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Analyze how industrialization contributed to the development of consumer culture in the period of 1850

– 1914.
 More means of production
 Created more businesses
 Jobs; more men to work
 Cult of domesticity
 Ads towards women
 More money with the bourgeoisie
 The dabeers diamond company; giving people diamond rings as engagement rings, control
population of diamonds going out to sell
 Metals and steel ; means of transportation, more travelling; opened up markets in other areas
 Better economy
 Transporting soldiers
 Continental railroad
 Mass production; factories, greater production, more available products and cheaper
 Bourgeois comfort homes
 Opium from India to China, Tea from China to Britain
 Indian companies
 Expanded market; products more widely available in other areas
The Great War (AKA World War I)
Causes
 National Darwinism.
 Domestic political struggles. TENSION!
 Arms race.
 Imperialism.
 Jingoism.
 Alliances.
 Sick Men of Europe vs. Nationalism.
 Mobilization timetables.
Germans
 Russia mobilized first. It’s a defensive war.
 Devised Schleiffen Plan.
 War vs. France AND Russia.
 Attack France through Belgium quickly, then attack slow mobilizing Russia.
 Belgian guerilla warfare and reprisals.
War
 Euphoria for (short) war.
 Everybody home for Xmas.
 New weapons insure quick war.
 Wrong!
New Weaponry
 Defensive weapons
o Machine guns
o Long range artillery
o Barbed wire and mines
 Offensive weapons
o Airplanes (Zeppelins)
o Tanks
o Poison gas
o Flame-throwers
o Submarines
Defensive War – Slaughter
 Trenches
 Barbed wire
 Land mines
 No man’s land
 Frontal attacks. “Going over the top”.
1914
 Western Front
o Modified Schleiffen Plan.
o First Battle of the Marne.
o Trench Race: Switzerland to Sea 400 miles!
 Eastern Front
o Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes.
o Crushing Russian defeats.
1915
 Serbs knocked out of the war as Germans rescue AH from Russians.
 Italy joined the Allies (Britain, France, Russia) for promises of land.
 Romania and Greece joined the Allies too.
 Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.
 Gallipoli. B vs. T.
1916
 Western Front
o Verdun. F vs. G (Attrition)
o Attrition warfare French.
o Battle of the Somme. B vs. G.
 Eastern Front
o Brusilov Offensive. R vs. A-H then G.
 “Jutland” one large naval battle of the war.
 B vs. G ended in a draw.
1917
 War weariness.
 Nivelle Offensive resulted in 40k French troops mutinying.
 Passchendale. B vs. G.
 Caporetto G & A-H vs. It.
Eastern Front
 War weariness.
 Russia poorly led, poorly equipped, fighting for what?
 1917 Russians quitting, two Revolutions.
 1918 Russian participation finished.
 Lost huge territory in Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. March 1918. More later…
 Germans shift troops to Western Front.
Strategic Warfare
 British blockade al trade to Germany.
 Germany sinks ships with U-Boats.
 After the Lusitania sunk 5/1915 Germany forced to change tactics.
 Convoys worked well vs. subs.
 Unrestricted submarine warfare resumed 2/1917 to starve Britain.
 Zeppelins bombed London for a while.
The United States
 British Propaganda.
 Loans and sales to Allies.
 Democratic side (March 1917 Russian Revolution).
 Unrestricted submarine warfare resume February 1917.
 Zimmerman telegram February 1917.
 War declared April 1917.
 Will take a year before troops ready.
1918
 Race between German and American troops.
 1918 – Ludendorff Offensive.
 German army quit.
 November 1918 sailor and worker revolts force abdication of Kaiser.
 German Republic declared by SPD.
 Ludendorff forces democratic leaders to sue for peace. President Wilson agrees.
Balance
 11(?) million (men) killed. (Mostly soldiers)
 20 million (men) incapacitated. (Ditto)
 Europe no longer center of world. (Capital)
 Psychological damage to everyone.
 Four empires destroyed.
 Seemed like “War to end all wars”.
WWI – Home Front
Home Front
 War called for unprecedented mobilization of entire country and economy.
 Government intervention in economy prevented shortages/bottlenecks.
 Bureaucracies set production quotas, controlled wages, prices, materials, distribution.
o War Raw Materials Board, Ministry of Munitions, etc…
 Nationalization of transportation and energy sectors.
 Isn’t that all socialistic?
Government Control
 Food rationing because farm man & beast power gone.
 Rationing in Germany 1/1915 Britain 1917.
 Hoarding and black – markets.
 1916 – 1917 Turnip Winter in Germany.
 700,000 Germans died of hunger during war.
Women and the Poor
 Critical to war effort, took “men’s” jobs.
 Pay increased some under war pressure. (not =)
 Created independence (think flappers).
 Many previously oppositional feminists became nationalists.
 Germany, Austria, Britain, U.S. got post – war suffrage.
 Full employment for the first time ever.
 New wealth for the poorest but… at what cost?
 War inflation hurt some people too.
Burgfrieden and Union Sacrée
 The beginning of the war created national unity.
 Cheering crowds everywhere.
 Kaiser Wilhelm “saw no political parties, just Germans.”
 Even socialists rally around the nation.
 What about working men of the world unite?
Labor
 Labor unions more powerful and influential than ever.
 Helped governments make decisions. Mostly loyal.
 Collective bargaining established.
 War weariness set in 1916 – long hours, nothing to buy.
 Later strikes and work stoppages and social peace between unions/socialist parties broke down.
Mobilizing Morale
 Censorship and loss of civil rights. Sedition laws.
 People upset by losses, long working hours, shortages.
 Propaganda – the enemy is evil!
 Atrocities fabricated and exaggerated.
 Disconnect between front and home front.
 Churches support war effort too.
War Weariness in Central Powers
 1917 German socialists and center party voted for peace without annexation.
 1917 Ditto Austria.
 1916 Franz Josef – Symbol of AH unity died. Nationalities more restless.
 Czechs and South Slavs (Yugoslavs, Serbians) demanded autonomy.
 Germans control Austrian military to keep them fighting.
Stirring up Nationalities and Trouble
 Germans – encouraged Irish and non-Russians.
 Irish Easter Rebellion 1916.
 Germans sent Lenin to Russia. (Commu-bomb)
 British – encouraged Slavs vs. AH, encouraged Zionists and Arabs vs. Turks.
Defeatism and Desertion
 Soldiers defeatism increasing everywhere.
 Desertions esp. bad in Russia 1917.
 French mutinies during Nivelle Offensive 1917.
 Germans quit during Ludendorff Offensive 1918.
 German sailors mutinied November 1918.
World War I
 Showed planned economy worked.
 Showed propaganda worked. (Advertising)
 Showed totalitarianism worked.
 Involved entire nation in the conflict. (Home front)
 Initial patriotic unity fractured under war.
 Old socio-political conflicts return.
 Made brutality and death commonplace.
The Russian Revolution and the Creation of the Soviet Union
Political System
 Revolution of 1905 followed by reform.
 Duma (unequal voting) and political parties didn’t have much power.
 Dominated by nationalists and conservatives.
 There were a few Bolsheviks and Mensheviks in the last Duma.
 The Bolsheviks were arrested after they voted against war.
 Workers councils (Soviets) formed 1905.
 Trade unions increased in size/power.
War
 Difficulty mobilizing everything.
 Relied on numbers rather than technology.
 Agricultural production fell – shortages.
 Working women burdened by long hours, good shortages, dying men.
 Millions of men lost on battlefield.
 Poor leadership, equipment, morale.
The Royal Family
 Tsar out of touch and increasingly unpopular.
 Tsarina a German spy?
 Rasputin.
March 1917 Revolution
 Sparked by women demonstrating and rioting.
 Persuaded men to join their ranks.
 Cossacks don’t attack them.
 Troops refused to fire on wives and mothers.
 Military and advisors forced Nicholas II to abdicate.
 Republic declared.
Provisional Government (March – November 1917)
 Bourgeois leaders (Cadets) wanted constitutional and democratic rule.
 Alexander Kerensky (Socialist Revolutionary Party) led the government.
 Government passed reforms – freedom of the press, abolition of capital punishment.
 Continued war. (2 million deserters by fall)
 Armed deserters seized noble land.
Soviets and Bolsheviks
 Worker councils (Soviets) wanted more socialism and peace.
 Bolsheviks wanted revolution and socialism now.
 Bolsheviks allied with Petrograd Soviet.
 Lenin’s slogans show Bolsheviks’ program.
o “All power to the Soviets”
o “All land to the peasants”
o “Stop the war now”
o “Peace, Land, Bread”
October Revolution (November 7, 1917)
 Provisional Government increasingly authoritarian until Kornilov revolt.
 General Kornilov was marching on Petrograd.
 Kerensky armed Petrograd Soviet to face threat.
 Kornilov stopped by RR strike.
 Trotsky, armed workers from Petrograd Soviet, and Kronstadt sailors seized power in Petrograd.
Bolshevik/Soviet Government
 Congress of Soviets abolished all landlord property and divided yet unclaimed land. (land)
 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed March 1918. (peace)
 Russia lost Ukraine, Baltic States, Finland!
 Lenin – losses unimportant. World-wide revolution coming soon.
Elections 11/1917
 No one had supported provisional government.
 Electrons for Constituent Assembly proceed…
 SR party defeated Bolsheviks.
 Constituent Assembly met one day before being dissolved by Bolsheviks 1/1918.
 Civil War breaks out.
Bread?
 Continued difficulties especially with disruptions of the civil war.
 Requisitioning by armed forces.
 Starvation and disease increase.
Russian Civil War (1917 – 21)
 Bolsheviks and Soviets “Reds”.
 Opposed by many parties – “Whites”.
 Landlords, army officers, churchmen, bourgeoisie, united only by hate.
 White supplied by Allies who halfheartedly intervened in Russia (fear of Communism).
 Brutal civil war – millions died.
Russo – Polish War (1920)
 Poles invaded Russia to seize land.
 Reds fought back to the gates of Warsaw.
 Poles pushed them back and took some land.
Why/How did the Reds win?
 Trotsky’s brilliance and brutality.
 They held center – enemies on fringes, enemies’ disunity geographically and politically.
 Conservative program unappealing to masses. Give land back?
 War Communism and Terror.
War Communism
 Grain requisitioned (including seed grain).
 Rationing.
 Industry nationalized.
 Uncontrolled printing of currency – hyperinflation.
 Price controls.
 Forced labor for civilization.
 All kept the Bolsheviks supplied and fighting.
 It was the start of economic totalitarianism.
Terror
 Cheka – class enemies liquidated (killed).
 Executions and torture.
 Conscription (machine guns behind troops).
 Concentration camps.
 Famine.
 Fear silenced opposition.
The Soviet Union
 Russian power in new totalitarian state.
 Complete social power shift.
 Not Marxism realized – new exploiters with totalitarianism.
 Totalitarian state radically affects 20
th
century history.
 Frightens capitalist nations – Red Scare.
End of the Great War: Paris Peace Conference Jan – June 1919 Treaty of Versailles
Armistice November 11, 1918
 German army not fighting.
 German sailors and workers striking.
 Austria – Hungary unraveling. Germans control it.
 Kaiser forced into exile – peaceful Revolution.
 General Ludendorff orders civilians to make peace.
 New German Republic asked for peace under the terms of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
 Open diplomacy.
 Armament reduction.
 National self – determination for Italians, Balkan peoples. A-H ethnic groups, Poles.
 Freedom of the seas.
 League of Nations: international organization to keep the peace.
 End the economic barriers.
 Fair colonial readjustments.
Reality
 Secret treaties and agreements.
 Sacrifice should lead to a win.
 Allies owed the US lots of money.
 Losers to pay for the war.
 French wanted to weaken Germany.
 Winner ethnic groups and loser ethnic groups.
The Big Four Made Treaty
 Clemenceau – France
 Lloyd George – Britain
 Wilson – US
 Orlando – Italy
The Excluded
 Germany (loser)
 Austria-Hungary (loser – gone)
 Russia (pariah)
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
 Rhineland occupied for 15 years and demilitarized.
 Saarland occupied and used for 15 years.
 Alsace and Lorraine returned.
 Some territory given to Poland and others.
 Colonies divided.
 Anschluss with Austria prohibited.
 Article 231-war guilt clause.
 Reparations (?)$35 billion…
 Army limited to 100 k soldiers.
 No General staff or officer training schools.
 No offensive weapons (tanks, gas, airplanes, subs, big artillery/ships).
Problems
 J.M. Keynes warned against economic provisions – would damage winners’ economies and
would lead to Germany’s instability.
 Winner’s peace.
 Americans refused to sign defensive alliance with France – no French security.
Germans Outraged
 German politicians forced to sign (Diktat) under threat of invasion.
 Shock! We were winning!
 Stab in the Back Myth.
 What happened to the 14 Points?
 Little support for fledgling republic.
 Left wing and right wing agitators.
New States
 Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Albania, Yugoslavia all
based on national self-determination.
 Hungarians and Germans losers.
 Jews also faced problems. Why?
 Many dissatisfied minorities: irredentism.
 AH economy divided.
 No sense of democracy.
Problems
 Americans (Republican Congress) refused Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations.
 Russia now the Soviet Union. OMG!
 Britain feared Bolsheviks more than Germans.
 France’s security linked to new East European states.
 Italians dissatisfied with gains.
 German Weimar Republic tainted by treaty.
 Germans irate about their fate.
Italian Fascism
Fascism as alternative to Liberalism and Marxism
 Parliamentary democracy is interest group bickering.
 Economy – Social question and economic cycles.
 Individualism and liberty is psychologically unfulfilling.
 Marxism… no property, no religion, dictatorship of the masses.
Fascism
 Political strength – Macho Strongman decides for all.
 Economic security and fairness (language of the Left).
 Generally conservative (women, society, etc).
 Psychologically fulfilling (symbols of the Right).
 Extreme nationalism – the state above all and everyone together.
 Militaristic.
Why Italy?
 WWI “winner” wasn’t rewarded for sacrifices.
 No colonies for example.
 Weak support for shifting governments.
 Postwar depression and unemployment.
 Social unrest in factories and on land.
 Some strikes, some land seizures.
 Fear of Bolshevism.
Benito Mussolini’s path to power
 Switched from socialist to nationalist.
 From republican anti-clerical to upholder of monarchy and the church.
 Squadristi – black shirted thugs used violence, arson, murder against enemies.
 Created chaos and them promised law and order.
Fascists Take Power
 Fascists marched on Rome 10/22 – threatened/demanded power.
 King asked Mussolini to form cabinet with dictatorial power 1 year.
 1924 Electoral law changed for political stability 2/3 of seats went to largest party.
 Fascists received 60% of the vote.
Crisis Solidified Power
 Anti-fascist socialist Matteoti killed.
 Squadristi ban demanded.
 150 deputies resigned in protest.
 Mussolini increased power.
 Opponents arrested, freedoms abolished, rule by decree, unions disbanded, secret police.
II Duce
 Mussolini gave speeches and played the virile leader.
 Proclaimed fascism to be modern.
 Denounced liberalism, capitalism, and socialism.
 National unity and state management of the economy.
Fascist Economy
 Battle for wheat, public works projects, swamp reclamation, hydroelectric power.
 Trying for autarky – economy self-sufficiency.
 In theory, worker and management worked in peace together.
 A kind of syndicalism or corporative state.
 Doesn’t achieve industrialization needed for WWII.
Corporative State
 Economy divided into 22 corporations with “representation” in a parliament.
 Representation through occupation.
 Each corporation decided wages, prices, policies, and controlled unions.
 Strikes, lockouts, labor unrest banned.
 State ends social and class conflict?
 Dictatorship with all classes cooperating.
The Roman Question
 What to do with the Pope?
 Pope angry about 1860s and 1870 unification of Italy.
 Good Catholics couldn’t be good Italians.
 Sound familiar?
2/29 Lateran Accord
 Gave Pope (Pius XI) the Vatican.
 State paid Pope for losses.
 Catholic Church was the state church.
 Church supported Italian state for the first time since unification.
 Provided legitimacy to Fascists and Mussolini.
 Church and Fascism both ideologically right wing.
Militarism and Glory
 Military increased in 1930s.
 Wanted return of Roman glory.
 Attacked Ethiopia to unify African colonies.
 Emperor Hailie Selassie’s troops defeated.
o 500 K Ethiopians and 5 K Italians killed.
 League of Nations outraged but ineffective.
 Supports nationalists in Spanish Civil War (50 K volunteers).
Italian Empire
 Libya.
 Eritrea.
 Ethiopia.
 Italian Somaliland.
Totalitarianism?
 Italian culture prevents totalitarianism.
 Some terror.
 Trains run on time, unemployment reduced, and economy running during Great Depression.
 Communism and Liberalism in check.
 Italy seems like a well oiled machine.
 Really just a paper tiger.
 WWII destroys Fascist Italy.
The Soviet Union to WWII
Soviet Government
 7 man Politburo as executive.
 (Lenin, Trotsky, Bukharin, Stalin).
 Central Committee of the Communist Party (Parliament).
 Communist Party – a new elite/exploiter class.
o Got better housing, positions, vacation, access to foodstuffs and consumer goods.
Bolsheviks lost popularity
 Civil War devastating.
 Famine, epidemics, war, terror.
 Russo-Polish War 1920.
 Kronstadt sailors and Petrograd workers revolted 1921 against housing shortages, short rations,
and Bolshevik privileges.
 Rebels shot and…
(NEP) New Economic Policy
 To overcome unrest among peasantry.
 To bring prosperity and peace in the cities.
 Forced requisitioning ended.
 Peasants could sell surplus.
 Commanding Heights: heavy industry, bands, RRs, remained nationalized.
 Foreign investment and rural wealth fuelled industry.
 It’s socialism with capitalism!
 It works, 1927 = 1913 coal, grain, oil.
Crisis of leadership
 1922 – 24 Lenin had strokes.
 Slowly incapacitated.
 Who would be Lenin’s successor?
 Trotsky (Red Army), Bukharin (NEP), Stalin (?).
 Lenin wanted Stalin removed from Politburo.
 Lenin died 1924. Politburo ruled together.
Trotsky vs. Stalin
 Economy:
o Trotsky: Collectivization to spur industrialization.
o Stalin and Bukharin: NEP and slower industrialization.
 Revolution:
o Trotsky: Export it.
o Stalin: Finish it at home first.
Stalin
 Georgian without European experience.
 Commissar of Nationalities 1920-23.
 Secretary General of Central Committee of the Communist Party 1922-53.
 Ruthless Machiavellian.
Wrangling for Power
 Stalin and Bukharin accused Trotsky of “leftist deviation” an had him expelled then exiled.
 Stalin used his position to promote allies.
 Bukharin was removed from Politburo in 1929.
 Stalin in charge.
Stalin Takes Power
 Stalin obsessed with control.
 1933 purged 1/3 of Communist Party.
 1934 Kirov assassination started…
The Great Purge
 Stalin’s opponents eliminated. (Real and imagined).
 Anyone capable of leadership killed.
 Bolsheviks from the revolution and army officers.
 Show trials with confessions.
 Initially believed in the West.
 Bourgeois wreckers and Trotskyites purged too.
 Millions tried, killed, millions exiled imprisoned.
 Weakens Russia. (Army officers).
Gulag System
 14 million went through between 1929-53.
 Prisoners “reeducated’ through forced labor in the worst of conditions.
 Millions died.
DBQ 1998
Order
 Unification
 Change of system
Economic Order
 Poor
 Economy Changing
Social Order
 Poor
 Class Conflict
Cult of Personality
 Stalin started Lenin cult.
o Leningrad.
o Remains in Kremlin mausoleum.
o Quotes…
 Stalin started his own cult
o Titles like “Brilliant Genius of Humanity”.
o Rewriting history, changing photos, Stalingrad.
o Focus of poetry, paintings, film, books.
o Deified.
First Five Year Plan 1929 – 32
 Capitalist nations faced the Great Depression.
 Stalin wanted modern economy – workers, steel, machines, heavy industry, electricity, and to
out produce capitalists.
 Rapid industrialization at rural expense.
 300 – 600% increase in industrial output.
Communism
 Like WWI centrally planned economy. (GOSPLAN)
 Prices, distribution, wages, production, etc…planned.
 Squeezed peasants for capital. (Trotsky’s idea!)
 Collectivization of land and livestock.
 Pooling of land and animals.
 Mechanization of farms (free tractors).
 How does this affect rural life?
Resistance to Collectivization
 Peasants slaughtered animals rather than pool them.
 Peasants reduced production (incentive?).
 Wealthier/disobedient peasants labeled “Kulaks” (fist).
 In response, Stalin ordered liquidation of Kulaks.
 Kulaks killed and deported by government and poor peasants between 1929 – 32.
 5 million died in famines – government caused.
 Rural life completely overturned.
Industrialization
 20 million migrated from 1926 – 1939.
 Soviet Union
o 1/6 urban 1926.
o 1/3 urban 1938.
 1928 4.6 million workers in industry, construction, and transport.
 1940 12.6 million.
 New industrial bureaucracy created.
 Managers and skilled workers profit.
 Unskilled workers and peasants had crummy lives.
Second Five Year Plan 1933-37
 More industrial growth.
 Fewer consumer goods.
 Hyper-industrialization 1928-38.
 Iron and steel increased x4, coal x 3.5.
 Third greatest industrial power.
 Statistics reliable? Falsification a tradition.
 Stakhanovite movement.
The Good
 Modern industrial economy.
 Free education (40% literacy pre-WWI).
 Hygiene and efficiency promoted.
 Affordable housing.
 Free medical care.
 Guaranteed employment with pensions.
 Communist leisure opportunities (film, art).
 Birth control, divorce, abortion, day care!
 Workers and peasants promoted.
The Bad
 Per capital produced less than anyone else.
 Housing primitive and in short supply.
 Conditions often worse than British industrialization.
 Consumer goods lacking.
 New elites/exploiters (party members, skilled workers, bureaucrats).
 Propaganda influenced masses. (Film, art, writing).
 No freedom (included religion).
 TERROR!!! Purges, gulags, executions, etc…
 Nationalism attacked.
International Relations
 Communist International (COMINTERN) created 1919.
 Joined League of Nations 1934.
 Supported Leftists during Spanish Civil War 1936-39.
 Nazi-Soviet Mutual Non-Aggression Pact August 1939 shocked the world.
o Secret clauses to divide Poland and East Europe.
Soviet Union
 Unprecedented totalitarianism.
 Unprecedented terror and death.
 Transformed Russia into modern industrial state.
 Appeared to be socialist paradise especially during Great Depression (Lots of duped westerners).
 Also appeared to be exactly what it was.
 Totalitarian state under evil dictatorship.
Interwar France and Britain – The Joyless Victors
France
 Best army in Europe.
 Security – weaken Germany.
 Enforce Treaty of Versailles.
 North-Eastern France damaged.
 Reparations needed.
 Economy up and down.
 Left-Right split.
Ruhr Occupation 1923
 When Germans fell behind in reparations payments… the French and Belgians occupied the
Ruhr Valley (industry) for two years.
 1923 Dawes Plan fixed this problem.
New Alliances 1925
 Threaten Germany with two fronts.
 Alliances with Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia).
 Alliance with Poland.
Spirit of Locarno
 Locarno Treaty 1925
o Germany guaranteed French and Belgian borders.
o British and Italians backed borders – promised intervention.
o Czech and Polish borders open to peaceful revision.
 Germany joined League of Nations (1926).
 Kellogg – Briand Pact 1928
o 65 nations renounced war as a means to solve disputes.
Maginot Line 1931-40
 Fortifications to protect Franco-German border.
 Cheaper than large offensive army?
 Seemingly stupid idea, or was it?
French Politics
 Lots of coalitions. (27 cabinets 1918-33).
 Left: Communists, Radical Socialists, Socialists.
 Right: Conservatives, Action Française, Croix de Feu.
 Internal war debt largely repudiated through inflation.
 Left wing joined forces in Popular Front with socialist Leon Blum new premier.
Popular Front New Deal 1936
 Armaments and aviation nationalized.
 40 hour week, paid vacations, collective bargaining.
 Bank of France put under government control.
 Huge jump in union membership (1 to 5 million).
 Agricultural price fixing and government purchase of wheat.
 Right wing cries socialism! and Popular Front broken.
Colonies
 France retained colonies in Africa and Asia.
 Given Lebanon-Syria and mandate as well.
Britain
 Still a great power, but slipping.
 Everyone pulled together to win war.
 “A land fit for heroes” not created.
 Quite a bit of welfare though.
o Unemployment insurance (1911).
o Pensions, medical aid, subsidized housing.
 Economy never really recovered – trade disrupted WWI through Great Depression.
 Labor unrest – General Strike 1926. 6 million strikers.
 General strikes made illegal.
British Politics
 Coalition governments. (Conservative + Liberal).
 First Labour government 1923!
 Liberals declining.
 Female suffrage 1918. (WWI).
 All party coalition “The National Government” formed to deal with the Great Depression 1931.
 Neither Communists nor British Fascist Party popular.
The Great Depression
 1 million to 3 million unemployed.
 Government tried to cut social spending!
 Exports couldn’t pay for imports.
 Britain went off the Gold Standard 1931.
 This set off worldwide abandonment and devaluation of currencies.
 Tariffs increased!
No Alliances
 Felt Germany had been treated unfairly.
 Afraid of Bolshevik threat.
 Locarno as willing as Britain got to promise support.
Ireland
 Home Rule of 1914 put off.
 Easter uprising 1916 crushed.
 Irish Parliamentarians (Sinn Fein) refused to go to London. Declared independence 1919.
 IRA vs. British Army and Black and Tans.
 South granted autonomy.
Colonies
 Maintained pre-War colonies.
 Started to consider home rule for India.
 Protectorates (mandates) over Middle East.
 Balfour Declaration 1917 – thanks for Jewish support. Homeland someday.
Joyless Victors
 Plodding along as usual white totalitarian states seemed energized.
 Left-Right divide in France.
 Capital vs. Labour in Britain.
 Outmaneuvered in 1930s by Nazi Germany.
Eastern European Successor States – From hopeful nationalism to dictatorship
National Self-determination created
 Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
 Hungary and Austria.
 And modified the borders of Greece, Romania, Albania, and Bulgaria.
Problems
 Irredentism everywhere.
 Disaffected Germans.
 Improvised democratic governments.
 Large landowners and impoverished peasants.
 Small middle classes and little industry.
 Behind Western Europe in every way.
 Tariffs increased to protect national industries.
Land Reforms Biggest Issue
 Some land reform, especially when taken from Germans.
 Inefficient agriculture with falling prices.
 Liberal farmers vs. conservative landlords.
French Alliances
 Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia).
 Poland.
 But…
Germans dominated trade
 Countries’ economies tied closely to Germany.
 Germany has a lot of industry and other countries have a lot of agricultural stuff.
Dictatorship
 Difficulties led to all but Czechoslovakia becoming dictatorships.
Poland
 Lots of ethnic groups with mutual dislike: Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, Germans, Lithuanians.
 Coup by Josef Pilsudski in 1926 led to authoritarian government.
Czechoslovakia
 Stronger economy with industry.
 Land reform led to smallholders.
 Czechs, Slovaks, Germans (Sudetenland), Ukrainians, Magyars, Jews.
 Democratic government under TJ Masaryk.
 Sudetenland Nazis a problem.
Hungary
 Dissatisfied, disgruntled, Magyars.
 1919 Bela Kun’s Hungarian Soviet Republic put down by Romanian troops.
 Admiral Miklós Horthy regent until 1944.
 Anti-Semitism under right wing government.
Yugoslavia
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
 Bosnian Muslims, Hungarians, Germans, and Jews.
 Serbo-Croatian conflict main problem.
 King Alexander established dictatorship in 1926 that outlived his assassination 1934.
Romania
 WWI loser, but winner at peace table.
 Royal dictatorship.
 Magyars, Germans, Jews, and Roma principle minorities.
Sad fates
 Czechs will be taken by Germans 1938-39.
 Poles will be taken by Germans and Soviets 1939.
 Lithuania. Estonia, Latvia taken by Stalin in 1939.
 Slovaks, Hungarians, Romanians, Finns, Bulgarians with ally with Axis powers. (Germans and
Italians).
 Yugoslavians will be conquered and occupied 1941.
The Weimar Republic – Germany 1919-1933
New German Government
 Super-moderate revolution.
 No invasion of Germany.
 SPD and Center Party had majority in the Reichstag.
 Reforms: democratic republic, female suffrage.
 Lots of parties: chancellor, president, bicameral legislature.
 Old elites remained.
 Pillars of Society.
 1926 by George Grosz.
Treaty of Versailles
 Most of Reichstag supported republic.
 Treaty undermined support for republic.
 War debt and reparations a problem.
 Germany had its own war costs.
 Trade and influence with new Eastern European states substantial.
 Everyone’s goal – revise Treaty.
 Some Left and Right radicals revolted 1919-23.
Spartacist Revolt 1919
 SPD split between socialists and communists.
 The Communists rose up in Berlin under Rosa Luxemburg and and Liebknecht.
 SPD led government asks army and Freikorps to crush the revolt!
 Luxemburg and Liebknecht murdered.
Freikorps (Free Corps)
 Much like Mussolini’s Squadristi.
 Ultra-conservative veterans who were defending against Bolshevism.
 Violence was their way of life.
Bavarian Soviet Republic 4/1919
 Communist took over Bavaria for a few weeks.
 Army and Freikorps destroyed Communists.
 Mostly more funny than scary.
 Bavaria not ripe for Bolshevism.
Kapp Putsch 3/1920
 Right wing coup of army officers and journalist trying to topple government.
 Army refused to fire upon Freikorps.
 Only failed because workers went on strike.
Beer Hall Putsch November 1923
 Right wing nationalist anti-Semites (Nazis) attempted to take over Munich government.
 Police fired into marching Nazis and arrested leaders.
 Hitler sentenced to prison.
Overcoming Treaty
 Treaty of Rapallo 1922 with Soviet Union
o Ended war and normalized relations.
o German manufactures for military advisors and an area where army could test banned
weapons.
 1923 Stresemann’s friendly policy towards Britain and France – hoping for American loans,
revision of treaty and revision of eastern borders.
Spirit of Locarno
 Treaty of Locarno 1925 Britain, France, Belgium, and Germany promised to never go to war
again. Britain and Italy guaranteed in Western Europe (France, Belgium, and Germany).
 1926: Germany joined League of Nations (Starting to secretly rearm).
 1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact 65 nations renounced war to solve problems.
Hyperinflation 1923
 The Germans fell behind in reparations payments.
 The French invaded Ruhr region.
 German government paid workers to strike.
 They printed money to pay them.
 4 RM-$ to 4 trillion RM-$.
 Ruined middle class.
 1924 ended by Dawes Plan – American loans.
Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans
 Reduced reparations payments.
 Young Plan set repayment at 58 years.
 Americans loaned money to Germans to pay Allies to pay back Americans.
Weimar Successes
 Loans from Americans overcome economic problems. (Dawes/Young).
 Economy doing relatively well.
 Trade with Eastern Europe booming.
 Social welfare gains.
 Unions strong and successful.
 Wages and productivity increasing.
 Great Depression coming. Uh-oh.
Great Depression
 Young Plan replaced Dawes Plan. Everything fine.
 Loans from US dry up due to Wall Street skyrocket and then crash.
 From 8.5% to 30% unemployment (6 million).
 Communist and Nazi vote increased.
 Dangerous situation for shaky Weimar Republic.
Presidential election 1932
 Paul von Hindenburg (Independence) 19.3 m 53.1%.
 Adolf Hitler (NSDAP) 13.4 m 36.7%.
 Ernst Thälmann (KPD) 3.7 m 10.1%.
Weimar Summary
 Revolution not that revolutionary.
 Treaty of Versailles and economic problems doomed it.
 Left and Right radicals tried to topple it.
 Man moved more left and right as situation worsened.
Creation of the Third Reich
Adolph Hitler
 Austrian loser and WWI veteran.
 Turned politician/speaker for NSDAP.
 Railed against Versailles, Democracy, Communism, Jews.
 Racist-Nationalist ideology from Austria-Hungary.
 State based on blood ties.
 “Aryans” were the master race.
1920s
 Beer Hall Putsch led to prison.
 Wrote Mein Kampf.
 Hitler’s goals:
o Undo Treaty of Versailles.
o Rearm/
o Expand borders eastward (Lebensraum).
o Solve Jewish problem.
 Nazis insignificant until Great Depression.
Great Depression
 Center and SPD coalition dissolved over how to react.
 President Hindenburg appointed chancellors to rule by emergency decree 1930.
 End to reparations didn’t help with decreased credit, trade, etc…
 German unemployment 2.2 m 1930 to 6 m 1932.
Coming to Power
 Nazis in the Reichstag 1928 – 12 seats, 1930 – 107 seats, 1932 – 230 seats!
 Shows support for Right and fear of Left.
 Unemployed swelled political armies.
 Brown Shirts (SA) vs. Communist (RFB).
 Fear of Left-Right civil war.
Chaos led to Nazi government
 Elites wanted to use Hitler and burden him with responsibility.
 President Hindenburg appointed him chancellor January 1933.
 Old elites underestimated Hitler and the Nazi Revolution.
Seizure of Power
 The Reichstag fire is the first step in Communist revolution!
 March 1933 Enabling Act passed without Communists enacted.
 All freedoms repealed, opponents jailed, concentration camps set up by Nazi Party.
 March 1933 election. Nazis 44%.
 Received support from all kinds of Germans.
Coordination of Society
 Labor unions to National Labor Front.
 Non-Nazi political parties outlawed.
 State government replaced by Gaus. (Nazi regions).
 All organizations Nazified.
 Boys enrolled in Hitler Youth.
 Girls enrolled in Organization of German Girls.
 Young people very important to Nazism
Consolidating Power
 1 million Brownshirts!
 Led by Ernst Roehm.
 Army (and Hitler) felt threatened.
 Night of the Long Knives decapitated SA leadership (June/July 1934).
 President Hindenburg died.
 Hitler became Pres-Chancellor – Führer.
Nazi Ideology
 Revolutionary romanticism.
 Anti-Semitism and Anti-Bolshevism pillars.
 Führer cult.
 Germans should be strong and obedient.
 Women KKK.
 Christianity tolerated. Nazism better.
Twisted Darwinism
 Racial science – twisted Darwinism divided people into racial types and classes.
 Forced sterilization started in 1934 300-400 thousand people. (Eugenics).
 “Lives not worth living” ended starting in October 1939.
 T3 program gassed, starved, injected 100,000 people.
 Anti-Semitism also pillar of Nazism.
 Plan for Lebensraum in Eastern Europe.
Police State
 1933 30-40,000 SA and SS men made auxiliary police.
 SS went from elite bodyguard to state within the state.
 Would eventually have army units and control concentration camps.
 Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945).
 GeStaPo (Secret State Police) above the law.
Increasing Anti-Semitism
 1933 Jews excluded from civil service.
 1933 Boycott of Jewish businesses.
 1933 Jews can’t own land or be newspaper editors.
 1934 Jews not allowed health insurance.
 1935 Jews banned from military.
 1935 Nuremberg Laws passed.
Nuremburg Laws
 Jews not citizens – now subjects.
 No marriage or sex between Aryans and Jews.
 No female domestics under 45 years.
 Jews couldn’t fly Nazi flag.
 Who is a Jew?
Increasing Anti-Semitism
 1936 respite during Olympic Games.
 1937 Jewish businesses Aryanized.
 Jewish doctors couldn’t treat Aryans, Jewish lawyers couldn’t practice law.
 1938 Ditto Jewish teachers, accountants, dentists.
 Israel and Sarah added to Jewish legal names.
 J stamped in passports.
 Night of Broke Glass November 9-10, 1938.
Kristallnacht
 Minor diplomat in Paris assassinated by a Jew.
 November 1938 “Spontaneous” destruction of Jewish property and abuse of Jews.
 30,000 Jewish men arrested and sent to concentration camps until ransomed.
 1 billion marks insurance money went to state as fine.
Increasing Anti-Semitism
 1938 Jewish students expelled from schools.
 All businesses are aryanized.
 1939 Jews forced into Jewish houses.
 Jewish curfew, radios forbidden, yellow stars.
 1940 German Jewish deportations started.
 Majority of the 560,000 German Jews had already fled.
Nazi Economic Policy
 Amazing recovery from Great Depression.
 Massive public works projects and military spending.
 Unemployment solved.
 1936 Four Year Plan to prepare for war.
 Capitalism assisted by state control.
 War (plunder and taxation) necessary to maintain army.
National SOCIALISM
 Policies to promote children.
 Payments and Mother’s Crosses for children.
 Loans to families.
 KdF (Strength through Joy) provided low cost opportunities for entertainment.
 “Volkswagen” not realized until after WWII.
Propaganda
 Joseph Goebbels minister of propaganda.
 Art, theater, music, film, radio, books, the press transmit propaganda.
 Reinforce Nazi ideology and war support.
Third Reich
 Amazing recovery from problems.
 End to Left-Right struggle.
 Terror and Anti-Semitism.
 Everything accomplished for war and Hitler’s ideology.
 Thousand year Aryan Reich is goal.
 Totalitarianism accomplished.
Events Leading to WWII – Hitler’s War
Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
 Monarchy overthrown 1931.
 Democratic republic in country with serious Left-Right split.
 Leftist government attacked rightist power – church, landowners.
 Rightist government unpopular.
 1936 elections won by Leftist Popular Front coalition. (Republican, Socialist, Organized Anarchist,
Communist).
Civil War July 1936
 General Francisco Franco led Rightist coalition of old regime supporters and Spanish fascists –
Falangists.
 Invaded Spain with troops from Morocco.
 Nationalists vs. Republicans.
 Horrible atrocities.
International Response
 Britain, France, US stayed out.
 French and British arms embargo.
 Germany and Italy supported nationalists.
 Soviet Union supported communists.
 Thousands of leftists fought in Spain.
 Dress rehearsal for WWII.
 Equipment and tactics tested. Guernica.
Spain
 Nationalists won 1939.
 Dictatorship under Franco until the 1970s.
Hitler’s War
 Revision (Destruction) of Treaty of Versailles.
 Rearmament.
 Bringing ethnic Germans home to the Reich.
 Goal: Lebensraum.
1933
 Pulled Germany out of the League of Nations.
 Nazis busy coordinating German society.
1934
 Supported Nazi Putsch against Austria.
o Mussolini threatens war!
o Hitler backed down.
1935
 Plebiscite in the Saar returned it to Germany.
 Repudiated Treaty of Versailles disarmament clauses.
o Weimar had violated them first.
1936
 Reoccupied the Rhineland.
 Violated Versailles and Locarno treaties.
 German generals feared French invasion.
 Hitler was right and gutsy.
 French didn’t get British support to keep Germans from occupying Germany.
 Rome-Berlin Axis signed.
1938 Gathering the Germans
 Nazis forced German-Austrian Anschluss in March of 1938. 6m Austrians cheer.
 Nazis start trouble over Sudentenland Germans. 3m Germans.
 Czechoslovakia – Strong, democratic, French ally.
 Was Hitler bluffing?
Munich Crisis: Appeasement
 War coming? September 1938.
 British PM Neville Chamberlain secured “peace in our time” at Munich Conference.
 Czechs and Soviets not consulted.
 War to prevent national self-determination?
 Germans Joining Germany.
End of Czechoslovakia 1939
 Slovakia wanted a break-up. Other nations made demands on Czechs for territory.
 Germans invaded Bohemia and Moravia to “protect Slovakia”.
 Slovakia became puppet state.
Hitler!!!!!
 German generals impressed.
 French and British outraged. Never again!
 British and French signed treaties with Poland, Romania, and Greece.
 Couldn’t sign one with Stalin
 Soviets signed Nazi-Soviet Pact 8/1939.
Demands made on Poland
 Same old story.
 Germans belong in Germany.
 Hitler demands the Polish Corridor.
 Will the Allies help the Poles?
 Hitler doubts it, but is willing to risk it.
Mein Kampf
 Hitler planned this war from the 1920s.
 Step by step towards goal.
 Opportunities and situations changed pace.
 All part of his Lebensraum plans.
 Thousand Year Reich.
World War II
Blitzkrieg and Sitzkrieg
 Germans defeated Poles using lightning tactics – air and armor to smash opposition.
 France and Britain declared war but did nothing. (Phony War).
 The Soviet Union invaded Poland and took a third as well as the Baltic States.
 Both Germans and Soviets destroyed Polish leadership class. Einsatzgruppen + NKVD.
Blitzkrieg April-June 1940
 Germans invaded Denmark and Norway.
 Germans invaded BeNeLux(Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) countries.
 Germans smashed through French and British armies with tanks and planes.
 Italy invaded France June 1940.
 French surrendered June 1940.
 300,000 British and French troops evacuated at Dunkirk.
France
 Why did the French collapse? Left vs. Right?
 Blitzkrieg?
 3/5 France occupied by Germans.
 2/5 Vichy France (collaborators) under Hero of Verdun Petain.
 French government in exile under Charles de Gaulle (Free French).
Battle of Britain 1940
 Feisty Winston Churchill became Prime Minister in May 1940.
 Churchill inspired Britain. “We will fight…”
 Britain did not make peace with Germans.
 Air campaign before invasion. (B of B).
 British able to defeat Germans in the air.
Mussolini’s Blunders
 Mussolini invaded Greece without warning Germans, and then started to lose.
 German’s rescued them by invading Greece and Yugoslavia.
 Yugoslavia remained nasty battleground.
 Italian invasion of Egypt crushed.
 Germans rescued them in North Africa too.
Operation Barbarossa 6/1941 Nazism was Anti-Bolshevism
 Germans invaded Soviet Union.
 Early success – Blitzkrieg with 3m soldiers vs. Stalin’s purges and personal depression.
 Reached Gates of Moscow.
 2.5 m Russian casualties…
 Unprepared Germans met General Winter + scorched earth policy. (Déjà vu?)
Eastern Front 1942
 1942 renewed advances towards industrial towns and oil fields (SE).
 6
th
Army cut off in Stalingrad – told to stay and fight. Supply impossible – surrender.
 Increasing Russian troops and equipment overwhelmed German army and pushed them back.
 It helped that Japan attacked USA and not Soviets.
Great Patriotic War
 Russians gave all to defeat invaders.
 Germans helped Stalin through atrocities, racial beliefs, and Lebensraum plan.
 20 million (10% of population) lost!
 Stalingrad and Kursk major battles.
 Enduring fear of invasion.
 Belief in Stalin as the great hero!
United States
 United States attacked by Japanese.
 Germans declared war on country already an “arsenal of democracy”.
 US needed time to prepare industry, equipment, and soldiers.
 Concentrate on Europe first.
 Soviets wanted second front ASAP.
1942-43
 US and Britain invaded North Africa, Sicily, and Italy.
 Mussolini overthrown – Italy surrendered 9/43.
 Germans continue to fight in Italy.
 Mussolini rescued and made head of North Italian Socialist Republic.
1944
 As Russians advanced Westward…
 US and Britain invaded France “D-Day”.
 Liberated France and pushed Germans back to border.
 Battle of the Bulge – Unsuccessful German counter attack. 12/44.
 Rhine bridged, the end of the war near.
Strategic Wars
 Germans attempted to starve the British with submarines.
 Technology and convoys defeated them.
 “The Blitz” German terror air campaign vs. Britain.
 US and Britain attempted to destroy German industry and morale through strategic bombing.
 One third of German buildings destroyed.
 Production not seriously affected!
1945
 Germans in Eastern Europe fled before the Soviet army – revenge!
 German preferred to surrender to/occupation by American and British troops.
 Soviets battle for Berlin.
 Hitler committed suicide, April 30.
 German unconditional surrender May 8.
Summary
 20+ million military deaths?
 20+ million civilian deaths?
 Europe devastated.
 Right wing dictatorships discredited.
 Racism discredited.
 German irredentism and balance of power problems solved.
 Hour zero – chance to start over.
 Two superpowers.
 Technology advanced quickly.
2006 AP European History FRQ
How did Europeans perceive the role of organized sports in Europe during the Period from 1860 to 1940?
 Thesis: The role of organized sports was to increase nationalism, represent war, and improve
mental and physical health.
 Group 1: Increase Nationalism. Documents 1, 4, 7, 9.
 Group 2: Represent war in an international competition without actual war. Documents 5, 11.
 Group 3: Improve mental and physical health. Documents 3, 8, 12.
 POV: Documents 1(Said by a member of the Czech National Gymnastics Organization. Czech
citizen, so he would want to raise the status of the Czechs to what they once were), 11(Said by a
sports association member), 8(Said by a health minister, so reliable. Credible source).
WWII and the Domestic Front – Germany, France, Britain, Soviet Union, Italy
Germany
 Success increased Nazi support.
 Conquered Europe exploited by Germans.
 Hitler careful to keep home front happy.
 Rationing and total war production 1942.
 Women especially praised, but position difficult.
 Labor shortage solved by slave labor.
Slave Labor
 12 million in total (25% of labor force 1944).
 Worked in industry, farming, repairing war damage.
 Concentration camp inmates, prisoners of war, and Eastern Europeans (Lebensraum).
 Little or no pay and poor living conditions.
 Hierarchy of workers, pay, living conditions, etc…
Germany
 Goebbels propaganda: radio, film, newsreels, papers.
 Major air bombing May 1943 – Stiffened support.
 Children sent to safer areas.
 Nazis had complete control of country.
 Opponents sent to concentration camps.
 July 1944 attempted assassination of Adolf Hitler.
 Fear of Soviets kept army fighting and civilians fleeing when they could.
Holocaust/Genocide
 People euthanized and sterilized in late 1930s.
 Polish leadership class liquidated by Nazis and Soviets.
 Jews crowded into ghettos starting in 1939.
 Mortality in ghettos high from hunger and disease.
 Hundreds of thousands killed (shot) by special police units in Eastern Europe 1939-42.
 Lots of assistance from local populations in finding denouncing, and rounding up Jews.
 Majority of Soviet Prisoners Of War died during the War.
Wannsee Conference 1942
 Planned “Final Solution to the Jewish Problem”.
 All part of Hitler’s plan but also practical solution.
 Ghettos emptied into death camps by train.
 Prisoners chosen for death by Zyklon B gas of work.
 Bodies cremated after bodies plundered.
 Technology and totalitarianism made scale of genocide possible. (Trains, gas, bureaucracy).
Air War Crimes
 Blitzkrieg included attacks on civilians.
 The Blitz over Britain destroyed a million homes. 43k.
 Break the will of the enemy? Opposite effect.
 People spend time in shelters.
 Children sent to safer areas.
 Anglo-American bombing started 1943.
 1/3 of German buildings destroyed.
 Fire bombings of Dresden and Hamburg.
 Germans continue with V1 and V2 weapons.
Atrocities and War Crimes
 Germans battle partisans and execute lots of civilians.
 Croats killed 350,000+ Serbs, Roma, Jews.
 Lots of local collaboration with Germans.
 Soviet advance into Germany also nasty. 2m Germans died.
 Rape of civilians popular. Soviet soldiers encouraged.
 10-12 million Germans fled-forced from Eastern Europe by 1946.
France
 France split to protect coasts and keep fleet out of British hands. 3/5 occupied and 2/5
autonomous.
 Marshall Petain and conservatives collaborated with the Nazis through Vichy government.
 Right wing blamed left for defeat in WWII.
 Anti-Semitism (Nuremberg Laws) followed by mass deportations.
 All France had to work for German war effort.
 Resistance movement increased after D-Day.
 Collaborators persecuted and humiliated.
 Charles de Gaulle, leader of Free French, great hero of WWII.
Britain
 Government involved in people’s lives like WWI.
 Poorest benefited, social differences lessen.
 Rationing, gardens, scrap collections.
 Survived with US help (billions $ lend Lease Act) until US joined war.
 Submarine threat overcome with technology and convoys.
 Britain “invaded” by Yanks.
Soviet Union
 Nazi liberation (from Stalin) turned to oppression.
 Massive destruction and loss of life. (20 million!)
 Great Patriotic War with Stalin as the great hero.
 Already totalitarian dictatorship with planned economy.
 Soviets conquered Eastern Europe. WOW!
Italy
 Poor showing in war led to declining popularity of Mussolini.
 After Sicily invaded, Mussolini overthrown.
 Italians surrendered September 1943.
 Germans continued fighting in Italy.
 Mussolini made head of Italian Social Republic.
 Mussolini captured and killed April 1945.
Effects
 War affects every state whether occupied or not.
 War against civilians unprecedented. (20+ million killed).
 Occupied states experience totalitarianism and genocide.
 Once again propaganda, mobilization, rationing, all part of civilian life.
Alliance and Agreements – Western capitalist democracies vs The totalitarian communist Soviet Union
Atlantic Charter August 1941 Wilsonian Peace
 Roosevelt and Churchill met (as did military leaders) on secure ships off Newfoundland.
o No territorial gains.
o Territorial adjustments must be in accord with the wishes of the peoples concerned.
o All peoples had a right to self determination.
o Trade barriers were to be lowered.
o There was to be global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare.
o Freedom from want and fear.
o Freedom of the seas.
o Disarmament of aggressor nations, postwar common disarmament.
Tehran Conference 1943
 “Big Three” met.
 Britain and U.S. agreed to western front in 1944.
 Tried to encourage Turkey to join the war.
 Iran would be helped by all three.
 Soviets to attack Japan after German defeat.
 German and polish borders discussed.
Anglo-Soviet dealings October 1944
 Churchill and Stalin met in Moscow.
 Spheres of influence?
 Britain and Soviet Union to share Balkans.
 Soviets influence in Romania and Bulgaria.
 Britain influence in Greece.
 Equal influence in Hungary and Yugoslavia.
Disagreements
 Stalin wanted reparations and forced labor.
 Stalin also wanted friendly Eastern European governments.
 Roosevelt and Churchill wanted democracy, self-determination and capitalism in Eastern Europe.
 Roosevelt suspected British and Soviet plans for spheres of influence.
 Stalin wanted to shoot 50-100k German officers.
Yalta, February 1945
 Stalin had military advantage.
 Soviets to get Asian land for attacking Japan.
 Roosevelt pushed for a United Nations (League of Nations).
 Soviet demanded $10 billion in reparations or half of whatever was eventually set.
 Stalin agreed to free elections and self-determination in Eastern Europe.
 Russian-Polish borders moved West.
 Germany would be disarmed, de-Nazified, and divided into zones of occupation.
What didn’t happen
 Bismarck’s unification not undone.
 Morgenthau Plan – Turn Germany into divided agricultural state.
Postdam, July 1945
 Big Three now Stalin, Truman, and Atlee.
 Each could take reparations from own zone. Soviets supposed to get $10 billion more from
Western zones.
 Soviet and polish borders pushed even farther west.
 Orderly and humane transfer of Germans (not).
War Crimes (Nuremberg) Trials
 Nazi top leaders, doctors, judges, etc… tried.
 Victor’s Justice?
 A number sentenced to death, imprisonment, many sentences commuted in the 1950s.
o 1. Conspiracy for crimes against peace.
o 2. Planning/waging war of aggression.
o 3. War crimes.
o 4. Crimes against humanity.
Peace?
 Treaties signed and reparations paid by Axis countries.
 No final peace treaty with Germany.
 Finland and Austria neutral.
 Other countries divided between capitalist and communist worlds.
United Nations
 To insure peace and security.
 Permanent members of the Security Council: Soviets, US, Britain, France, and China had veto.
 All countries represented in General Assembly.
 Cold War fought in Security Council.
Cold War and Eastern Europe – US and Allies vs. Soviet Union and Clients
Two Superpowers –
 Capitalist democracy vs. Communist dictatorship.
 US superiority: 400% greater GNP, no damage from war, atomic bombs.
 Soviet advantage – larger military, Eastern Europe.
Marshall Plan 1947-51
 Economic aid ($12b) to rebuild Europe.
 America needed markets and feared lure of communism (France/Italy).
 Ensures capitalism.
 Conditions:
o Break down trade barriers.
o Align economic policies with others.
Soviet Desires
 Soviets wanted buffer from capitalists and control of former enemies.
 Would not allow free elections after all.
 Soviets don’t allow participation in Marshall Plan.
Containment
 Greek Civil War 1944-49 – Nationalists vs. Communists. Britain broke – couldn’t help.
 Truman Doctrine: 1947 aid for Greece and Turkey to halt Communism.
 Containment of Communism became official US policy.
Nuclear Weapons – prevent war?
 American monopoly 1945-49.
 Soviets got atomic bomb 1949.
 US hydrogen bomb 1952 – Soviet 1953.
 Very dangerous situation kept in check with Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).
 Arms race nonetheless.
 Nuclear Club: France, Britain, China, India…
 Bombers, rockets (ICBMs – InterContinental Ballistic Missiles), sub launched rockets, cruise
missiles.
What to do with Germany?
 Question divided US and Soviets further.
 U.S. wanted German recovery and democratization.
 Welfare Germany?
 Soviets wanted reparations and control.
1948
 Three Western zones got new currency.
 Step towards creating stable West Germany.
 Angry Soviets blockaded Berlin.
 War averted with amazing Berlin Airlift.
 2.5 m people supplied 9 months from air.
Two Germanies
 Federal Republic of Germany (West) with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.
 German Democratic Republic (East) Walter Ulbricht.
 It just happened.
Alliances and Pacts
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949 US and Western Europe. An attack on one is an
attack on all.
 Comecon – 1949 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance – like Marshall Plan and European
Economic Community but made Eastern European economies dependant on Soviet Union.
 Warsaw Pact 1955 Soviets with Eastern Europe – also kept members in pact.
West German Rearmament
 American pressure to rearm Germany during Korean War 1950.
 Opposed by France and many Germans.
 Germans admitted into NATO 1954 and rearmed 1955.
World Cold War
 Can’t fight with nukes so…
 Chinese Civil War, Korea, Vietnam, Middle East, Africa, Central America.
 Much of conflict and decolonization.
Détente
 1970s easing of tensions.
 Too much money spent on arms race.
 Vietnam.
 Sino-Soviet relations sour.
 SALT reduces nuclear forces.
Summary
 Europe divided into two hostile camps.
 War meant possible end of humankind.
 Very different post-war Europe.
 Control from two superpowers.
 European countries not leading the world.
Decolonization – Giving Up Empire
WWII killed Empire
 European countries couldn’t afford empires.
 Nazis discredited racism.
 War for democracy while countries enslaved.
 Nationalist movements based on European ideas.
India 1947
 Indian National Congress with Gandhi and Nehru pressed for independence.
 India supported British in WWII for promises of independence.
 Horrible violence – civil war, migration.
 India divided into Hindu and Muslim states.
 India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Britain gives up
 Wanted to maintain links and create democracy.
 Development programs cost money.
 Britons don’t want to pay for colonies.
 Violent independence movements hastened withdrawal.
Indonesia 1949
 Japanese ousted Dutch during WWII.
 Indonesians fought for independence when Dutch returned.
 Gained it.
IndoChina
 Ho Chi Minh’s nationalists/communists demanded independence after WWII.
 French fought 1946-1954.
 They didn’t want to give up their empire.
 Dien Bien Phu led to French giving up.
 Vietnam divided between North and South.
 US took over fight until the 1970s.
 Cold War proxy fight.
Algeria
 Algeria revolted in 1954.
 1 million Frenchmen and 9 million Algerians.
 French had all the land and power.
 French-Algerian War 1954-1961:
o Hundreds of thousands killed.
o Atrocities committed.
o De Gaulle let Algeria go.
o Europeans (pied noirs) and Muslim soldiers (harkis) fled at the end of the war.
Africa
 Late 1950s and 1960s European countries gave independence to Africans.
 Some African states became a battleground between SU and US during Cold War.
Middle East
 Britain gave nations independence.
 Israel created 1948.
 Arab-Israeli Wars 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973.
 US supports Israel, Soviets support Arabs.
 1956 Egypt nationalized Suez Canal.
 Britain, France took canal – then had to give it up due to US/Soviet pressure. Ouch!
Legacy
 Countries still culturally and economically tied to former masters.
 Suppliers of raw materials.
 Indebted to industrial nations.
 Independence without democracy.
 Lots of ethnic strife and dictatorship.
 Poverty and natural disasters.
Europe
 Decolonization proves Europe no longer master of the world.
 Colonization ideologically unsustainable.
 European countries accepted former colonials into their societies. (Immigration).
 Lots of problems with integration and unemployment.
Eastern Europe 1945-1980s – Marxism? Stalinism?
Eastern Europe between 1945-53
 Electrons fraudulent.
 Stalinization:
 Five year plans.
 Industrialization.
 Collectivization.
 One party dictatorship, repression.
 Dissatisfaction with Stalinism.
 Czechoslovakia coup 1948 ended multiparty system.
Revolts in Eastern Europe
 Desire for more freedom and better standard of living.
 1953 East Germany.
 1956 Poland.
 1956 Hungary.
 1968 Czechoslovakia.
East Germany
 1953 General strike in Berlin over workplace conditions and increased goals without increased
pay.
 Quickly put down with Russian troops.
 3.5 million East Germans left for West. (Capitalism and Freedom).
 1961 Berlin Wall built – Anti-Fascist Protection Wall.
Poland and Hungary 1956
 1956 Poland’s Gomulka attempted liberalization, decollectivization, better relations with
Catholic Church. Stayed with Warsaw Pact and Soviet control.
 That encouraged Hungarians.
 Hungary – Liberal communist Nagy attempted liberalization but also democratization and
withdrawal from Warsaw Pact.
 Russians sent in tanks followed by brutal repression.
Czechoslovakia 1968 Prague Spring
 A. Dubeck tried “socialism with a human face”.
 Liberal reforms – less police repression, more freedom of the press, non-Communist political
groups legalized.
 USSR and Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia.
 Brezhnev Doctrine legalized intervention.
Yugoslavia
 Not “liberated” by the Soviet Union.
 Partisan leader and Communist Tito.
 Nationalist/Communist movement.
 Broke with Stalin and Cominform 1948.
 Ethnic and religious divisions squashed.
 Fairly successful existence between East and West.
Soviet Empire
 Some progress in society and economy.
o Workers and farmers advanced in society.
o Women given “equal” right.
o Industrial development promoted.
 Still behind Western Europe.
o No freedoms (speech, belief, travel).
o Lower standard of living.
 Don’t want to be a part of Soviet sphere.
 Desire for freedom and better standard of living.
Soviet Union after WWII
 Rebuilding after WWII. Reparations and slave labor.
 Soviet post-war (Stalinist) economy boomed with heavy industry.
 Consumer items were neglected.
 Population was also booming:
 1939 170 million.
 1967 234 million!
Soviet Welfare State
 Almost free housing, health care, higher education, public transportation, culture, and
entertainment.
 Poverty eliminated.
 Increased prosperity in the 60s meant lives better than ever, but…
 Shoddy goods, little choice, and long lines led to dissatisfaction.
 Religion and dissent discouraged.
 No travel possible.
Khrushchev’s reign 1953-1964
 De-Stalinization 1956.
 Criticism of personality cult.
 Reduction of Gulag system.
 Crushing of Hungary 1956.
 Sputnik 1957 and Yuri Gagarin 1961.
 Cuban Missile Crisis 10-11 1962.
Brezhnev’s Reign 1966-82
 Government rigidity, stagnation, and repression all led to more dissatisfaction and quiet protest.
 Dissidents existed and were repressed.
 (Andrei Sakharov – created sodium hydrogen bomb, sent to mental hospital after becoming a
dissident/Alexander Solzhenitsyn – sent to Gulags after insulting Stalin, eventually kicked out of
SU and ended up in Vermont).
 Samizdat – self-published critical manuscripts important means of critique.
 Détente: decrease in Cold War tension. Salt I 1972.
Détente Ended
 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
 1980 Moscow Olympics boycott.
 1981 USA rearming, saver rattling, “Evil Empire”.
 Mini arms race in Europe SS-20s vs. Pershing II missiles, SDI-Star Wars.
Growing Dissatisfaction
 Growing disparity between capitalist and communist worlds.
 Slower economic growth.
o 1950s 6%
o 1980s 1.5%
 How could the Soviet Union keep up with the West economically and militarily?
Communist Bloc
 Officially Marxist, unofficially socialist dictatorships.
 Cradle to the grave welfare states.
 No (bourgeois) freedoms.
 Unable to match capitalist economies.
 Worthy adversaries for West.
Western Europe After WWII – Reconstruction, Reconciliation, Welfare States, Multi-Cultural Societies,
Protest, Economic Slowdown – Unification, Terrorism
Destruction and rebirth
 Needed to rebuild war damage.
 Hard work plus American Marshall Plan work.
 1948-52 $12 billion in new equipment and raw materials from the United States.
 American aid to create European stability and markets for American goods.
 1950 output 30% above pre-war levels.
 Rapid increase in standard of living and consumerism.
Social Welfare States
 To avoid social conflicts that led to totalitarianism.
 Generous employee protection, unemployment insurance, vacation, pay, health insurance,
payments for children, etc…
 Paid for high taxes – lessens gap between classes.
 Higher education generally free (ditto).
 Housing a problem. New buildings constructed.
 More wealthy/northern states – more intervention.
Baby booms and busts
 Baby boom occurred after war. (welfare).
 Countries interested in promoting birth and health families (Pro-Natalism) to replace war deaths.
 Baby bust after 1980.
 Consumerism?
 All major European countries under 2.1 births per woman.
 Only immigration will sustain population.
Immigration to Germany
 10 Million Germans forced from Eastern Europe.
 Ethnic Germans supposed casus belli of WWII.
 Turks and southern Europeans starting 1960s.
Immigration after Decolonization
 Decolonization, economic opportunity, and social welfare states led to immigration to Europe.
o One million Algerians to France. (Franco-Algerian War).
o One million North Africans to France.
o 300K Indonesians to Netherlands.
o Hundreds of thousands Indians, Pakistanis, West Indians, and Africans to Britain.
Immigrant workers needed
 Rebuilding economies short on labor.
 German unemployment 1950 8% 1965 0.4%!
 Guest workers invited to fill in.
 Turks and Southern Europeans to Germany.
 Previously mentioned immigrants to others.
 Workers bring families to stay.
Multi-Cultural Societies Created
 Up to about 10% of population non-Caucasian and non-Christian.
 Difficulties with integration as immigrants continue to live at bottom of society.
 Immigrant children trapped between cultures.
Security
 States join NATO.
 United States, Britain, and France all have nuclear arsenals. (ICBM, Air, Sub).
 Medium range nuclear weapons throughout NATO countries – controversial 1980s.
 US, British, and French soldiers continue occupation of Germany.
Politics
 Multi-party democracies in parliamentary systems – friendly left-right rivalry.
 Communist parties in France and Italy lost popularity with intensifying Cold War.
 Nationalist/Anti-Immigrant parties resulted from immigration. (minority).
Western European Countries
 West Germany
 France
 Britain
 Italy
West Germany
 A huge success. Democracy in Germany!
 Cooperated with US reconciled with France and linked to East.
 Compensation for Holocaust to victims and Israel.
 Cold War/Korea led to rearming West Germany and admitted into NATO 1955!
Reconciliation
 Chancellor Adenauer friendly towards France.
o Economic unions.
 Chancellor Brandt (SPD!) tried Ostpolitik 1970s.
o Engaging GDR through recognition, recognizing borders, loans, and trade.
o Brandy government fell due to secretary being East German spy.
 Chancellor Kohl continued reconciliation.
o Pays off in later reunification.
German Economic Miracle
 Hard work and Marshall Plan rebuilt Germany.
 German migrants helped rebuilt.
 1955 GNP exceeded pre-war with only 50% land and 75% population.
 Management and Labor work together to avoid social conflict.
 Unemployment 1950 8% 1965 0.4%!
 Invited hundreds of thousands of guest workers. They and families stayed.
Britain
 Massive economic problems – some rationing until 1954.
 Shortage of housing and consumer goods.
 Churchill defeated by Labour’s Atlee.
 Labour promised welfare state. (Cradle to the grave).
 Nationalized – B of E, coal, steel transportation, and utilities.
 National Insurance Act and National Health Service Act 1946 provided SS and national medical
care.
Britain’s Difficulties
 Welfare State costly.
 Economic recovery slower because of lost pre-war trade and empire.
 Dismantled empire (too expensive) and reduced military spending.
 Union wage demands outstripped productivity and expensive labor force with lots of strikes.
 1970s economic crisis.
Thatcher’s Britain 1980s
 “Iron Lady” prime minister.
 Reduced government intervention, taxes, union power, promoted free markets and
privatization.
 Increased Cold War rhetoric.
 Fought successful war with Argentina over Falkland Islands 1982 (and saved her career).
France’s Fifth Republic
 Reluctant to give up empire.
 Algeria led to 1958 much stronger presidency under de Gaulle.
 President chose prime minister, could dissolve parliament, led defense and foreign policy.
France’s Napoleon Complex
 Didn’t like Anglo-Saxon powers dominating Europe.
 De Gaulle pulled French forces out of US dominated NATO 1966.
 Joined the nuclear club 1960 and had French arsenal.
 Twice vetoed British joining Common Market.
Western European Developments post 1960
 Youth Revolution.
 Protest.
 Economic slowdown + the Welfare State.
 Terrorism.
Protest in the late 1960s
 Post WWII huge numbers of university students.
 Complained of conservative and overcrowded universities.
 Prosperity led to rejection of materialism and conservative society.
 Anti-Vietnam War movement.
 Students and counter-culture and hippies.
 Fear of dead end life “metro, boulot, dodo”.
 Sought freedom through sex, drugs, and rock and roll.
Youth Culture
 Long hair, communal living, repudiation of personal hygiene, rejection of parents’ sexual
morality (the pill).
France May 1968
 French workers joined students in general strike.
 10 million on strike.
 Mini-revolution broken by De Gaulle with promised elections and wage increases.
 Split between workers and students.
 Educational reforms introduced.
 More liberal society afterwards?
Protest in the 1980s
 Green parties react to environmental problems including nuclear power.
 Nuclear weapons and revived Cold War rhetoric (Reagan) another focus of protest.
Economic slowdown
 1973 energy crisis due to increasing oil price.
 Lowered growth rates.
 Higher unemployment.
 Welfare state and generous work rules expensive.
 Economic unity as measure to compete. (EU)
 Attempts to reduce welfare state controversial.
Terrorism – Nationalists/communists
 Spain – ETA Basque Separatists.
 Britain – IRA Irish Republican Army.
 West Germany – RAF Red Army Fraction.
 Italy – Red Brigades.
 Committed acts of terror – assassinations, bombing, kidnappings, hijackings, etc…
 States react with counter-violence.
Western Europe After WWII
 Incredible recovery.
 New start in domestic (social welfare) and international relations (reconciliation) overcoming
the past.
 Better lives for most, but protest and terror continue.
 Economic issues to be resolved.
Eastern Europe and the End of the Cold War – Peaceful revolutions in Eastern Europe
Process
 Economy declines – international debts.
 People wanted better standard of living and more freedom.
 Gorbachev encourages/allows reform.
o Glasnost and Perestroika.
 Communist leaders try to share power.
 Removed through popular will of people.
Poland
 Always a bit more liberal.
 Gomulka 1956, less collectivization.
 Poles no fans of Russians.
 Very Catholic.
 1978 Karol Wojtyla elected pope.
 John Paul II – pressed for freedom in 1979 tour.
Solidarity Trade Union
 8/80 Strikes in Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk.
 Wanted free trade unions, right to strike, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners,
economic reforms.
 Led by electrician Lech Walesa.
 Government signed Gdansk Agreement.
 Catholic Church supported Solidarity.
Soviet Intervention?
 Solidarity didn’t demand too much.
 Fear of Brezhnev Doctrine.
 Opposition increased economic crisis 12/81.
 General Jaruzelski “saved” Poland through martial law – people arrested.
 Solidarity went underground.
Power Sharing?
 Worsening economy and Gorbachev’s example encouraged Solidarity and government to
negotiate.
 Power sharing seen as a way out of economic morass and political stalemate.
Elections!
 1989 Solidarity legalized.
 Controlled elections (Communist majority).
 General Jaruzelsky president for 4 years.
 Solidarity won a huge victory.
 Communists crossed out on ballots.
Communism Dismantled
 Step by step Communism dismantled.
 Secret police eliminated, price controls abolished, state planning scrapped, private property an
free market encouraged.
 Severe unemployment and discontent followed.
Hungary
 1968-1988 Janos Kadar led government.
 Goulash Communism – Liberal planned economy in return for political obedience.
 Economy sagged.
Communism Dismantled
 5/88 Kadar replaced with reform Communist – Party agreed to free elections early 1990 and
pandered to votes by opening Iron Curtain.
 Confident Communists got 8.5% of vote (4
th
) while East German tourists fled…
East Germany
 GDR – Ulbricht replaced by Honecker 1971 who also ruled with Iron Fist.
 Stasi – Secret police. Big Brother.
 Best economy in East and generous social welfare.
 BUT economic problems persisted and West German example attractive.
The End of East Germany
 40
th
Anniversary celebration ruined when Gorbachev warned Honecker.
 Honecker replaced by reformist communists.
The Wall Comes Tumbling Down
 Confusion led to minister announcing Berlin Wall could be opened.
 November 9, 1989 East Germans streamed through wall to West.
Reunification
 New parties and new elections in 3/90.
 FRG Chancellor Helmut Kohl negotiated for reunification. Controversial!
 One currency 7/1/90.
 WWII allies convinced to allow a Germany.
 Reunification10/3/90.
 Soviets bought off with FRG money.
Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution
 Berlin Wall fell. Czechs wanted reform!
 Velvet revolution 11/89 popular demonstrations took over streets.
 Communists forced into power sharing then resigned.
 Vaclav Havel (famous dissident) became president.
Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Divorce
 Nation divided into two republics 1990.
 Free elections held.
 Slovak autonomy movement increased.
 1993 Two independent nations.
o Czech Republic.
o Slovakia.
Romania
 Nicolae Ceausescu dictator since 1965.
 Little Stalin with Cult of Personality and wife.
 Huge state secret police – Securitate.
 Industrialization through western borrowing.
 Paying interest through people’s sacrifice.
 Member of Warsaw Pact but independent.
Reform?
 Military refused to fire on demonstrators.
 Securitate killed hundreds.
 Ceausescu’s speech met with heckling.
 Ceausescu fled in helicopter.
 Securitate s. army and the people.
Romanian Revolution
 Ceausescu captured and executed by soldiers.
 National Salvation Front (Communists and protestors) restored order and dismantled
Communism.
 Repressive dictatorship ends.
Summary
 People wanted freedom and better economic situation.
 Refusal of SU to intervene doomed dictatorships.
 Most regimes went peacefully.
 Freedom with continued problems – economic and political.
 Eastern block countries join NATO and EU!
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev’s Plan
 Mikhail Gorbachev made General Secretary of Common Party.
 Young Technocrat – Knew of Soviet weaknesses.
 Gorbachev and Soviets wanted more – consumer goods, better economy in order to compete.
 Gorbachev tried perestroika (reconstructing) and glasnost (openness).
Perestroika
 De-centralization of economic decision making.
 Limited open markets and incentives.
 Restrictions on foreign trade loosened.
 Private businesses encouraged.
 Private plots of land allowed.
 Didn’t work so well.
 Little individual initiative.
Glasnost
 Openness or publicity of problems.
 Economy couldn’t be reformed without open debate.
 Allowed educated elite a voice reform.
 Loosened censorship and allowed criticism of the past.
 Decreasing the power of old guard: party, military, and KGB.
Gorbachev’s Popularity
 Made peace overtures to West (reduced nuclear arsenals).
 Walked around in West “Gorbi! Gorbi!”
 Had a visible wife – Raisa Gorbachev.
 Pulled troops out of Afghanistan.
 Reduced Communist aid to whole world.
 Wouldn’t use Brezhnev doctrine.
From hope to criticism
 1985-1988 rising food/consumer good production not enough.
 Dissatisfaction and ability to criticize.
 Gorbachev criticized.
Reform out of control
 Congress of People’s Deputies created 3/89. One third of seats reserved for Communists.
 No longer one party monopoly!
 Congress elected the Supreme Soviet.
 Supreme Soviet made Gorbachev president.
 (Presidency had no connection to Communist Party).
 Boris Yeltsin (President Russian Representative 6/91) Gorbachev’s critic and rival for power.
 1991 Marxism-Leninism (Planned economy) dropped as official philosophy – Free market!
Nationalism!
 1988 – Fighting between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
 Spring 1990 Baltic States demanded autonomy.
 Riots in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan.
 Ethnic Russians were in all those places.
 Tried an economic embargo against Baltic States and even sent in tanks to seize media.
The Hardliners Strike Back
 August 1991 hardliners attempted coup to overthrow reforms.
 Gorbi held prisoner in Crimea.
 Army troops moved into major cities.
 Babushkas “Does your mother know what you are doing?”
The Hours of Yeltsin
 Demonstrators out in the streets.
 Yeltsin organized resistance.
 Army won’t shoot at demonstrators.
 Coup collapsed after two days.
 Yeltsin forced Gorbachev to ban Communist Party!
The Unraveling of the Soviet Union
 Yeltsin eclipsed Gorbachev in popularity and in power as Russian president.
 Gorbachev resigned.
 One by one 15 Republics declared independence from Soviet Union.
 Nationalism!
 Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine formed Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Soviet Union 1917-1991 RIP
 Attempted Marxist/Communist State.
 Reality was socialist dictatorship.
 Russia became a modern superpower.
 Modernity caught up with Soviets.
 People wanted more freedom/comfort.
 Freedom included nationalist aspirations.
 Soviet Union/Russian Empire disintegrated.
Yeltsin’s Reign 1992-2000
 Russian Parliament vs. Yeltsin 1993.
o Yeltsin suspended Parliament.
o Parliament tried to depose Yeltsin.
o Russian military attacked Parliament building.
 War in Chechnya as Islamic state tried to break away (oil) Chechen terrorism result.
 Oligarchs profited from dismantling Communism.
Putin’s Reign 2000
 Strongman Ex-KGB officer.
 Renewed war in Chechnya.
 Increasing government control and centralization.
 Combating oligarchs, crime, and corruption.
 Resurgent Russia based on natural resources.
 Decline in social welfare, education system, life expectancy.
 Resurgent Russian nationalism to regain empire?
Russia
 Large and powerful state that played a huge role in European history.
 Will continue to play a large role based on size and population.
 Seems to be a little different…a little more authoritarian.
 Future?????
The Road to European Union – Integration: Promotes economic prosperity, Promotes political
strength, Keeps nations from going to war
1947 Integration
 BeNeLux countries created a tariff union.
 Marshall Plan required economic coordination and open markets.
Integration of Coal and Steel
 Products of war.
 Schuman Plan 1950 joined France and FRG (Germany) in pooling coal and steel markets.
 ECSC European Coal and Steel Community 1951.
 Formed by BeNeLux, France, Italy, and FRG (West Germany).
 Made a steel and coal common market.
Treaty of Rome 1957 European Economic Community (EEC) “Common Market”
 Area with common external tariff.
 Free movement of labor and capital.
 Cooperation and standardization.
 National agricultural interests protected.
 BeNeLux, France, Italy, and FRG (Germany).
 Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark joined 1973; Greece 1981; Spain and Portugal 1986.
European Free Trade Association 1960
 Britain and other non-members of EEC.
 Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Britain.
 Removed most tariffs but retained agricultural and fish tariffs.
Maastricht Treaty 1992 (EU)
 An area without frontiers in which the free movement of good and persons, services and capital
is ensured.
 Merger of European Community and most of European Free Trade Association. (Austria, Finland,
Sweden 1995).
 380 million European consumers!
 Most important economic unifier.
The Euro-WOW!
 European Central Bank created 1998 in Frankfurt.
 Encouraged reducing inflation and budget deficits.
 Common currency circulation 2002.
European Union’s Three Branches
 European Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg)
o Representation according to population/importance.
 Council of Ministers.
 European Court of Justice.
 NOT ALL THAT POWERFUL – YET.
Additions to the Union
 10 New states joined in 2004.
 Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the
Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta.
 Poorer than the rest – not equal yet.
 Not all on the Euro.
 No free movement of labor.
 Turkey, Croatia, and Iceland would like to join.
Present and Future
 EU created a huge tariff free market, powerful currency, and less division between European
nations.
 What about sovereignty? Culture?
 Plans for European army, same social welfare and immigration policies, a constitution, real
power.
Continuing Problems
 Problems: Nationalism – Reluctance to give up power to Eurocrats.
 Great Britain always reluctant to give up sovereignty. Still have pound.
 Turkey: Is it Europe? Poor Muslim country and lack of democracy.
 Spendthrift countries – P.I.G.S. (Portugal, Italy, Greece, Spain). Spending too much, borrowing
costs too high, need richer countries to bail them out.
European Union
 World’s most powerful trading block –
 37% of global trade.
 33% of world’s money reserves.
 6% world’s population.
 Future?
The Yugoslavian Civil War – Nationalism!
Historical Background
 Balkan region has always been ethnically and religiously diverse and subjected to others.
o Serbians = Orthodox Christians.
o Croatians, Slovenians – Roman Catholics.
o Bosnians, Kosovars, Albanians = Muslims.
Turks – Expanded and contracted
 Victories – Kosovo 1389, Constantinople 1453, Belgrade 1521, Mohacs 1526, Buda 1541.
 Defeats – Vienna 1529, Vienna 1683.
Habsburgs vs. Russians after 1850
 While nationalism grew….
 Great powers vied for sick man’s newly freed territory. Sparked WWI.
Post WWI Yugoslavia
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes established – Serbian King Peter in 1921.
 Peter’s successor, Alexander I, threw out constitution and established Serbian dictatorship.
 Croatian fascists (Ustashe) assassinate Alexander in 1934.
WWII
 Germans invaded Yugoslavia in 1941.
 Nazis put Croatians in charge. Brutal rule with atrocities.
 Almost 500,000 Serbs killed.
 2 groups resist:
o 1) Chetniks – Extreme Serb nationalists.
o 2) Partisans – Communists led by Josip Broz Tito.
Post WWII Tito’s rule
 Tito’s dominance kept ethnic tensions under control until his death.
 Yugoslavia rejected Soviet domination, though still communist.
 “nonaligned,” since they didn’t join with either superpower.
 Tito died in 1980, uh-oh.
Serious Problems
 Economy saddled with huge foreign debts.
 Weak federation.
 Old ethnic and religious hatreds emerge.
 Use nationalism to stay in power.
o Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic.
Yugoslavia’s Civil War
 Collapse of Communism pushes Yugoslavia into chaos.
 New constitution allows secession, but Milosevic uses Yugoslav army to block Croatia and
Slovenia from leaving.
 Slovenes win independence, Croats don’t.
Croatia and Bosnia
 In Croatia, Serb minority joins Yugoslav army.
 Most of Croatia falls to Serb control.
 Bosnia secedes in 1992, Serbs begin “ethnic cleansing” of Catholic Croatians and Muslim
Bosnians.
 Not quite genocide, but close.
Atrocities against Bosnians
 1992: Independent Bosnia.
 Serbs begin shelling Sarajevo.
 Siege lasted 3 years!
 Also Srebrenica, 1995, 7,000 Muslim males killed in UN “Safe Haven”.
UN Intervention
 UN sends ineffective peacekeepers in 1992, fighting continues.
 Atrocities are common, including rape as a weapon of war.
 Serb rapists sought to product “little Chetniks”.
 1995 NATO airstrikes bring Serbs to negotiate.
Dayton Accord
 In 1995, U.S. led peace talks in Dayton, Ohio.
 Milosevic agrees to peace terms, though rebels fight on.
 Muslim Bosnians get 51% of Bosnia, Serbs get 49%.
 60,000 NATO/UN/EU peacekeepers enter Bosnia.
Kosovo, 1998
 Kosovo, a republic within Serbia-Montenegro, declared independence.
 Kosovo’s population: 90% Muslim Albanians, 10% Orthodox Serbs.
 Milosevic ordered new ethnic cleansing campaign to drive out Kosovar Albanians.
 NATO bombed Belgrade and military targets for 37 days until ethnic cleansing stopped.
Balkans Today
 No more Yugoslavia.
 All six original republics independent, plus Kosovo.
 UN peacekeepers.
 War criminals sought and tried.
 Still lots of minorities.
 Irredentism?
Nationalism
 Slow to develop in many countries.
 Suppressed by central government.
 Once government weakens, it allows nationalism to surface.
 Can result in especially nasty, very personal conflict.
20
th
Century Art
Dada
 “Hobbyhorse” or “father”.
 Anti-art movement.
 Attacked rational civilized standards.
 Civilization had failed.
Surrealism
 War shook faith in what was real.
 Portrays fantasies and dreams of the subconscious (Freudian).
 Search for subconscious forces that molded reality.
Cubism
 Painters emphasized geometric patterns.
 Treat nature as a cylinder, sphere, or cone.
 A robotic image of man reflects the loss of personality after a century of industrialism.
Religion, Philosophy, and Women
Christianity
 Decreasing belief and church attendance.
 Horrors of wars?
 Right-wing stain?
 Comforts of welfare state?
 Science and technology?
 Permissive society?
Catholic Church
 Christian Democratic movements.
 Vatican II Council (1959-1965).
o Vernacular
o Laity
o Ecumenical
o International
 Still socially conservative (women’s issues).
 John Paul II fought for East European freedom.
Existentialism
 Life is meaningless and absurd.
 No reason, progress, God, just existence.
 “Man is condemned to be free.” Anxiety!
 Man acts, chooses, exists… and creates nothing.
 Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980).
Women’s Revolution
 Women needed in economies:
o War
o Post-war
o Information age.
 Women’s lives less about motherhood.
o Declining birthrate.
o The pill
 Desire for psychological satisfaction.
The Second Sex (1949)
 Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986).
 Women “the (inferior) other.”
 Free, but trapped in role.
 Existentialism… action!
 Betty Friedan (1921-2006).
o The Feminine Mystique (1963).
o “The problem that has no name.”
Change
 Counter-culture led to action in the 70s.
 Political involvement led to:
o More equal pay for equal work.
o Abortion.
o Divorce.
o Child care and job protections.
o More female politicians and business leaders.
 Thatcher, Merkel
Al-Qaeda
 A loosely organized Islamist movement which seeks to rid the Muslim world of non-Muslim
influences.
 Wants to implement Sharia law under political unity of the Muslim world.
 Global jihad (holy war) seeks to achieve goals through terror attacks.
 Thos who don’t share their beliefs are considered apostates and worthy of death.
Taliban
 A fundamentalist Sunni Islamist group which controlled much of Afghanistan 1996-2001.
 Came to power in the wake of the Afghan Civil War and received support from the Pakistani ISI.
 Initially supported by many because of corruption of local warlords.
 Advocate strict interpretation of Sharia law including anti-modernism, extreme male dominance,
medieval justice, and strict dress codes.
 2001: U.S. and coalition forces allied with Northern Alliance Warlords to overthrow Taliban for
their support of Al-Qaeda.
 2006 – present: Resurgent Taliban has been fighting in both Afghanistan and Pakistan fuelled by
opium trade.
Factors Contributing to Tension
 Settlements/Outposts
 Roads/Transportation
 Separation Barrier
 ID Cards
 House Demolitions
 Refugee Displacement
 Healthcare access
 Checkpoints/Barriers
West Bank Key Issues
 Protection/Human Dignity
o House demolitions/displacement
o Settler violence
 Access and Movement
o System and obstacles and closed areas
o Fragmentation of the West Bank
Israeli West Bank Barrier
 A 436 mile series of fences, concrete walls, trenches, and no man’s land (60m) being built by
Israel to separate Israelis from Palestinians.
 It’s controversial and seen either as protection against suicide bombers and terrorists or an
illegal land grab by the Israelis.
Arab-Israeli conflict vs. India-Pakistan conflict
 Similarities
o *Started after British left
o People forced out of their homes
o Wanted separate state
o Slaughter and murder of the other religion
o Separated by religion
o Catch, kill, burn
 Differences
o India-Pakistan conflict – British intervened to try to end the conflict with no violence
o India-Pakistan conflict – no suicide bombers
o India-Pakistan conflict – Beheading
o India-Pakistan conflict – “Religious cleansing”
China
Falun Gong
 Philosophy that focuses on the mind-body connection.
 Tai Chi like exercises part of rituals.
 Introduced in 1992 by Li Hongzhi.
 Anti-materialism against China’s direction.
 10,000 adherents showed up at Communist Party HQ in Beijing in 1999.
 Anti-Communist organization?
 Banned ever since; adherents persecuted.
One Child Policy
 Introduced in 1979 to increase standard of living.
 One child is the rule but there are exceptions.
 Parents who have second children are fined and parents have to pay for kids’ schooling and
family’s health insurance.
 Preference for males has led to abortion, infanticide, and adoption, and thus a greater number
of males to females in the young population.