -di or -ti). On the few occasions when non-regional Greek verbs are formed from Turkish
verbs using the u ending, it is added to the bare Turkish root. (This is the normal way in which Pontic Greek
verbs are formed from Turkish.) The reason why komok became koou is that otherwise it would have
resulted in koo(u, whlch would have been homonymous wlLh Lhe verb meanlng 'cosL'.
10

variety of meanings, includlng 'seL up, plLch (LenL), wlnd (clock)'. Cn 17r and 48v (noL llsLed ln Lhe
glossary) 'onc(t kotocvov' denoLes a Lable LhaL has been seL up and lald.
'\\ck (ot, o (43v, 53v) < ok. leylek adr: vcvto cvo, q cvo uv otuotkv'. 1he
etymon is almost correct, buL Lhe gloss 'vcvto cvo' (llLerally 'vloleL LenL') seems Lo have
resulted from a linguistic and botanical confusion with T leylk 'lllac'. The term \\ck (ot is
glossed in a footnote on 43r by the author, who says that it is a tent supported by an exceptionally
high pole. This is the reason for its name: T leylek ls Lhe word for 'sLork' (Greek \\ckt), which stands
tall on its long legs; the literal meaning of leylek oJt is 'sLork LenL'.
'o\to\tc, o (13v, 32r) < ok. malyilet: ovonqo'. This noun (which also appears on 42v) is
more likely to be < T malihulya 'melancholy, whlm, fancy', < Persian < Greek \oo\o. Cf.
Koukkidis, s.v. o\to\c.
'ookt, o (28r, 47v) < ok. mamuk, noo. pamuk: okt'. 1he proposed derlvaLlon may
be correct, and pamuk lndeed means 'coLLon', but the author uses ookt to denote some kind of
face covering (worn by a woman, at least in these cases). Pe also wrlLes 'ookucvq voko' (p.
60). omavera's Tesoro della Lingua Greca-Volgare ed Italiana (1709) gives 'o ookt: la
maschera'. See also Kriaras, s.v. ookq, which mentions ookt and ookvu. In an
inventory of items on the website http://www.ipet.gr/kivotos/description2.cfm?ID_1=22&start=1
the Coktk Loo ko\o is said to possess a ookt, which (together with its synonym
onct) ls classlfled as a ko\oo. However, in the context of our text, ookt seems to
mean 'mask'.
'ov(t\u (22r) < ok. menzil: okqo to cvo // ot tkto to qco'. (This entry is
out of alphabetical order.) Here a verb is being defined as if it were a noun. Dehque defines
ov(t\u as 'deposer, desLlLuer'. lL is obviously related to ov(t\o. evp contains a
number of instances of ov(\q, ov(t\u, ov(t\o.
'ov(t\o, q (31r) < ok. menzil: ouo, o menzilet: koo q\o otoo'. The
Turkish etymon is < T mazul 'dlsmlssed (from a posL), ouL of offlce'. Dehque defines ov(t\o as
'deposlLlon', l.e. removal from offlce, and ov(\q as 'celul qul esL depose, qul esL desLlLue'.
Foteinos (454; see also 351) mentions 'ot Mov(\t (ocotv ot uocvot)', whlch ln Lhe context
refers to officials who have been removed from office. (Foteinos makes it clear that dismissal from
office was quite usual and did not necessarily entail banishment from court.) However, the meanings
of this term in the Danubian principalities were complex and technical.
7
The original glossary of
Lavrlnos' poem defines o(\t as oooov \tkov to vt (p. 22), while the site
http://greek-lastnames.blogspot.co.uk/2009/05/blog-post_7669.html defines o(\q as 'c\o
ctnno ooo oq 8\oo no o ono\ooov v u otocvo ouo'. See also
Kriaras, s.v. o(\q and o(o\(u.
9
The abstract noun ov(t\o corresponds to Rom. mazilie
('status of being a mazil; period of time spent in this status': see
http://dexonline.ro/definitie/mazilie). The intrusive n- in ov(\q etc. remains to be explained:
perhaps by confusion with T menzil (see 'v(\t, o' below)?
'onct, o (29v) < ok. mabeyn: o o uv votkuv kot ovtkv totouv'. The
etymology and meaning are correct, but the author writes on vt, not onct. Mon vt appears on
30r, 37r, 48r and 53v, but not on the page specified in the glossary. Foteinos (452) provides a more

7
Romanian-speakers may consult the detailed entry on Romanian mazil/mazl/manzl at
http://dexonline.ro/definitie/maz%C3%AEl. See also Mlooto utoqomlt, lcolae Mllescu pLarul, le LraducLeur
de la Chronique ds le Commencement du Monde', ln Impact de limprimerie et rayonnement intellectuel des
Pays Roumains (Bucharest 2009), p. 206, s.v. manzil; and Angelou (Kodrikas), s.v. o(q\o ('on\oq, cuoq
on qv o') and o(\q ('ono\cvo, cknuo').
9
Dexonline (loc.cit.) gives as the second meaning of mazil 'soldiers from the body of cavalry composed of
noblemen out of service and placed under the command of the Serdar of the mazil'.
11

precise meaning when he notes that the prince often toov cerLaln offlclals 't ov ttoov
oo ov (ov \vov Monvt)'. The page reference for onv( (=on () is also
wrong: it should be 30r rather than 29v. Cf. Foteinos' deflnlLlon of Lhls offlcer's funcLlon: 'o
Monv( ntoo t ov ov o qvo' (534). Cf. Koukkidis, s.v. onv(.
'ovco, o (14r) < to\. marina: votk voq'. The author writes otvco, not ovco, and
the reference should be to 14v rather than 14r. 1he lnformaLlon 'marlna: votk' ls not
immediately relevant, since the immediate etymon is likely to be Ven. marinr or some cognate
Romance word.
'ooo\, ot (33v) < ok. masal: nooto, coo'. The conLexL ('koov oku kt,
kot oo o\') suggesLs LhaL Lhls word must be < T meole 'Lorch'; besides, in the manuscript the
o is dotted to show that it is pronounced like English sh rather than s. Cf. Romanian masala
(http://dexonline.ro/definitie/masala); see also Foteinos 528.
'Moo xtvtov (19v) < u. Matara: \tvt oq oqtv zt Avko'. Here we are dealing
wlLh a ma[or confuslon (qulLe aparL from Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lndlcaLlon 'u.' lmplles LhaL
'geographlcal' ls Lhe name of a language). The author uses
Lhe phrase 'cvov oo tvtov (t( ooqocvov'.
1he edlLor has broken 'oo tvtov (t(' lnLo Lwo
phrases, each with its own entry. The second of these
entries reads: '(( [sic] (19v) < ok. cevez: nkt'. In
fact, tvtov (t( is T Hindistan cevizi (llL. 'lndla walnuL',
cf. Greek tvtk koo) 'coconuL, nuLmeg' (cf.
kechagloglou: 'kotov: tvoko'). The reference to
nkt is irrelevant; besides, the Turkish equivalent of Greek
nkt is cezve, not cevez. Moo is the accusative
singular of the noun oo (note cvov, which indicates
LhaL lL's mascullne), for which livepedia.gr has the following
enLry: 'oo o (ootootk) [L1?MCACll: ok. \.
matara = oo vo kooto -] o tvo ook
no qotonotov ku ot o kot ot kvqo, to
vo ocov o v, o\\t o\ot'.
10
(Cf. Angelou
(Kodrikas), s.v. 'oo'.) 1hus Lhe whole phrase 'cvov
oo tvtov (t( ooqocvov' probably means 'a
flask or goblet made out of a coconut encased in sllver' (see
photo, showing Jacqueline Kennedy holding a similar object
in India in 1962).
'oot(u (47v) < ok. mteveffa: noocvo, nocvo'. reference to 18r should be
added. 1he editor defines a headword with a different part of speech. The verb is used in the
Goldonbi trabslation, and the etymology is provided by Gentilini 1997: 497: < T matuh 'weak ln
mlnd, doLard'.

'ooo\t, o (15r) < ok. mahsul: nov, ooo, onoc\oo'. 1hls ls correcL, except that
'onoc\oo' should be deleLed: the author uses the word Lo mean 'produce' (noun). Cf. Koukkidis,
s.v. oo\t 'nov, ooo, noou'.
'(tot, o (37v) < ok. mevcudiyet: noq, noooo'. Once again, a word is defined by a
different part of speech: (tot ls noL a noun buL an lndecllnable ad[ecLlve meanlng 'presenL' < 1
mevcud (same meaning).

10
This definition seems to be based on the one in the Dimitrakos dictionary: o ovo ooko v .
n. ot oot kot kvqo no oov oo nooo.
12

'( ko(ktv (25r) < ok. mezar kakini [sic]: \ovo // vooo'. 1he enLry ls noL enLlrely
wrong (except that kakini should be koko). The jocular Turkish phrase mezot koko (lit.
'cemeLery escapee') ls deflned by edhouse as 'slckly person'.
'vt, o (43v) < ok. meydan: n\oo // (v noktcvu) koto, voqo'. l'm noL sure
LhaL Lhe addlLlonal maLerlal afLer 'n\oo' ls necessary. 1he conLexL ('vot oo vt o no')
remlnds me of Lhe old rebeLlc song: '1' o oo, Mot, oqv oo v' o no'. However, the
phrase oo vt (1 meydanda) can also mean 'obvlously' (Kappler, s.v. vt).
'kovc, o (16r) < ok. mekterhane: ooo'. 1 mehterhane (not mekterhane) denoted the
official band of a vizier, pasha or other Ottoman dignitary. Foteinos (427) writes ovc. The
phrase defined in the immediately preceding entry in the glossary ('kovc otvv ktv (18r)
< ok. mekterhane tagrinin kirir: vo \t q oqv ooo') ls problemaLlc. The full speech
(uttered by Matios) in which the phrase appears is: 'o oo to\o vo vt(o\oot kov o
kovc, otvv kttv; kot...' (The manuscript has kttv, not ktv.) Elsewhere the editor
correctly glosses vt(o\o(u correctly as '(u o q'. Note the punctuation: the comma clearly
shows LhaL 'kovc, otvv kttv' consists of two separate information units of speech. For
some reason the author writes a dot in the middle of otvv. There is a T word tooqt 'loud
clanglng nolse, nolslly', whlch ls posslbly relevanL. lL ls also possible that otvv represents T
Tootoo 'Cod's',
11
in which case otvv kttv (1ootoo ktoo) should mean 'Lo Cod's x' (perhaps
a curse). However, T kt means 'counLryslde', and 'Lo Cod's counLryslde' doesn'L seem Lo mean
anything. An expert on Ottoman language is needed to solve this conundrum.
', o (39v) < ok. mehter: c\o q ooo uv vtouv'. The headword should be
written cq (or kcq, as the author writes it on 18v). The form of the etymon is correct,
but its meaning is a military or palace band or as in the context a member of such a band. For the
mehter and the mehterhane see Mehmet Ali Sanlikol, The Musical Mehters (Istanbul 2011). Sanlikol
writes that, although mehter bands were often referred to by Luropean Lravellers as '[anlssary
bands', there was no necessary connection with either the janissaries or with marching music. The
mehter bands were symbols of the power and prestige of the dignitaries who employed them, and
they often performed in order to provide entertainment as well as for military and ceremonial
purposes (ibid., 11-12).
'v(\t, o (16v) < ok. menzil: oo'. T menzil has two related meanings that correspond very
closely Lo Lhe Lwo meanlngs of Lhe Lngllsh word 'sLage' wlLh reference to journeys on horseback or
in a horse-drawn carriage. I quote extracts rom Lhe Cxford Lngllsh ulcLlonary: '(1) A place ln which
rest is taken on a journey; (2) As much of a journey as is performed without stopping for rest, a
change of horses, eLc.' 1he phrase ln whlch Lhe word appears ln Lhe LexL ('ot (ov
ookoqoov on o v(\t o o') clearly means 'Lhe shawms [intended to be used in the
prlnce's offlclal band] have goL broken durlng Lhe [ourney', l.e. v(\t is not being used in the sense
of oo, but in its other sense. In fact, loLelnos (474) glosses Lhe Lerm 'oo Mto'
('nooooo' ln kodrlkas' pepe) as 'ntoq uv v(t\uv', whlle ueheque deflnes
v(\t as 'esLafeLLe, posLe', so the word could refer to the equivalent of a stage-coach, mail-coach,
post-chaise, or even simply the post (i.e. the system and process of transporting things by post). In
fact, dexonline (http://dexonline.ro/definitie/menzil) defines Rom. menzil as 'name given, in the
Romanian lands before the introduction of railways, to the transport service (for passengers and
mail); post'. Cf. Vagiakakos, p. 85, v(\q: 'o\too, oo', Goldoni (Martini), s.v.
v(\t: 'servlzlo posLale, dlllgenza', Kechagioglou, s.v. v(\t '(ouovtk) ctnnq ootk
nqoo ooo' (among other meanings), Vitti, s.v. v(\ & (\t: 'onoo\cvo,
oo'.

11
For Greek 1o representing T 1oot see Kappler, p. 116.
13

'okoc (24v) < ok. mukarrer: onooq totoo, ouvo, kqoq'. The definition is
almost correct: it refers to the confirmation of an appointment. Cf. Foteinos, vol. 2, p. 320: o
\vov okoct, ot ovovcuot q ovo ov ko' ckooov vov".
'ovoq, ot (24v) < ok. muders'. Read 'mderris'.
'otko (31r)'. erhaps Lhe headword should be oq (33v) 'fllLhy man', of which
otko found on 31r is the corresponding neuter form.
'ooc, ot (31v) < ok. mutu: ko\ vco'. From both a phonological and a sociolinguistic point
of view it is more likely that ooc is from the more normal Turkish form mjde than the
provincial form moto (not moto).
'o\o(q, o (38r) < ok. muflis'. Read 'mflis'. This entry is out of alphabetical order.
'noktv o\k (16r) < ok. baknd selak: t o novtv'. This is another of the problematic
phrases muttered by Matios; besides, the author seems to have made a correction to the second
word, which makes it difficult to read. T bokoJ solok (rather than selak), which may indeed be the
phrase the author has ln mlnd, would mean 'Lhe ldloL looked around'.
'nt (12r) < o\o. barem: o\toov'. The origin of this word is the provincial T barim, from
common T bari 'aL leasL, for once'. Versions of this word are used in a number of Greek dialects:
nt, n, nto, no (in the last two cases the final m of the Turkish etymon has
been interpreted as the first-person singular form of the possessive pronoun, and it may be that the
m in the provincial Turkish form similarly has its origin in the Turkish first-person singular
possessive suffix -m). Whether or not such forms exist in Slav languages is irrelevant here. Cf.
n.
'nooo, q (12r) < ok. parima: okotv'. 1he most probable etymon is Ven. paroma, as specified
in the Triandafyllidis dictionary. T parima is from the same origin.
'no otto (34v) < ok. bas ars: novokco\o'. lor 'bas' read 'ba'.
'noo(okoq, o (33v) > ok. ba cokadar'. The author writes this as two words, albeit with
medial sigma (noo (okoq), both here and on 30r (noo (okoq on 2r). The second word
is < Rom. ciohadar < T uhadar 'lackey, fooLman'. See '(ooq' below. These two entries should
be merged into one, with a cross-reference from the first to the second, i.e.: 'noo(okoq: see
(okoq/(ooq'.
'no, o (48v) < ok. bahri: votk'. If the Turkish etymon is the adjective bahr 'maritime,
nauLlcal', Lhe Creek gloss should be 'votk'. Powever Lhe phrase ln whlch Lhls word appears ('o
no\t no') ls lncomprehenslble Lo me (cf. enLry 'no\t' below).
'nt'. Read 'nt' (Vitti: ntc).
'no\ o\t(t\kt (53v) < ok. beyt ul-mal: kotk qooo\kto (.) k\qovotc no
ntcovov oo ko \\t vouv k\qovuv'. The etymon should be T beyt-ol molclk.
In fact, this entry is placed outside its correct alphabetical position, and further down there are two
relevant entries:
'no\ o\t(t\kt (33v) \. ncto\ \t'
'ncto\ \t (43v) < ok. beytu'l ml: o ovvuv v k\qovuv'
The beyt-l mal was the public treasury dealing with such cases; the beyt-ol molc was the officer in
charge of this institution, and the beyt-ol molclk was his office (ouo). There seems to be no
justification for the circumflex on ml. The form nco\ (without , but not no\ as the editor
stresses it) must be a lapsus calami on Lhe auLhor's part; it only appears in his hurriedly scribbled
working notes.
14

'n\ooo(u (30r) < ok. beleya irmek: oku o n\ o'. Read belaya otomok or
otomok. It is interesting how Greek has (no doubt jocularly) created a single-word verb out of the
Turkish phrase; the author uses the past-tense form n\ootov, with the augment added to
the first component (which in Turkish is a noun).
'nkt ov (20r) < ok. bereket vers: vo nt oovo'. The author uses the full phrase
'A\\ nkt ov' < 1 Allah bereket versin (not vets) 'may Cod granL abundance'.
'nnc noo, o (31v, 53r) < ok. berber basi'. Read 'berber ba'.
'ntvkoo, o (19r) < ok. binek tasi'. Read 'binek ta'
'ntvt(t\kt, o (26r) < ok. binici: tnnco tnnooo'. The etymon is T binicilik 'horsemanshlp' (<
binici 'horseman').
'novtc, ot (26v) < to\. bugna: otc'. The standard Italian word is pugna.
'noko, q (34) < o\. but: o vu co q ko\'. This is another totally random entry. The
word is < Romanian botc 'calash/calche or barouche (carriage with folding roof)' (apparently from
Ukrainian budka). Foteinos 435 uses koco (see Chlsacof's glossary) and noko in the same
context. Cf. Angelou (Kodrikas), s.v. noko.
'voo, o (34v) < ok. nakarat: ouo'. Also used on 16r. The etymon is T nakare 'keLLle-
drum' (of the kind used in mehter music), whereas nakarat means 'refraln'. ee 'ooc voko'
below for the context.
'vo(t, o (38v, 47v) < ok. nazar: \co'. T nazar indeed means llLerally '\co' (as probably
on 47v), but on 38v vo(t ls used ln lLs meLaphorlcal meanlng of 'favour' (= voto, a word that is
used elsewhere in the text).
'voooct'. ead 'vooot'.
'voo\ tv( o\o o\voo (14v) < ok. nasl hlnzlrolu [sic] olduum: noo kok n
ov to o: . noo kok ov'. 1hls ls a ma[or mlsundersLandlng: Lhe 1urklsh phrase oosl
boztolo olJoom means literally 'how much of a son of a plg l've become' (in Greek: noo kok
ctvo). The phrase tv( o\o appears again on 15v.
'vt(o\o(u (17v) < ok. nizamname: kovv (u o q'. 1he eLymon ls T nizamlamak 'puL
ln order'. 1he lndlcaLlon 'nlzamname: kovv' ls lrrelevanL and should be deleLed.
'vtvot(v oktvv tvo( kck (17v) < ok. dlnslzln hakkndan lmansz gellr'. lor gelir read
gerek.
'o\oo(u (20r, 33r, 39r) < ok. ulamak: vu, noo(u'. 1hls enLry ls correcL, buL l would
add that it may not be a coincidence that in all of the instances of o\oo(u in our text and at least
once in the chronicle of Papasynadinos (ed. Odorico, p. 94) it is used in contexts where a man
approaches a woman for sexual purposes. I wonder whether this was the only meaning of this Greek
verb. Kriaras glosses it as tn\ovu (i.e. 'accosL'), which seems right.
'ootvtot, ot'. The headword should be otvto, slnce lL's an ad[ecLlve (otvto also in
Angelou (Bertoldo)).
'no\t, o (40v) < ok. baldran: q\qto (kvto)'. The proposed etymology is phonologically
suspecL, buL l'm unable Lo offer a more plauslble one.
'nt(oc, o (39v) < ok. bey zade: o to o ncq'. This entry is out of alphabetical order. The
headword should read 'nt(oc', and Lhe eLymon should be wrlLLen as one word: 'beyzade'. Add
further references: 40r and 50v. Kechagioglou, s.v. nq(oc: includes the meaning 'to qvo
nooovtuv qovtv', which is clearly the appropriate one in the zyvk.
15

'n(k\kt, o (33r) < ok. pezevenk: ooon'. The immediate etymon is T pezevenklik
'ooono' (< pezevenk).
'nt, o (36v) < ok. peydahlamak: okvvu, onok'. The author uses the phrase 'kvu
nt', cf. T peyda[h] etmek 'procure, acqulre' ('vo o kq nt' also ln Coldonl (Levanonl)).
The verb peydahlamak is irrelevant here.
'n\o(u (33v) cf ok. peylemek: (u oo t.' The etymon is T peylemek 'conclude a
bargaln by paylng a deposlL'. ln Lhe conLexL ln whlch Lhe prlnce meeLs a servanL glrl 'kot qv
n\cot( vo qv ct t ov ov o', lL's clear LhaL he ls paylng her ln advance for sexual
services.
'n, o (13r) < to\. per vedei: to vo t nooqq'. The headword should read
'n', whlle Lhe whole phrase ls 'n o oov'. 1assos kaplanls has suggesLed
to me: mosL probably, CLLoman equlvalenL of Lhe veneLlan offlce of ltovveJltote ollAtseool". l'm
not sure that this is an Ottoman, but it may be a distortion of the Venetian term. (Cf. the cognate
medieval Greek noun npeep and the cognate English noun purveyor.)
'nov, o (19v) < to\. bregantin: o n\oo'. The etymon bregantn is in fact Venetian; the
Italian equivalent is brigantino.
'no\(, o (27v) < ok. peydahlamak: o(u noo'. A noun is implausibly derived from
a verb and is not defined. It is probable that no\( ls an uneducated Greek version of
no\o\t( < 1 beyt-ol molc: see my comments on 'no\ o\t(t\kt'.
'ntvkt, o (18r) < ok. bnak: kto'. The word appears ln Lhe phrase 'cvo ntvkt okoto o o
nv', whlch l cannoL declpher. AL all evenLs, book seems not to exist in Turkish, where the word
for 'bulldlng' ls bina. But this hardly fits the context. ntvkt is a wooden plate but also a measure of
weight.
'ntokto\to, o (13v) < ok. puskul: ovo'. ead 'pskl'.
'noq, o (14v ...) < o. portar: o\tk ouo to qv n\q uv o\touv'. The
words noto and noq are frequently found in medieval Greek texts dating from before the
time when Greeks came into close contact with Romanians (see Kriaras, s.v. noto). It may
however be the case that the particular meaning of this word in our text developed during Phanariot
rule in the Danubian principalities.
'no\, o (48v) < ok. pulad: ovootk co\\o \q ok\qqo'. l don'L know on whaL
basis the editor proposes this meaning: pulad (spelled pulat today) is the normal Turkish word for
'sLeel'. Powever, as l've sald above (s.v. 'no'), l don'L undersLand Lhe phrase ln whlch Lhls word
appears.
'nono (23v) < to\. pupa: q kovoq v n\oo'. The etymon is Venetian pupa 'poop, sLern'
(the Italian equivalent is poppa). 1he phrase used ln Lhe LexL, 'covot nono', probably means LhaL
Lhe shlps 'sall wlLh Lhe wlnd behlnd Lhem'.
'noot, o (27r) < ok. ptr: ok\q'. This is in fact < 1 potur 'knee-breeches'. Cf, Koukkidis,
s.v. noot.
'nvcu (48r, 48v) < to\. preLendero'. 1he word also appears on 31r and 38v. The etymon
should read 'preLendere'.
'ckt, o (48r) < ok. rengi atmak: \ut(u, vu o o o'. Once again, a word is
interpreted by a different part of speech. In any case, the proposed interpretation is incorrect. Greek
ckt < T reng/renk had two different but probably related meanings: Dehque defines it as both
'couleur' and 'Lour, nlche, plalsanLerle' (l.e. Lrlck or pracLlcal [oke). The full phrase used by the author
ls 'noovt ckt', i.e. = 'you're the victim of a trick'. Cf. ... v kvt o ckt vo...; 'va-t-il me
16

jouer la farce de?' (valerle uanlel, Une traduction indite en grec moderne de Goldoni. La question
du prodigo (Paris 1928), p. 88.
'oook (3v)'. 1he reference ls erroneous.
'ooc voko, o (34v) < ok. sade nakara: ouo, ovovo cv'. 1he full phrase ls 'o ooc
voo' (not voko) < T sade nakare 'the kettle-drum on lLs own'. This would indeed produce a
'monoLonous refraln', buL lL's noL whaL Lhe phrase llLerally means. For voo see above. T sade is
the equivalent of Greek okco.
'oo\tv(u (43r) < ok. salncak: o\ovoot, kov'. The true etymon is the Turkish verb
solomok, whereas solocok ls a noun meanlng 'hammock, swlng'.
'oo\tn\ct, o (43r) < ok. salib: ovq'. The author writes oon\c, with rather than \
and without the final -t. This is T sahib-i devlet (llL. 'masLer of Lhe sLaLe') 'LlLle glven Lo Grand vlzler'
(Redhouse).
'ooo\o(u (17r)'. 1he correcL reference for o oo\o(u is 17v.
'oov(kto, o (19v) < ok. sancak: totkqtk notooq v nooo\tkto'. The author uses
oov(kt in a different sense of the same Turkish etymon, i.e. 'flag, sLandard'. Cf. Foteinos 431:
'oo(kt (oqoo)' and Lavrlnos 26: 'zov(kt, \noov'.
'z\oct, o'. 1he word should be wrlLLen wlLhouL lnlLlal caplLal. Some of the references are
incorrect: it appears on 43r rather than 43v, and it doesn'L appear on 38v.
'ov on on oot\oooov (18r) < ok. sen oluyorsun: o nov'. 1hls ls anoLher of
MaLlos' enlgmaLlc saylngs. Powever, Lhe eLymology and meanlng proposed by Lhe edlLor are
fanciful. The Turkish phrase seems to be sen hap map syleyorsun 'you're Lalklng hap map'. l don'L
know that hap map exlsLs ln 1urklsh, buL ln Lhe conLexL lL seem Lo mean 'nonsense'. oLe LhaL Lhe
subject pronoun and the verb ending are singular, not plural, as the editor implies. In the glossary,
oot\oooov is written without an accent, while in the transcription of the text an accent is
placed on the final syllable. However, the author writes oot\coooov, which corresponds to the
position of the stress in Turkish.
'ot, o (14r, 36v) < ok. serhadd: ovotok ouo'. Add reference to 25r, and for
'serhadd' read 'serhad'. Serhad also means 'fronLler, border', whlch ls clearly what oto (always
in the plural in zyvk) means at 14r, and possibly elsewhere.
'ooovc, ot (25r) < ok. sehane'. Read 'ehane'.
'otktc (43v, 53v) < ok. t'. I realize that the editor is trying to spare our blushes, but as a
linguist I can'L refrain from pointing out that T sikime corresponds exactly, morpheme for
morpheme, to the Greek phrase 'oov nooo o'.
'ooto, o (23r)'. 1he page reference ls erroneous.
'oto, q (23r) < ok. soyunmak: voot'. noun is being interpreted by means of a verb. I
don'L know Lhe orlgln and meanlng of oto, buL lL's obvlous from Lhe conLexL LhaL lL's a klnd of
garment.
'oo\t(u (47r) < ok. sylemek: t\, oq(q'. 1he Lrue eLymon of oo\t(u is the
causative equivalent of sylemek, namely syletirmek 'cause Lo speak'.
'ooo/ooto, o (11r...) o\tk ouo'. This word appears on f. 10, but not 11r. It is
probably < T soytot 'clown, buffoon' (cf. Rom. soitar 'courL [esLer').
'oo\okt, o (17v) < ok. sulemak [sic for sulamak]: coot'. Again, a noun is interpreted with
a verb. The author uses Lhe expresslon '\t nov o oo\okt o', l.e. 'Lhey've only [usL goL
Lhelr breaLh back'. The speaker is referring to the members of the band, who have been ordered to
17

play immediately after having arrived drenched from a rainstorm. The expression novu o
oo\okt o is modelled on T soluk almak, lit. 'take breath'.
'otoko, q < o. Lluc: o oto'. (Add page reference: 11v.) This is pike (Esox lucius), which
is known today in Greek as ovo. The Romanian word is < Bulg. toko. Kokkinakis uses the form
ooko (Puchner, p. 197).
'o(to, q (47v) < o. sttoj: o'. This word is used also at 48v and elsewhere.
Kechagioglou dfines ooto as 'o, nno\o', and aL 47v ('cooo nokvo ono
cntooo on t qv o(to') it clearly means '[whlle] on paLrol'.
'ovvo, q (40v) < vo. ovvo, o koo o o oko'. 1he lndlcaLlon '< vo.' lmplles
LhaL Lhere ls a language called 'nauLlcal'. 1he edlLor's lnLerpreLaLlon ls correcL: both ovvo and
ovvo are < Italian sentina 'bllge'. Kechagioglou has both ovvo and ovvo
'o(ctko'. lor 'coko' read 'coko'.
'okt (21v) < ok. takat: voq, koto'. This information is correct. I would only add that
Lhe phrase 'okt v ctv' corresponds exacLly to the common Turkish expression takatim
kalmaJ 'l have no more sLrengLh lefL'. Cf. 8alLazzl eL al., A Lexicon of Smyrneika (Istanbul 2012), s.v.
takti: 'uhen mou pmlne LakLl l have exhausLed my energy reserves.'
'ovot (13v, 31v) ok. tandr: ovo okocvo oo o'. The etymon is correct, but the
kind of tooJt referred to here is probably the tandoor and tandour that is frequently found in the
writings of European travellers to the Ottoman empire: 'a square Lable placed ln Lhe angle of the
sofa, with a brazier underneath and a rich counterpane over it, under which, in Greek houses, in cold
weaLher, Lhe company creep close Lo each oLher' (1homas Pope, Anastasius, 3rd edn, vol. 1 (London
1820), p. 334-5). Chlsacof's glossary conLalns a separaLe enLry 'ovo (\n [sic for
o\n] (26r) < ok. tantur celep: cnoo', ln whlch boLh Lhe eLymon and Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon
are incorrect. ln facL, on 13v Lhe word appears only ln Lhe phrase 'ovo (\n'. 1hls phrase
('Landoor genLlemen'), whlch Mavrogenls uses Lwlce as a dlsparaglng descrlpLlon of Lhe hanarloLs,
as being people who have been used to living in luxury and are reluctant to give up their home
comforts.
'ooovq, o (18v) < ok. tausan: vqotq'. This word appears on 19v too, and also in the
feminine form ooovo (applied to Sophia on f. 10). The true etymon is not T tausan but T tovoo
'hare; rabblL'. In his novel Anastasius, which Chisacof often refers to in her Introduction, Hope
several times uses the word taooshan (flrsL wlLh reference Lo 'Mavroyenl' hlmself), which he glosses
as follows: 'hare; epithet given to the Greek islanders' (ibid., pp. 40, 331). l don'L know how rellable
Hope is here, but this usage (perhaps current in Phanariot circles) may have come about because
rabbits and hares have always formed an important part of the Greek island diet. (The feminine form
ooovo is used in the Goldoni translation: see Gentilini 1997: 496, who fails to identify the
meaning.)
'(t, o (6r, 29v)'. dd 5r.
'n\v(u (26v)'. Read '27r'. Kechagioglou has 'n\(u: n oo k\t, okovu', which
agrees wlLh Lhe edlLor's deflnlLlon.
'n\, o (16r, 24r, 34v, 35r) < ok. tebdil: oq (sic for ooq)'. 1he Lerm 'o n\t'
(noL 'o n\') also appears on 24v, 33r and 53v. It requires some comment. ln '1o ooovkt' lL
refers Lo Mavrogenls' hablL of driving around his domain in disguise to spy on his subjects. Foteinos
431 writes n\t. Karathanasis refers to tebdil when commenting on Papasynadinos' reference to
Sultan Murad's slmllar hablL (see karaLhanasls' commenL on p. 364 referring to p. 94 of Cdorlco's
edition). ln her lnLroducLlon (p. 12) Chlsacof refers Lo Mavrogenls' hablL of walklng abouL ln dlsgulse,
buL she doesn'L make an expllclL connection with the term n\t used in the text. K.
Karapotosoglou, ruyk ek r py ru nvrp, defines renr as oo\,
18

o\\o n\\q\o q otk oovoo, ot oovo otocvo. (See
Papadiamandis, pr Mpvp, ch. lA: cnt v v renr, tt \\u o utko o
nooov. (Tenr, renr also in zev, Vitti and Angelou (Kodrikas).)
'nto, o (18v, 47v) < ok. tatbik: ov(u, t'. Here the editor derives a Greek noun
from a Turkish noun but interpreted it as a verb. T tatbik 'adapLaLlon' lsn'L a phonologlcally plauslble
etymon. The true etymon seems to be T tedbir 'measure, plan, clrcumspecLlon, foreslghL, managlng'.
'(onovo, q (16v) < to\. zampogna: o ktvo'. In the context, this word seems to refer to a
part of a (ov.
'(onov (27v) no(u ktvo'. ln Lhe conLexL, Lhls verb ls belng used as lL ls ln Creek Loday
(oonovu): 'Lalk nonsense'.
'(oooq, o (36v) < ok. cavus'. ead 'avu'. 1hls ls one of Lhe many lLems spelled with ( which
should be written with o.
'(on (23v) < ok. apa: okonvq'. The form oon is a diminutive of the well-known word ono,
which is < Ital. zappa, which is probably the origin of the Turkish word too. Therefore T apa is
irrelevant here.
(onokq, o (45r) < T abuk: oo'. When ujsed about a person (as here), the adjective
oonokq (fem. oonoktooo) means 'dlllgenL' (but glossed as furbetto 'wlly, cunnlng' ln Coldonl
(Gentilini)).
'(on(t, o (27v) < ok. apraz: tovto, oou'. Pere a noun ls lnLerpreLed by an adverb.
lL's Lrue LhaL apraz ls (orlglnally?) used adverblally, buL lL's also a noun. 1oon(t ls ln 8ablnloLls'
dictionary, although the author of Saganaki may have a slightly different meaning in mind, since the
(on(to (possibly a set of decorative clasps) seem to be attached to a noot (q.v. above).
'(o, q (53v) \. (oc'. This must be Rom. ot 'counLry', which has no connection with (oc.
'oovo, o'. 1hls ls spelled '(ovo' ln Lhe Lranscription; the spelling with o is correct.
'(okt, o (17v) < o. cerdac: o oq'. The common Modern Greek word ookt is < T
ardak 'huL, shelLer, canopy made of brushwood', Lhls ls also probably Lhe orlgln of om. cerdac.
'(oc, o (16v) < ok. icare: cooo, c\o (oo\otk toutk)'. Also 3r and 42r. The true
etymon is T are 'way, means; cure, help', e.g.: 'v vot (oc vo \t voq,' (42r) 'ls Lhere no
way he'll come Lo hls senses?', and 'Av ctvv \\o (oc, no ot noo' (16v) '1here's no
oLher soluLlon lefL excepL Lhe LrumpeLs'. In his glossary to evp, Spathis defines (oc
as '\oq, tcoo, ono, coo tuoq', while Soutsos himself defines tcto as '(oc,
no toou' (123). Cf. Koukkidis & Vitti, s.v. ooc.
'(o(u (28v) < ok. aLk (sic, with Greek k): ovoo, okonoqoq'. A verb ls deflned by a
noun. The true etymon is T atmak 'flL LogeLher' buL also 'colllde wlLh' and 'geL aggresslve' (the
origin of Cypriot Greek oo(u and Standard MG oov(u).
'(('. ee 'Moo xtvtov' above.
'(nov(nooq, o (36) , ok. cephanecbas'. ead '(n ov(n ooq' and 'cephaneclba'.
'(c'. 1he headword should read '(c, o'.
'(\(u'. 1hls does seem Lo be what the author wrote, though the form is odd: one would
expect repeee. Skarlatos Vyzantios (Atkv q ko' q \\qvtk to\cko, Athens
1835) and Koukkidis, s.v., give repeer.
'(t no (43r) < ok. atapat: tk nooqo nooto no kvot ov t o
ok\q ntvto < \\. oo-no: oo (ttu.)'. This elaborate entry is entirely fanciful. This
adverbial phrase is < T at pat 'a llLLle, now and Lhen' (Angelou (Kodrikas): ' kot k')
19

'(tv, ot (26v) < 1 ciddi: to, otntoo'. Cf. Stavrinos: 1(qv, koo\\oo q voo\
oktkq.
'(to(tokto, o (22r) < ok. ucuk'. Read 'ocuk'.
'(tn\tko'. Read '(tn\ktko'.
'(tt, o (26r) < ok. cirit: okvto'. Also 53v. The definition is only part of the story. T cirit
cerLalnly means '[avelln', buL the author is referring to the Ottoman equestrian team game known in
English as jereed, jerid or jerrid, in which the riders compete by throwing blunt wooden javelins at
members of the opposing team (see Wlklpedla arLlcle 'ereed'). Mavrogenls orders hls courLlers 'vo
no(ov (tt' so as Lo pracLloe their horsemanship skills. The game of jereed is also mentioned (as
ot) by Papasynadinos. However, on 43v of the Saganaki (tt seems to denote the javelin
rather than the game.
'(okt'. 1hls enLry ls ouL of alphabeLlcal order.
'(ooq, o (2r, 37v) < ok. cuhadar: nqcq'. ead 'uhadar'. Cf. 'noo(okoq' above:
on 2r the author writes 'noo (ooq' (Lwo words).
'on ot( (41v) < ok. top az'. Read 'top az'.
'oto, o (19r, 19r) < ok. tugay: oo (.) ootutk c\qo'. Tugay is a modern
Turkish neologism. 1ot, o is < T to 'horseLall aLLached Lo helmeL or flagsLaff as a slgn of rank'.
Toto are frequently mentioned by Foteinos; see also Angelou (Kodrikas), s.v. 'ot'. The gloss
'ootutk c\qo' ls only partly adequate, and Lhe lndlcaLlons 'Lugay: oo (.)' should
be deleted. Cf. Kechagioglou, s.v. ot.
'o\o, q (49r) < to\. tuffa: kooq'. Although the Italian verb tuffare means 'dlve, plunge', Lhe
corresponding noun is tuffata, not tuffa. However, all this is irrelevant. Korais (rkr, vol. 4, pt. 2,
p. 608) glosses o\o (a dialect version of \o 'bllndness') as 'okotvo', and 'darkness' ls
certainly what it means in here. Mavrogenis uses Lhls word ln an lncompleLe phrase: 'ov no\(ot
kov t o\o'. lL may be LhaL he aLLrlbuLes Lhls phrase Lo Lhe 'llLLle old man ln our lslands' from
whom he quotes the continuation of this speech.
'noov (33v) \. otk '. This is not very helpful as it stands. Perhaps the editor means that
'noov' ls synonymous wlLh 'otk ', whlch she deflnes as 'ono(quoq'. lndeed, Lhe conLexL
of the two passages does suggest that these terms are synonymous. The editor has been very astute
to make this connection, but she could have given the reader some more explicit information. She
provldes no lndlcaLlon of Lhe orlgln of 'noov', buL Lhe word ls unfamiliar to me too. I should note
that this particular page is one of those on which the author has scribbled his working notes, which
he has then proceeded to cross out. This means that they are both difficult to read and difficult to
interpret.
'o\tkot, ot' should be 'o\tko' (wlLhouL an arLlcle, slnce lL's an ad[ecLlve).
'\vo (23v) < \\. t\vo < ok. filandra: tuvtk oqoo to oqooqoq'. The
proposed meaning is correct, but \vo and t\vo (like T filndra) 'pennanL' are among the
items of nautical lingua franca that Mavrogenis uses in the play. Both the Greek and the Turkish
words come from Italian filandra 'fllamenL, fraylng, frlnge', only ln lingua franca (i.e. in Greek and
Turkish but not in the Romance languages) does Lhe word mean 'pennanL' (H. & R. Kahane & A.
Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant (Urbana 1958), s.v. filandra). The Venetian word for pennant
is fimola (diminutive of fiama 'flame', named because Lhe often forked tail flutters behind,
making it look like a horizontal flame; similarly ln lrench lL's called flamme). Greek \noo, with
a similar meaning, is ultimately from the same Latin/neo-Latin root. (The official modern Greek word
is ntouv.) (Also in Angelou (Kodrikas).)
20

'ooooq, ot (29v) < \o. fustis: o ooooq: ooo'. 1hls ls a Lyplcally eccenLrlc
entry. First, the page reference should be 29r. Second, it defines the plural (ooooq) by the
singular (ooooq). In fact, the editor has misread the manuscript: the author wrote
oooq. This is from Romanian foto 'guard armed wlLh a club or cudgel'. (This in turn is
derived from Rom. fote 'club, cudgel', whlch ls lndeed > Lat. fustis, but Lhe glossary shouldn'L be
expected to include more than the immediate etymon). Foteinos (446) mentions the 'ooot
[ooot: 536] o oo', who are preclsely Lhe men LhaL ophla ls referrlng Lo ln Lhe play
when she Lells AposLolls: 'vu ku ckoo o oct vo oc\\u oooq vo o oko\(ov
novo'. (Cf. Dapontes, kn prv: kov ot ooot, kkktvo ocvot, //
ooo t\o kot oqo, avvldls' and Angelou's glossarles (quoLlng from ophokles'
edition) define ooot as: '\ooot ooo otqo n q \q'.)
'o (31r) '< ok. fi'e (o.): oo vn\uv ovv'. 1hls enLry lncludes a flcLlLlous 'anclenL
Turkish' word and ignores the context in which the Greek word appears. The author's handwriting is
exceptionally difficult at this point, but what he intended to write must be a version of oo,
oo or oo < Venetian fogon 'uvq qoot to oo oo koto' accordlng
to the Triandafyllidis dictionary (s.v. u), as Lhe conLexL makes clear: 'o ko\ voq t qv
o v ovt ut v kot oovo' (p. 224). A cognaLe word (noL lncluded ln Lhe
glossary) appears in a graphic image on 4v: 'q \o onq oo vot cvo ooko ono
oto(t o okto o'. ooko looks like a diminutive form of oo, which is another
version of the above. Karapotosou, ibid., s.v. uynp, lists the variants y, and
y, the last of which corresponds to the possible reading uy in 1 yvk.
'oooto, n. (28r, 38v) < ok. havadan: u oqooo'. Another fanciful entry. xoooto is
a plural noun < T havadis 'news, rumours'. Cf. both Angelou (Kodrikas) and Spathis, s.v. 'oooto'.
'ook, o (48v) < \\. ototk: otcvo o otv'. The author probably wrote
ootk, deflned by llvepedla.gr as 'otno nocot on q \oooo kot ot, o\\t
o\oootv'. It is < oo 'one of a varleLy of blvalves (shellflsh)' (among which is the carpet-shell
[Venerupis decussata], known (and greatly esteemed) in France as palourde: Alan Davidson,
Mediterranean Seafood (Penguin, 1976), 223). Baltazzi et al., s.v. hvaro, specify that it is the
bearded bussel (Modiolus barbatus). xoo is of unknown etymology, but is apparently unrelated
to ott.
'ovt [sic for ovq], ot (12v) < oko ooo'. The etymology is missing, and the definition
is inaccurate. The etymon of ovq is 1 hain 'LralLor'. lor hlsLorlcal reasons (LralLors Lo Lhe 1urks
often became heroes to the Ottoman Christians) the Greek word ovq (in Crete for example) took
on similar connotations to the word k\cq, in the sense of one who refuses to submit himself to
Ottoman authority. However, the definition of this word should not ignore its literal meaning.
Mavrogenis uses it in the phrase: 'ovq vt o\ct o\tvv (p. 64; the phrase is not in the
glossary). l don'L know whaL Lhe lasL word represenLs, buL Lhe CLLoman phrase hain-i din devlet
means 'LralLor Lo rellglon and sLaLe'. Mavrogenis uses the word again on 36r.
'o\tko, o'. 1he headword should read 'o\tko' (without article), slnce lL's an ad[ecLlve.
lmllarly, Lhe followlng enLry, 'oo(tko, o' (whlch means 'negaLlve' raLher Lhan 'useless'), should
not include the article.
'onq (11v)': ln Lhe LranscrlpLlon of Lhe LexL Lhe edlLor erroneously wrlLes oncq.
'ont, o (15r) < ok. harap: tnucvo harap etmek: kooocu'. A fuller verslon of Lhls
enLry should read: 'ont, o (15r) < ok. harap: tnucvo kvu ont = ok. harap
etmek: kooocu'. Turkish expressions such as harap etmek and zapt etmek (see '(nt' above)
behave syntactically like transitive verbs, and the Greek equivalents do the same: 'ckoov ont o
\kct' 'Lhey've rulned Lhe counLry', Mavrogenis says about his Phanariot predecessors.
'oq, o'. lor 'ko\oo' read 'ko\\oo'.
21

'tnov\o(u'. ead 'tno\o(u'.
'ovct (12v)'. 1he page reference is erroneous; substitute (or add) 3v.

In addition, about forty words that are not necessarily comprehensible to those who know Standard
Modern Greek are absent from the glossary. The following is not an exhaustive list:

oc\o (21r)
oov (36v) 'bad'
kco(v), o 'decree' < lL. decreto
\ n ot, o (33) ('o o[o] t. \ n ot') (I cannot make sense of this)
tv cvq, o (10) 'ooco oqv A\ uv ovtv' (Angelou (Kodrikas)) (cf.
Kechagioglou, s.v. tovvto: 'oq, no o (ouovtko)
qovooo\o, nuno'
tono(tv (18v) < It. disperazione 'despalr' (onootv in Goldoni (Martini))
(q, o 'doge', most likely < F doge
vo, q (passim; though it is discussed in the Introduction, p. 13) < Rom. Joomo
ootvto (43r) 'exLraordlnary' < Lat. extraordinarius (Kechagioglou has oootvto:
'ckoko')
(ont(, o (35v: erroneously transcribed as (on(): presumably some kind of law-enforcement
officer. This is cognate with (nt, (o()nq and (ont\kt, which are in the glossary. The
translator of Goldoni uses the form (on( (see Anna Gentili et al., Dieci commedie di Goldoni
tradotte in neogreco (Padua 1988), p. 388); Pamboukis likewise.
(o\o (31v): kind of coin
(ovo(cvq, o (39v: the editor writes (ovo(vquv [sic]) 'zurna player (in mehter)' < T zurnazen
q\kto, o (17r) '(static) elecLrlclLy' (the word is also used by Moisiodax, ny [1780] (ed.
Angelou), p. 32, whereas Babiniotis gives first citation as 1811)
coov (27v) 'sLage' (raLher Lhan 'LheaLre')
tvcoov (3v) '(self-)lnLeresL, proflL' < It. interesse; tvcoov 'wlLh an ulLerlor moLlve'
kooq (31v): Karaite Jew?
ko, o (47v) 'quarLer (of an hour)'
koovkt (10 [p. 262]): possibly the diminutive of kovo ('AusLrlan or Pungarlan mercenary'),
which appears in the plural in evp, p. 98, glossed by paLhls as 'ootoko
oot'. Kriaras' Med. Dict. defines it as 'otk tnntk'.
12
Possibly < Rom. ctoo/cotoo
< Hungarian katona 'soldler'. kovo exists today as a Greek surname.
koovov (48u) 'sLralL, (esp.) Lhe 8osporus'
koo\o (33v, 45v): 'gypsy, slave' (which came to the same thing in the Danubian principalities)
kto\ot, o (25v) 'mace' < T klnk (cf. Photeinos 118)

12
Kriaras bases his definition on Stavrinos: Kovot, koo\\oo otkq (22).
22

kok (thus transcribed by the editor, 16v): the word is not clearly written, but in the context,
where the jester is preventing Matios from leaving the prlnce's presence, the whole phrase
(?Kok cvq;) seems Lo mean 'should we let him go, master?' and is possibly related to T
koyvermek/koyuvermek 'allow, leL go', Lhe prlnce's answer Lo Lhe quesLlon ls ' ov'. Perhaps
the author intended to write ko\t (i.e. T koyverelim mi? [the interrogative 1
st
person
plural of the subjunctive] 'should we leL go?'), in which case either he has either omitted the \ or
it has been effaced. (Perhaps the author was unsure about his Turkish grammar!)
kon(u (11v, 12v, 20r (p. 96), 45r): a particularly enigmatic word. From the contexts it appears to
mean 'come lnLo vlew, Lurn up'. lrom a phonologlcal polnL of vlew, Lhe mosL llkely eLymon ls 1
kopmak, buL Lhls means 'break off, seL ouL, begln'. lL ls posslble LhaL kon(u was part of (local?)
Greek slang at the time, which seems to have used words in senses that are different from the
conventional meanings.
koko (27): cf. T kuka and Rom. coc (Lhe laLLer deflned as 'tall hat sometimes adorned with ostrich
feathers, which Turkish and Romanian princes wore during ceremonies':
http://dexonline.ro/definitie/cuca).
kot(o (23v)
kokvo (1r) 'turkey cock'
ku\o(t 'offshooL' and n\o 'handful' (31r)
\too (10) 'mugwort'
\ktvo (43r) 'made of wolf fur'
\kok\nokov (erroneously transcribed as \kok\novov, 32v) 'cap made of wolf fur'
ovt(tu (23v) 'handle [a boat]' < It. maneggiare
o\oo vo (40r) = o\ootvo (it is intriguing that the author indicates that the o is
pronounced ); Dehque defines o\ootvo as 'un grand, un selgneur'
\vt(q (27v, 53v)
13

ctov, o (23v: the editor writes cov) 'merlL' < It. merito (also Angelou (Bertoldo))
o\kt, o (44v) 'property' < T mlk
ooovot (47v) lit. 'mask', buL (33v) apparently used (in slang?) Lo mean 'nasLy, ugly face or
person'. Cf. G. P. Savvidis, glossary to Dapontes, kn prv (Athens 1993): \.
\totkq, o \o o, quoting from the 1880 edition of the same text by G.
Sophocleous . Cf. also D. Vyzantios, luvkkpr, Act 4, sc. 12 [?]: \ vo q q
ooovot o to vo o nooq.
noo\o, q (39r): probably a misreading for nooc\o 'a trifle, a Lhlng of no lmporLance' < l
bagatelle or It. bagattella
nctko (20r) 'unseemly' < 1 bed?
noo, q (16v) 'trumpet' (here, as used in mehter music) < T boru
o (19r) 'laLe' [same phrase (-o vot) also in Goldoni p. 13]
okko(tv, q (2v) 'opporLunlLy' < lL. occasione (also Angelou (Bertoldo))

13
< Rom. medelnicer: boyar title, originally one who pours water on hands to wash them before meals
(http://dexonline.ro/definitie/medelnicer). See also Foteinos 502-3 ('\tv(tq'), who says Lhls ls now
simply a title, with no function (like many of the Danubian noble titles in his time).

23

(o and nv(o (14v) (nautical terms).
noo\o(u (1v, p. 236) 'break or cut to pieces'
n ooot (53v) (noot) < T bobl
n v(unv(u (31v), i.e. nv(u: 'admlre, approve of' < 1 beeomek
nct, o (12v) 'earnesL money, deposlL' < 1 pey (this is the origin of n\o(u, q.v. in the main list
above); cf. Koukkidis, s.v. nct
nnc (18v): nntc? (= ntntc?)
no (10 [p. 262]) 'bridge' < Rom. pod; cf. Angelou (Kodrikas), s.v. no
nno, q (11v) 'pomp, splendld dlsplay' < lL. pompa (cf. Rom. pomp)
non\tku (31r) 'publlsh, publlclze' < lL. pubblicare
koovu (3r) 'recommend' < F recommender and It. raccomandare
ont, o (43r) 'klnd of coln (quarLer of a kurush [ot]' < 1 rub
ooook\noko, o (40v) < ooot (< T samur 'sable (anlmal and fur)') + ko\nkt (< T kalpak 'fur
cap')
oq, o (52r) < Rom. ttot or etrar < tt 'LenL' (the auLhor wrlLes 'o.', whlle Lhe edlLor
no doubt rightly wrlLes 'o[q]'). Foteinos ('zoq', 508) states that the holder of this
title used to be the official in charge of military tents, but that by his time it was merely a title
ooo(kq, o (6r): diminutive of oo, o (< 1 sofa), or directly from Turkish diminutive sofock?
(Kechagioglou has ooo(kt 'oq\ (to, nctvo) ktoo', but the form in zyvk is
clearly masculine, perhaps influenced by the gender of oo)
oq, o (22v) 'courier' (also in Angelou (Kodrikas): 'oo')
otkq, q (53v) 'mall-bag' (?)
(tnok\okt, o (25v) 'cupboard for sLorlng plpes' < 1 ubukluk
\o (30r) 'monnale Lurque de peu de valeur' (Dehque); 'oo\v, \nv' (ophoklls ln avvldls'
glossary to kn prv. vaglakakos, p. 36: ', \toov vtoo (\o. follls)'; see also
longer definition in Kechagioglou, s.v. \o.
(18r: fem.pl.)
ooov\kt, o (30r).
otvu (18r): xo Ck. otvu 'kvu to q, o(u'"
14


Finally, a number of Turkish expressions are not commented on. Among these are '\\ ovc o\'
(16v), probably = T Allaha emanet ol 'may you be entrusted to God', and '\\oc o t\(t'
(17v), presumably Jevletlye sefo lzm 'a/the genLlemen needs en[oymenL'.

Peter Mackridge
12 February 2013 [revised 26 August 2014]

14
8k Aek rp p pvk: http://www.greek-
language.gr/greekLang/ancient_greek/tools/lexicon/lemma.html?id=192