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Tiberiu Leia: Sisteme de T-R/ Real-Time Systems Introducere/Introduction - 2014

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1. Introducere
Introduction
(RTS)



Tiberiu Leia: Sisteme de T-R/ Real-Time Systems Introducere/Introduction - 2014
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Occupational skills: system engineering and computer designer, software
engineer, IT project manager, software programmer, IT system designer,
software developer for process control, system analyst
Knowledge/understanding:
real-time requirements
real-time concepts
Practical skills:
specification of real-time applications
design of real-time applications
implementation of real-time applications
verification of real-time applications
Abilities::
operating under UNIX operation systems
implementation using concurrent Java and Real-time Java

Tiberiu Leia: Sisteme de T-R/ Real-Time Systems Introducere/Introduction - 2014
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Prerequisites
Basic programming
Software engineering
Discrete event systems

Cours Grade:
The grade for the midterm exam (M);
The grade for the final exam (F);
Laboratory verification (L)
N=0.33M+0.33F+ 0.33L

Condition to obtain the credits : N>=5; M>=5; F>=5

M??? N= 0.66F + 0.33L
Formal or non-formal
approach?
Tiberiu Leia: Sisteme de T-R/ Real-Time Systems Introducere/Introduction - 2014
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Cuprins C1 Contents C1
1. Introducere - Introduction
a. Paradigme - Paradigms
b. Definiii de baz - Basic definitions
c. Control de T-R - Real-time control
i. Tipuri de sisteme de control de T-R - Types of R-T control systems
1. Sisteme nglobate - Embedded systems
2. Sisteme de control industriale - Industrial control systems
ii. Caracteristicile sistemelor de control nglobate - Embedded control
characteristics
d. Caractersiticile STR - RTS characteristics
e. Parametrii temporali - Temporal parameters
i. Temporizri nedeterministe - Non-deterministic timing
ii. Evenimente - Events
iii. Variante de implementare a controlului - Types of control
implementations
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a. Paradigme - Paradigms

Sisteme de prelucrare - Processing systems:
batch systems secveniale
on-line systems cu legtur direct
real-time systems sisteme de timp-real
Alt punct de vedere - Another point of view:
sisteme transformaionale -transformational systems transformational programs they take
some input values and process them according to their functionality (functional programming)
sisteme reactive - reactive systems reactive programs they react to some events
Programarea secvenial - Sequential programming
Programare paralel - Parallel programming:
Concurrent tasks Concurrent programming
Threads of execution
Distributed programming
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Pervasive computing
The idea that technology is moving beyond the personal computer to
everyday devices with embedded technology and connectivity as computing
devices become progressively smaller and more powerful. Also called
ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing is the result of computer
technology advancing at exponential speeds -- a trend toward all man-made
and some natural products having hardware and software.
Pervasive computing goes beyond the realm of personal computers: it is the
idea that almost any device, can be imbedded with chips to connect the
device to an infinite network of other devices. The goal of pervasive
computing, which combines current network technologies with wireless
computing, voice recognition, Internet capability and artificial intelligence,
is to create an environment where the connectivity of devices is embedded
in such a way that the connectivity is unobtrusive and always available.
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Pervasive computing is the next generation computing environments with
information & communication technology everywhere, for everyone, at all
times.

I nformation and communication technology will be an integrated part of
our environments: from toys, milk cartons and desktops to cars, factories
and whole city areas - with integrated processors, sensors, and actuators
connected via high-speed networks and combined with new visualization
devices ranging from projections directly into the eye to large panorama
displays.
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Control Panel
Port1
P2
Port1
P2
User
Control Computer P1
P2
P3
P1
P2
P3
Power Unit
P1
P2
P1
P2
Plant (Technical Process)
Actuators
P2
Actuators
P2
Sensors, transducers
P1
P2
P1
P2
Real Time Application General Structure
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b. Definiii - Basic definitions
Definitions of RTS:
STR = un sistem de prelucrare care rspunde la evenimente generate extern sau intern ntr-o
perioad de timp finit i specificat (apriori).
RTS = An information processing system which has to respond to externally or internally
generated input stimuli within a finite and specified period.
RTS= Real-time systems are those in which the correctness of the system depends not only on the
logical results of the computation but also on the time at which the results are produced (and
provided).
Source:Wikipedia
In computer science, real-time computing (RToC) is the study of hardware and software systems
which are subject to a real-time constrainti.e., operational deadlines from event to system
response.
A non-real-time system is one for which there is no deadline specified and verified, even if fast
response or high performance is desired or even preferred.
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The needs of real-time software are often addressed in the context of real-time operating systems,
and synchronous programming languages, which provide frameworks on which to build real-time
application software.
A real time system may be one where its application can be considered (within context) to be
mission critical.

Embedded systems
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform dedicated
functions with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a
complete device, which often includes hardware and mechanical parts.
Source: I 3E
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Tipuri de STR - Types of RTSs:
Sisteme de timp-real hard --- Hard real-time systems = systems where it is
absolutely imperative that the responses occur within the required deadline. Ex.:
o Control de timp-real --- Control Real-Time (System, Computer)
o Sisteme inginereti -- Engineering Systems
o Aplicaii critice d.p.d.v. al siguranei --- Safety-critical applications
Sisteme de T-R soft --- Soft real-time systems = systems where deadlines are
important but the systems still functions if the deadlines are occasionally missed. E.g.:
multimedia applications.
Sisteme de T-R ferme --- Firm real-time systems = systems where if some
responses (reactions) are missing the deadlines they are not necessary (usefully) any more, but
the consequences are not disastrous.
Most of control systems are real-time systems.
Many people consider only the hard real-time systems as real-time systems.
Constrngeri de timp-real - Real-time constraints:
constrngeri de T-R hard --- hard real-time constraints
constrngeri de T-R soft --- soft real-time constraints
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c. Control de T-R - Real-Time Control

Real-Time
Systems
Computer
Engineering
Control
Engineering
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Tipuri - Types of Real-Time Control Systems
1. Sisteme nglobate (ncorporate) - Embedded Systems
dedicated control systems
the computer is an embedded part of some piece of equipment
they contain microprocessors (microcontrollers), real-time kernels, RTOS
E.g.: aerospace, industrial robots, vehicular systems (cars, automotive), washing machines,
health, home applications, etc.
2. Sisteme de control industrial - Industrial Control Systems
distributed control systems (DCS),
programmable logic controllers (PLC),
hierarchically organized,
process industry,
manufacturing industry,

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Caracteristicile sistemelor de control nglobate - Embedded Control Characteristics 1:
Limited computing and communication resources resource efficiency
Included in some products, (vehicles, tools, etc.)
CPU time is limited,
Lrgimea de band -- Communication bandwidth,
Energy,
Memory,
Mod autonom de operare -- Autonomous operation No human operator in the loop
Au mai multe cazuri de utilizare i o funcionalitate complex -- Several use-cases and complex
functionality
Deseori au nevoie de programe mari -- Often are necessary large amounts of software
Deseori necesit garanii bazate pe demonstraii formale -- Often are necessary formal
guarantees
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Caracteristici 2 -- Embedded Control Characteristics 2:
Eficien cu resurse limitate -- Limited resources Efficiency
Eficiena dimensiunii codului -- -Code-size efficiency
Eficiena n timpului execuiei -- -Run-time efficiency
Eficiena utilizrii energiei -- -Energy efficiency
Eficienta greutii i dimensiunii -- -Weight and size efficiency
Eficiena costului -- -Cost efficiency
ncredere n operarea autonom -- Autonomous Operation Dependability
ncredere -- -Reliability
Disponibilitate -- -Availability
Siguran -- -Safety
Securitate -- -Security
ntreinere -- -Maintainability

It is known that approximately 98% of all processors produced are used in embedded
applications.
There are more than 16 billion embedded devices employed by 2010.
The value added to the final product by embedded software is much higher than the cost of the
embedded device itself.
Source: I3E
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d. Caracteristicile STR -- Real-Time System Characteristics:
nereversibilitate -- non-reversible
cerine temporale -- timing requirements
deterministe i predictibile -- must be deterministic and predictable
timpi de rspuns n cazul cel mai defavorabil n loc de durata medie -- worst-case response
times of interest rather than average-case response times
mari i complexe -- large and complex
distribuite -- distributed
interaciune strns cu hardware --- tight interaction with hardware
critice d.p.d.v. al siguranei -- safety critical
dependente de timpul de execuie -- execution is time dependent
testarea dificil -- testing is difficult
operarea pe perioade mari de timp -- operating over long time periods
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e. Parametrii temporali -- Temporal parameters

timp

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Temporizri nedeterministe -- Non-Deterministic Timing:
Utilizarea n comun a resurselor -- Caused by sharing of computing resources - multiple tasks
sharing the CPU
preemiunea, blocajul, inversare prioritii, variaia timpilor de execuie
- preemptions, blocking, priority inversion, varying computation times, ...
- Caused by sharing of network bandwidth
bucle de control nchise prin intermediul sistemului de comunicaie -- control loops closed over
communication networks
ntrzieri ale interfeei de reea, ntrzieri la punerea la coad, ntrzieri de transmisie, propagare
i retransmisia datelor, confirmarea, pierderea pachetelor -- network interface delay, queuing
delay, transmission delay, propagation delay, resending delay, ACK delay, ... lost packets


Cum se poate minimiza sau elimina ne-determinismul? Cum afecteaz acesta performana?
How can we minimize the non-determinism?
How does the non-determinism effect control performance?

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Evenimente --- Events:
Real-Time systems must respond to external and/or internal events.
Periodic events
Aperiodic events - unbounded arrival frequency
Sporadic events - bounded arrival frequency

The real-time systems react to events after the calculation of the response using a certain amount
of processing time. The reaction must be before the specified deadline.
Often the RTS must react to more than one event during the same period of time.


Variante de implementare a controlului -- Types of control implementation:
antrenate de evenimente -- -Event driven control
antrenate de timp -- -Time driven control
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