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EN 13000:2004 4.2.6.3.

6 Lowering limiter

All cranes shall be fitted with a lowering limiter. As a minimum the lowering limiter shall ensure three turns
of rope on the drum. Bridging the lowering limiter shall only be possible for rigging operations, transport
and changing of the rope. The bridging device has to be of the type that requires to be held in the
override position.

ISO 4309:2004 3.1.2 Rope length
The length of rope used shall be sufficient for the application for which the crane is to be used, and shall
be such that in the extreme positions there are at least two wraps of rope left on the drum.

ISO 4309:2004 3.5.2 Nature and number of broken wires

1. In the case of 6- and 8-strand ropes, broken wires usually occur at the external surface.
2. In the case of rotation-resistant ropes, there is a probability that the majority of broken wires will
occur internally and are non-visible fractures one valley break may indicate internal rope
deterioration, requiring closer inspection of this section of rope. When two or more valley breaks
are found in one lay length, the rope should be considered for discard. Particular attention shall
be paid to any localized area which exhibits a dryness or denaturing of the lubrication.

BS 7121-2:2003 12.2.1 Randomly distributed broken wires
1. The total number of visible wire breaks should not exceed 10 % in any length of wire rope of eight
rope diameters.

ISO 4309:2004 3.4.1.2 Periodic examination
1. Mobile crane ropes and tower crane ropes should be examined at least once per month or more
often, in accordance with the instructions of the competent person.

ISO 4309:2004 3.5.7 Reduction of rope diameter resulting from core deterioration
BS 7121-2:2003 12.3 Wear
1. The actual rope diameter to decrease by 3 % of the nominal rope diameter for rotation resistant
ropes, or by 10 % for other ropes, the rope shall be discarded even if no broken wires are visible.

ISO 4309:2004 3.5.11.6 Local increase in diameter of rope
1. If this condition causes the actual rope diameter to increase by 5 % or more, the rope shall be
immediately discarded.

BS 7121-2:2003 12.5 Localized damage or distortion g) Bends and kinks
1. A bend is an angular deformation of the wire rope. A kink is a deformation created by a loop in
the rope that has been tightened without allowing for rotation about its axis. Unbalance of lay
length occurs, which causes excessive wear, and in severe cases the rope is so distorted that it
only has a small proportion of its strength remaining. If the bend or kink is severe the wire rope
should be discarded immediately.

ISO 4309:2004 3.4.1.4 Inspection of ropes operating on synthetic sheaves or metal sheaves
having synthetic lining
1. If a rope operates either solely or partially over synthetic sheaves or over metal sheaves having a
synthetic lining, wire breaks can occur internally in large numbers before there is any external visible
evidence of wire breaks or of substantial wear on the periphery of the rope.
2. Particular attention shall be paid to any localized area which exhibits a dryness or denaturing of the
lubricant

ISO 4309:2004 3.5.8 External wear
If, due to external wear, the actual rope diameter has decreased by 7 % or more of the nominal rope
diameter, thenrope shall be discarded even if no wire breaks are visible.



ISO 4309:2004 3.5.11.3 Basket or lantern deformation
1. Basket or lantern deformation, also called birdcage, is a result of a difference in length between the
rope core and the outer layer of strands.
Eg. If, for example, a rope is running over a sheave or onto the drum under a great fleet angle, it will
touch the flange of the sheave or the drum groove first and then roll down into the bottom of the groove.
This characteristic will unlay the outer layer of strands to a greater extent than the rope core, producing a
difference in length between these rope elements.











Annex C C1 Internal examination of rope
1. All types of stranded wire rope can be opened up sufficiently to permit assessment of their
internal condition. It is difficult for large rope sizes. However, the majority of ropes fitted to cranes
can be examined internally provided that they are at zero tension.

BS 7121-2-1 10.15 Rated capacity indicator (RCI) and rated capacity limiter (RCL) calibration
checks and functional tests (as stated in bs 7121-2-3:2012 8.9)
a) Warning of approach to rated capacity
The RCI or RCL should give a clear and continuous warning of approach to the rated
capacity. The warning should commence at a load of not less than 90% of the rated
capacity and not more than 97.5%. The approach to rated capacity warning should
continue to function until the load as a percentage of rated capacity falls to below the
value at which the warning was initiated.
b) Warning of overload
The RCI or RCL should give a clear and continuous warning of overload. The warning
should commence at a load of not less than 102.5% of the rated capacity and not more
than 110%. The overload warning should continue to function until the load as a
percentage of the rated capacity falls to below the value at which the warning was
initiated.


BS 7121-2-3:2012 7.2 It is essential that the chassis of a mobile crane is effectively cleaned before
maintenance and inspection is carried out to ensure that defects can be detected.

BS 7121-2-3:2012 8.5.2 Components to be included

The following components should be included in the defined scope of thorough
examination for a mobile crane (as applicable):
NOTE This list is not exhaustive.

manufacturers information plate/label, CE mark, and load and duty charts;
tyres and wheels;
axle locking system;
crawler tracks;
crane chassis;
outrigger jacks and beams;
chassis braking system;
all bolts, pins and other fastenings (visual inspection);
slew section structure, including fasteners and slew ring;
slewing mechanism (examination throughout its full range of movement with jib at maximum radius);
all pipe work and connections (including rigid and flexible hoses) (visual inspection);
all hydraulic cylinders (visual inspection);
hydraulic cylinder fittings (visual inspection);
oil and other fluids;
superstructure and jib (visual inspection);
fly jib and mounting attachment (visual inspection);
all pivoting joints on the jib and attachments of the crane (visual inspection);
telescoping extensions on the crane (operation and visual inspection);
wire running and static ropes, including terminations;
pulleys/sheaves and drums, including guards;
access, including ladders, walkways, guard rails and hand holds;
cab, including controls, markings, indicators, seating, windows, heating, falling object protection
structure (FOPS) bars, wipers and load charts;
limiting and indicating devices including:
rated capacity system (measurement of load, moment and radius);
anemometer;
devices indicating:

over hoist and over lower limits;
luffing limits;
trolley limits;
slack rope limits;
rail travel limits;
hook blocks, including sheaves, hook, safety catch and swivel bearing;
counterweights, including pendants, fasteners, lifting and locking mechanisms;
hoist and luffing winches and brakes, including hydraulic systems;
power and control cables and slip rings (visual inspection);
control cabinets and wiring;
markings, instructions and safety notices

BS 7121-2-3:2012 8.5.3 Assessment criteria
The following assessment criteria should be included in the defined scope of
thorough examination for a mobile crane:
NOTE This list is not exhaustive.
accuracy of limiting and indicating devices within manufacturers
tolerance;
adjustment as specified by manufacturer;
alignment within manufacturers tolerance;
backlash within manufacturers tolerance;
bearing play within manufacturers tolerance;
brake performance within manufacturers tolerance;
corrosion affecting strength or functionality;
cracks affecting strength or functionality;
cylinder creep within manufacturers tolerance;
damage affecting strength or functionality;
distortion affecting strength or functionality;
fluid levels within manufacturers limits;
functionality as intended by manufacturer;
guards presence and condition;
leaks affecting strength, functionality and slips;
lubrication adequacy;
markings presence, accuracy and condition;
mode of operation as intended by manufacturer;
obstructions impeding safe access;
rope fit as specified by manufacturer;
rope reeving as specified by manufacturer;
rope specification as specified by manufacturer;
rope condition (see Clause 13);
security attachment of components and sub-structures, fasteners, welds,
etc.;
seizure full or partial seizure of rotating components;
tidiness general housekeeping;
wear affecting strength or functionality.


BS 7121-2-3:2012 9.1 Four year test
In summary, where a defined scope of examination approach is used, 4-yearly overload testing is not
required unless deemed necessary by the competent person.


ISO 4309:2004 3.5.8 External wear
If, due to external wear, the actual rope diameter has decreased by 7 % or more of the nominal rope
diameter, the rope shall be discarded even if no wire breaks are visible.


FOS
Dear Mr. Pravikumar,

Just came across your discussion and could not stop replying as I luv this subject and preach it aswell.

No1:- How much is the mobile crane factor of safety?
The actual terminology is forward stability factor for mobile cranes .
The FSF for crawler cranes is 0.75 (Rated load=Tipping Load X 75%)
And the FSF for carrier mounted is 0.85( Rated load=Tipping Load X 85%)
Rated loads are the loads shown on the capacity charts and tipping load can be found out by cross
multiplication.

The above FSF for crawler cranes indicate that a crawler crane with 75t rated load will tip at 100t which
means crawler cranes have 25% safety margin.
whereas carrier mounted cranes have 15% safety margin, this is as per ASME standards and cranes are
normally manufactured as per these standards.

No.2:- what is the FOS of a crane which used to lift man baskets.
Ideally, Aerial work platforms must be used for hoisting personnel in baskets, however if selecting a
mobile crane then it must be de-rated by 50% .

Infact all the capacities indicated in the load chart must be halved and all ropes and auxiliaries of the
crane must have safety factor of 7:1 ( which means if the SWL of wire rope is 1 ton its breaking strength
must be minimum 7 tons and so on.

BS 7262:1990 Specification for Automatic safe load indicators



3.8 Warnings and indications
3.8.1 General. The ASLI shall give warnings and indications in accordance with 3.8.2 to 3.8.4 for all permitted
motions of the crane that induce an overload and for all configurations shown on the certificate of test and thorough
examination of the crane to which it is fitted.
NOTE All graduations and markings on analogue instruments should be clearly visible from the crane operating position and should enable all
the positions and loads given on the certificate of test and thorough examination of the crane to be clearly distinguished within the specified
accuracy. All pointers and similar devices should provide a fast response to changing
conditions and be suitably damped to prevent excessive oscillation or overrun.
3.8.2 Warning of approach to SWL. The ASLI shall give a clear and continuous warning of approach to SWL. The
warning shall commence at not less than 90 % of the SWL and at not more than 97.5 % of the SWL. The approach
to SWL warning shall continue to function until the percentage of the load to the SWL falls to some value which is
less than the value at which the warning was initiated.

3.8.3 Warning of overload. The ASLI shall give a clear and continuous warning of overload. The warning shall
commence at not less than 102.5 % of the SWL and at not more than 110 % of the SWL. The overload warning shall
continue to function until the percentage of the load to the SWL falls to some value which is less than the value at
which the warning was initiated.
3.8.4 Form of warnings. The warnings for both approach to SWL and overload shall be continuous and shall be
audible and visual in accordance with Table 1. The audible warnings for approach to SWL and overload shall be
clearly distinguishable from each other and also from other relevant sounds such as telephones. The visual warnings
shall be clearly distinguishable under all conditions (see 3.8.6.2).

3.8.5 Indications required at the drivers control station(s)
3.8.5.1 Proximity to safe working load. Continuous visual indication of the load on the crane relative to the safe
working load shall be provided in accordance with Table 2.
NOTE This may be by means of a needle moving across a scale, the approach of two pointers or by some other equally clear continuous visual
indications.
3.8.5.2 Other indications. The following shall be indicated by continuous visual indications in accordance with
Table 2.
a) The radius of the load. The radius with the safe working load suspended from the crane including any deflection
caused by that load.
b) The angle of the jib. The angle with the safe working load suspended from the crane, given in degrees.
c) The SWL. The SWL corresponding to either the radius of the load or the angle of the jib.
d) The load on the crane. The load on the crane for cranes having a maximum safe working load exceeding 10
tonnes.
e) The configuration of the crane.
NOTE There should be a clear and precise indication of the crane configuration for which the ASLI has been set and this should be visible from
the crane operating position. As a minimum the configuration selecting device should provide either a direct description of the configuration
selected or indicate a code from which the configuration selected can be obtained using a list of codes kept in the drivers cabin.



























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3.8.5.3 Tolerances of indication


3.8.5.3.1 Proximity to safe working load. The accuracy of indication shall be within 5 % when all the load
suspended from the crane is equal to the safe working load.

3.8.5.3.2 The radius of the load. The accuracy of indication of the displayed radius shall be within a band
determined from a graph of SWL against radii, the graph being plotted from the values given on the
certificate of test for the crane. The displayed radius shall correspond to the SWL on the graph within 5
% of the SWL given by the actual radius

3.8.5.3.3 The angle of the jib. The accuracy of indication of the displayed angle shall be within a band
which is determined from a graph of SWL against angles, the graph being plotted from the values given
on the certificate of test for the crane. The displayed angle shall correspond to the SWL on the graph
within 5 % of the SWL given by the actual angle.

3.8.5.3.4 Load on the crane hook. The accuracy of indication shall be within 5 %.