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Title: Heat Cubes Source of Alternative Fuel

General Objective: To reduce the use of trees in charcoal making thereby preventing
landslides and flash floods.
Specific Objective: To know the advantages of using heat cubes compared to pure
charcoal in terms of handling, brittleness, texture, and cost, time of ignition, and time
it took to boil 500ml of water.
Hypothesis: Heat cubes can provided us as cheaper and easier way of making
alternative source of heat using organic materials such as dried mango; guava; and
eucalyptus leaves.
Review of Related Literature: Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in
forms that can be practicably released and used as heat energy. The concept
originally applied solely to those materials storing energy in the form of chemical
energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept has since been
also applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear
fission or nuclear fusion), as well as releases of chemical energy released through
non-combustion oxidation (such as in cellular biology or in fuel cells). A leaf is an
organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant
morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants.
Typically a leaf is a thin, flattened organ borne above ground and specialized for
photosynthesis, but many types of leaves are adapted in ways almost unrecognisable
in those terms: some are not flat (for example many succulent leaves and conifers),
some are not above ground (such as bulb scales), and some are without major
photosynthetic function (consider for example cataphylls, spines, and cotyledons).
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose
pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Starch
or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by
glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy
store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large
amounts in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.
Materials and Method: 2500g dried leaves
500g paper
6000 starch
Treatments and General Procedure: In making the heat cubes, the materials were
mixed and placed in a plastic container, poured with cooked starch and mixed using
bare hands. The mixture was placed on plastic molders and dried for 3 days under
the sun. In comparing the heat cubes to the charcoal, heat cubes of set-up 1 and set-
up 2 were compared to pure charcoal in terms of handling, brittleness, texture, and
cost, time of ignition and time it took to boil 500 ml of water.






Title: Talahib Leaves as Cardboard Food Packaging (Saccharum spotaneum L.)

General Objective: To lessen the cutting of trees and used of non biodegradable food
containers.
Specific Objective: To lessen the used of trees and participate in various movements
advocating the prevention of excessive logging and used of non biodegradable food
containers using Talahib Leaves.
Hypothesis: Talahib leaves can lessen the excessive logging and used of non
biodegradable food containers.
Review of Related Literature: Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum)is a grass native
to South Asia. It is a perennial grass, growing up to three meters in height, with
spreading rhizomatous roots. Cardboard is a generic term for a heavy-duty paper of
various strengths, ranging from a simple arrangement of a single thick sheet of paper
to complex configurations featuring multiple corrugated and uncorrugated layers.
Food packaging is packaging for food. A package provides protection, tampering
resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It may bear a nutrition
facts label and other information about food being offered for sale.
Materials and Method: Talahib leaves
Mortar and Pestle
Starch
Newspaper pulps
Treatments and General Procedures: All the substances added to the crushed
talahib leaves including the amount of the talahib leaves in three set-ups were the
parameters except for the amount of paste from newspaper which was varied in each
set-up. All the products produced in three set-ups were soaked in a solution of water
and gelatin to reduce absorbency of the paper. The tensile strength was then tested
in two ways, first by the use of force measurer which was attached to the cardboard
pulled. The reading obtained from the force measurer indicates the tensile strength of
the cardboard. The second one was the load that could be carried by the cardboard
container.