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Copyright 1998, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1998 SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana, 2730 September 1998.

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Abstract
Ubit field is an example of a successful application of
integrated reservoir management to an old field, which has
resulted in a total change in the development strategy, an
increase in recoverable reserves by a half billion barrels and a
production uplift of 110 MBD. The key was an improved
understanding of the reservoir hydraulics. Unlocking the
genesis of elements that defined the fluid flow units identified
their connectivity and distribution as related to their
depositional facies, led to rejuvenating this field so
completely. New data and techniques in 3-D seismic, core
interpretation, computer mapping, 3-D visualization, and
advanced reservoir simulation prediction capabilities were
brought together to optimize recovery and production.
Through the integration of the new reservoir model, horizontal
drilling, and surface facilities, this old field is now producing
an all-time high of 140 MBD, with ultimate recovery expected
to exceed 1 billion barrels. The techniques and methodologies
developed at Ubit are being leveraged in other assets.
Ubit has a STOIIP of 2.1 billion. The reservoir is cut by
3500 feet of dipping, unconsolidated sands and shales.
Production is from a thin oil column, with an associated thick
gas cap. Gravity-stable gas expansion is the primary recovery
mechanism. For 25 years, Ubit averaged only 30 MBD with a
high gas-oil ratio. Gas breakthrough in conventional
directionally-drilled production wells has been problematic.
Previous reservoir interpretations described the chaotic nature
and poor quality reservoir properties in the eastern two-thirds
of the field. Poor historical production performance seemed
to confirm these observations.
A new horizontally-layered, hydraulic-focused geologic
model combined with advanced reservoir simulation
techniques yielded a substantially improved interpretation. The
reservoir model is the primary focus of this paper. Predicted
performance has guided the management of the
re-development of Ubit. New technology applications and
conventional techniques were brought together in the reservoir
model design to capture the geologic elements controlling
flow, and the dynamic processes controlling recovery.
This paper describes some of the significant reservoir
engineering, geoscience, infrastructure challenges, and the
technical resolutions during the development and management
of this complex reservoir system. Key reservoir management
strategies were applied to maximize performance and ultimate
recoveries. They include: 1) implementing horizontal well
drilling, 2) full-field full-life reservoir simulation results
defining well placement / timing, 3) balancing a non-uniform
gas cap, 4) maintaining stable gas cap movement and pressure
throughout, 5) establishing a field plateau rate and 6)
minimizing free-gas production.

Introduction
Historical Background. Ubit field is the largest producing
single reservoir in Nigeria. It is located about 35 miles
offshore in the Niger Delta (Fig.1). It has a history typical of
many old fields that were discovered and developed long
before there was talk in the industry of reservoir
management, asset management, integration, 3-D
seismic, 3-D modeling / visualization, reservoir simulation, or
horizontal wells. Ubit's story starts in 1968 when a structural
high was drilled, and two distant offsets wells were drilled to
help define the reservoir limits: a time when the Nigerian oil
and gas industry was young. Platforms were located and
wells were drilled based on scanty 2-D seismic. Wells were
spaced and completed based on regulations requiring an
800-meter spacing and completed with a 10-foot milled
window in the middle of the oil column. Production came on

SPE 49165
Ubit Field Rejuvenation: A Case History of Reservoir Management of a Giant Oil Field,
Offshore Nigeria
C.A. Clayton, SPE, M.F. Cohen, SPE, M. Anis, SPE, T.W. Cooley, SPE, M.M. Honarpour, SPE, J.P. Wallace, SPE, M.R.
Chambers, SPE, Mobil Technology Company, Dallas; A.O. Fadase, F.N. Pebdani, SPE, E.G. Odior, SPE, E.U. Nwaeri,
A.H. Membere, SPE, E.O. Ekworomadu, SPE, K.A. Miner, SPE; Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited; B.O. Ogunjana,
Department of Petroleum Resources, Nigeria; R. Al-Hussainy, SPE, Mobil Oil Corporation.
2 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
stream in 1970, averaging about 30 MBD until extensive
reservoir management efforts were implemented in 1995.
Development in the early 1970s brought in 9 platforms
spatially covering Ubit's vast extent (about 9.5 miles by 4
miles). Sixty-three directional wells were drilled. High
GOR's with some high water cut wells have plagued field
performance for 25 years. All conventional technology
efforts were attempted to improve well performance:
perforations were squeezed, wells were recompleted, larger
intervals were opened-up, and some wells were even re-drilled.
Nothing seemed to improve the overall field production.
The reservoir in the western region of the field had been
historically characterized as bedded and competent. Well
performance in this region was reasonably good. Average
wells produced about 1000-1500 barrels of oil per day, at
around 1000 scf/bbl GOR, with water cuts of 10 to 15 percent.
In contrast, the eastern two-thirds of the field were described
as a chaotic mixture of eroded, re-deposited, poor-quality
sediments, known legendary throughout the company as the
Rubble Beds (Fig. 2a). The broken, highly-disruptive 2-D
seismic signature and extreme difficulties in log correlation
combined with immediate high GOR's and poor production
performance seemed to confirm these observations. Wells in
the eastern area that could be produced averaged 500-600
BOPD at about 2000 scf/bbl GOR. A number of wells had
very short production histories.
The new characterization, which integrated 3-D seismic,
cores, logs, and historical production data, revealed that the
reservoir is composed of sands that are a prograding
deltaic-shallow-marine-system, which has been tectonically
disturbed. Downslope movement of the youngest sand
sequences resulted in large scale slumping and block sliding
(Fig. 2b). Reservoir quality is good to excellent in these
proximal sediments. High drawdowns and lack of laterally
continuous shale barriers are responsible for the severe
gas-coning problems.
Throughout most of the field's history, the eastern region of
the field has been virtually shut-in, with the majority of
production coming from the three western platforms.
Pressure data confirmed field-wide pressure communication.
The distinctive horizontal railroad track seismic reflectors of
the gas-oil and oil-water contacts and early drilling revealed
the large gas cap in this gas expansion reservoir system.
Ubit's oil column is relatively thin at 160 feet with the gas
column varying from 50 to 550 feet thick (Fig. 2c). The
hydrocarbon column cuts 3500-foot stratigraphic section a
thick. Prior to the current reservoir management practices,
the cumulative recovery was estimated at 12 %.
Historical production has been from 63
directionally-drilled wells. Ubits first horizontal well was
drilled in November of 1993
1
. Current production is from 37
horizontal wells, with 20 more planned. Results from a new
reservoir model were in place and implementation began in
late 1995.
Traditionally, the field has been viewed as two regions:
West Ubit and East Ubit. Appropriate technology application
through applied reservoir management has finally brought the
two regions together as one dynamic system.

A Second Chance. With the advent and subsequent successes
of horizontal well technology
2,3
a team of multi-disciplinary
technologists recognized Ubits potential. If Ubits
drawdown limitations could be overcome and good reservoir
management practices implemented
4
, the field had the
potential to be transformed from an under-performing asset to
one of the most important producers in Nigeria. Management
set forth-clear business objectives to help evaluate and realize
the opportunity:

1. Determine the oil-in place,
2. Determine the numbers of wells needed,
3. Predict field production rates, for
facilities planning purposes, and
4. Determine the recovery factor for
reserves purposes

Uncertainties and Challenges. The significant uncertainties
and challenges included geological complexities in the
reservoir architecture, particularly structural deformation,
sandbody geometries, petrophysical rock and fluid properties,
and distribution of flow units. Other unknowns were the size
of the gas cap and aquifer, and their long-term impact on
production, as well as the efficiency of the gas and water
displacement in the oil column.
An important element in reducing the uncertainty and
obtaining measurable results is a robust data set to analyze.
Acquisition of 3-D seismic over the companys entire
concession prior to the Ubit reservoir study was visionary.
New cores strategically placed were also collected. New data
acquisition integrated with older data sets of logs cores, 25
years of pressure, and production data are some of the major
elements behind the fundamentally different geological
interpretation. New data also came with the implementation
of horizontal drilling concurrent with the reservoir study. The
new horizontal well performance data such as initial rates,
shut-in pressures and GORs were invaluable and provided
welcome uncertainty reduction.
A reservoir management team composed of
multi-disciplinary members of affiliate, technology center, and
Nigerian government technologists as well as key senior
advisors addressed Ubits challenges. A reservoir study was
designed and implemented to predict future field performance
from this horizontal well strategy.
Both conventional and new technology tools were
considered to construct the reservoir model.


Technology Innovation
A focus on capturing the geologic elements that controlled
flow and the dynamics of the recovery process led to new
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 3
approaches. The major ones include: 1) a horizontally
layered model, 2) evaluation of the paleotopography of the top
of the reservoir surface by 3-D seismic attribute analysis, 3)
seismic time slices to define fault and slump block geometries,
4) new approaches in computer mapping utilizing macros and
formula grid to grid operations in construction of the
horizontal rock property layers, 5) new code written in 3-D
modeling software to re-connect stratigraphic layers in the
horizontal model and simultaneously create the simulation
grid, and 6) experimental gravity-drainage gas-oil relative
permeability laboratory procedures.

Reservoir Description
Ubits hydrocarbon bearing reservoir covers an areal extent of
about 15,000 acres. The structure is a large east-west trending
anticline bounded to the north, west, and south by two large,
intersecting growth faults; both are down thrown to the south.
The structure dips gently to the east. Hydrocarbon reserves
are found at depths of approximately one mile in the Miocene
Biafra Sand Member of the Agbada Formation (Fig. 3a). The
reservoir interval is composed of unconsolidated sands and
shales within a prograding system of lower delta plain, shallow
marine sediments capped by marine turbidites and debris
flows. The overlying deep marine shales of the Pliocene Qua
Iboe Member form the reservoir seal. The top of the
reservoir is defined at the (b)ase of the (Q)ua (I)boe Member
(BQI surface)
5
. Reservoir sands are highly permeable, and are
feldspathic in composition.
The western region of the field is characterized by crestal
collapse faulting with the top surface of the reservoir
dominated by a series of high-relief scarps; structural dips
average 7 degrees. Western region reservoir sands are
competent and bedded, composed of four thick regressive
shallow marine sequences, separated by thick regressive
marine shales (Fig. 3b). Unconsolidated sands of the shoreface
to lower shoreface environment are the dominant depositional
environments. The eastern region of the field is characterized
by downslope fault blocks and slump blocks represented on
the top reservoir surface as gentle slump features, with the
exception of the high-relief on a northeast compression block.
Structural dip angles are generally low ranging from 1-4
degrees with several steeply dipping blocks at 20+ degrees.
The eastern region depositional facies include shoreface and
the more proximal sands of the lower delta plain: tidal
channels and flats, and lagoons and washover sands (Fig. 3c).
Stratigraphically younger marine turbidites and debris flow
cap the eastern region. Approximately 3500 feet of prograding
stratigraphic section cuts through the thin (160-foot) oil
column. Excellent quality, fine-grained, well-sorted shoreface
sands comprise approximately two-thirds of the oil column.
The oil column is overlain by a large gas cap, which varies in
thickness from 50 to 550 feet thick. Fluid contacts are uniform.
Non-sealing faults have provided the mechanism for fluid and
pressure communication between fault blocks and slump
blocks. Historical production from conventional wells was
primarily from western platform wells.

Evolution of the Hydraulic Geologic Model
Integration of the structural and stratigraphic frameworks was
essential in unraveling Ubits geologic complexities. Distinct
structural and stratigraphic differences existed between the
eastern and western regions of Ubit. When they were evaluated
together, a fundamentally different geologic model emerged.
The strongest evidence was in the consistency found in the
integration of the regional and local structural deformation
with the observed stratigraphic succession and smaller-scale
deformation textures found in the cores. The interpretations
from the 3-D seismic and strategically placed cores provided
that the reservoir geometries could be defined and reservoir
properties predicted for both regions.

Structural Framework
3-D seismic was critical to the definition of the structural
geometries within the Ubit Field. It was used extensively to
define the complex slump block geometries in the eastern
region of the field and to determine the communication
between slump blocks.
Understanding the tectonic processes responsible for Ubits
structural deformation was a first priority. Placement in the
regional stratigraphic context of a shelf-edge delta that had
collapsed into a series of rotated, tilted slump block
significantly reduced uncertainty in identifying the reservoirs
internal framework. It also provided the basis for a
directional understanding of the extensional structural failure.
The striking contrast between the strong reflectors in the
bedded, competent thick regressive shallow marine-marine
sequences of the western region with the broken seismic
signature of the eastern region of the field is shown in the
seismic line in Fig. 4. The top of the reservoir (BQI) is also
shown.
A number of seismic techniques were applied, in particular,
attribute analysis, rock physics and amplitude analysis, seismic
facies analysis of time slices, and conventional reflector
mapping. All aided the interpretation but the main
contributing techniques were reflector mapping in the west
region, and seismic facies analysis of time slices with surface
attribute analysis to define the eastern region.

Fault and Slump Block Geometries Delineated. Nineteen,
major structural framework areas were identified in Ubit.
These areas were defined by the major faults and larger slump
scars. Subsequent seismic time slice analysis identified 70
significant internal fault and slump blocks.
Five of these were in the western region and represent the
southern fault block and a central collapse feature. Sixty-five
of the blocks were in the eastern region. They are interpreted
as younger sequences affected by downslope translation and
slumping and now described as disturbed (Fig.4).
Enhanced seismic imaging and resolution provided by the 3-D
seismic data helped resolve major as well as subtle structural
4 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
and stratigraphic features in the identification of the block
geometries.
BQI Time Surface Analysis. Reservoir slumps and fault
blocks in the eastern region were interpreted with 3-D
cross-sectional and time slice data. However, the geometries
represented at the top of the reservoir (BQI surface) were
critical to the interpretation process and helped classify large
regions of the field. Detailed surface analysis on a suite of
attribute maps was especially effective for identifying and
displaying major faults and slump scars which were used to
define major structural framework areas.
The structural dip map of the BQI in Fig. 5 is one of the
attribute maps constructed. Steeper dips are shown by red
and black, and mark the underlying faulting and slumping.
Blue areas are some of the shallowest dips. Major
framework areas of the central horst blocks were especially
well defined as well as surface scars of the southern slumps,
northern slumps, and western collapse faults. Interpretations
on every line and trace (12.5-meter spacing) were utilized to
achieve this high resolution.
Time Slice and Cross-sectional Analysis. Refinement of
the major framework areas identified above, into a series of
slump blocks was accomplished using vertical seismic sections
tied to a series of time slices. Time slices in the oil column
were characterized in greater detail to provide accuracy in
defining the geometries and for identifying potential horizontal
well locations. Fig. 6 is a seismic time slice that shows the
major faults and slumps. The 70 polygons representing the
outlines of the slump and fault block geometries are shown in
Fig. 7. These define the geometries of the most significant
structural features within the reservoir. The geometries
represent major faults, slides and, slumps, as well as the
location and geometry of highly, tilted rotated blocks. The
outlines of the slump blocks were digitized as a series of
contiguous polygons for map construction purposes.
Structural dips were delineated for all eastern polygons for use
in depositional facies and rock property mapping. A graphic
representation of the BQI surface in Fig. 2b shows the slump
features and the failure directions.
Structural Model Design Components were Two-fold.
Structure maps on the BQI surface and the western sequences
were conventionally constructed utilizing reflector mapping
tying-in to log picks, then time-depth converted. Polygon
geometries of the slump blocks, slump direction, and structural
dip were utilized for the eastern region.



Stratigraphic Framework
Lithology, stratigraphy, depositional facies, and structural
deformation interpretations were made from approximately
3600 feet of core from six wells. Four cores were
strategically placed during the study to evaluate structural
framework areas. Three additional cores were taken to
validate the model in undrilled flank areas, and to evaluate
residual fluid saturations in the secondary gas cap.
Integration of all core interpretations revealed that Ubit
reservoir sands are composed of unconsolidated sands in a
normally prograding shallow marine deltaic system. Older
thick shallow marine regressive sequences of shoreface, lower
shoreface sediments capped by thick marine trangressive
shales characterized the west region. Younger sequences of
shoreface and more proximal environments of the lower delta
plain (tidal channels and flats, and lagoons) characterize the
eastern region of the field. The sands in the depositional
system are primarily fine-grained and generally well sorted.

Eastern Region Sediments not Chaotic but Predictable.
Key observations made from eastern core interpretations
indicated that the reservoir was not composed of chaotic
re-deposited rubble beds, but were unconsolidated sediments
in a normally prograding system, were predictable with no
significant reduction of rock properties.
Stratigraphic and Textural Evidence. The vertical
stratigraphic succession of environments ranged from strand
plain to lower delta plain sediments, capped by marine debris
flows and turbidites. Detachment surfaces were observed in
shales, with very contorted bedding as compared to fairly low
angle bedding in the sands. Small-scale deformation features
were evaluated to determine the vertical extent of deformation
away from the detachment surfaces. Rock properties by
depositional facies type were also evaluated in the same
manner. The results indicated very rapid disappearance of
deformational textures into the overlying sand bodies. The
highly porous sands (27-35% porosity) were not observed to
have suffered any significant deterioration in rock properties.
Their rock property relationships compared well with
porosity/permeability transforms developed from western
region cores and later newer ones. Hence, the deformation
appears to be more on the bedform level that at the pore level
in these shallow surface slumps.
The stratigraphy, bedform, and textural deformation
observed were consistent with a structural interpretation of a
delta shelf-edge collapse. This major shelf collapse included
Ubit and the surrounding areas, and resulted in an immediate
change from shelfal deltaic environments to deeper water
settings. Turbidites were interpreted to have shed from the
remaining shallow water areas slightly smoothing the surface
slump features, and thickening off the structural flanks.
Turbidite deposition, interpreted by a distinctive capping sand
log motif, was not observed on any western region well logs.
Integration and consistency of the core interpretations with
structural interpretations increased the confidence level in
prediction and reducing uncertainty in Eastern Ubit.
Internal Geologic Elements Controlling Flow Defined.
Recognition and full definition of rock properties of the major
depositional facies, that include fluid flow and saturation
characteristics, as derived from relative permeability and
capillary pressure measurements, was essential in capturing
and mapping reservoir flow units. Seven depositional facies
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 5
types were identified as controlling the preponderance of flow
and no flow in the reservoir system. Petrophysicalbased
facies descriptions of each type were defined (Fig. 8). The
rock property relationships defined for Ubit depositional facies
types are directly related to their grain size. Examples of the
lithology, typical log response, representative net/gross ratio,
porosity and permeability relationship, capillary pressure and
fluid relative permeability curves for each depositional facies
type are shown on Fig. 8. Log signatures or motifs and rock
property relationships as defined from core-to-log analysis
were utilized to interpret all logs.
Grain Size Control. Grain size is the primary controlling
element of reservoir property relationships in Ubits generally
well-sorted depositional system. This is primarily a function
of the limited grain-size range found in the sediments resulting
from distance of transport, and the dominance of
wave-processes. Grain size ranges from medium sand to mud,
with the vast majority of sands in the fine range. Robust
physical relationships were observed and defined in these
unconsolidated sediments. The major depositional facies
types representing Ubits depositional system are: 1) marine
turbidites and debris flow sands; 2) lower delta plain tidal
channels and lagoonal sands, 3) shallow marine upper
shoreface and lower shoreface sands and 4) shelf shales.
Excellent quality reservoir sands of the shoreface,
channels, and turbidite facies comprise approximately 80% of
the pore volume within the oil column.
Reservoir Facies and Historical Well Performance. The
best reservoir quality depositional facies were the turbidites,
shoreface, and channel sands. Some distinguishing production
characteristics do exist. Shoreface sands dominated the oil
column. Their excellent quality and large lateral geometries
provided excellent conventional completions where some
overlying shale protection from the gas cap is present.
Channel sands were good producers, but tended to cone water
more easily; this was most likely related to their limited lateral
geometries and larger pore size. Completions in the
turbidites were excellent, this depositional facies type is found
primarily in flank positions where sands thicken and there was
no overlying gas cap. Lower shoreface sands, due to lower
permeability and higher bound water, are not preferable
completions. The poorest reservoir quality is in debris flow
and lagoonal facies. Completions in these depositional facies
had short production histories. Lack of oil volume and ability
to recharge characterized these poor-quality, low net/gross
ratio, laterally discontinuous sands. They were the worst gas
coning wells at Ubit.
Resistivity Modeling. All deep induction resistivity logs
were forward modeled using a commercially available
software product developed by Mobil. Resistivity modeling is
an advanced petrophysical technique that more accurately
represents water saturation. The technology, known for its
contribution in thin-bed analysis, also adds significant value at
variable contrast lithology boundaries at Ubit. Sharper bed
boundaries defined from resistivity modeling also resulted in
sharper, better defined rock properties values in interval
summations. Capillary pressure end-point saturations
matched well with resistivity modeled water saturations.

Flow Units Defined and Mapped
Internal stratigraphic analysis of major flow and no-flow units
in the older strand plain sequences in the western region
yielded 19 inter-bedded flow units. A conventional mapping
approach was utilized constructing depositional facies,
porosity, permeability and net to gross ratio maps.
In the eastern region a dip projection method was used to
distribute rock properties in the slump blocks. Stratigraphy
interpreted from well logs residing in each of the structural
framework areas, structural dips, and slump directions, was
used to distribute rock properties at 20-foot vertical intervals
through the oil column. The manual approach described
above provided for detailed interpretation for each fault and
slump block that would in turn define the communication
relationships between them.
Unfortunately, 3-D modeling software packages could not
yet handle construction of the numerous fault and slump
geometries in Ubits severely broken architecture, as well as
distribute the rock properties within them. Robust 3-D
modeling software to achieve these results was desired.
However, with the lack of a suitable alternative, the systematic
process just described was developed and provided results in a
surprising reasonable timeframe.
Oil Geochemistry Studies Support Fieldwide Fluid
Communication. Compositional variations based on
geochemical data provided evidence that 1) the field was
charged from the east; 2) fluid flow, at least on a geological
time scale, was continuous across the reservoir; 3) the
depositional facies have exerted control on fluid movement
within the field; and 4) the reservoir filled subsequent to
deformation.

Scoping Model
Results from early scoping geologic and simulation models
indicated constraints using current technology applications.
The scoping simulation results using a conventional
stratigraphic-layering approach led to a radical change in the
final model design.
Due to the thick stratigraphic section that is cut by the thin,
areally extensive oil column, only a small percentage of grid
cells were located within the oil column. Approximately 90%
of the grid cells were in the gas and water columns or were
inactive cells. The combination of a thick stratigraphic section
dipping through a thin oil column over a large area made cell
usage extremely inefficient. More importantly, there were an
insufficient number of grid cells in the oil column to capture
the vertical dynamic processes. This model failed to achieve
even a crude GOR or watercut history match. In reviewing
the scoping model results with the gravity drainage, gas
expansion processes, it became apparent that a
horizontally-layered simulation model would have to be built.
6 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165

Horizontal Layer Design
Vertical layering of the model considered the energy of
the system in the gas cap and the dominant recovery process of
gravity drainage. Rock property distribution in the layers was
integrated into the model design. A geostatistical technique
was applied to the large gas cap and aquifer layers. A
deterministic approach for rock property distribution was used
for the gravity drainage dominated oil column and fluid
interface layers. Vertical layering of the model design is
shown in a schematic cross-section in Fig. 9, along with the
number of grids cells used in the full model. The design
focused on capturing oil-column fluid and gravity drainage,
gas expansion processes. The following design description
represents this 18-layer model.
The horizontal layer approach allowed for a full 14 of the
18 layers to be in the oil column. Two layers were in the gas
cap, while two layers comprised the aquifer. The gas layer
immediately above the oil column and the water layer
immediately below the oil column were kept at the finer grid
level. This ensured that numerical errors were reduced at the
fluid interfaces. The highest and lowest simulation layers
provided the remaining gas and water pore volume. Oil
column layer thickness was a combination of 10 foot and 20
foot layers; fluid interface layers were 20 feet.
Seventy-eight per cent of the grid cells now resided in the
three fluid phase oil column, as compared to the scoping
model at 10%.

Construction of the Horizontally Layered Model
In building the numeric geologic model, care was taken to
define and capture the physics in the grain-size control of
porosity, permeability, and irreducible water saturation.
Equally important was the vertical and lateral distribution in
scale-up. The model layer design was set at 20 feet to provide
for improved resolution of reservoir flow unit properties and
vertical layering in the oil column. This scale also minimized
homogenizing the reservoir properties that was encountered in
scale-up using the stratigraphic layering approach in the
scoping model.
An organized series of grid to grid operations utilizing the
computer mapping program formulas and macros was utilized
to build 20-foot horizontal rock property maps. The
following is a summary of the computer mapping methodology
used to generate the horizontal layers or slices.
The structure grids in the western region of the field were
sliced into 20-foot horizontal layers for the oil column and
fluid interfaces. The slicing process generated rock property
data sets for each of the simulation layers. Eastern region rock
properties were entered for all slump polygons. The
combination of eastern and western region data sets formed a
continuous mosaic of gridded data for each slice. Utilizing the
formula and macro options available in the mapping program,
procedures were developed to automate this repetitive task.
A geostatistical technique was applied to the large gas cap
and aquifer
6
. We took into account the possibilities of
investigating geostatistical techniques and found that it does
not really matter in the definition of the gas cap and aquifer
reservoir parameters. High resolution of the parameters was
not necessary there. Figure 10 is a representative set of
rock property slice maps, for one of the horizontal layers.

Reconstruction of Stratigraphic Layers
Horizontal rock property slices were loaded into 3-D
modeling software to re-connect the stratigraphic layers and
develop the simulation grid. New code was written in the 3-D
modeling software to provide for scale-up of the rock
property slices in creating the horizontal layer simulation
grid, since the z-direction had been defined. Iterative
scale-ups were needed in the horizontal gridding (x-,
y-directions) to reconnect the stratigraphic layers and
simultaneously define the areal grid cell sizes. The process is
represented in Fig. 11 utilizing one rock property slice as an
example of the effective process, and the resultant simulation
model. Note the connectivity of the gridcells in the dipping
western region of the model in Fig. 11.

Reservoir Simulation Model
Dynamic Properties and Model Input
Simulation Grid. The resulting simulation grid, as
previously described consists of 93 x-direction, 40 y-direction,
and 18 layers, or approximately 67,000 grid cells. Most of
the 20-foot, oil-leg cells were subdivided to 10 feet to provide
for more resolution of the gas front.
Fig. 9 illustrates the layering, which was designed to
provide the maximum grid resolution for advancing gas or
water fronts. The areal grid spacing is basically 200 meters,
but is reduced to 50 meters in several locations. Fig. 12
depicts the areal grid.
Capillary Pressure. Seven facies types were defined:
turbidites, upper shoreface, lower shoreface, channel, debris
flow, lagoonal, and shale. Capillary pressure curves are very
sharp, and therefore lead to very little transition zone in upper
shoreface and turbidite and the channel facies consistent with
the high permeabilities found there. Lower shoreface,
lagoonal, and debris flow facies indicate a small water-oil
transition zone. Turbidites, upper shoreface, and channel
facies represent the higher permeability sands; lower shoreface
and lagoonal are somewhat lower quality, while the debris
flow sands have the lowest permeabilities. Shales are dense
and competent and were treated as barriers to flow.
Relative Permeability. Water-relative permeability is
controlled by grain-size distribution in Ubit sands. Upper
shoreface, turbidites and channel facies tend to be higher than
other depositional facies types due to their larger grain-size.
The permeability curves for all of the facies indicate water-wet
character.
Neither the gas nor the oil curves demonstrate a significant
difference among the depositional facies types. An average
curve was derived from centrifuge data.
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 7
Fluid Properties. The fluid is a medium-grade oil, 37
o

API. The PVT is treated in black oil mode, with Bo = 1.38
and GOR = 612 scf/bbl at initial reservoir conditions. The oil
viscosity is 0.64 cp initially and increases to 0.9 at
abandonment. The mobility ratio is not adverse for the
reservoir brine, which has its viscosity of 0.35 cp and low
relative permeabilities. However, as in most reservoirs, the
low gas viscosity, 0.16-0.17 cp, can lead to gas coning
problems.
XYZ Linking Permeabilities. Thin no-flow barriers and
baffles of marine, estuary, lagoon, and debris flow shales, are
represented by linking permeability multipliers between cells.
The thin barrier / baffles proved to be essential to matching the
reservoir performance.
Absolute Permeability. Facies-defined permeability values
were derived through porosity-permeability relationships.
Permeabilities range from 0.1 md to 7 darcies. Most are in
the 2-3 darcy range. Based upon laboratory data, the vertical
permeabilities are approximately 70% of the horizontal values.
Residual Saturations. The estimation of correct endpoint
saturations to the relative permeability curves is critical to
matching and predicting performance in the Ubit reservoir
7
.
There are four endpoints to consider in the water-wet system:
Siw, Sorg, Sorw, and Sgc. Gas trapping is not an issue here.
Siw

was derived by evaluating all of the capillary pressure
information, and determining whether a consistent relationship
exists between Siw and permeability, porosity, the Leverett-J
function, or facies type. Siw

was found to best correlate to
permeability. Fig. 13 illustrates that Swi decreases inversely
with logarithm of permeability up to 2500 md, and is 7% for
all permeabilities higher than 2500 md. The relationship is
valid for the entire Ubit reservoir. This is again, a function of
grain-size control related to irreducible water saturation and
permeability, and in Ubit sands defined by depositional facies
type.
The relationship in Fig. 13 was applied universally in the
model to determine the irreducible water, Siw. Capillary
pressure curves for each of the seven facies types, using these
endpoints, were then applied to calculate the initial water
saturations.
A second important endpoint is the residual oil to gas,
Sorg. Laboratory measurements indicate that Sorg depends
upon the fluid velocity
7
. At low velocities (less than 40
ft/year), the flow is gravity stable with efficient gas
displacement, and oil residuals range between 5 and 7%.
Measurements at higher velocities lead to larger residual oil
saturations (up to 30%). In Ubit, with the oil legs relatively
large areal extent and small thickness, the velocities are on the
order of 3 ft/year, well within the gravity stable regime. Core
data from the secondary gas cap in 1996 confirmed the low oil
residual saturations. Values of 5-6% were applied in the Ubit
model.
Less important are the residual oil saturations to water,
because water movement, except for water coning, is quite
limited. A value of 20% was applied in the simulation model.
Sgc, the critical gas saturation, was set to 3% for all cases
presented in this paper.
I nitialization. Oil in place at initialization of the model
was 2.14 billion barrels, which is close to the volumetric
calculation at 2.12 billion.

Effect of Permeability Curve Near to the Endpoint
The oil relative permeability curves near to the endpoint, Sorg,
proved to be critical to making accurate predictions of ultimate
recovery. Laboratory measurements using the centrifuge led
to extremely low oil relative permeabilities (1.E-6 1.E-7)
near to Sorg. Using these curves with an Sorg of 5% led to
predictions of oil still at 12-20% saturation in the upper layers
at field abandonment. With the low relative permeabilities,
oil was slowly being stripped in the model, but would not
approach the residual within the lifetime of the reservoir. The
residual value was correct, but the curve near to the residual
was too pessimistic.
Laboratory Measurements. An examination of the
centrifuge measurements indicated that capillary end effects
led to an underestimation of the relative permeability to oil for
a gravity-stable process. Fig.14 illustrates the relative
permeability curves for viscous dominated and gravity-stable
dominated cases both with and without the correction. On a
linear scale, the differences between the original curve and the
one accounting for capillary pressure end effects are not easily
distinguishable.
Field Measurements. Field core measurements taken in
1996 confirmed the low oil saturations in the secondary gas
cap
7
. The new field data showed that the relative permeability
curves had to be corrected for end effects.
Results. The small difference in the curves makes an
enormous difference in the results. When the new relative
permeabilities were applied during the history phase, simulated
saturation values in 1997 matched the field-measured residual
of 5%, as compared to the 12-20% using the original curves.
For the prediction cases, the revised model has an impact
of 100 MM bbls, or a 10% increase compared to the original
model. Fig. 15 depicts a comparison between the two cases.
History Match
Ubits production history began in 1970. The objective was
to match shut-in pressure and GOR data. Some of the data
was characterized by gas or water coning, which would require
an extremely fine grid around the wells. There was no
attempt to match the coning data, but attention was paid to
non-localized changes and trends. Because of the high
permeabilities and lack of sealing faults, Ubit pressure changes
communicate throughout the reservoir quickly. Figs. 16 and 17
illustrate the field pressure and GOR history match.
Geologic Model Validated. Due to detailed geologic
characterization, relative few changes to the model were
necessary to achieve a reasonable match with historical data.
The largest uncertainty was in the estimation of the aquifer
size. It does not play a large role, however, because gas
expansion provides the dominant pressure support. Slight
8 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
adjustments to the gas cap size were sufficient to bring the
simulated pressure results in line with the observed data.
In summary, the new simulation model offers the following
advantages: 1) location of most of the grid cells in the oil
leg to capture the advancing gas cap, 2) new reservoir
characterization of the east, 3) correct treatment of residual
oil saturations, 4) use of the excellent Siw correlation to
permeability, 5) facies-based petrophysical properties tied to
grain size, 6) more effective gridding of geologic geometries,
properties, and allows easier horizontal well placement in the
oil column, 7) flexibility to increase vertical layering without
adding large numbers of additional cells.

Reservoir Management
Objectives
The reservoir management objectives were to:
Determine ultimate recovery
Develop a full field / full life development
plan and operating policy
Maximize ultimate recovery
Implement horizontal wells
Utilize existing infrastructure
Identify additional platform needs or
facilities upgrades
In order to realize the objectives, the following specific issues
were addressed: the number of horizontal wells, optimal well
placement and timing, appropriate GOR limits, the
establishment of an optimal field plateau rate, and the
maximum individual well withdrawal rates.

Fluid Distribution and Pressures in 1995
During the latter part of the history match period, 1992-95, the
field showed two major tilts, the predominant west-east tilt,
shown in Figs. 20 and 21, and a less severe north-south tilt in
the west portion of the field. This was due to the years of
production and reservoir drawdown of the western platforms.
Several eastern wells also had distinct depletion cones.
Redevelopment Strategy
Well Placement
Simulation results identified 57 horizontal-well locations for
maximum ultimate recovery. The drilling program is
ongoing.
The study also indicated that reservoir management of
Ubits depletion was best realized by taking full advantage of
the gravity drainage processes and the reservoir energy in the
gas cap. The development plan included delaying drilling of
the western platforms, and establishment of individual well
GOR limits. The eastern platforms needed to be drilled first,
followed by the central platforms. Flank locations were
drilled as soon as the recommended platforms were placed to
develop these under-exploited areas. West redevelopment
was scheduled last and would start in the northwest and move
south. Simulation results showed that delaying western
drilling would provide for necessary withdrawals and cap gas
leveling in the eastern and central portion of the field.
Lateral placement. Well spacing is fairly even in the
eastern portion of the field. Horizontal well placement in the
west is slightly farther apart. An optimal areal distribution is
important for maintaining the efficiency of the recovery
process, which results in an increase in ultimate recovery of up
to 6%. Primarily due the thick shales in the section reducing
lateral drainage volumes, and also the impact of gravity
drainage in the intact dipping structure. All wells were placed
in the best reservoir facies, shoreface, channel and turbidites.
Eastern wells were placed within slump blocks to prevent lost
circulation problems in drilling and potential coning problems.
Prior to the study results, concerns had been expressed
regarding the sweep efficiency and of preferentially producing
only the better quality sands. Vertical sweep efficiency of the
gas cap was observed to be effective in all facies types. Only
very small amounts of bypassed oil are observed in the poor
quality sands of the discontinuous inter-bedded muddy sands
of the debris flow facies.
Vertical placement of the wells was determined to be at 40
feet above the oil-water contact determined by a number of
sensitivity runs using a detailed single-well version of the field
model.

Effects of GOR
Since the initial development of the field, there has been
concern that producing at high GOR will hurt reservoir
performance. This consideration conflicted with the objective
of increasing the relatively low oil rates. A value of 3000
scf/bbl GOR was set as the target, but historically it was
difficult to honor it at every well.
The reservoir model allows for a better estimate of what the
GOR limit should be. Fig. 18 illustrates production profiles
using well GOR limits of 3000 and 1500 scf/bbl. The
application of a GOR limit of 3000 scf/bbl today will cause
earlier abandonment of the field as compared to using the
lower GOR limit. However, the benefit of reducing the GOR
limit further from 1500 to 1000 scf/bbl was found to have a
marginal effect on recovery.

Individual Well Rates
One of the benefits of well management package is that the
rates can be automatically constrained by GOR and pressure
limits. In Ubits case, horizontal wells can produce anywhere
from 3,000 to 8,000 barrels per day depending upon their
location in the reservoir. Most of them were seen in the
model to be in the range of 3,0004,000 barrels per day.
These rates were confirmed in the field. Uniform withdrawal
of the reservoir does require different rates from the wells.

Field Plateau Rate
The effect of total field off-take rate is related to other factors,
such as individual well rates, coning, etc. Sensitivity runs at
110, 130, and 150 indicate that the high plateau rates can be
applied without reducing ultimate recovery provided that the
wells strictly adhere to their GOR constraints. Naturally, the
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 9
higher field rates can be sustained only for limited periods of
time, as is illustrated in Fig. 19.

Balance of Gas Cap and Uniform Pressure.
Figs. 20 and 21 show the progress in balancing the gas/oil
columns. Comparison of the fluid levels from initial conditions
in 1970 to 1992 pre-horizontal well strategy and
post-horizontal wells in the year 2020 are depicted in Fig. 20a,
20b, and 20c. Note the non-uniform gas cap development
across the field in 1992 (pre-horizontal well drilling) as
contrasted with the level uniform fluid levels in year 2020.
Fig. 21 displays the areal pressure distribution in a layer
located approximately mid-point through the oil column. The
difference between pre- and post-horizontal well drilling is not
as dramatic as that shown with the fluids distribution because
of the generally excellent permeabilities and communication in
Ubit. The pressures before horizontal-well drilling indicate a
field-wide gradient of approximately 30 psi; after
horizontal-well drilling, the east-west pressure differential
declines to less than 10 psi across the field.

Operational Considerations
Operating Policy
The above results demonstrate that the establishment of a field
rate plateau, the minimization of free gas production by rate
reduction on individual wells that exceed the GOR limit, and
the maintenance of uniform pressure throughout the reservoir
are the best operating practices for Ubit. These reservoir
management practices are being now being consistently
applied at Ubit.

Horizontal Well Completions
Historically, completions in the Ubit field were cased,
cemented, and gravel packed either from directional or vertical
wells. However, the introduction of horizontal wells brought
the need to change the completion strategy. Only one
horizontal well had been drilled in West Africa prior to Ubit,
therefore, very little information was available. Before a final
completion program was selected, the completion was
designed to meet the following program requirements:
Provide a means to control / prevent the production of the
poorly consolidated sand from the Ubit formation.
Minimize damage to the producing formation and
production equipment by the drilling and stimulation fluids.
Minimize the pressure drawdown or friction along the
horizontal well section during production.
Provide a means to circulate for well control and stimulation
during the running and placement of the completion
equipment.
Incorporate continuous down-hole pressure monitoring
during the producing life of the well and locate this pressure
gauge as close to the pay as possible.
As a result of a multi-disciplinary effort, the final
completion using pre-packed screens and blank sections was
chosen as a low risk solution to insure success for the first
well. The equipment was purchased, and it was successfully
placed in the first well. The well was also stimulated to
maximize productivity. In the next well, the completion was
modified to include a pre-pack section (for sand control) and a
predrilled liner (for no sand control). The well was completed
in this manner and no sand was produced, indicating no sand
control was required. Consequently, future wells were
completed using only predrilled liners.
The first wells were drilled using heavy-oil base mud to
ensure well control and hole stability of the sand and shales as
the well was drilled. On subsequent wells, the mud weight
was reduced and modified to a point where such little
formation damage occurred, that stimulation was no longer
required. In one of the subsequent wells, an attempt was
made to complete the well open hole without a liner. This
was tried and within a very short period of time a shale section
in the well collapsed. Several production logs have been run
in the Ubit horizontal wells, and they indicate almost no
formation damage and contribution from the entire well bore.
Overall the Ubit completion story is one in which a close
teamwork relationship between, drilling, completion, reservoir
engineering and geology existed to start with a very
conservative design and then quickly eliminate unneeded
equipment, optimize fluids, and improve operating practices.

Ubit Facilities Revamp and Expansion
When the concept of expanding Ubit production was first
envisaged, the facilities consisted of a central processing
platform and 14 wellhead platforms that fed the full production
stream from Ubit and four other fields to a central complex.
The central processing platform was designed to receive
production totaling 78 MBD of liquids at 1,000 GOR, separate
and flare the free gas, and pump the oil and water up to a
sufficient pressure to enter the offshore pipeline network and
on to final processing and storage onshore at the Qua Iboe
terminal. These facilities had exceeded their design life of 25
years, and required considerable physical, safety, and capacity
upgrade to handle the desired increased throughputs, and last
an additional 30 years, the expected remaining life of the field.
Through extensive testing and static and transient
modeling, it was determined that the basic structures of the
platforms were competent and capable of an additional 30
years of service. Process and hydraulic modeling showed that
the existing process could be modified to handle the increased
throughput requirements.
The resulting facility additions and modifications included:
1) debottlenecking the process, adding one separator and
increasing pump sizes, increasing the throughput capability to
240 MBD at 800 GOR, 2) to eliminate flaring, a new gas
compression platform was added with a capacity of 150
MMscf, which included three turbo-compressors and three
turbo-generators, 3) adding a separate living-quarters platform
with capacity for 40 people, 4) a new emergency flare
structure capable of handling the increased gas throughput, 5)
a new export pipeline, and 6) four additional wellhead
10 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
platforms and their associated gathering lines.
Upon completion of the final pipeline infrastructure
additions, the facility has demonstrated its ability to meet
design specifications, with production exceeding 240 MBD in
early 1997.

Current Performance
Ubit is currently producing 140 MBD from 37 horizontal
wells. The 110 MBD production rate impact from appropriate
technology application through applied reservoir management
is contrasted with the field rate prior to and after reservoir
management, Fig. 22.

Conclusions
1. Appropriate technology through integrated applied
reservoir management led to a complete rejuvenation of the
Ubit Field. Rates were increased four-fold and the predicted
ultimate recovery has doubled.
2. Acquisition of new 3-D seismic and strategically placed
cores provided for the substantially improved geologic
interpretation.
3. The eastern region sediments are not chaotic. Reservoir
geometries could be defined and rock properties predicted.
4. Flow units are defined by grain size control, which
identified their connectivity and distribution as related to their
depositional facies.
5. A realistic reservoir model could only be achieved
through the application of a horizontal layered grid.
6. The correct measurement of oil relative permeability close
to the residual oil saturation and the residual oil saturation itself
makes an enormous difference in the predicted reservoir
performance.
7. The application of horizontal wells was critical in
obtaining higher rates and recovery.
8. Predicted performance from the reservoir model has
proven to be vital in guiding the management of Ubits
redevelopment.

Nomenclature
GOR = gas-oil ratio
Siw irreducible water saturation
Sgc critical gas saturation
Sorg residual oil saturation to gas
Sorw residual oil saturation to water
WOR = water-oil ratio

Acknowledgements
We sincerely acknowledge the management of Mobil
Producing Nigeria Unlimited, in particular Victor Oyofo for
his passion and vision, Paul Caldwell and Paul Cheong and
Stan Evans for their support and encouragement. We
recognize the effort and contributions of the many MPN,
NAPIMS and DPR technologists who participated in this
project.
We also wish to acknowledge Mobil E&P Technology
Center management, Benne Bette and Bob Heinemann, for
providing the technical opportunities and fostering the
partnership with our Nigerian affiliate. Denny Sansom, Jim
Trigger, Sam Sampath provided the critical support and
encouragement which pushed this project to completion.
Others who contributed are Ray Pashuck, Mark Lindsey, Jim
Gormly, Mark Dobin, Brian Sabin, Ron Moore, Tom Edwards,
Wayne Alexander, Madhuri Basu and Philip Trussell. We
thank Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited and the National
Nigerian Petroleum Company for permission to publish this
paper.
References
1. Fadase, A.O., et al.: Horizontal Well Application in Nigerias
Ubit Field Performance Evaluation and Future Potential, 1994
6
th
Annual International Conference on Horizontal Well
Technology, Houston (Oct. 24-26).
2. Babu, D. K., and Odeh, A.S.: Productivity of a Horizontal
Well, SPE 18298, Presented at the 63
rd
Annual Technical
Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum
Engineers held in Houston, Texas, October 2-5, 1988.
3. Odeh, A. S., and Babu, D. K., Transient Flow Behavior of
Horizontal Wells: Pressure Drawdown and Buildup Analysis,
SPE Formation Evaluation Journal, March 1990
4. Al-Hussainy, R., and Humphreys N., Reservoir Management:
Principles and Practice, JPT (Dec, 1996) 1129.
5. Doust, H., and Omatsola, E.: Niger Delta, Divergent Passive
Margin Basins, Edwards (ed.) AAPG Memoir (1990).
6. Deutsch, C. V. and A. G. Journel: Geostatistical Software
Library and User's Guide, Oxford Univ. Press, NY (1992).
7. Edwards, J.T., Honarpour, M.M., Hazlett, R.D. et al,:
Validation of Gravity Dominated Relative Permeability and
Residual Oil Saturation in a Giant Oil Field, SPE 49216, 1998
SPE Annual Technical Conf. in New Orleans, La, Sept. 27-30.
File #
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 11
0
0
10
16
Niger Delta
QIT
Ubit Ubit
Mi Mi
Km Km
Nigeria
Map Area
AFRICA
Producing Fields
Gas Fields
Undeveloped Fields
Niger Delta
Nigeria Nigeria
AFRICA
Eroded Chaotic
West East
G M VF
Generalized Stratigraphic Column
SE Niger Delta
ONSHORE
A
G
E
F
M
B
E
N
I
N

F
M


O
L
I
G
.

/

M
I
O
.


M
I
O
C
E
N
E


P
L
I
O
C
E
N
E


OFFSHORE
BENIN FM
D-1 Mbr
A
K
A
T
K
A

F
M

HIATUS
A
G
B
A
D
A

F
M

QUA IBOE Mbr
AKATA FM
600 FT
C F SH
Modified from Schild, 1978
(Slumped and
Faulted Biafra)
DISTURBED
BIAFRA

HIATUS
BIAFRA
QUA IBOE Mbr
AKATA FM
Modified from Schild, 1978
(Slumped and
Faulted Biafra)
Fig. 2 - Comparison of reservoir characterizations a) old
chaotic Rubble Beds, with b) new predictable Disturbed,
faulted and slumped interpretation. Large arrows represent
the direction of downslope movement and slumping, while
smaller arrows represent the direction of subsequent
slumping. The fluid column distribution is represented in c).
Lithology
Fig. 1 - Location map of Ubit field, offshore Nigeria
a)
(Slumped Predictable)
b)
c)
Fig. 3 - a) Generalized stratigraphic column of the SE Niger Delta,
b) represents a western region shallow marine sequence, and c)
represents the more proximal eastern region lithology.
a) b) c)
Old Characterization
New Characterization
B
I
A
F
R
A

M
B
R
.

P
L
E
I
S
T
.


M
C F
VF
SH
G
Fig. 7 - The 19 Major Framework Areas, composed of 70
internal fault and slump blocks are depicted in various colors.
3200
3000
2800
3200
3000
2800
3400 3400 3400 3400 3400 3400 3400
Bedded Disturbed
W E
Major Faults
and Slumps
7000 7500 8000
1500
2000
2500
1500
2000
2500
Bedded Disturbed
W E
Bedded
Disturbed
(Slumped)
Fig. 4 - Seismic Section, showing contrast of seismic signature between Western and Eastern Regions
W E
Fig. 5 - BQI Surface Structural Dip Map showing major
framework areas.
Fig. 6 - Seismic Time Slice showing major framework areas
12 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
BQI Surface
G
O
W
N
0
NEU -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS
NEU -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS
0
40
0 100
Sw
P
c

Ubit 28M
7242.3 ft.
UBIT Field - IUUI Flow Unit Types and Property Relationships Defined
Facies T ype Electric - Log Response Net/Gross POR/Perm Relationship Capillary Pressure
Debris Flow
Upper Shoreface
Lower Shoreface
O-W Relative Permeability
M VF F M C
T urbidite
M VF F M C
M VF F M C
M VF F M C
150
GR
0 2000 .2
Resist -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS
NFU
1 1
0 .4 1
VSH
0 .4 1
VSH
0 .4 1
VSH
0 .4 1
VSH
C
o
d
e

2000 .2
Resist
2000 .2
Resist
150
GR
0
150
GR
NEU -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS 2000 .2
Resist
150
GR
0
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20 25 30 35 40
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20
25 30 35 40
0
40
0 100
Sw
P
c

Ubit 59F
6773.7 ft.
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rw

Debris Flow
0
40
0 100
Sw
P
c

Ubit 28M
7098.25 ft.
0
40
0 100
Sw
P
c

Ubit 56C
5478.1 ft.
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rw

Lower
Shoreface
100
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
k
rw

Shoreface
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20 25 30 35 40
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20 25 30 35 40
3 3
2 2
5 5
Sorw = 31%
Sorw = 19%
Sorw = 24%
(Normalized)
100
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
k
rw

Turbidite
Sorw = 19%
(Normalized)
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg
Sorg = 6%
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg
Sorg = 10%
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg

Sorg = 6%
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg
Sorg = 10%
Debris Flow
Lower
Shoreface
Shoreface
Turbidite
(Gravity Dominated)
G-O Relative Permeability
NEU -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS 2000 .2
Resist
150
GR
0
0 .4 1
Channel
Lagoonal
Marine Shale
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rw

Channel
100
M VF F M C
150
GR
0 2000 .2
Resist -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS
NEU
M VF F M C
150
GR
0 2000 .2
Resist -51 -9
1.8 2.8 DENS
NEU
M VF F M C
6 6
100
No Flow
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rw

0
40
0
Sw
P
c

No Flow
0
40
0 100
Sw
P
c

Ubit 22D ST-1
5766.7 ft.
0
40
0
Sw
P
c

Ubit 28M
7348.7 ft.
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
1
100
10000
15 20 25 30 35 40
0 .4 1
0 .4 1
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20 25 30 35 40
L
o
g
k
(m
d
)
Porosity(%)
15 20 25 30 35 40
(Not A vailable)
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rw

VSH
VSH
VSH
7
7
4 4
s
s s
s s
Sorw = 22%
0
100
0 100
Sw*
k
ro

0
100
k
rg

No Flow
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg
Sorg = 6%
Channel
100
0
100
0 100
Sg*
k
ro

0
k
rg
Sorg = 10%
Lagoonal
No Flow
10
1
100
10000
10
CA Clayton 3/96
Facies
Facies Color Legend
Turbidites
Shoreface
Lower Shoreface
Channel
Debris Flow
Lagoon/Washover
Marine Shale

Net to Gross
0.0000
0.0001 - 0.1200
0.1201 - 0.3800
0.3801 - 0.7300
0.7301 - 0.8800
0.8801 - 0.9800
0.9801 - 1.0000

Permeability Ranges

0 md
1 - 499 md
500 - 1799 md
1800 - 5000 md

Permeability
Porosity
Porosity Ranges

0.0000 - 0.2000
0.2001 - 0.2500
0.2501 - 0.3000
0.3001 or Greater

SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 13
Net to Gross Data Ranges

Fig. 8 - Description and Definition of Rock Property Relationships
Fig. 10 - Set of Rock Property Slice Maps for one 20ft. (z-direction) Simulation Model Layer
1000
1
100
10000
10
1000
1
100
10000
10
1000
1
100
10000
10
1000
1
100
10000
10
1000
1
100
10000
10
1000
14 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
Fig. 11 - Model Gridding
Fig. 9 - Schematic Cross - Section of Model Design
Rock Property Slice
Simulation Layer
Simulation Model
Fig. 13
Siw vs Permeability
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
10 100 1000 10000
Permeability (md)
S
i
w

(
%
)

Turbidites Debris Flow Channels
U Shoreface L Shoreface Lagoonal
Fig. 12 - Simulation Grid
West East
1
2
3 - 16
17
18
Model
Layers

CA Clayton 8/95
Water Influx
# Grid
Cells
7440
52,080
7440
}
Gravity Drainage Gravity Drainage
Water Influx
Expansion Expansion
SPE 49165 UBIT FIELD REJUVENATION: A CASE HISTORY OF RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT OF A GIANT OIL FIELD, OFFSHORE NIGERIA 15
Oil Cum - New Krog Oil Cum - Old Krog
Effect of Modified Krog
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
1970 1990 2010 2030 2050
Date
O
i
l

R
a
t
e
,

M
B
D

0
400
800
1200
O
i
l

C
u
m
,

M
M
b
b
l

Oil Rate - New Krog Oil Rate - Old Krog
Fig. 15
GOR Comparison to Field Data
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
Year
G
O
R

s
c
f
/
b
b
l

Fig. 17
Comparison of Pressure to Field Data
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Year
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a

Fig. 16
0 20 40 60 80 100
0.00001
Gas Saturation, percent pore volume
Not corrected
for Capillary
End Ef fect
S

i
w


=

9
.
2
%


1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

,

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n


Effect of Process on Oil Relative Permeability
Not corrected
for Capillary
End Ef fect
S
i
w


=

9
.
2
%


Corrected
for Capillary
End Ef fect
Fig. 14
Effect of Varying Field Plateau Rates
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Date
O
i
l

R
a
t
e
,

M
B
D

0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

O
i
l
,

M
M
B

110 MBD 130 MBD 150 MBD
110 MBD (cum) 130 MBD (cum) 150 MBD (cum)
Effect of GOR
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
O
i
l

R
a
t
e
,

M
B
D

0
500
1000
1500
2000
G
O
R

s
c
f
/
b
b
l

1998 2008 2018 2028 2038 2048
Date
Oil Rate @ 1500 GOR Oil Rate @ 3000 GOR
1500 GOR LIMIT 3000 GOR LIMIT
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Gravity Stable
Gasflood
Viscous Dominated
Gasflood

W E
0 +30
p
b)
Fig. 20 - Fluid Saturation at a) initialization, b) pre-horizontal wells. c) near pressure depletion
Gas
Set
Water
Set
Oil
Set
a)
b)
c)
16 C.A. CLAYTON, M.F. COHEN ET AL. SPE 49165
W E
Fig. 21 - Field Pressure Differential: a) pre-horizontal wells, b) post-
horizontal wells
W E
0 +30
p
a)
Fig. 22
Technology Impact - Ubit Field
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Year
M
B
D

Technology Impact
To Date Impact
Existing Decline