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Time in the Reproduction of Mortuary Practices

Author(s): Koji Mizoguchi


Source: World Archaeology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Conceptions of Time and Ancient Society (Oct.,
1993), pp. 223-235
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
Koji Mi zoguch i
In t roduct i on
By con ce n t rat i n g
on st at i c
pat t e rn s,
we t e n d t o
f orge t
t h e f low of t i m e
t h rough
wh i ch
vari ous h um an
pract i ce s
we re con duct e d. T h e
arch ae ologi cal st udy
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
i s n o
e xce pt i on .
In t h e i r
at t e m pt s
t o com e
up
wi t h soci al
cat e gori e s,
wh e t h e r
t h e y
are
st rai gh t f orward
re f le ct i on s of soci al
organ i zat i on (e .g.
Saxe
1970)
or
i de ologi cal
con st ruc-
t i on s
(e .g.
Sh e n n an
1982),
t h e
n orm at i ve , proce ssual
an d
post -proce ssual arch ae ologi e s
h ave all f ai le d t o
appre ci at e
t h e role of h um an
pract i ce s
wh i ch
sh ape d
t h e i r m at e ri al
e vi de n ce s i n t h e
re product i on
of soci al st ruct ure s.
By
soci al st ruct ure s I m e an t h e
ways
i n
wh i ch
re lat i on sh i ps
be t we e n
pe ople ,
an dbe t we e n
pe ople
an dm at e ri al
cat e gori e s,
are h e ld
t oge t h e r
ove r
pe ri ods
of t i m e
(Gi dde n s
1984:
16-28).
If we are t o
appre ci at e
t h e
i m port an ce
of h um an
pract i ce s t h rough t i m e ,
n ot
on ly
i n t h e
st udy
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
but alsoi n t h e
st udy
of
arch ae ology
i n
ge n e ral,
we m ust
acce pt
t h at all h um an
pract i ce s
are si t uat e d i n
un i que t i m e /space
con t e xt s
(e .g.
Gi dde n s
1984:
110-44). Pe ople
are n e ve r f re e f rom t h e
con se que n ce s
of wh at
t h e y
di d
pri or
t ot h e i r
curre n t act i on .
Re pe at e d
act i on
t h rough
t i m e i s 'rout i n i ze d' an d con st rai n s
pe ople 's
f re e dom t o con duct n e w act i on s. Mat e ri al
con di t i on s,
such as arch i t e ct ural
st ruct ure s,
m at e ri ali ze das t h e
con se que n ce s
of
pre vi ous de ci si on s,
alsoli m i t t h e
ran ge
of f re e dom i n
t h e ch oi ce of
subse que n t
act i on s.
Howe ve r,
at t h e sam e
t i m e ,
t h e se
con st rai n i n g
e le m e n t s
can alsobe
m an i pulat e dby pe ople
as 're source s' t ocon duct t h e i ract i on s
(on
t h e
con ce pt
of
're source s' se e Gi dde n s
(1984:
33 an d
373)).
T h e
arch ae ology
of Bri t i sh Lat e Ne oli t h i c an d
Early
Bron ze
Age m ort uary pract i ce s
(f rom
t h e lat e t h i rdm i lle n n i um t o t h e
e arly
se con d m i lle n n i um cal.
BC)
h as f ollowe d t h e
ge n e ral
t re n d i n
m ort uary arch ae ology.
T h e
pre se n ce
of art i culat e dske le t al re m ai n s i n
so-calle d 'i n di vi dual buri als' cove re d
by
roun dm oun ds
(com m on ly
calle d
'barrows') gi ve s
t h e
i m pre ssi on
t h at we can
e asi ly
're adof f ' t h e soci al
posi t i on s
of t h e de ad
by e xam i n i n g
t h e di f f e re n t
ways
i n wh i ch
t h e y
we re t re at e d. Hum an
pract i ce s
wh i ch
sh ape d
t h e
ch aract e r of t h i s e vi de n ce
t h rough t i m e ,
an d t h e i r role i n t h e
re product i on
of soci al
st ruct ure s,
h ave
large ly
be e n
i gn ore d (f or e xce pt i on s
se e Barre t t
(1988b: 38-9; 1990)
an d
T h om as
(1991)).
In wh at
f ollows,
I wi ll
at t e m pt
t o
re ali gn
t h e dom i n an t axi s of t h e
m ort uary arch ae ology
of t h e
pe ri od by st udyi n g
t h e role of t i m e an d
m e m ory
i n t h e
re product i on
of Lat e
World
Arch ae ology
Volum e 25 No. 2
Con ce pt i on s of
T i m e an dAn ci e n t
Soci e t y
? Rout le dge
1993 0043-8243/93/2502/223 $3.00/1
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224
Koji
Mi zoguch i
Ne oli t h i c an d
Early
Bron ze
Age
buri al
pract i ce s
i n Yorksh i re . As Pe t e rse n
(1972)
h as
sh own , con t rary
t o t h e com m on
i m age
of i n di vi dual buri al as t h e dom i n an t f orm of buri al
i n t h e Bri t i sh Lat e Ne oli t h i c an d
Early
Bron ze
Age ,
t h e re are n um e rous
e xam ple s
i n wh i ch
t h e re m ai n s of m ore t h an t woi n di vi duals we re
de posi t e d
i n on e
grave pi t
(Pe t e rse n 1972;
Burge ss
1980:
298, f i g. 7.1).
In som e case s such
spe ci f i c
m e m ori e s as t h e
posi t i on
of t h e
body,
t h e di re ct i on of t h e h e ad or t h e
age /se x
of t h at
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t
appe ar
t o h ave
be e n
pre se rve d
ove r a
pe ri od
of t i m e an d re calle d wh e n t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t was
de posi t e d. Wh y
an dh ow was t h e
m e m ory pre se rve d
ove r a
pe ri od
of t i m e an d
re calle d,
an dwh at role di dt h i s
're m e m be ri n g' play
i n t h e
re product i on
of soci al st ruct ure s? How
was t h e t i m e wh i ch
e lapse d
be t we e n t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t an d t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t
m an i pulat e d?
T h e re
appe ar
t o h ave be e n som e 'rule s'
by
wh i ch t h e
de posi t i on
of di f f e re n t
cat e gori e s
of t h e de adwas con duct e di n di f f e re n t
t i m e /space
locale s
(on
t h e n ot i on of
locale ,
se e Gi dde n s
(1984: 116-22)).
T h e se
pri n ci ple s
also se e m t o h ave
be e n e n act e d at
grave pi t s
lat e r cove re d
by
m oun ds alm ost
t h rough out
our
pe ri od
of
i n ve st i gat i on .
Wh at ki n dof 'soci al t i m e '
(Gurvi t ch 1964; Sh an ks an d
T i lle y
1987:
130-1)
was cre at e d/re cre at e d
t h rough
such
re pe at e d e n act m e n t s,
an d wh at role di d t h ose
e n act m e n t s
play
i n t h e con st i t ut i on of soci al li f e ?
Alt h ough
re ce n t wri t e rs h ave
e m ph asi ze d
t h e
i m port an ce
of
st udyi n g
di f f e re n t
con st ruct i on s of t i m e
(Sh an ks
an d
T i lle y
1987:
126-36), arch ae ologi st s
h ave sof arf ai le dt o
f i n d
con vi n ci n g
case s i n wh i ch t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n
t i m e ,
h um an
pract i ce s
an d
con sci ousn e ss can be e xam i n e d. T h e dat a di scusse d i n t h i s
pape r appe ar
t o
re m e dy
t h e
si t uat i on . T h i s
st udy at t e m pt s
t oan swe rt h e se
que st i on s
by i n ve st i gat i n g
t h e n at ure of t h e
i n t e rcon n e ct i on s be t we e n h um an
pract i ce s
an d t i m e . It
sugge st s
t h e
i m port an ce
of
st udyi n g
t i m e an d h um an
pract i ce s
f or t h e t h e ore t i cal
de ve lopm e n t
of t h e
st udy
of
arch ae ology
i n
ge n e ral,
an dof
m ort uary arch ae ology
i n
part i cular.
Mat e ri al an dt h e f ram e work of an alysi s
De spi t e
t h e f act t h at t h e
m ajori t y
of t h e avai lable dat a
con ce rn i n g
Lat e Ne oli t h i c an d
Early
Bron ze
Age
buri al was colle ct e d
by an t i quari an s
such as Wi lli am Gre e n we ll
(e .g. 1877)
an dJoh n R. Mort i m e r
(e .g.
1905),
Yorksh i re h as be e n a f ocus of Bri t i sh Lat e Ne oli t h i c
an d
Early
Bron ze
Age m ort uary arch ae ology
t h an ks t o t h e f avourable soi l con di t i on s
wh i ch
pre se rve d
t h e ske le t al re m ai n s i n
goodcon di t i on ,
an dt h e m on um e n t al
publi cat i on s
by
t h e se e xcavat ors
(i bi d.). Alt h ough
n e i t h e r Gre e n we ll n orMort i m e re ve r
at t e m pt e d
t o
i n ve st i gat e
t h e locat i on s of
grave s
an d buri als i n a m an n e r wh i ch allows t h e i r re -
e xam i n at i on ,
t h e i r
re cordi n g
of t h e con t e n t s of i n di vi dual
grave pi t s (e .g.
t h e se x of t h e
ske le t on s an dt h e art e f act s associ at e dwi t h
t h e m )
can be
acce pt e d
as
f ai rly
re li able
(Gi bbs
1989).
As st at e d
above ,
be cause art i culat e d
corpse s
h adbe e n
de posi t e d
wi t h
art e f act s,
i t h as
always
be e n
t e m pt i n g
t o
i n ve st i gat e
t h e i rst at us i n
li f e , ye t m ort uary pract i ce s
wouldh ave
be e n con duct e d f or t h e
li vi n g
an d t h e i r
soci e t y (Barre t t 1988b).
T h e se
corpse s
could
n e i t h e r
part i ci pat e
i n t h e i rown
f un e rals,
n orcould
t h e y spe ak
f ort h e m se lve s:
t h e y
could
on ly e xpre ss
som e
m e ssage t h rough
t h e
i n t e rpre t at i on s
of t h e
part i ci pan t s
i n t h e i rf un e ral.
In t h at
se n se ,
t h e
corpse s
would h ave be e n li ke
port able art e f act s, carryi n g
bun dle s of
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
225
sym boli c m e an i n gs (Mi zoguch i ,
i n
pre ss).
Di f f e re n t m e m ori e s we re at t ach e d t o e ach
corpse by
di f f e re n t i n di vi duals. T h e de ad
pe rson 's
m ot h e r, f at h e r, brot h e rs,
si st e rs an d
ch i ldre n would all h ave h addi f f e re n t m e m ori e s
accordi n g
t ot h e i r
pe rson al
re lat i on s wi t h
t h e de ad
pe rson duri n g
t h e i rli f e -t i m e . From t h i s
poi n t
of
vi e w,
t h e f un e ral i n wh i ch t h e se
m e m ori e s we re m obi li ze dwi t h out a de ad
pe rson 's
con se n t m ust h ave be e n t h e occasi on at
wh i ch
spe ci f i c
re lat i on s be t we e n i n di vi duals we re re af f i rm e dor e ve n
ch alle n ge d t h rough
t h e re -e xam i n at i on of t h e i r
re lat i on sh i p
t ot h e de ad. T h e t re at m e n t of t h e
de ad,
such as t h e
posi t i on i n g
of t h e
body,
can be
t h ough t
of as a m at e ri al re si due of such act s.
Ke e pi n g
t h e se
poi n t s
i n
m i n d,
t h e se x an dt h e
posi t i on
of t h e
corpse s
f rom i n di vi dual
grave pi t s
h ave be e n
st udi e d. It sh ould also be n ot e d t h at
pe ople
are n e ve r f re e f rom t h e i r
past
act i on s. T h e
m e m ory
t race s
(Gi dde n s
1984:
45-51, 377)
of h ow t h e de adwe re t re at e don
past
occasi on s
n ot
on ly
would h ave con st rai n e dt h e
way
i n wh i ch t h e de adwe re
t re at e d,
but alsowould
h ave be e n drawn
upon
t o
carry
out
st rat e gi c
act i on s. In t h at se n se i t i s wort h
con si de ri n g
wh e t h e r t h e
way
i n wh i ch t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t was
de posi t e d
af f e ct e d t h e
way
i n wh i ch
t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t was
t re at e d,
f or t h i s would allow us t o
i n ve st i gat e
t h e m an n e ri n
wh i ch
m e m ory
t race s con st rai n e dor e n able d f ut ure act i on s. From t h i s
poi n t
of
vi e w,
t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n t h e
pri m ary
an d
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t s of
m ult i ple
buri als h as be e n
gi ve n part i cular
at t e n t i on .
Obse rvat i on s
In
e xam i n i n g
t h e con t e n t s of t h e ce n t ral
grave pi t s
of 104
re li ably
re corde dburi al m oun ds
f rom t h e
re gi on
t h e
f ollowi n g pat t e rn s
we re obse rve d:
1. In t h e
grave s
wi t h
si n gle
buri als
(T able 1), n e arly
50
pe r
ce n t of t h e
de posi t s
con si st of
adult m ale s. T h e buri als of an i m m at ure i n di vi dual
(i n f an t
or
juve n i le )
an d an adult
f e m ale f ollow
(29 pe r
ce n t an d15
pe r
ce n t
re spe ct i ve ly).
2. In t h e
grave s
wi t h
m ult i ple
buri als
(T able 2),
t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t of an adult m ale
was m ost
f re que n t ly
f ollowe d
by
t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t of an adult f e m ale . Le ss
com m on ly,
t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t of an adult m ale was f ollowe d
by
t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t of an i m m at ure
i n di vi dual,
or
by
t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t of an ot h e r adult
m ale .
Alt h ough
t h e re are
m an y
ot h e r
pat t e rn s,
t h ose i n wh i ch an adult m ale
appe ars
as
t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t accoun t f orove r 50
pe r
ce n t
(19 e xam ple s).
T able I In t e rm e n t s i n t h e
si n gle
buri al
grave s.
Pat t e rn No.
of
case s %
Adult m ale 32
(47.8)
Adult f e m ale 10
(14.9)
Im m at ure 19
(28.8)
Cre m at i on
(adult m ale )
1
(1.5)
Cre m at i on
(adult f e m ale )
1
(1.5)
Cre m at i on
(i m m at ure )
3
(4.5)
T ot al 66
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226
Koji Mi zoguch i
T able 2 In t e rm e n t s i n t h e
m ult i ple
buri al
grave s. Ke y: pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t ->
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t .
Pat t e rn No.
of
case s
Adult m ale - adult m ale 3
(10.3)
Adult m ale -, adult f e m ale 8
(27.6)
Adult m ale
->
i m m at ure 4
(13.8)
Adult m ale - adult
(i n de t . se x)
1
(3.0)
Adult f e m ale -> adult f e m ale 1
(3.0)
Adult f e m ale - i m m at ure 1
(3.0)
Adult f e m ale -- adult
(i n de t . se x)
1
(3.0)
Adult f e m ale + i m m at ure -> i m m at ure 1
(3.0)
Adult
(i n de t . se x)
-> adult m ale 1
(3.0)
Adult m ale cre m at i on
--
(i m m at ure )
1
(3.0)
Adult m ale -- cre m at i on
(adult
of i n de t .
se x)
1
(3.0)
Adult m ale -> cre m at i on 1
(3.0)
Adult f e m ale
--
cre m at i on 1
(3.0)
Im m at ure -> cre m at i on
(adult
m ale + adult
f e m ale )
1
(3.0)
Im m at ure + i m m at ure -- cre m at i on
(adult
of i n de t .
se x)
1
(3.0)
Cre m at i on
(i m m at ure ) --
cre m at i on
(adult
of i n de t .
se x)
1
(3.0)
Cre m at i on
--
adult f e m ale 1
(3.0)
Cre m at i on - i m m at ure
(f e m ale )
1
(3.0)
T ot al 30
T able 3 In t e rm e n t s i n t h e double buri al
grave s.
Pat t e rn No.
of
case s %
Adult m ale + adult m ale 1
(12.5)
Adult m ale + i m m at ure 1
(12.5)
Adult m ale + adult f e m ale 2
(25.0)
Adult f e m ale + adult
(i n de t . se x)
1
(12.5)
Im m at ure + i m m at ure 1
(12.5)
Adult m ale + cre m at i on
(adult m ale )
1
(12.5)
Adult f e m ale + cre m at i on
(i m m at ure )
1
(12.5)
T ot al 8
3. In t h e double buri al
grave s (T able 3),
due t o a sm all
sam ple si ze ,
n o 'dom i n an t '
pat t e rn
can be di sce rn e d.
4. T h e
st udy
also con si de re d t h e di re ct i on of t h e h e ad an d t h e
posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
an d
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t s i n t h e i n di vi dual
grave
pi t s
(Fi g. 1).
T h e
m ajori t y
sh ow e i t h e r t h e
sam e h e ad di re ct i on as t h e f i rst buri al or f ace d i n
e xact ly (or
alm ost
e xact ly)
t h e
opposi t e
di re ct i on
(13
out of 15
e xam ple s
i n wh i ch t h e h e ad di re ct i on of bot h t h e
pri m ary
an d
se con dary
can be
i de n t i f i e d).
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on of m ort uary pract i ce s
227
Di scussi on
T h e m ai n t e n an ce
of m ort uary pract i ce s
ove ra
pe ri odof
t i m e
From t h e se
obse rvat i on s,
t h e
f ollowi n g poi n t s
can be m ade :
a. T h e
corpse
of an adult m ale was
pre f e rably de posi t e d
on t h e bot t om of t h e
grave pi t .
Adult f e m ale s an d i m m at ure i n di vi duals we re i n t h at se n se
subordi n at e ,
an d we re
m ost ly de posi t e d
i n a
se con dary posi t i on (T able s
2 an d
3).
b. A
spe ci f i c m e m ory
of t h e
posi t i on
i n wh i ch s/h e was
de posi t e d,
as we ll as a
ge n e ral
m e m ory
of t h e se x an d
age
of t h e
pri m ary i n t e rm e n t , appe ars
t o h ave be e n re calle d
wh e n t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t was cre at e d
(Fi g. 1).
I would f i rst li ke t o draw at t e n t i on t o t h e di f f e re n t
t i m i n gs
i n
se n di n g
t h e de ad of
di f f e re n t
cat e gori e s
t ot h e af t e rworld. T h e
corpse
of an adult m ale was t h e on e wh i ch was
m ost
f re que n t ly de posi t e d
on t h e bot t om of t h e
grave pi t .
T h e
corpse s
of adult f e m ale s an d
i m m at ure i n di vi duals we re m ost
li ke ly de posi t e d
af t e rt h e
corpse
of t h e adult m ale . It i s
h ardly
be li e vable t h at t h e i r de at h s
always
occurre d
n at urally f ollowi n g
t h e de at h of an
adult m ale i n a
com m un i t y.
In t h at
se n se ,
t h e di f f e re n t locat i on s f or adult
m ale ,
adult
f e m ale an di m m at ure
pe rson s
i n
grave pi t s
wouldn ot h ave be e n n at ural but
art i f i ci al,
an d
can be
e n vi sage d
t o h ave be e n
m e an i n gf ul.
T h i s re m i n ds us t h at i n
m an y
of t h e
an ce st ral/cre at i on
m yt h s
of t ri bal soci e t i e s e ach
spe ci f i cse x/age group
was
gi ve n
a
spe ci f i c
posi t i on
i n t h e n arrat i ve st ruct ure
(e .g. Hugh -Jon e s 1979).
T h e
pat t e rn
i n our dat a also
re se m ble s a ki n dof n arrat i ve st ruct ure i n wh i ch adult
m ale ,
adult f e m ale an di m m at ure
we re
gi ve n
di f f e re n t
t i m e /space posi t i on s
at i n di vi dual
grave pi t s.
T h e de ad of di f f e re n t
cat e gori e s
we re se n t t o t h e af t e rworldat di f f e re n t t i m e s an dwe re
de posi t e d
i n di f f e re n t
posi t i on s
i n a
grave pi t (t h e
bot t om f ort h e
pri m ary
an dt h e m i ddle f ort h e
se con dary).
T h i s
pract i ce
could h ave be e n
m an i pulat e d
i n
m appi n g
out di f f e re n t
posi t i on s
f or di f f e re n t
pe rson s
i n an i de ali ze d
t i m e /space
st ruct ure sh are d
by
t h e m e m be rs of t h e
soci e t y.
T h e ot h e r
i m pli cat i on
of
poi n t a)
i s t h at t h e re i s a
cycli cal
di m e n si on t o t h e
se que n ce
wh i ch st art e d wi t h t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
corpse
of an adult m ale an d e n de d wi t h t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
corpse s
of e i t h e r an adult f e m ale or an i m m at ure
pe rson
an d was
'e n act e d' at t h e ce n t ral
grave pi t
of buri al m oun ds
t h rough out
our
pe ri od
of
st udy.
T h i s
di ach ron i c
cycle
was e m be dde d i n t h e con sci ousn e ss of t h e
pe ople by
t h e se
ve ry
e n act m e n t s, alt h ough
on e i n di vi dual wouldn ot h ave
e xpe ri e n ce d
t h i s
cycle m an y
t i m e s i n
h i s orh e rown li f e -t i m e .
De posi t i n g part i cularcat e gori e s
of
pe rson
i n
part i culart i m e /space
locat i on s wi t h i n i n di vi dual
grave pi t s (i f
t h e
de posi t i on s
of t h e
pri m ary
an dt h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t s we re i n de e dcon duct e dat on e t i m e
(se e
Mort i m e r1905
1lf f .))
wouldh ave be e n
an occasi on on wh i ch t h e
cycle
was
e xpe ri e n ce d by
t h e i n di vi dual
t h rough
di f f e re n t se t s of
act i vi t i e s at di f f e re n t
t i m e /space
'locale s'. T h e se i n clude d
locat i n g
t h e
corpse
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t on t h e bot t om of a
grave pi t
an d
buryi n g
i t wi t h
ch alk,
an dt h e n
locat i n g
t h e
corpse
of t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t i n t h e
f i lli n g
of t h e
grave
an d
cove ri n g
i t wi t h m ore
ch alk
(on
t h e
con ce pt
of
'locale s',
se e Gi dde n s
(1984: 116-22)).
T h e
e xpe ri e n ce
of
con duct i n g
a
se que n ce
of act i vi t i e s i n di f f e re n t
t i m e /space
'locale s'
would,
on t h e on e
h an d,
h ave m arke d t h e di f f e re n ce be t we e n t h e
pri m ary
an d t h e
se con dary i n t e rm e n t s,
an d,
on t h e
ot h e r,
h ave
h e lpe d
t o i n scri be t h i s di f f e re n ce i n t h e
m e m ory
t race s of t h e
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228
Koji Mi zoguch i
1 Adult Male
Aki am Wold 124
2 Adult
Blan ch 238
2 Adult Fe m ale
Calai s Wold 100
Garrowby
Wold 104
1 Adult Male
2 Adult Fe m ale
Gart on Slack 75
1 Adult Male
1 Adult Male
2 Adult Fe m ale
Gart on Slack 141
1 Adult Fe m ale
2
Im m (i n f )
2 Adult Fe m ale
Gart on slack 152
Goodm an h am 99
1 Adult Fe m ale
N
A
2 Adult Fe m ale
1 Adult Male
1 Adult Male
2 Adult
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on of m ort uary pract i ce s
229
2 Adult Fe m ale
N
A
1 Adult Fe m ale
Goodm an h am 112
1 Adult Male
Goodm an h am 117
2 Adult Fe m ale
1 Adult Male
We t wan g
Slack 4
Pai n st h orpe
Wold 98
2 Adult Male
1 Adult Male
2 Adult Male
Rudst on 68
2 Im m
(i n f )
1 Adult Male
3 Adult Fe m ale
St axt on B10 & 11
1 Adult Male
2 Adult Male
We ave rt h orpe
297
Fi gure
1 He ad di re ct i on s of i n t e rm e n t s i n t h e
m ult i ple
buri al
grave s. Ke y:
1
pri m ary i n t e rm e n t ;
2
se con dary i n t e rm e n t ;
3
t e rt i ary
i n t e rm e n t .
2 Adult Fe m ale
1 Adult Male
2 Im m
(i n f )
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230
Koji Mi zoguch i
Fi gure
2 In t e rm e n t s i n t h e
ce n t ral
grave
pi t
of He sle rt on
r /
/
/
1 IR barrow
(af t e r
Powle slan d
1986). Le ge n d:
A
re arran ge d
bon e s of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e r-
v\
u~
;
f / X~ n S\ n m e n t (adult m ale );
B t h e
i "
,'
C - -- \ \
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t
(juve n -
i le );
C
Be ake r
pot t e ry
de -
-
_
-
posi t e d
wi t h
B;
D
grave pi t
f or t h e
pri m ary i n t e rm e n t ;
E
grave pi t
f ort h e
se corn dary
\ t ~~/\
~A
/~/
/
~i n t e rm e n t .
A I B
C
o lm
part i ci pan t s.
In t h i s
way,
t h e
con ce pt i on
of a
cycle
be h i n d t h e
se que n ce
of act i vi t i e s was
cre at e d/re cre at e d. T h i s
con ce pt i on
of t i m e as
'cycli cal' (Gurvi t ch
1964:
31;
Sh an ks an d
T i lle y
1987:
131)
wouldalsoh ave
re produce d
a ki n dof 'st at i can d
organ i ci m agi n ary
m ode l
of t h e i r
soci e t y' (Bloch
1989:
15),
base d
upon spe ci f i c
re lat i on s of dom i n an ce be t we e n
adult
m ale s,
adult f e m ale s an d
youn g pe ople
(on
t h e
con ce pt
of 're lat i on s of
dom i n an ce ',
se e Barre t t
1988a).
We n ow h ave t ot urn t ot h e
i m pli cat i on
of
poi n t
b).
As t h e
e xam ple
of t h e ce n t ral
grave
pi t
of He sle rt on 1R
sh ows,
t h e i n t e rval be t we e n t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t
an d t h at of t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t was som e t i m e s
qui t e lon g.
At We st He sle rt on
(Powle slan d 1986)
t h e bon e s of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t
(an
adult
m ale )
we re di st urbe d
by
t h e buri al of a
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t
(a juve n i le
of i n de t e rm i n at e
se x) (Fi g. 2). Accordi n g
t o
f ore n si c
sci e n t i st s,
i t
n orm ally
t ake s at le ast f i ve
ye ars
f ort h e t e n don s
con n e ct i n g
t h e bon e s
t o rot
away.
At t h e sam e
t i m e ,
as f aras obse rvat i on
4)
i s
con ce rn e d,
i t
appe ars
t h at t h e
h e ad di re ct i on an d t h e
posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t we re re calle d an dre f e rre d t o
wh e n t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t was con duct e d. It
appe ars
t o
sugge st
t h at
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
231
t h e
m e m ory
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t
(n ot on ly
of t h e
pe rson 's age
an dse x but also h ow
s/h e was
de posi t e d), playe d
an
i m port an t
role i n t h e
m ort uary pract i ce s
of t h e
pe ri od.
It i s
sh own i n
m an y e t h n ograph i ce xam ple s
t h at
part i cularkn owle dge
i s
posse sse d by
a
spe ci f i c
i n t e re st
group,
of t e n base d
upon age
an dse x. T h e e xclusi ve
posse ssi on
of such
kn owle dge
soli di f i e s t i e s
am on g
t h e m e m be rs of a
group
an d
le gi t i m at e s
an dn at urali ze s t h e i r
spe ci f i c
re lat i on s t ot h e m e m be rs of ot h e r
groups
i n t h e
com m un i t y (e .g.
T on ki n son
1988).
Wh at i s
part i cularly i n t e re st i n g
i n t h e se
e t h n ograph i c e xam ple s
i s t h at
'ri t uals',
such as
f un e rals,
are t h e occasi on s i n wh i ch
kn owle dge
i s
se cre t ly gi ve n
t o t h e n e w m e m be rs of t h e
group
(i bi d.).
In t h e se
i n st an ce s, kn owle dge
i s a
're source ',
t h e e xclusi ve m obi li zat i on of wh i ch
gi ve s
t h e
group
a dom i n an ce ove rot h e r
groups
wh i ch don ot h ave acce ss t oi t
(e .g.
Gi dde n s
1984:
28-34).
In our
e xam ple s,
t h e
pe ri od
of t i m e ove rwh i ch t h e
kn owle dge
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t was
pre se rve dm ay
n ow h ave adde dsom e addi t i on al 'value ' t ot h at
m e m ory
as a
re source .
T h e
t ran sf orm at i on of m ort uary pract i ce s t h rough
t i m e
T h e above accoun t h as
e m ph asi ze d
t h e role
playe d by
t i m e i n
m appi n g
out di f f e re n t
posi t i on s
f or di f f e re n t
pe rson s
i n an i de ali ze d
t i m e /space st ruct ure ,
an d t h e value of
'm e m ory'
as a re source
t h rough
i t s m ai n t e n an ce ove ra
le n gt h y pe ri od.
Part i cular
e m ph asi s
h as be e n
gi ve n
t ot h e role of t i m e i n t h e 'm ai n t e n an ce ' of soci al st ruct ure s. In wh at
f ollows,
t h e f ocus of
i n t e rpre t at i on
i s sh i f t e dt ot h e t ran sf orm at i on of soci al st ruct ure s an dt h e role
an d
con ce pt i on
of t i m e i n t h i s
proce ss.
On an occasi on at wh i ch t h e
m e m ory
of a
spe ci f i c
an ce st orwas
re calle d,
t h e re wouldbe
scope
f or m ore t h an on e
'i n t e rpre t at i on '
t o be
put
f orward.
Com pe t i t i on
ove r dom i n an t
i n t e rpre t at i on s
wouldh ave be e n an are n a i n wh i ch
pre -e xi st i n g aut h ori t y
was
ch alle n ge d.
Howe ve r,
t h e se
at t e m pt s
would h ave t o be con duct e d
by
t h e i n t e rn ali ze d 'rule s'
('st ruct ure s' f ollowi n g
Gi dde n s
(1984: 16-28);
'h abi t us'
f ollowi n g
Bourdi e u
(1990: 52-65))
wh i ch
past
h um an
pract i ce s
h ad
cre at e d/re cre at e d, alt h ough ,
at t h e sam e
t i m e ,
e ach
pract i ce
t ran sf orm e d t h e se rule s
by st rat e gi c m an i pulat i on .
From t h i s
poi n t
of
vi e w,
i n di vi duals would h ave con ce i ve d of t h e i r act i on s as
be i n g basi cally
t h e sam e as t h ose of
t h e i r
pre de ce ssors, alt h ough t h e y
we re
un kn owi n gly m aki n g ch an ge s
i n t h e rule s
(e .g.
Bourdi e u 1990:
52-65).
A
good
i llust rat i on of t h i s
proce ss
of 'un i n t e n de d' t ran sf orm at i on
can also be f oun d i n our own
dat a-se t , n am e ly,
t h e t ran sf orm at i on f rom i n h um at i on t o
cre m at i on .
In classi cal Be ake r/Food Ve sse l
m ort uary pract i ce s (Burge ss
1980:
297),
cre m at i on s
we re
m ost ly de posi t e d
wi t h
i n h um at i on s,
an dwe re
rare ly
t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t
(i bi d.).
On e ort wo
h e aps
of cre m at e dbon e s we re of t e n
de posi t e d
n e arf le sh e di n di vi dual
corpse s
i n
si n gle grave pi t s (e .g.
Grave
1,
Gart on Slack 29
(Bre wst e r 1980)).
Wh e t h e r t h e act of
cre m at i n g
i n di vi duals was con duct e d as an
e pi sode
of t h e i n h um at i on f un e ral i s
qui t e
un ce rt ai n ,
but t h e cre m at i on se e m s t oh ave be e n
m e an i n gf ul
due t oi t s associ at i on wi t h t h e
i n h um at i on rat h e rt h an i n i t s own
ri gh t .
In our
dat a-se t ,
i t i s
part i cularly i n t e re st i n g
t o n ot e h ow i n h um at i on was
re place d by
cre m at i on
(e .g.
Et t on 76
(Gre e n we ll 1877:282;
Ki n n e s an d
Lon gwort h 1985:80);
Goodm an h am 86
(Gre e n we ll
1877:
290-3;
Ki n n e s an d
Lon gwort h
1985:
82); Sli n gsby
144
(Gre e n we ll
1877:
351;
Ki n n e s an d
Lon gwort h
1985:
92)).
T h e i n si t u cre m at i on s are
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232
Koji
Mi zoguch i
accom pan i e don ly by
a Collare dve sse l
(Urn )
oran
acce ssory cup,
an d
m ay
we ll h ave be e n
ch ron ologi cally sli gh t ly
lat e r t h an
t ypi cal
Be ake r/Food Ve sse l
grave s (cf . Burge ss
1980:
107).
In t h e se
e xam ple s,
a f le sh e d
body
was
posi t i on e d
i n an i de n t i cal m an n e r t o
t h ose i n Be ake r/Food Ve sse l
buri als,
crouch e don i t s si de i n a h ollow ora
pi t ,
an dt h e n se t
ali gh t .
T h e act of
cre m at i n g
t h e de ad be cam e
i n corporat e d
i n t h e
se que n ce
of f un e ral
pract i ce s spat i ally
as we ll as
t e m porally, alt h ough
t h e
m ort uary
ri t e i t se lf m ai n t ai n e d
m an y
of t h e e le m e n t s of t h e Be ake r/Food Ve sse l i n h um at i on buri als i llust rat e dabove .
In
t ypi cal
lat e
Early
Bron ze
Age
cre m at i on
pract i ce s (e .g.
T h e Be dd Bran we n
pe ri od:
c. 1650-1400 cal. BC
(se e Burge ss
1980:
115-31; 313-22)),
t h e
body
was cre m at e don t h e
pyre qui t e
close t o t h e
pi t
i n wh i ch t h e cre m at e d re m ai n s we re t o be
de posi t e d
(e .g.
Wyke h am
Fore st Barrow 1
(Bre wst e r
1973)).
He re t h e e le m e n t s of Be ake r/Food Ve sse l
i n h um at i on
pract i ce s
wh i ch i n si t u cre m at i on h ad m ai n t ai n e d can n o
lon ge r
be se e n .
In st e ad,
t h e
way
i n wh i ch t h e de adwe re t ran sf orm e df rom a f le sh e dst at e t oa ske le t on was
e laborat e d as an
i m port an t part
of t h e f un e ral an dwas m ade
vi sually
m ore
spe ct acular.
T h i s
ch an ge i m pli e s
an i n cre ase i n t h e n um be r of
pe ople
wh o could wi t n e ss t h e sce n e i n
wh i ch t h e de adwe re t ran sf orm e d
(cf .
Barre t t 1990:
185-6).
As Barre t t h as
sugge st e d,
t h e
un de rlyi n g logi c
be h i n d t h e t ran sf orm at i on f rom
i n h um at i on
t h rough
i n si t ucre m at i on t ot h e classi ccre m at i on can be un de rst ood i n t e rm s
of an e n h an ce m e n t of t h e e f f e ct i ve n e ss of
m ort uary pract i ce s
i n t h e
re product i on
of
powe r
re lat i on s. It i n cre ase dt h e n um be rof
pe ople
wh o could e i t h e r be i n volve d
i n ,
or
wi t n e ss,
t h i s
act i vi t y (i bi d.). Ne ve rt h e le ss,
t h i s e n h an ce m e n t would n e ve r h ave be e n
e xpli ci t ly
i n t e n de d,
f e lt or con ce i ve d of
by
t h e i n di vi duals i n volve d i n t h e se
pract i ce s.
On e ach
m ort uary occasi on ,
i n t e n t i on al
st rat e gi c act i on (s)
could or would h ave be e n con duct e d.
Howe ve r,
t h e i ract i on s we re con duct e d
by
t h e rule s
(st ruct ure s
or
h abi t us)
wh i ch h adbe e n
cre at e d an d rout i n i ze d
t h rough past pract i ce s,
an d wh i ch
we re ,
at t h e sam e
t i m e ,
t ran sf orm e d
by
t h ose
pract i ce s.
In t h i s
way,
t h e rule s wh i ch wouldh ave be e n e m be dde d i n
pe ople 's
con sci ousn e ss wouldh ave be e n
con t i n uously
t ran sf orm e d
ye t
st i ll con ce i ve d of as
'un ch an ge d', 'cycli cal'
or 'f roze n '.
T h e
gradual
n at ure of t h e
lon g-t e rm
t ran sf orm at i on f rom i n h um at i on t o cre m at i on
duri n g
t h e
e arly
ce n t uri e s of t h e se con d m i lle n n i um cal. BC can
on ly
be un de rst ood i n
t e rm s of t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n t h e
way
t i m e was con ce i ve d of
by
t h e
pe ople
wh o
part i ci pat e d
i n orcon duct e di n di vi dual
pract i ce s
an dt h e
way
t h at
lon g-t e rm
soci al
ch an ge s
cam e about . T h i s lat t e r
poi n t
can
on ly
be obse rve df rom t h e
lon g-t e rm pe rspe ct i ve
un i que
t o
arch ae ology.
Con cludi n g
re m arks
T h rough out
t h i s
pape r,
I h ave t ri e dt osh ow t h at t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n h um an
pract i ce ,
i t s
con di t i on s,
an dt h e con sci ousn e ss of
pe ople
can
on ly
be un de rst ood
by locat i n g
e ach
pract i ce
i n i t s
un i que
con t e xt i n t i m e an d
space .
T h e
con se que n ce s
of
past act i on s,
such as
cre at e de n vi ron m e n t s an dt h e
m e m ory
t race s of t h ose
act i on s,
con st rai n t h e
way
i n wh i ch
pract i ce s
are
con duct e d,
wh i le at t h e sam e t i m e
t h e y
are
m an i pulat e d.
Wi t h i n t h i s
f ram e work,
t i m e i s n ot an
e m pt y
box. T i m e was m arke d
by
h um an
pract i ce s.
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T i m e i n t h e
re product i on
of
m ort uary
pract i ce s
233
T h e m arks re m ai n i n t h e f orm of e i t h e r t h e
m e m ory
t race s i n t h e con sci ousn e ss of
pe ople
ort h e di f f e re n t locale s m at e ri ali ze di n a
ph ysi cal
f orm . Di f f e re n t
poi n t s
i n t h e f low of t i m e
we re m arke dout
by
di f f e re n t se t s of
pract i ce s
wh i ch le f t t h e i rm at e ri al re si due s at di f f e re n t
locat i on s,
such as t h e
m ort uary
m oun ds con si de re d i n t h i s
pape r.
T h e se di f f e re n t
poi n t s,
m arke di n t i m e
by
h um an
pract i ce s,
we re
m an i pulat e d
t o
si gn i f y
di f f e re n t
cat e gori e s
of
pe ople .
T i m e h as be e n sh own t o h ave adde dsom e
spe ci f i c
value t ovari ous re source s. T h e t i m e
e lapse d
be t we e n t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t an dt h e
se con dary
i n t e rm e n t i n
i n di vi dual
grave pi t s m ay
h ave adde da
spe ci f i c
value of m e m ori e s of t h e
de posi t i on
of t h e
pri m ary
i n t e rm e n t . T h at
m e m ory appe ars
t o h ave be e n an 'aut h ori t at i ve re source '
(Gi dde n s
1984: 33 an d
373),
re st ri ct e dacce ss t owh i ch wouldh ave
gi ve n
an i n t e re st
group,
probably
adult
m ale s,
a m e an s wi t h wh i ch t o
le gi t i m i ze
an dn at urali ze i t s dom i n at i on ove r
ot h e r
groups.
T h e
way
i n wh i ch t i m e was con ce i ve d
by pe ople
i s also f orm e d
t h rough pract i ce s
con duct e di n di f f e re n t
t i m e /space
locale s.
T i m e ,
i n our
e xam ple , m ay
h ave be e n
t h ough t
of
as
'cycli cal' (Gurvi t ch 1964),
an dt h i s
con ce pt i on
could h ave be e n f orm e d
by re pe at e dly
e n act i n g
a
se que n ce
of
pract i ce s, st art i n g
wi t h t h e
de posi t i on
of an adult m ale an d
e n di n g
wi t h t h e
de posi t i on
of e i t h e r an adult f e m ale or an i m m at ure
pe rson
i n i n di vi dual
grave
pi t s.
T h i s
con ce pt i on
of
'cycli cal'
t i m e h as be e n
t h ough t
t o
h e lp
i n t h e
re product i on
of
'st at i can d
organ i c
m ode ls' i n
soci e t y (cf .
Bloch 1989:
15).
If e xam i n e d f rom t h e
lon g-t e rm pe rspe ct i ve
wh i ch i s alm ost
e xclusi ve ly
avai lable t o
arch ae ologi st s,
t h ose
m ort uary pract i ce s t h rough
wh i ch t h e
con ce pt i on
of 'st at i c' an d
'cycli cal'
t i m e we re cre at e d an dre cre at e dt h e m se lve s t urn out t o h ave be e n t ran sf orm e d.
Ne ve rt h e le ss,
t h e
way
i n wh i ch t i m e was con ce i ve d i n i n di vi dual
e pi sode s
wouldh ave be e n
f i rm ly
'st at i c' an d
'cycli cal',
be cause e ve n i n t e n t i on al
st rat e gi c
act i on s would h ave h adt o
be con duct e d
by
t h e rule s wh i ch h adbe e n cre at e d an drout i n i ze d
t h rough past pract i ce s
(cf .
Bourdi e u 1990:
52-65).
Me an wh i le t h e se rule s t h e m se lve s would
un kn owi n gly
h ave
be e n
ch an ge d t h rough pract i ce .
From t h i s
poi n t
of
vi e w,
t h e t ran sf orm at i on f rom
i n h um at i on
pract i ce s
t ocre m at i on
pract i ce s
wouldh ave re sult e df rom t h e accum ulat i on of
'un i n t e n de d
con se que n ce s'
of h um an
pract i ce s, i n cludi n g
bot h
st rat e gi c
an d rout i n i ze d
act i on s.
T h e se
poi n t s
h ave be e n m ade
t h rough
a cri t i cal e xam i n at i on of on e of t h e m ost
i m port an t subje ct s
i n
arch ae ology,
t h e
st udy
of
m ort uary pract i ce s,
wh i ch h as be e n
dom i n at e d
by 'syn ch ron i c',
'st at i c'
pe rspe ct i ve s (Ch apm an
e t al.
1981).
On ce t h e
i m port an ce
of h um an
pract i ce s
i n
sh api n g
t h e ch aract e ri st i cs of our
dat a,
an dt h e i rcruci al
role i n t h e
re product i on
of soci al st ruct ure s i s
re ali ze d,
t i m e an d
space i n e vi t ably
com e t o
f orm t h e e sse n t i al
subje ct s
of our
st udy. Arch ae ologi st s
are i n a
part i cularly pri vi le ge d
posi t i on
i n
t h at ,
un li ke ot h e r
di sci pli n e s
i n t h e soci al
sci e n ce s, t h e y
can work wi t h
lon g-t e rm
h i st ori cal
ph e n om e n a. On ly
f rom such a
pe rspe ct i ve
can on e
i n ve st i gat e
such a
t opi c
as t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n t h e
con ce pt i on
of
t i m e ,
t h e
st rat e gi cm an i pulat i on
of t h e
m e m ory
t race s of
past act i on s,
an dt h e act ual t ran sf orm at i on of soci al st ruct ure s
t h rough
t i m e .
By adopt i n g
sui t able m e t h ods of
i n t e rpre t at i on
an d
an alysi s, arch ae ologi st s
can
m ake a
un i que
con t ri but i on t o t h e de bat e ove r h ow t o un de rst an d t h e
re lat i on sh i p
be t we e n t i m e an dh um an e xi st e n ce .
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234
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Boyd,
Ri ch ard
Bradle y,
Mark
Edm on ds,
J. D.
Hi ll,
Ian
Hodde r,
Robe rt
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Juli an T h om as an d San de r van de r Le e uw f or t h e i r
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draf t s of t h i s
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I
part i cularly
t h an k Bri an f or
corre ct i n g
m y
En gli sh
as we ll. Sole
re spon si bi li t y
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sh ort com i n gs,
of
course ,
li e s wi t h m e .
5.i .93
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Abst ract
Mi zoguch i , Koji
T i m e i n t h e
re product i on
of
m ort uary pract i ce s
T h i s
pape r argue s
t h at t h e
arch ae ologi st
can
i n t e rpre t
t h e
way
t i m e was m arke d
t h rough
h um an
pract i ce s
an d
m an i pulat e d
i n t h e
re product i on
of re lat i on s of dom i n an ce . It i s
argue d
t h at t h i s t ask
can be
accom pli sh e d by m ovi n g i n t e rpre t at i ve /an alyt i cal e m ph asi s away
f rom t h e e xam i n at i on of
st at i c
pat t e rn s,
an d
i n t e rpre t i n g
t h e
way
t h ose vari able s we re m obi li ze das
sym boli c
re source s i n t h e
product i on
an dm ai n t e n an ce of soci al st ruct ure s. T h e se
poi n t s
are di scusse d
t h rough
t h e
st udy
of t h e
m ort uary pract i ce s
of Lat e Ne oli t h i c an d
Early
Bron ze
Age
East
Yorksh i re , En glan d.
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