Upgrading a pc volume 2 BIOS What Is BIOS?

The BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) is a chip on the computer's motherboard that is designed to provide the interface required between hardware devices such as hard disks, display and the software usually operating system. The BIOS has instructions as to how to load the basic computer hardware along with a test usually referred to as a POST (Power On Self Test) that ensures that the computer meets the requirements to boot up properly. In case the computer fails to pass the POST then there will be a combination of beep sounds that indicate a malfunctioning within the computer. The BIOS usually has 4 main functions: POST - Before the process of loading the Operating System is initialized, POST tests the computer hardware to see if they are properly functioning. Bootstrap Loader - It is a process of locating the operating system. In case a active Operating system is found BIOS will pass the control to it. BIOS - Software / Drivers which interfaces between the operating system and the hardware. CMOS Setup - It is a configuration program that allows configuring of hardware settings such as computer passwords, time, and date. When Is A BIOS Update Necessary? The following list shows the benefits of a ROM BIOS upgrade: Adds support for hard drives greater than 10GB Adds support for Ultra-DMA / 33, UDMA / 66, UDMA / 100, or faster IDE hard drives Adds or improves Plug-and-Play support and compatibility. Corrects calendar-related bugs. Corrects known bugs or compatibility problems with certain hardware and software. Adds support for newer or faster processors. In general, if a computer is not able to utilize all the features of new software or hardware, it may need a BIOS upgrade. ADAPTER CARDS Adapter Cards are also referred to as controller cards, expansion cards, or interface cards. They accommodate the flow of data as well as the instructions between the CPU and the devices thereby enhancing the capability of the computer viz. memory expansion, advanced graphics, sound, I/O expansion, etc. These are installed or plugged into slots on the

motherboard, or bus extensions such as the Local Bus. They enhance the flexibility of the computer in accepting devices such as monitors, memory adapters and parallel and serial peripherals. The slots that they fit into are: ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Slot. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Slot. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) Slot. PCI-Express Slot. Upgrading a Video Card A video card provides signals that operate the computer monitor. A computer will have either an AGP graphics or PCI Express (PCIe) graphics. With the arrival of graphic intensive games, the video card manufacturers have integrated a processor and memory on the video card. The greater the memory, the faster the processor, the higher the quality of the game produced by the monitor. Most mid-range and faster graphics chipsets no longer support the PCI slot. Besides faster throughput, AGP has two other big advantages over PCI for video: AGP has a dedicated direct connection to the processor instead of sharing bandwidth with other PCI slot and motherboard devices. AGP can use onboard or motherboard RAM for handling 3D textures. Some of examples of video cards in the market are AGP PCIe, Radeon 9600 XT, GeForce 6800 Ultra Radeon X800 XT, etc. Upgrading a Sound Card Some cards add functionality of generating sound to the computer. Older PCI sound cards are very resource hungry and offer a limited sampling rate of 16 bits at 44,100 Hz. Newer PCI sound cards can take the rate up to 24 bits at 96 KHz which is the specification for DVD quality audio discs. Most Motherboards ship with an on-board soundcard, which gives you a free PCI slot for use in the future. Most sound cards support both of the current entertainment audio standards: AdLib and Sound Blaster. The Sound Blaster is a family of sound cards sold by Creative Labs. A sound card has many uses, including the following: Adding stereo sound to entertainment (game) software. Adding sound effects to business presentations and training software. Playing audio CDs. A LITTLE ABOUT LAPTOPS

Laptops are gaining in popularity due to there portability and compact size. There is a problem with upgrading laptops because of their compact size. It severly limits the components you can upgrade access to them. find there we pay for average to a manufacturer for apart or laptop get the purchase. top of the will be in a laptop due to the difficulty in gaining If you have ever taken a laptop apart, you will is little to no room inside the casing ( a price wanting things smaller and more portable). The

user will have to spend money taking their laptop computer shop or sending it off to the upgrades, unless you have experience taking one are a qualified technician. So when you purchase a remember that you will be limited on upgrades, so most advanced model out at the time you make a You have to remember though, even if you get the line model at that time, in six months your laptop outdated. Laptop power sources Power supply output capacity Portable computer systems like the laptops, notebooks, and also the PDA's run on batteries when not connected to any power source. There are many types of power sources available for a portable device like a laptop. Some of them are: Nickel-cadmium. Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH). Lead-acid. Lithium-ion. Lithium-ion-polymer. Reusable Alkaline. Fuel cell. Let us look at some of these power sources in detail. Lithium-ion A type of battery made of Lithium. Also the lightest metal having the highest electrochemical potential. Lithium as a metal is unstable. So Lithium-Ion batteries are made from Lithium ions from chemicals. This is the fastest growing battery system for portable devices such as laptops as they offer high-energy density and low weight.

Using various energy densities, Lithium-ion batteries can be produced. Though commercial lithium-ion batteries are safe, super-high capacity lithium ion for defense applications are not approved for general use due to safety reasons. Some of the main features are: These batteries have a longer life span than Nickel Cadmium or Nickel Metal-Hydride batteries. These batteries are more expensive than any of its counterparts. Lithium-Ion batteries do not use poisonous metals, such as lead, mercury or cadmium. The only disadvantage to Lithium-Ion batteries is that they are currently more expensive than other battery types. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) It is a rechargeable battery type. They are in use since the late 1980s. Due to their steady increase in performance, they prove excellent for small, lightweight, portable, and handheld applications. Some the features of NiMH are: Its energy density is higher when compared to other types but at the expense of reduced cycle life. There are no toxic metals, and Less prone to memory effect than NiCd. The cylindrical nickel-metal-hydride used for commercial purpose gives a mid-range energy density of around 80Wh/kg and delivers roughly 400 cycles. The prismatic nickel-metal-hydride is a battery that is made for slim geometry, compromises on energy density and cycle count. It is rated at a moderate 60Wh/kg and offers around 300 cycles. Highly durable nickel-metal-hydride for industrial use are packaged in cylindrical cells, provide a modest 70Wh/kg but last for about 1000 cycles. Fuel Cell It is an electrochemical device that generates electric power from either hydrogen or from alternative fuels like methanol, propane, butane or natural gas. The power output of these cells for compact portable system is in the range of 25 watts to 45 watts. Some salient features of these Fuel cells are: They are environmentally friendly technology. Recharging the battery involves replacing the liquid fuel only and does not require shutting down the computer. Fuel cell-based computers are still relatively expensive. Solid-oxide fuel cells have electrolyte layers

that are 100 microns thick or more (a micron is one thousandth of a millimeter). The thinness cuts down internal resistance to electric current which makes it possible to get comparable power output at much lower operating temperatures. The portable electronics industry is also exploring miniature fuel cells as a more powerful and long lasting replacement for batteries. PCMCIA CARDS Why PCMCIA Type I, II, III cards are required? Notebook has two PC Card slots (also known as PCMCIA card slots). These slots accept Type I, II, and III cards. PC Cards are now used in many diverse applications including several types of RAM memory, pre-programmed ROM cards, modems, sound cards, floppy disk controllers, hard drives, CD ROM and SCSI controllers, LAN cards, to name a few. The PC Card standard has a 68-pin interface between the peripheral card and the socket into which it is inserted. It defines three standard PC Card form factors, called Type I, Type II and Type III. All PC Cards are of the same length and width. However, they differ only in thickness. For changing most cards the laptops need not be restarted as they support hot-swapping. Type I, II and III Cards Currently there are 3 standardized PC Card physical form factors: Type I is the original 3.3 mm thick card. These cards have their application in memory devices such as Flash, OTP, and RAM. However, modems and other devices also are included. Type II expands the thickness to 5.0 mm. These are typically used in I/O devices such as data / fax modems, LANs, and also mass storage devices. Type II cards are the most sought after size today and are used for most functions barring a few special applications. Type III further expands the thickness to 10.5 mm and is used for devices whose components are thicker, such as hard drives. The latest release of the PC Card Standard provided information to improve compatibility and added support for features such as 3.3 volt operation, and DMA support.

Written by BobbyR1234 on 4/6/08 and uploaded to Scrbd.