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Chemistry notes

 SI – System international d’unites
 Based on #10
 7 base units (5 routinely used in chemistry)
Quantity Unit Abbreviation
Length Meter M
Mass Kilogram Kg
Time Second S
Temperature Kelvin K
Amount of substance Mole Mol
Electric current Ampere A
Luminous intensity Candela Cd
SI Prefixes
 Indicates the multiplier (number of zero)
 Match the scale of the object measured
Scientific Notation
Format is: Mantissa (decimal part of original number) x Base(decimal you moved)
Power
Accuracy
 Closeness of a measurement to the true value.
Precision
 Closeness or agreement of 2 or more measurements of the same thing.
 Example: you measure the mass of a substance 4 times with the same balance and record: 110 g,
109 g, 111 g, 110 g. Are these measurements precise? Answer is yes.
Accuracy and precision
 Can be one but not the other
 The goal in chemistry is to be both.
Least count
 Smallest unit a measuring device is divided into.
 Expressed as a numerical value of a unit.
 Example: A meter stick
 100 divisions (cm)
 Each cm divided 10 more times (mm)
 Least count: 1/1000 of a meter
 1 millimeter
Measuring volume
 Volume of a liquid is read from the bottom of the meniscus.
Sig Figs
 The significant figures of a measurement of calculation consists of all digits known with
certainty plus one estimated (or uncertain) digit.
 e.g. 10.7834 is accurate to five places (10.7834)
 The sixth place (0.0004) is the estimated digit (10.7834)
Sig Fig Rules
How do we know the number of sig figs?
4 Rules
1. All nonzero numbers are significant
 25 mL has two sig figs
2. Middle zeros are always significant
 40.7 L has three sig figs
 87009 km has five sig figs
3. Leading zeros are never significant
 0.009587 m has four sig figs
 0.0009 kg has one sig fig
4. Trailing zeros are significant if there’s a decimal place
 85.00 g has four sig figs
 9.070000000 has ten sig figs
 2000 m has one sig fig
 A simplified rule for determining sig figs is to remember Dot Right, Not Left
Sig Fig Rules – Dot Right, Not Left
 If there is a decimal point (dot):
 Count from left to right starting with the first nonzero number and counting the
remaining digits.
 If there is no decimal point (not):
 Count from the right to left starting with the first nonzero number and counting the
remaining digits.
Sig Figs – Multiplication & Division
 Round the calculated result to the same number of sig figs as the measurement with the least
number of sig figs.
 Example: (12.257)(1.162) = 14.24
Sig Figs – Addition and Subtraction
 Round the calculated result to the same decimal place as the measurement with the smallest
number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
 Example: 3.95 + 2.879 + 213.6 = 220.4
 Example #2: 2000 + 50 = 2000
Sig Figs & Scientific Notation
 Writing a result in scientific notation is a good way to report the desired number of sig figs.
 When counting sig figs for numbers written in scientific notation, consider just the mantissa as
significant (not the power).
Sig Figs
 If a sequence of calculations is involved, round when changing types of functions.
 Exact values have no uncertainty, and thus unlimited significant figures.
 Two categories of exact values in chemistry
1. Count values – value determined by counting.
2. Conversion factors – value used for conversion calculations.
Quiz! Variables
 Independent –The variable you change in an experiment.
 Dependent – Changes in response to the independent variable.
 Variables there to show what’s missing in an equation.
Quiz! Control/constants
 The unchanged independent variable for the purpose of comparison.
Dimensional analysis
 One way of handling the way of conversions.
 Example: If a dozen eggs cost $1.79, what is the cost of one egg?
 1.79/12
 Example 2: How many grams are in 1489?
 1489/1000
 Convert 1000 cm
3
to L.
 1000/1 = 1000 mL, 1/1000 = 0.001 L.
 If you’re traveling at a speed of 63 mph, how fast are you traveling in feet per minute? (5280 ft
per mile)
 5280/60 = 5544 ft/min
 How many micrograms are in 815 kg? (1000 g/kg, 1,000,000 micrograms/gram, 1,000,000,000
micrograms/kg)
 815,000,000,000 micrograms/kg. 8.15*10
11

Density
 Density is a ratio of mass to volume. Density = mass/volume or d=m/v
 Expressed as g/cm
3

 Physical property
 Can be used to identify matter because density of a given substance is the same for all samples.
 Density is the measure of the “compactness” of a material.
 The proximity of like atoms or molecules.
 More than just the “heaviness” of a substance, density includes how much space an object takes
up!!
 All substances have density including liquids, solids, and gases.
Liquids
 The more dissolved solids in a solution, the more dense (such as ocean water)
 Cold water in a lake sinks (this creates a constant mixing of water, nutrients, and other
substance). Warm water in a lake floats (less dense).
Factors affecting density
 Temperature
 Pressure
 Dissolved solids
 Concentration and kinds of substances
What’s going to be on the test
 Conversion; centi, mili, kilo, Celcius to Kelvin.
 Decimals
 Scientific notation
 Significant Figures
 Density
The Science of Chemistry – Matter
 Anything that has volume (occupies space) and has mass (quantity of matter in that object)
 Made of particles.
 Mass is different from weight.
 Weight – is the force produced by gravity acting on mass.
 Physical state is a basic property.
 3 classical states:
 Solid
 Liquid
 Gas
Non-classical states of matter
 Plasmas
 Quark-gluon plasma
 Liquid crystal
 Superfluids
 Bose-Einstein condensates
 Fermionic condensates
States of matter
 Solids: Fixed shape and fixed volume.
 Liquid: No fixed shape – shape of container and fixed volume.
 Gases: No fixed shape – shape of container and no fixed volume – volume of container.
 Needs heat to go between the three. Solid to liquid needs heat and liquid to gas also needs heat.
State Changes
 Melting – Solid to liquid.
 Freezing – Liquid to solid.
 Vaporization – Liquid to gas.
 Condensation – Gas to liquid.
 Sublimation – Solid to gas.
 Deposition – Gas to liquid.
Superfluids
 Liquid that flows uncontrollably – as viscosity = 0. No resistance to flow.
 Can flow up the sides of a beaker.
 Exact same temperature throughout the liquid; thermal conductivity is infinite.
Supercritical Fluids
 No specific phase exists
 Temperature is great enough to be gas
 Pressure is great enough to be liquid.
 Moves through solids like a gas.
 Dissolves things like a liquid.
Nature of matter
 All matter is composed of atoms.
 Atoms come in 116 basic types called elements.
 A molecule consists of 2 or more elements (atoms) in a definite ratio.
 A molecule can be made of the same types of atoms or different types.
 A compound is composed of 2 or more different elements bonded together.
 Most elements can exist as single atoms.
 There are a few exceptions known as diatomic molecules (or diatomic gases)
 Always exist as two atoms bonded when in elemental form
 The 7 diatomic gases are hydrogen (H
2
), Oxygen (O
2
), Bromine (Br
2
), Fluorine (F
2
), Iodine (I
2
),
Nitrogen (N
2
) and Chlorine (Cl
2
)
 Remember, HOBrFINCL or I Have No Bright Or Clever Friends.
Nature of Matter
 Some elements come in different molecular or crystalline forms, called allotropes.
 Oxygen has 2 allotropes.
 Oxygen, O
2

 Ozone, O
3

Carbon Allotropes
 Graphite (or pencil “lead”)
 Diamond
 Buckminsterfullerene (Buckyball)
Mixtures
 Substances that have a variable composition – contain more than one pure substance.
 At the molecular level, contains compounds that do no interact chemically.
 Mixtures are like a bowl of vegetable soup – made of many different vegetables, but the
composition of each vegetable remains the same.
Types of Mixtures
 Homogeneous mixture – is the same throughout.
 Solution – 1 substance dissolves in another
 Colloid – small particles dispersed through another substance that do not settle out.
 Heterogeneous mixture – is not the same throughout.
 Suspension – Large particles dispersed in another substance that can settle out or be
separated by filtration.
 Chemists – We’ve got jokes
 If H
2
O is water, what is H
2
O
4
: Drinking, bathing, washing, swimming, etc.
 What element is a girl’s future best friend? Carbon.
Properties of matter
 Physical property – property that can be measured without changing its chemical nature (e.g.
odor, appearance, density, boiling point)
 Chemical property – property that is observed when matter reacts (e.g. flammability, toxicity,
reactivity)
 What about solubility? Some say it’s a physical property and some say it’s a chemical property.
There’s a debate on it.
Changes of Matter
 Physical Changes affect only physical properties, the substance itself does not change.
 e.g. water freezing
 Chemical Changes involve one or more substances changing into new substances.
 e.g. iron turning to rust
Chemical Changes
 Evidence that a chemical change has occurred is easily observed and generally fits into one of
the following categories:
 The evolution of a gas or odor
 The formation of a precipitate (a solid)
 The evolution or absorption of heat
 Exothermic – Heat released (hot)
 Endothermic – Heat absorbed (cold)
 The emission of light (Mr. Von Someren lighted a cheese stick on fire and ate it.)
 A color change
Energy
 Energy: the potential or capacity to move matter.
 Types of energy:
 Kinetic Energy: the energy of matter in motion
 Potential Energy: the energy of matter with the potential for motion
 Chemical Potential Energy: the energy released from breaking or making
chemical bonds in molecules.
 Forms of energy:
 Chemical
 Mechanical
 Electrical
 Heat
 Light
 Sound
Heat energy
 Heat: The form of energy that flows from one object to another because of temperature
differences between the two.
 Fundamental Property of Heat: Heat always flows from the HOT object to the COLD
object.
 There’s three different types of heat:
 Conduction
 Convection
 Radiation
Energy units
 Units
 Joules (J)
 calories (cal)
 Calories (Cal)(1,000 cal)
 Conversions
 1 cal = 4.184 J
 1000 cal = 1 Cal (kcal)
 One joule is approximately equal to the energy to life a small apple 1 m straight up. The energy
released when that same apple falls 1 m to the ground. The energy released as heat by a person
at rest, every 1/1000 of a second. The energy required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1
o
C.
Heating curve
 A – solid
 B – solid/liquid (freezing goes back to solid, heating goes to liquid)
 C – liquid
 D – liquid/gas (condensation going back to liquid, vaporization going to gas)
 E – gas
Calorimetry
 Calculating heat:
 Q = cm T
 Q = heat (energy)
 c = specific heat, constant for the material being worked with
 m = mass
 T = change in temperature
Specific heat
 Specific Heat – the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of
substance by 1
o
C.
 “Thermal Inertia” …. Substances with a high specific heat “resist” changes in
temperature better than substances with a low specific that.
 Specific Heat of H
2
O = 4.184 J/g
o
C
 Water has a high specific heat relative to other substances.
Example
You heat a metal sample weighing 58.6 g by adding 345 J of energy to it. The temperature of the metal
rises from 20.30
o
C to 26.83
o
C. What is the specific heat of the metal?
345 = c(58.6)(6.53)
c = 0.902J/g
o
C
Percent Error
% Error = (Experimental value – theoretical value)*100
Theoretical
Experimental value = number measured
Theoretical value = number claimed to be
Percent Difference
% Difference = (High value – low value)*100
Average
Law of Conservation of Mass
 The total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction.
 Mass of reactants = mass products
 Also true for energy
 Law of Conservation of Energy – Energy may be converted from one form to another,
but the total amount of energy in a system remains constant.
Lab procedure
Calculate heat capacity of iron
 Measure change in temperature
 Heat iron to as close to 100
o
C as possible.
 Leave iron in boiling water for five minutes
 Measure 100 mL of water. 100 mL
 Measure initial temperature of water. 22
o
C
 Mass of iron. 157.223
 Put iron in water
 Wait for temperature to change
 Measure temperature of new water. 33
o
C
 Calculate change in temperature. 11
o
C
 Calculate energy. 186.7809 J
Atomic Theory
Democritus
 Democritus (200 B.C.) – Idea of the atom is credited with Leucippus and particularly, his teacher,
Democritus around 400 BC.
 Says all matter is made of atoms
 Physically indivisible
 Always have been and always will be in motion
 Empty space between atoms.
 There are an infinite number and kind of atoms that differ in shape, size and temperature.
 Democritus thought of matter as being discrete matter.
Aristotle
 Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) believed that all matter was made up of four distinct elements. Earth,
wind, water, and fire.
Is matter continuous or discrete?
 Continuous – no smallest piece… matter can be broken down into smaller and smaller pieces
forever.
 Discrete – there is a smallest piece… matter can be broken down into smaller and smaller pieces
until you reach the smallest piece.
John Dalton (1803 – 1805)
 Created atomic theory
 Using or explaining
 Law of Conservation of Mass
 Law of Definite Proportions
 Law of Multiple Proportions
Law of Conservation of Mass
 The mass of the products of a reaction equals the mass of the reactants
 According to Einstein’s E=mc
2
there should be a slight loss of mass in an exothermic
reaction
 The mass of the energy released is so small that we can ignore it
 In other words: for practical purposes, the Law of Conservation of Mass is valid.
Conservation of atoms
 Atoms are conserved because atoms have mass.
 If we start with a certain amount of atoms, we will end with the same amount of atoms.
Law of Definite Proportions
 A given compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass.
 Regardless of the
 Size of the sample
 Source of the compound
 e.g. Salt is always 39.34% Na by mass and 60.66% Cl by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
 When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second
element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole
numbers.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. All matter is made of indivisible and indestructible atoms. (false)
2. All atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties. (false)
3. Atoms of different elements differ in their physical and chemical properties. (false… kind of)
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds.
5. Chemical reactions consist of the combination, separation, or rearrangement of atoms.
Subatomic Particles
 1887 – J.J. Thomson discovered the electron.
 The idea that an atom could not be divided was proven false
 Note: electron is abbreviated as e
-

 Used Cathode Ray Tube to find the electron
The Plum Pudding Model
 Proposed by J.J. Thomson
 Along with William Thomson (Lord Kelvin – credited with the Kelvin)
 Consisted of a large positively charged spherical cloud with negative charges distributed
amongst it.
 Chocolate chip cookie dough
 The dough is a ball of positive charge
 The chocolate chips are the negative electrons distributed in the dough
The Gold Foil Experiment
 1910 – Ernest Rutherford, conducted the gold-foil experiment with help from his students Hans
Geiger (creator of the Geiger counter) and Ernest Marsden.
 Directed a beam of alpha particles (positively charged) at a thin gold foil.
 The alpha particles would be detected when they struck a zinc sulfide (ZnS) screen.
 Rutherford expected to see the majority of alpha particles going straight through the foil.
Gold Foil Experiment – observed results
 Most particles went straight through the gold foil.
 Some were deflected at angles greater than 90 degrees.
 “It was quite the most incredible event that has ever happened to me in my life. It was almost as
incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you.
On consideration, I realized that this scattering backward must be the result of a single collision,
and when I made calculations I saw that it was impossible to get anything of that order of
magnitude… etc”
 Atoms must contain a localized region where the majority of mass is found.
 This mass must be rather large.
 The central mass is the nucleus.
 Rutherford concluded that the atom must be mostly empty space with electrons orbiting around
the positive nucleus.
 Modern Atomic image emerged.
 Nucleus is positively charged.
 Negatively charged electrons moving around nucleus.
 The positively charged particles in the nucleus are called protons.
Protons
 Charge of proton is exactly equal, but opposite sign, to that of an electron (1.0602189 x 10
-19
)
 Mass is 1.0073 amu
 Almost 2000 times that of an e
-

Parts of an atom
 A neutral atom must contain equal number of protons and electrons
 1932 – James Chadwick showed that most nuclei also contain a neutron – a particle with no
charge.
 Mass = 1.0087 amu
 Proton and neutron have approximately the same mass.
 Electron’s mass is generally disregarded as it is so small.
 Atoms consist mostly of space
 If the earth were the size of an atom, the nucleus would be the size of a basketball in the center.
 Image the Metrodome. If you are walking around the concourse, you would be the electron
while a marble placed at the 50 yard line would be the nucleus.
Niels Bohr – 1913
 Put electrons into Energy Levels.
 Energy Level – one of the allowed energy values that an electron can have (rings around
the nucleus).
 Based on/explained the emission spectrum of hydrogen atoms.
 Bohr Model of the Atom.
Quantum-Mechanical Model
 Also called the Atomic Orbital Model or Electron Cloud Model.
 Mathematical model… based on math equations.
 Splits energy levels into sublevels and orbitals.
 Very hard to visualize… even harder to draw!
Atomic Mass Number
 The mass number is the total number of particles in the nucleus.
 The number of protons in an atom is known as the atomic number.
 Because all atoms at neutral in charge, an atom will have the same number of electrons and
protons.
Atomic Structure
 Periodic table provides detailed information about elements; atomic number, element name,
atomic symbol, and atomic weight.
 Atomic mass is the average of all atoms in existence of that element.
Atomic notation
 Another way of representing an element.

4
2
He
0

 4 – mass number
 2 – Atomic number
 0 – charge
Ions
 For neutral atoms the number of protons equals the number of electrons
 Ions (charged particles) have unequal numbers of protons and electrons.

23
11
Na
1+

 11 protons
 12 neutrons
 10 electrons
 1+ means that there is one more positive charge than negative.
Average Atomic Mass
 Weighted average of all isotopes mass numbers
 Mass listed on the Periodic Table
 Average Atomic Mass =[(mass)(%) + (mass)(%)]/100
 Isotopes – atoms with different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Periodic Table – Chapter 4
History
 1870 – Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev arranged all 63 known elements by atomic mass.
 1913 – Henry Moseley established a physical basis for the arrangement
 Organized by atomic number, rather than atomic mass
 Mendeleev’s discrepancies disappeared
 Henry Moseley
 Died in 1915, age 27 in WW1
 Nobel prize for physics in 1916???
Alternate arrangements
 Some alternative arrangements do exist
 Theador Benfey’s periodic table (1960)
Periodic Table Organization
 Metals are
 Lustrous (shiny)
 Malleable (able to be shaped with a hammer)
 Ductile (able to draw out into wires)
 Good conductors of heat and electricity
 They’re mostly solids at room temperature
 Except for mercury which is a liquid at room temperature
 Non-metals – the opposite of metals
 Dull
 Brittle
 Nonconductors (insulators)
 Some are solid
 Many are gases
 Bromine is a liquid
 Metalloids (semiconductors)
 Semimetals
 They have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals
 They are shiny but brittle
 And they are semiconductors
Periodic table terms
 7 horizontal rows (periods)
 Increasing atomic number left to right and top to bottom
 Numbered 1 – 7
 Elements with similar chemical properties form vertical columns (groups)
 Numbered from 1 to 18
 (or 1A to 8A and 1B to 8B)
 Main-group elements – groups 1,2, and 13 – 18
 Transition elements (Transition metals) – groups 3 – 12
 Lanthanides and Actinides(Inner transition metals) – 2 rows at the bottom
Main-group elements
 4 groups within the main-group
 Alkali Metals – group 1
 Alkaline-earth Metals – group 2
 Halogens – group 17
 Noble gases – group 18
Nuclear
Isotopes
 From 1900-1902, Frederick Soddy was working with Rutherford, and together they discovered
isotopes – atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
 Frederick Soddy won Nobel prize for chemistry in 1921
 Has a crater named for him on the far side of the moon
 3 carbon isotopes; carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14.
 Can predict the most abundant carbon isotope.
Atomic Particles
 Atoms have the same number of protons and electrons (Z)
 Neutrons are determined by the mass number (A) – the atomic number (Z)

19
39
K, Potassium, 19 protons, 19 electrons, 20 neutrons. 39 – Mass number
Additional notation
 Ways to write isotopes
 Element-mass number (e.g. lead-206)
 With a symbol (e.g.
19
39
K)
Atoms with Charge
 Cl has how many protons? Neutrons? Electrons?
 Cl
-
has how many protons? Neutrons? Electrons? (Cl
1-
)
 Cl
-1
means that there’s one more negative charge than positive charge, meaning one
more electron than protons.
Nuclear Decay or Radioactivity
 Atoms with unstable nuclear configurations are radioisotopes.
 These isotopes undergo radioactive decay
 Unstable Nucleus More Stable Nucleus
 3 main types of decay
Alpha Decay (α)
 A helium atom (
2
4
He)
Beta Decay (β)
 Basically an electron (
-1
0
β) or a positron (
+1
0
β)
Gamma Decay (γ)
 Release of high frequency energy from the nucleus (
0
0
γ)
 No mass and no charge
Nuclear Transformation
 Aka…. Transmutation
 Changing one element into another

7
14
N +
2
4
H 
8
17
O +
1
1
H
 This is how we make new elements in a particle accelerator.
Fission or fusion
 Fission – Breaking down a big atom to make two small atoms.
 Fusion – Combining two small atoms to make a big atom.
Energy Levels and Atomic Orbitals – chapter 9
 Light is a form of Electromagnetic Radiation.
 Electromagnetic Spectrum – Sorts wavelengths by length, longest to shortest. In between is the
visible light spectrum. ROY G.BIV ; Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet.
Wavelength and Frequency Relationship
 C = λf
 C = 3.00*10
8
m/s (speed of light)
 λ= wavelength (m)
 F = frequency (s
-1
or Hz)
 Inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency.
 Frequency is the number of complete cycles per second.
Photoelectric Effect
 A minimum frequency of light was necessary to eject an electron no matter the brightness of
the light.
 Albert Einstein explained it by treating light as a particle instead of a wave.
 Packet of light energy (particle of light) called a photon.
Einstein – Planck Equation
 E = hf
 E = energy (J)
 h= Planck’s constant (6.626*10
-34
J*s)
 F = frequency (Hz)
 Direct relationship between energy and frequency.
Duality – Double Slit Experiment (Young’s Experiment)
 Light behaves as both a wave and a particle.
 Not a wave and a particle.
 Can only be a particle or a wave.
 If light is a wave, then it’s not a particle. If it’s a particle, then it’s not a wave.
What Bohr saw…
 Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen.
 Came to the conclusion that light is discrete and not continuous.
Bohr’s Atom
 Energy in the atom is quantized  electrons are in “energy levels”
 Energy level (n) – an allowed energy value that an electron can have in an atom.
How Bohr’s Atom Explained it
 Electron gains potential energy and moves father from the nucleus. A photon of light is
absorbed.
 Electron loses potential energy and moves closer to nucleus. A photon of light is emitted.
 Can excite electron and move it up the Energy Levels.
Atomic Spectra of Other Elements
 Unique for each element… like a fingerprint.
 Can be used to identify elements.
 Every element has its own fingerprint.
Moles
 SI unit for amount is mole
 Unit is abbreviated mol or mols
 The constant is known as Avagadro’s number
 Named after the Italian scientist Amedeo
 Avagadro’s number says that 1 mol of something is equal to 6.022 x 10
23
particles.
Atomic Orbitals and Electron Configurations
Modern Atomic Model
 Bohr’s model was able to explain the Hydrogen atom only.
 Electrons do not follow specific paths around a nucleus. They don’t orbit around the nucleus like
planets orbit around the sun.
 Instead, electrons occupy a space around the nucleus in an electron cloud.
Louis de Broglie
 Postulated that all matter has wave properties, and therefore duality.
 de Broglie equation

, where λ is wavelength, h is Planck’s constant, m is the mass, and v is
velocity.
 Why aren’t people more wavelike then?
 Because our mass is so large that λ is too small to detect.
Erwin Schrödinger
 1926 – Wave mechanics – fundamental quantum theory.
 Treated electrons as standing waves.
 Devised a mathematical equation (called the Schrödinger Equation) that could be used
to calculate the intensity of an electron.
 Intensity of an electron.
 Led to probability clouds.
 Pattern of e
-
position over time.

()

The Electron Cloud Model
 Orbital – the space around the nucleus where an electron might occur.
 A probability distribution
 The path an electron takes is unknown
 The electrons travel freely within an orbital and we can only predict the probability of where the
electron might be.
Electron cloud
 The higher the intensity, the higher the possibility of finding an electron.
Orbitals
 Energy levels (n), called principal energy levels, are discrete (quantized)
 Can be divided into sublevels
 Sublevels are s, p, d, f.
 ħĤ
Sublevels
 Each sublevel can hold a different number of electrons, regardless of the principal energy level.
 S – maximum of 2 electrons, maximum of 1 orbital
 P – maximum of 6 electrons, maximum of 3 orbitals
 D – maximum of 10 electrons, maximum of 5 orbitals
 F – maximum of 14 electrons, maximum of 7 orbitals
 Each orbital can only hold a maximum or 2 electrons.
s Orbitals
 s orbitals are spherical in shape.
 A 2s orbital is the same, only bigger.
p Orbitals
 p orbitals are 2-lobed orbitals along the x, y, and z axes.
 If there is a p orbital, there is a s orbital, so they would be combined around 1 nucleus.
d Orbitals
 d orbital shapes become confusing and difficult to draw.
 Four spheres in the x, y, and z axes. d orbitals also have two spheres and a doughnut shape in
between them. All combined into one orbital.
f Orbitals
 We rarely work with f orbital atoms, so we do not need to be able to draw them. f orbitals are s,
p, d, and f orbitals combined into one.
Filling Orbitals
 Each element has a specific electron configuration.
 A written representation of the occupied orbitals.
 Principal Orbital #, Sub Level letter, of e
-

 Example: Ne: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6

 Each element also has an orbital diagram.
 A visual representation of the occupied orbitals.
 3 guiding rules to determine how electrons fill the orbitals.
 Aufbau Principle
 Pauli Exclusion Principle
 Hund’s Rule
Aufbau Principle
 Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons
of the atom have been accounted for.
 Aufbau – German for building up.
 Lowest energy level always 1s
 Energy increases as sublevels increase.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
 Named after Wolfgang Pauli.
 Each orbital can hold TWO electrons with opposite spins. (spins: up or down)
 Pauli won the 1924 Nobel Prize in Physics after Einstein nominated him.
Hund’s Rule
 Within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them.
 A maximum number of unpaired electrons results.
 Named after German physicist – Friedrich Hund.
Notation
 Orbital Diagram
 Oxygen atom. O: 8e
-
. 1s, 2s, 2p.
 Electron Configuration
 Oxygen: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4

 Longhand Configuration
 Sulfur atom. S: 16e
-
. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4
.
 Shorthand Configuration
 S 16e
-
[Ne]3s
2
3p
4
.
 Valence Notation
 S: 3s
2
3p
4
. Sulfur has 6 valence e
-
. Take highest energy levels. s and p energy levels are the only
real valence electrons.
Valence Electrons
 Valence electrons – outermost e
-
(highest energy level)
 8 e
-
maximum in valence shell.
 2 e
-
is s orbital and 6 e
-
in the p orbital.
 Octet Rule – atoms tend to gain or lose e
-
when bonding to obtain 8 valence e
-
.
 Exceptions: Hydrogen and Helium because n=1 can only hold 2 e
-
.
Periodic Trends Section 9.8 – 9.9
 Periodic Trends – gradual, predictable changes in the properties of elements as you move across
the periodic table. Example: Metallic Character.
 Reactivity – the tendency of a chemical substance to undergo a chemical reaction; or how
vigorously a substance tends to react.
 Trend is different for metals and nonmetals
 Metals
 More reactive from top to bottom
 Less reactive from left to right
 Nonmetals
 Less reactive from top to bottom
 More reactive from left to right
 Why? (Hint: Think why do things react? What’s the importance that anything reacts?)
 Adding energy to lower energy levels requires less energy and they have only 1 valence
electron, so they want to lose it to be stable.
Atomic Radius
 Distance from the nucleus of an atom to the outermost electron.
 Increases from top to bottom.
 Increases from right to left.
 Decreases from left to right.
 Why? If we’re adding e
-
, shouldn’t the radius increase?
Ionization Energy (IE)
 Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom.
 Relates to how easily an atom can become an ion.
 The larger the atom is, the easier its electrons are to remove.
 Increases from bottom to top.
 Increases from left to right.
 Why?
Electron Affinity
 Energy emitted upon the addition of an electron to an atom.
 Increases from bottom to top.
 Increases from left to right.
 You can think of it as an atom’s tendency to gain an electron.
 Larger EA = Greater tendency to gain an electron.
Ionic Radius
 Cations are positively charged ions. (Lose e
-
)
 Cations are always smaller than the original atom.
 Why?
 The loss of an e
-
.
 Any atom that loses an e
-
is a Cation.
 Anions are negatively charged ions. (Gain e
-
)
 Anions are always larger than the original atom.
 Why?
 The gain of an e
-
.
 Any atom that gains an e
-
is an Anion.
Chemical Bonding
Bonding – Why and what is a bond
 Why?
 Enables elements to fulfill the octet rule.
 Only occurs if the bond is favorable for both elements.
 What is a bond?
 A force.
 Holds groups of two or more atoms together.
 Those atoms function as a unit.
 An interaction of the valence electrons of different atoms.
Three Major Types of Bonding
 Metallic, ionic, and covalent.
 Ionic and Covalent bonds are the spectral ends of bonding.
 We use terms like “sharing”, “unequal sharing”, and “transfer” when talking about bonding,
because of how the electrons interact between atoms.
Ionic Bonding – periodic trends
 Attraction between oppositely charged ions (bonding between a metal and non-metal).
 Example:
 Salt (NaCl) = Na
+
+ Cl
-
 NaCl
 Transition metals can also form Cations.
 Except Rhenium (Re).
 Many transition metals can form more than 1 Cation.
 Which Cation they form is predicted from the kind of ionic bond it forms.
 Ionic bonds can be both very strong and very weak.
Lattice Structure
 Lattice Structure or Crystal Lattice – structure an ionic compound forms.
 Simplest repeating unit is the unit cell.
 A few different arrangements of lattice structures exist.
Covalent Bonding
 Covalent Bonding – electrons are shared between two atoms. Only happens between non-
metals.
 Because covalent bonds are made by sharing electrons, we know that each bond we see is made
of two electrons. Covalent bonds are always made with two electrons, never more, never less.
Metallic Bonding
 Delocalized electrons – Orbitals overlap such that electrons move freely, detached from its
parent atom, and that then gives stability.
 Example – Na
 Valence electron (3s
1
) shares space with a neighboring atom, creating a shared
molecular orbital.
 Sharing occurs between the central atom and the 3s orbitals of eight atoms.
Lewis Dot Structures
 Representation of a molecule that shows how the valence electrons are arranged among the
atoms in the molecule.
 Show only the valence electrons.
 Based on the Octet Rule.
 One electron = one dot.
 Ionic bonds
 NaCl
 Covalent bonds
 CH
4

 Diatomic molecules
 HOBrFINCl
 Looks the same for all elements in a group.
 Pairs of electrons that are not involved with bonding are called lone pairs or unshared pairs.
Types of Covalent Bonds
 A single bond involves two atoms sharing one electron pair.
 A double bond involves two atoms sharing two electron pairs.
 A triple bond involves two atoms sharing three electron pairs.
 Not all elements can form double and triple bonds.
 Generally, only Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon.
General Rules for Drawing Lewis Structures
 Hydrogen and halogen atoms bind to only one other atom and are usually on the end of the
molecule.
 The atom with the lowest electronegativity is often the central atom.
 Electronegativity increases from bottom to top and left to right.
 Consider symmetry. If there’s a chance to have symmetry, use that as a guideline.
 Place one electron on each side before pairing any electrons.
Steps for Writing Lewis Structures
 Obtain the total number of valence electrons in the molecule.
 Atoms that are bonded can be represented with a line. Each line is two electrons.
 Arrange the remaining electrons to satisfy the octet rule (8 e
-
, except for H (satisfies rule with
only two electrons)).
 Ex: SCl
2

 S: 6e
-
, Cl: 7e
-
(2) = 14e
-
. Total 20 valence electrons.
Lewis Structures with Multiple Bonds
 When more than one Lewis structure can be drawn for a molecule, the molecule shows
resonance.
 Resonance Structures – Different possible Lewis Structures for molecule.
 The best example of resonance occurs in C
6
H
6
, Benzene.
Polar Covalent Bonds
 A polar covalent bond is between an ionic and covalent bond.
 Electrons are not shared equally between atoms.
 Unequal sharing creates partial charge.
 Lowercase Greek letter delta (δ) indicates the partial charge in these molecules.
How do we know what kind of bond is going to form?
 Electronegativity is a rough guide.
 Electronegativity is the tendency to draw electrons in a bond towards itself.
 Increases from left to right, bottom to top.
Electronegativity
 Difference in EN is <0.5, a non-polar covalent bond forms.
 Difference in EN is >1.6, an ionic bond forms.
 Difference in EN is 0.5 – 1.6, a polar covalent bond forms.
 Note: These ranges are not exact… some bonds have a difference >1.6 and are
considered polar while others have a difference <1.6 and are considered ionic.
Remember ionic bonds form between metal and nonmetal elements while covalent
bonds form between nonmetals only.
 The polarity of a bond increases as the difference in electronegativity increases.
Polar molecules
 Separation of partial charges create a dipole.
 Polarity – Describes how much of a partial charge a molecule has.
 Polar molecules contain polar bonds.
 Remember: Like dissolves like.
 A polar substance dissolves another polar substance.
 A non-polar substance dissolves a non-polar substance.
 Cannot use a non-polar substance to dissolve a polar substance.
Polar vs. Non-polar Molecules
 Not all molecules with polar bonds are polar molecules.
 Sometimes dipoles cancel if they are equal and opposite directions.
 The centers of (+) and (-) charge are not different.
 Example: (O) = (C) = (O) (Opposite and equal, overall no polarity in the molecule)
So…
 A molecule is polar if…
 It contains polar bonds
AND
 It has a nonbonding pair of electrons on the central atom (e.g. H
2
O)
OR
 It has different elements bonded around the central atom (e.g. BF
2
H)
Molecular Geometry
 The ones you should know:
 Linear
 Trigonal Planar
 Bend
 Tetrahedral
 Trigonal pyramid
 The others
 Trigonal bipyramidal
 See-saw
 T-structure
 Octahedral
 Square pyramidal
 Square Planar
Naming and Writing Compounds
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
 Binary Ionic Compounds – Contain a metal and a non-mental. (metal – Cation, non-metal –
Anion)
 Overall charge on a compound must equal zero.
 Cations are named first using the element name followed (e.g. Lithium ion).
 Anions are named second with the suffix –ide (e.g. fluoride).
Binary Ionic Compounds
 Two types of Binary Ionic Compounds.
 Type I: The metal present forms only one type of Cation, meaning we can know the
charge of a type one metal from looking at the periodic table. There are a few
exceptions; Silver, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Zinc, Cadmium, etc.
 Groups 1, 2, and Ag
1+
, Zn
2+
, Cd
2+
, Al
3+
, Ga
3+
, In
3+
.
 Compound: NaCl, Ions present: Na
+
, Cl
-
, Name: Sodium Chloride
 Compound: MgO, Ions present: Mg
2+
, O
2-
, Name: Magnesium Oxide
 Type II: The metal present can form two or more Cations that have different charges.
 All other metals.
 Generally, transition metals.
 Metals that form ions with more than one charge (e.g. Au can form Au
+
or Au
3+
)
 Remember: Overall charge must equal zero.
 So, gold chloride
 Is it AuCl (containing Au
+
and Cl
-
)
 Or is it AuCl
3
(containing Au
3+
and Cl
-
)
 Neither, the charge needs to be specified in the name.
 Same as Type I, except, Roman numerals indicate the charge of the Cation.
 Example,
 AuCl is gold(I) chloride
 AuCl
3
is gold(III) chloride
 Examples,
 Compound: CuCl, Ions present: Cu
+
, Cl
-
, Name: Copper(I) Chloride.
 Compound: Fe
2
O
3
, Ions present: Fe
3+
, O
2-
, Name: Iron(III) Oxide.
 Compound PbCl
4
, Ions present: Pb
4+
, Cl
-
, Name: Lead(IV) Chloride. (Lead is
Plumbum in Latin)
Classical Naming System
 Classical – Uses suffixes to indicate Cation charge.
 Name the Cation using its Latin name/root.
 Lower charge gets the suffix –ous.
 Higher charge gets the suffix –ic.
 AuCl is aurous chloride
 AuCl
3
is auroic chloride
 Less preferred way of naming since it needs you to know the Latin root of the element.
Unneeded knowledge.
Writing Binary Compounds
 Criss-cross rule
 Example: Aluminum Chloride
 Write the symbols and charge of the elements
 Al
3+
Cl
1-

 Criss-cross charges and write them as subscripts
 Al
3+
Cl
1-
becomes Al
1
Cl
3
.
 The charge of Aluminum goes down to the subscript of Chloride, and the charge
of Chloride goes down to the subscript of Aluminum, creating Al
1
Cl
3
.
 Combine (and reduce, if needed) as the formula (“1” is never written)
 AlCl
3

Polyatomic Ions
 Polyatomic Ions – Charged groups of atoms bound together (e.g. NO
3
-
), usually with a negative
charge.
 The most important polyatomic ions are listed on the back of the periodic table.
 Ion: NH
4
1+
, Name: Ammonium
 Ion: NO
2
1-
, Name: Nitrite
 Ion: CN
1-
, Name: Cyanide
 H
2
PO
4
1-
, Name: Dihydrogen Phosphate
Oxyanions
 Polyatomic anions containing different numbers of oxygen atoms are called oxyanions.
 If two oxyanions exist:
 Name the ion with fewer oxygen atoms with –ite suffix.
 Name the ion with more oxygen atoms with –ate suffix.
 If more than two oxyanions exist:
 Name the ion with the fewest oxygen atoms with hypo– prefix and –ite suffix.
 Name the ion with the most oxygen atoms with per– prefix and –ate suffix.
 Note that the charge stays the same no matter what the number of oxyanions.
 Example:
 ClO
-
: Hypochlorite
 ClO
2
-
: Chlorite
 ClO
3
-
: Chlorate
 ClO
4
-
: Perchlorate
 Remember – Think of polyatomic ions as a unit or group (not separate, individual elements).
 Na
2
SO
4

 Sodium Sulfate
 KH
2
PO
4

 Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
 Fe(NO
3
)
3

 Fe a type II element. NO
3
is Nitrate. Nitrate ion has 1- charge. Three NO
3
’s. Iron’s
charge has to be 3+. Iron(III) Nitrate.
 Manganese(II) Hydroxide.
 Mn
2+
OH
-
. Mn
1
OH
2
not correct. Need two OH
-
, so Mn(OH)
2
.
 Na
2
SO
3

 Sodium Sulfite.
Naming Chemical Compounds
Is it a Binary Compound?
Yes --- Use strategy summarized earlier
No -- Polyatomic ions present?
Yes -- Name the compound using procedures similar to those for naming binary ionic
compound
No -- This is a compound for which naming procedures have not yet been considered.
Binary Molecular (Covalent) Compounds
 Type III Binary compounds occur when two nonmetals bond – Molecular Compounds.
 Naming Type III compounds
 Use the full element name to name the first element.
 Use the –ide suffix on the second element.
 Greek prefixes denote the number of atoms present (see back of periodic table).
 Prefix mono– is never used on the first element (e.g. CO is called Carbon Monoxide, not
Monocarbon Monoxide).
 Sometimes, we eliminate the vowel on the end of the prefix to make the pronunciation
easier.
Flow Chart
 Binary Compound?
 Yes
 Metal Present?
 No
o Type III, Use Greek Prefixes
 Yes
o Does the metal form more than one Cation?
 No
 Type I, Use the element name for the Cation
 Yes
 Type II, Determine the charge of the Cation; use
a Roman numeral after the Cation name.
Naming and Writing Acids
 Acids – Arrhenius Definition
 Produce Hydronium ion (H
3
O
+1
) in water.
 Hydronium ion is water + a Hydrogen cation.
Naming non-oxygen Acids
 With acids, Hydrogen is always the first cation listed.
 These compounds have:
 Start with “H” (more than one “H” is OK, too).
 Do not contain oxygen.
 To name these compounds:
 Use “hydro____ic acid”.
 Fill in the blank with the anion’s name without the last syllable.
 Example#1:
 HBr
 No oxygen, starts with Hydrogen, so use “hydro___ic acid”. Hydrobromic acid.
Naming Oxygen Acids
 These compounds have:
 Start with “H” (more than one “H” is OK, too).
 Do contain Oxygen.
 To name these compounds:
 Use “___ic acid” for “-ate” anions.
 Use “___ous acid” for “-ite” anions.
 Do not use “hydro” with these… the word “acid” is how you know it begins with
hydrogen, not “hydro-”.
 Example#2:
 H
2
SO
3

 Hydrogen cation, Sulfite ion, “-ite” ion, use “___ous acid” Sulfurous acid.
 H
2
SO
4

 Hydrogen cation, Sulfate ion, “-ate” ion, use “___ic acid”. Sulfuric acid.
Writing “Hydro-“ Acids
 To write these formulas:
 The cation is H
+1
.
 Write the anion and charge.
 Balance the charges by Criss Crossing charges.
 Example#4:
 Hydrofluoric acid
 Hydrogen cation, no oxygen, H
+1
F
-1
.
Writing NON ‘Hydro-“ Acids
 To write these formulas:
 If it is an “–ic” acid, the anion is the “–ate” polyatomic ion
 The cation is H
+1

 Write the anion and charge.
 If it is an “–ous” acid, the anion is the “–ite” polyatomic ion
 Balance the charges by Cross Crossing charges.
 Example#5:
 Carbonic acid
 Non-balanced, from the “___ate” anion. H
2
CO
3
.
 Example#6:
 Nitrous acid
 Non-balanced, from the “___ite” anion. HNO
2
.
Writing and balancing chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
 Represented by a chemical equation.
 Reactants – chemicals present at the start of the reaction (the left side of the arrow).
 Products – chemicals formed after the reaction (the right side of the arrow).
 Reactants  Products (read as “Reactants yield Products” Can think of as “Reactants equal
Products”).
 Law of Conservation of Mass – mass can neither be created nor destroyed.
 Starting atoms equal ending atoms.
 Therefore the reaction must be balanced.
 Combustion of Methane:
 CH
4(g)
+ O
2(g)
 CO
2(G)
+ H
2
O
(g)

 Is this reaction balanced?
 No
Balanced Reactions
 Coefficients show the relative number of molecules involved in the reaction.
 CH
4(g)
+ 2O
2(g)
 CO
2(G)
+ 2H
2
O
(g)

 Provides:
 Identities of the reactants and products.
 Relative numbers of each molecule.
 Physical states.
 Solid (s)
 Liquid (l)
 Gas (g)
 Aqueous (aq) (Dissolves in water)
Balancing Chemical Equations
 Coefficient (an integer) in front of the molecule indicates the relative number.
 Smallest possible coefficients.
 Writing and balancing equations:
 Write the reactants, products and their states.
 Write an unbalanced equation.
 Balance the equation by inspection:
 Hint: Start with the most complicated molecule, balance single elements last.
 Don’t change the formulas (subscripts) of the chemical formulas.
 Hint: If you have a polyatomic ion as a reactant and a product, treat it as a single
entity.
 Ex: NaOH + CaCO
3
 Na
2
(O
3
+ Ca(OH)
2
)
 Check your work.
 Ex1: Solid potassium reacts with liquid water to form gaseous hydrogen and potassium
hydroxide that dissolves in water.
 Step 1: Reactants: Solid potassium, K
(s)
and liquid water H2O
(l)
, Products: gaseous
hydrogen, H
2(g)
and dissolved potassium hydroxide, KOH
(aq)

 Step 2: K
(s)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 H
2(g)
+ KOH
(aq)

 Step 3: Start with KOH (because it has the most elements). Start with H and note that on
the reactant side there are 2 H atoms and on the product side 3. If we place a coefficient
of 2 in front of both H2O and KOH we have 4 H atoms on each side.
 2K
(s)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
 H
2(g)
+ 2KOH
(aq)

 Also note that the O atoms balance, however the K atoms do not. This is easily fixed by
adding a 2 in front of the K on the reactant side.
 Step 4: Check: There are 2 K, 4 H, and 2 O atoms on both sides of the arrow and the
coefficients are the smallest integers that give a balance equation. Therefore this is the
correct balanced chemical equation.
 Ex2: Under appropriate conditions at 1000
o
C, ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to produce
gaseous nitrogen monoxide and gaseous water. Write the unbalanced and balanced equations
for this reaction.
 Step 1
 Reactants: Ammonia gas, NH
3(g)
and Oxygen gas, O
2(g)

 Products: Gaseous Nitrogen monoxide, NO
(g)
and gaseous water H
2
O
(g)

 NH
3
+ O
2
 NO + H
2
O
 2NH
3
+ 2.5O
2
 2NO + 3H
2
O (Cannot have a decimal as a coefficient. Rewrite it and
double all the coefficients, only if the coefficient is a half).
 4NH
3
+ 5O
2
 4NO + 6H
2
O
 2 4 2 4
 1 2 1 2
Types of Reactions
 5 general types of reactions
 Or 6, or 4 depending on who you ask.
 Some reactions fit into more than one category.
 We’re going to consider 5.
Number One
 Synthesis (combination) reaction – Compound is formed from simpler compounds or elements.
 General form
 A + B  AB
 Example
 2Na
(s)
+ Cl
2(g)
 2NaCl
(s)

Number Two
 Decomposition reaction – Compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements.
Opposite of combustion.
 General form
 AB  A + B
 Example
 2H
2
O
(l)
 2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)

Number Three
 Single replacement (displacement) reaction – A single cation replaces another one in a
compound. Generally ionic, but doesn’t have to be.
 General form
 A + BX  B + AX
 Single element and compound, A replaces B.
 Example
 Zn
(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
 H
2(g)
+ ZnCl
2(aq)

Number Four
 Double replacement reaction – Two ionic compounds exchange anions. Cations being swapped.
 General form
 AX + CY  AY + CX
 Cations A and C are simply switching anions Y and X.
 Example
 2KI
(aq)
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2(aq)
 2KNO
3(aq)
+ PbI
2(s)

Number Five
 Combustion reaction – O
2
is a reactant and CO
2
and H
2
O are products. All Combustion reactions
produce this, with a few exceptions.
 General form
 A + O
2
 CO
2
+ H
2
O
 Example
 CH
4(g)
+ 2O
2(g)
 CO
2(g)
+ 2H
2
O
(g)

Oxidation – Reduction Reactions notes section 16.1 & 16.3
Oxidation – Reduction Reaction
 Commonly called Redox Reaction – Electrons are transferred from one reactant to another.
Basically, the transfer of electrons.
 Example
 Zn
(s)
+ CuSO
4(aq)
 ZnSO
4(aq)
+ Cu
(s)

 Ionic Equation
 Zn
(s)
+ Cu
2+
(aq)
+ SO
4
2-
(aq)
 Zn
2+
(aq)
+ SO
4
2-
(aq)
+ Cu
(s)

 Spectator Ions do not take part in the reaction. (SO
4
2-
) can be crossed out.
 Net ionic equation shows only the ions involved in the reaction.
 Zn
(s)
+ Cu
2+
(aq)
 Zn
2+
(aq)
+ Cu
(s)

 Electrons moving from Zn to Cu. Two electrons are leaving Zn and going to Cu, resulting
in Zn having a 2+ charge and Cu having a 2- charge, making it a neutral charge.
 Half-reaction describes the oxidation reaction and the reduction reaction.
 Zn
(s)
 Zn
2+
(aq)
+ 2e
-
(Oxidation)
 Cu
2+
(aq)
+ 2e
-
 Cu
(s)
(Reduction)
 Oxidation – The loss of electrons. Increasing the charge.
 Reduction – The gain of electrons. Reducing the charge.
Redox Example
 Oxidizing agent – Causes the oxidation of the other substance.
 Reducing agent – Causes the reduction of the other substance.
 Zn
(s)
+ Cu
2+
(aq)
 Zn
2+
(aq)
+ Cu
(s)

 Reducing agent is Zn, the Oxidizing agent is Cu. Whichever one is being oxidized is the
reducing agent and whichever one is being reduced is the oxidizing agent.
Oxidation Numbers
 Defined as
 The charge on an atom or a monatomic ion, or
 The charge an atom in a substance would have if the shared pair of electrons belonged
to the more electronegative atom.
 e.g. Binary ionic compound
 NaCl
 The charge of Na is 1+, the oxidation number is +1.
 The charge of Cl is 1-, the oxidation number is -1.
Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
 The oxidation number of:
1. An atom = 0. (Zn, F
2
, P
4
)
2. A monatomic ion = its charge. (Cu
2+
is +2 & O
2-
is -2)
3. Fluorine is always -1 in all of its compounds because of its electronegativity. (HF, NF
3
, SF
6
)
4. Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine is usually equal to -1, unless in combination with oxygen
or fluorine (each I in NI
3
has oxidation number = -1).
5. Hydrogen is +1 when bonded with nonmetals (HCl, H
2
O, NH
3
) and -1 when bonded with
metals (AlH
3
and LiH). Usually seen with a +1 oxidation number.
6. Oxygen is usually -2, except in peroxides it is -1 (H
2
O
2
and Na
2
O
2
, here it would be a -1
oxidation number).
7. Group 1 atoms is +1, and group 2 atoms is +2.
8. Sum of oxidation numbers of atoms in a compound is always 0.
9. Sum of oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion. If it’s a
neutral ion, the sum is 0, but if it’s a charged ion, the sum equals the charge.
 Example
1. SO
2

 -2 for each Oxygen (rule 6)
 Oxidation number for S + 2 * -2 = 0 (rule 8)
 Oxidation number for S = +4
2. CO
3
2-

 Oxidation number of each oxygen = -2.
 Oxidation number of C = +4.
3. What is the oxidizing and reducing agents in
 WO
3(s)
+ 3H
2(g)
 W
(s)
+ 3H
2
O
(g)

 W = +6, O = -2, H = 0,  W = 0, H = +1, O = -2.
 H
2
is being oxidized
 W is being reduced
 Oxidizing agent is WO
3

 Reducing agent is H
2

Predicting single replacement reaction products
 Which of the following reactions is incorrect?
 Cu
(s)
+ ZnCl
2(aq)
 [CuCl
2(aq)
+ Zn
(s)
]no reaction. Incorrect
 Zn
(s)
+ CuCl
2(aq)
 ZnCl
2(aq)
+ Cu
(s)
Correct
 A reaction will only occur if the element is higher on the activity series.
 Activity Series – a list of metallic elements (&H) ordered by their relative activities in single
replacement reactions to form a given ion in aqueous solution.
 A + BX  B + AX
 A will only replace B if A is more reactive. If A is higher on the Activity Series, it
will replace B. If it is lower on the Activity Series, A will not replace B.
Moles and Molar Mass Chapter 7.1 – 7.5
Vocabulary
 Atomic weight (mass) – mass of one atom in amu.
 Molecular weight (mass) – mass of one molecule in amu.
 Formula weight (mass) – mass of one formula unit in amu.
Average Mass of an Element
 Masses on the periodic table are averages, for one atom, given in atomic mass units (amu).
 1 amu = 1.6005402 x 10
-27
kg
 One amu is exactly 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom.
 Example:
 1 Al atom = 26.98 amu
 What is the mass, in amu, of a sample of Al that contains 75 atoms?
 75 x 26.98 amu.
The Mole
 SI unit for amount is mole.
 Abbreviated mol or mols.
 A constant relates the number of particles in exactly one mol of pure substance.
 Avogadro’s number, named after Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro.
 1 mol of something is equal to 6.022 x 10
23
particles.
 Understanding the mole.
 1 dozen eggs is equal to how many eggs?
 12 eggs
 1 mole of eggs is equal to how many eggs?
 6.022 x 10
23
eggs
 1 mol of various elements.
 Aluminum – 6.022 x 10
23
– 26.98
 Gold – 6.022 x 10
23
– 196.97
 Iron – 6.022 x 10
23
– 55.85
 Sulfur – 6.022 x 10
23
– 32.07
Calculating Molar Mass
 Add the masses of each atom in the molecule.
 Example:
 CaF
2

 Ca: 40.08 g/mol * (1) = 40.08 g/mol
 F: 19 g/mol * (2) = 38 g/mol
 40.08 + 38 = 78.08 g/mol
Calculating Moles and Number of Atoms
 Grams of substance(molar mass g/mol) Moles of substance (Avogadro’s number 6.022 x
10
23
parts/mol) Number of atoms/molecules.
 Gramsmolar mass  Moles Avogadro’s number  Molecules/atoms
Examples
 Calculate the number of moles and the number of atoms in a 25.0 g sample of Ca.

= 0.624 mol Ca
 3.76 x 10
23
Ca atoms
 Calculate the mass of a sample of Zn containing 2.17 x 10
23
Zn atoms.

= 23.56
Percent Composition and Mass Percentages Sections 7.6 – 7.7
Percent Composition of Compounds
 Percent composition is the percentage by mass of each element in a compound.
 Mass percent is equivalent to the grams of that element in 100 g of the compound.
 Mass percent =


* 100
Mass Percent Example 1
 What is the mass percent of each element in Ethanol (C
2
H
6
O), an alcohol obtained by fermenting
the sugar of grapes, corn, seaweed, etc.
 Ethanol is added to gasoline to lower emissions (specifically CO), and create a cleaner
burning fuel.
 C: 12.01g(2) = 24.02g
 H: 1.008g(6) = 6.048g
 O: 16.00g(1) = 16g
 Add together: 46.068g
 %C =

Calculating Mass Percent from Lab Data
 Use the weighed quantity rather than assuming 1 mole.
 Mass percent =



Mass Percent Example 2
 When a particular compound of mercury and oxygen is heated, it decomposes to give metallic
mercury and oxygen gas.
 If you began with a 5.00g sample of the compound, and after decomposition obtained
4.63g Hg and 0.37g O
2
, what is the mass percentages?
 Mass% Hg =



 Mass% Hg =

 92.6%
 O = 0.37
Calculating empirical and molecular formulas sections 7.8 – 7.9
Formulas
 Empirical formula is the simplest formula using whole number subscripts.
 Molecular formula is the formula of the actual compound.
 The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula.
4 steps to determining empirical formula
 Obtain the mass of each element present (in grams).
 Convert the masses to moles. (Divide by atomic number) (Divide by molar mass)
 Divide the number of moles of each element by the smallest number of moles to convert the
smallest number to 1. If all of the numbers obtained are integers (whole numbers), they are the
subscripts in the empirical formula. If one or more of these numbers are not integers, go to step
4.
 Multiply the numbers you derived in step 3 by the smallest integer that will convert all of them
to whole numbers. This set of whole numbers represents the subscripts in the empirical formula.
 Common decimals and corresponding fractions.
 0.500  ½
 0.333  1/3
 0.25  ¼
 0.667  2/3
 0.75  ¾
Empirical formula example 1
 We have a compound containing C, H, and O atoms. What is the empirical formula if we have
0.0806g C, 0.01353g H, and 0.1074g O?
 C: 0.0806g

 H: 0.01353g

 O: 0.1074g

Molecular formula
 If we know the molar mass of the compound and the empirical formula, we can calculate the
molecular formula.
 Molecular formula = n(empirical formula)
 Where n = some integer
 Therefore, molar mass = n x empirical formula mass
 Solving for n gives,




Molecular formula example 1
 A white powder is analyzed and found to have an empirical formula of P
2
O
5
. The compound has
a molar mass of 283.88 g/mol. What is the compound’s molecular formula?
 P: 2(30.97) = 61.94
 O: 5(16) = 80
 Total: 141.94

 ()
 2(P
2
O
5
) = P
4
O
10

Empirical formula example (again)
A compound contains 43.64% Phosphorus and 56.36% Oxygen. What is the empirical formula?
P: 43.64g/30.97g = 1.409mol/1.409 = (1)2 = 2
O: 56.36g/16g = 3.52mol/1.409 = (2.498)2 = 5
P
2
O
5

Hydrates
 Hydrate – An ionic compound with H
2
O molecules incorporated into the crystal lattice.
 A solid at the molecular level that has water incorporated into the lattice.
Anhydrous
 Anhydrous – A salt that does not contain H
2
O in the lattice.
 If it absorbs water from wherever, it becomes a hydrated salt.
General form
 General format of a hydrate – Salt * ?H
2
O
 CoCl
2
* 6H
2
O
 * does not mean multiply. It just tells that it’s a hydrate.
 Salt name prefix hydrate.
Stoichiometry Notes Unit 9 Chapter 8
Using Mole Ratios
 Calculate the number of moles of oxygen required to react exactly 4.30 mol of propane, C
3
H
8
, in
the reaction described by the following balanced equation. Mole ratios compare the relative
number of each.
 C
3
H
8(g)
+ 5O
2(g)
3CO
2(g)
+ 4H
2
O
(g)
: For every mol of Propane, there will be 5 moles of
Oxygen. That produces 3 moles of Carbon Dioxide and 4 moles of water.
 4.3 mol C
3
H
8
x 5 mol O
2
= 21.5 mol O
2

Stoichiometry Flowchart
 Mass of given substance
x 1/molar mass
 Moles of given substance
times mole ratio
 Moles of substance wanted
times molar mass
 Mass of substance wanted
Mass Calculations
 Let’s look at the combustion of 44.1g of propane:
 C
3
H
8(g)
+ 5O
2(g)
3CO
2(g)
+ 4H
2
O
(g)

 How many grams of O
2
are required to react with all 44.1g of C
3
H
8(g)
?
 Cannot convert grams of one thing to grams of another thing. Cannot convert grams to
moles of something.
 (44.1g * 1 mol C
3
H
8
)/44.1 g C
3
H
8
)*5 mol O
2
/1 mol C
3
H
8
)*32 g O
2
)/1 mol O
2
) = 160




Mass Calculations: Comparing Two Reactions
 2 chemicals are often used as an antacid to neutralize excess acid in your stomach, baking soda
(NaHCO
3
) and milk of magnesia (Mg(OH)
2
). Which antacid can consume the most stomach acid?
1.00 g of NaHCO
3
or 1.00 g of Mg(OH)
2
?
 Here are the balanced equations:
 NaHCO
3(s)
+ HCl
(aq)
 NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(L)
+ CO
2(g)

 Mg(OH)
2(s)
+ 2HCl
(aq)
 2H
2
O
(L)
+ MgCl
2(aq)

 1.0 g NaHCO
3
* 1 mol NaHCO
3
/84.01 g NaHCO
3
* 1 mol HCl/1 mol NaHCO
3
= 0.012 mol HCl
 1.0 g Mg(OH)
2
* 1 mol Mg(OH)
2
/ 58.32 g Mg(OH)
2
* 2 mol HCl/1 mol Mg(OH)
2
= 0.034 mol HCl





() ()
() ()

Limiting Reactant
 Limiting Reactant is the reactant that runs out first and thus limits the amounts of products that
can form.
 Let’s think about making a ham and cheese sandwich.
 2 pieces of bread + 3 slices of meat + 1 slice of cheese = 1 sandwich
 If I have 20 pieces of bread, 24 slices of meat, and 12 slices of cheese, how many
sandwiches can I make? What is the limiting ingredient (reactant)?
 8 sandwiches because the limiting reactant is the meat.
Determining the limiting reactant
 Obtain the mass of each reactant
 Convert the mass of each reactant to moles (divide by atomic mass)
 Divide each reactant by its stoichiometric coefficient – the smallest number is the limiting
reactant.
 Use the total moles of limiting reactant to complete all calculations.
Example #1
 Suppose 2.5 x 10
4

g of nitrogen gas is mixed with 5000 g of hydrogen. When they react,
ammonia is formed. What is the mass of the ammonia produced?
 What is the balanced equation?
 N
2(g)
+ 3H
2(g)
 2NH
3

 What is the limiting reactant?
 N
2
: Mass – 2.5 x 10
4
g, Moles – 892.22mol. H
2
: Mass – 5000g, Moles – 2480.16g
 What is the stoichiometric coefficient?
 N
2
– 892.22/1 = 892.22, H
2
– 2480.16/3 = 826.
 What is the limiting reactant?
 The limiting reactant is Hydrogen.
 Using the limiting reactant, what is the final mass of ammonia produced? (Use the total
amount available, not the stoichiometric coefficient.)
 H
2
– 2480.16g.

Example #2
 Iron(III) Oxide reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron metal and carbon dioxide gas,
according to the following unbalanced equation:
 Fe
2
O
3(s)
+ 3CO
(g)
 2Fe
(s)
+ 3CO
2(g)

 In a certain experiment, 5.0 g of Iron(III) Oxide is reacted with 5.0 g of Carbon Monoxide.
 What is the limiting reactant?
 Fe
2
O
3
– Mass: 5.0 g, Moles: 0.031 mol0.03  limiting reactant. CO – Mass: 5.0
g, Moles: 0.18 mol 0.06.
 What is the mass of iron that will be produced?




 What mass of Carbon Monoxide will remain?




 5.0g – 2.61g = 2.39 g CO remains
Percent Yield
 Often the amount of substance created in the lab is different from the amount calculated from
the chemical equation.
 Theoretical Yield is the amount of product we calculate from the chemical equation
 Actual yield is the amount of product obtained in the lab
 Comparing the actual yield and the theoretical yield and expressing it as a percent is the percent
yield
 The percent yield is represented by the following equation:




Example
 In a certain experiment, the expected (theoretical) yield is 1.352 g. The actual yield was 1.279 g.
What is the percent yield?
o (1.279/1.352)*100 = 94.6%
 Urea is formed by the reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide
o 2NH
3(g)
+ CO
2(g)
 CN
2
H
4
O
(s)
+ H
2
O
(L)

 In a certain experiment, 100.0 g of ammonia is reacted with 100.0 g of carbon dioxide, and 120.0
g of urea is produced. What is the percent yield?
Gases Chapter 11 Unit 10
What are gases?
 Flow like liquids.
 Compress easily.
 In constant motion – particles frequently colliding together and with the container.
 Completely fill a container.
 Exert pressure equally in all directions.
 Have low densities. (

)
Pressure
 Fore per area (N/m
2
)
 Units of pressure
o Pascal (Pa)
o Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
o Torr (torr)
o Bar (bar)
o Atmosphere (atm)
o Pound per square inch (psi)
 1.000 atm = 760.0 mm Hg = 760.0 torr = 101,325 Pa
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
 Explains
o The behavior of gases.
o Relationship between Pressure (P), Volume (V), Temperature (T), and Number of moles
(n) (quantity).
 4 Postulates
o Composed of very small particles separated by large distances, relative to their size.
o In constant, random motion.
o Attractions and repulsions between particles is negligible. Not necessarily reality.
o Average kinetic energy of the particles is directly proportional to the temperature (in
Kelvin).
o Ideal gases follow KMT perfectly, in contrast to Real gases.
Studying Gases
 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
o STP = 0
o
C and 1 atm.
 At STP, 1 mol of any gas is 22.4 L.
Boyle’s Law (Robert Boyle, 1662)
 1662, Robert Boyle published results relating pressure and the volume at constant temperature.
o Pressure*Volume = constant k (PV = k)
 P increases, V decreases.
 If conditions change except temperature, we can express Boyle’s Law by:
o P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
(Where, P
1
= Initial pressure, V
1
= Initial volume, P
2
= Final pressure, V
2
=
Final volume)
Charles’s Law
 About 1762, Jacques Charles experimented and graphed volume of a gas vs. temperature, with
pressure constant.
 Produced a straight line (a linear relationship)
o Volume/Temperature (degrees Kelvin) = constant k (

)
 Volume increases, Temperature increases.

o
C to
o
K = 273.15 +
o
C
 If conditions change except pressure, we can express Charles’s law by:
o

(V
1
= Initial volume, T
1
= Initial temperature, V
2
= Final pressure, T
2
= Final
temperature).
Gay-Lussac’s Law
 1808, French scientist Joseph Gay-Lussac made observations of gases while holding volume
constant.

where k is a constant, P is pressure, and T is
o
K.
 If conditions change except volume, we can express Gay-Lussac’s law by

,
where P
1
=
initial pressure, T
1
= initial temperature, P
2
= final pressure, and T
2
= final temperature.
Avagadro’s Law
 1811, Amadeo Avogadro proposed a law relating the volume and number of molecules.
o Was not seen as valuable until 1875.

, where V = volume, n = number of moles, and k = a constant.
 If conditions change except pressure and temperature, we can express Avogadro’s Law by:

where, n
1
= initial moles, V
1
= initial volume, n
2
= final moles, and V
2
= final volume.
Combined Gas Law
 Relates, P, V, and T
o

 If conditions change, we can express the combined gas law by:
o

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
 In a mixture of gases, the partial pressure is the pressure of an individual gas.
 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures – The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the
partial pressures.
 P
total
= P
A
+ P
B
+ P
C

Ideal Gas Law
 An ideal gas is a theoretical gas that behaves in a predictable manner, following the ideal gas
law.
 At STP, most real gases behave like an ideal gas.
 The ideal gas law is the equation of state for an ideal gas
o A side note: an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation describing the state of
matter under a given set of physical conditions.
 PV = nRT, where P = Pressure, V = Volume, n = Number of moles, R = a constant(always 8.314 for
pressure in Pa, volume in m
3
, and temperature K or 0.08206 for pressure in atm, volume in L,
and temperature K), and T = Temperature.
 R is the Universal Gas Constant.
o Physical constant expressed in units of energy per
o
K per mol.
o R = 8.314 J/mol*
o
K
 Relating R to the ideal gas law, we use a slightly different number by converting J to L*atm.
o R = 0.08206 L*atm/mol*
o
K
 Example: N
2
O: 2.86 mol occupies a 20.0L tank at 23
o
C, what is the pressure?
o PV=nRT, 20P = 2.86*0.08206*(23+273.15). 20P = 2.86*0.08206*296.15.

Using the Gas Laws
 Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT  P and V change, n, R, T constant Boyle’s Law P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
 T and V
change, P, n, R constant Charles’ Law

 P and T change, n, R, V constant Gay-Lussac
Law

 P, V, and T change, n and R constant Combined Gas Law

.
Changes in States of Matter Chapter 12.1
States of Matter
 Gas (Vapor)
o Flow like liquid
o Lower densities
o Random and constant motion
o Compress easily
o No fixed shape or volume
 Liquid
o Molecules closer together
o Fill shape of container; fixed volume, but not shape
 Solid
o Fixed volume and fixed shape
Vocabulary
 Melting (fusion) – Change from solid to liquid.
 Freezing – Change from liquid to solid.
 Vaporization (evaporation) – Change from liquid to gas.
 Condensation – Change from gas to liquid.
 Sublimation – Change from solid to gas.
 Deposition – Change from gas to solid.
Normal Melting, Freezing, and Boiling
 Normal Melting Point – At 1 atm, the temperature at which a solid changes to liquid.
o Normal Freezing Point – At 1 atm, the temperature at which a liquid changes to solid.
o 0
o
C for water.
 Normal Boiling Point – At 1 atm, the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas.
o 100
o
C for water.
Heating Curve for Water Page 365 on book
 Below 0
o
C – Solid Adding energy
o 0
o
C – Melting Pointe – Molar Heat of Fusion  Adding energy
 25
o
C to 99
o
C – Liquid  Adding energy
 100
o
C – Boiling point  Adding energy
o 100
o
C and above – Gas
Phase Diagram or Pressure – Temperature (P-T) Diagram

 Green Line
o Melting/Freezing
 Blue Line
o Vaporization/Condensation
 Red Line
o Sublimation/Deposition
 Critical Point
o Point when at the critical temperature (T
C
) and critical pressure (P
C
).
 Critical Temperature
o Any temperature >T
C
, liquid and vapor phases cannot coexist.
 Critical Pressure
o Vapor pressure at T
C
.
 Triple Point
o Point at which vapor, liquid, and solid states are in equilibrium.
Molar Heat of Fusion (H
f
)
 Molar Heat of Fusion abbreviated H
f

 Energy required to melt (fuse) 1 mol of a solid.
 Example: How much heat energy is require d to melt 10.0 g of ice cubes at 0
o
C? The molar heat
of fusion for water is 6.01 KJ/mol.
o

Molar Heat of Vaporization (H
V
)
 Molar Heat of Vaporization abbreviated H
V
.
 Energy required to vaporize 1 mol of a liquid.
 Example: How much heat energy is required to convert 10.0g of liquid water at 100
o
C to steam
at the same temperature? The molar heat of vaporization for water at 100
o
C is 40.7 KJ/mol.
o

 Example: How much heat is required to melt 10.0 g of ice at 0
o
C, raise the temperature of the
liquid water from 0
o
C to 100
o
C, and then vaporize the liquid at 100
o
C? The specific heat of water
is 4.18 J/(g*
o
C)
o Heat energy = specific heat * mass * change in temperature
o H
f
= 3.335, H
V
= 22.59
o Energy = 4.18 KJ/(g*
o
C) * 10.0g * 100
o
C = 4.18 *10
3
J = 4.18 KJ
o 3.335 KJ + 4.18 KJ + 22.59 KJ = 30.1 KJ

Boiling vs. Evaporation
 Evaporation occurs below the boiling point.
o Why?
 Vapor Pressure
o Pressure exerted by a liquid’s vapor at equilibrium.
 Boiling Point
o Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
 Select Vapor Pressures of Water
Location Pressure Boiling Temperature
Sea Level 1 atm (760 mmHg) 100
o
C
Mt. Everest (29,029 ft) 234 mmHg 70.0
o
C
How much heat is needed using H
f
and H
v

 Solid  liquid : # of moles * H
f

 Liquid  higher temperature liquid : c
liquid
* mass * change in temperature
 Higher temperature liquid  gas : # of moles * H
v

 Total heat needed : (Solid  liquid) + (Liquid  higher temperature liquid) + (higher
temperature liquid  gas)
How much heat is removed using H
f
and H
v

 Gas  liquid : # of moles * H
v

 Liquid  lower temperature liquid : c
liquid
* mass * change in temperature
 Lower temperature liquid  solid : # of moles * H
f

 Solid  lower temperature solid : c
solid
* mass * change in temperature
 Total heat removed : (Gas  liquid) + (Liquid  lower temperature liquid) + (Lower
temperature liquid  solid) + (Solid  lower temperature solid)
Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Chapter 12.5
Intermolecular vs Intramolecular
 Intramolecular Forces
o Within the molecule (bonds).
o Breaking these results in a chemical change.
 Intermolecular Forces
o Forces between separate molecules.
o Breaking these results in a physical change.
London Dispersion Forces
 Weak attractive forces between temporarily polarized molecules.
o Caused by varying positions of electrons moving about the nuclei.
o Temporary condition where all electrons are on the same side of the molecule.
 Occur in all liquids
 One temporarily polar molecule is attracted to another temporarily polar molecule.
 Weakest intermolecular forces.
 Larger the molecule (larger molecular mass) the stronger the London Dispersion Force.
o Why? There are more electrons.
Dipole – Dipole Forces
 Permanent attractive forces between polarized molecules.
 Stronger than dispersion forces.
o Why? They’re permanent.
Hydrogen Bonding
 Very strong Dipole – Dipole force between polar molecules containing Hydrogen bonded to
Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Fluorine.
 The difference in electrons between Hydrogen and Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine creates very
large and strong attraction forces.
 Strongest intermolecular force.
Intermolecular Forces Relates to Types of Bonds
 Ionic Bonds (metal – nonmetal, Intramolecular)
 Covalent Bonds (nonmetal – nonmetal, Intramolecular)
o Difference in EN (Electronegativity):
o <0.5 = nonpolar covalent bond, London Dispersion Forces.
o >/= 0.5 = covalent bond, dipole – dipole (Hydrogen bond if with N, O, or F).
Intermolecular
 London  1 – 10 kJ
 Dipole – ;
 Dipole  3 – 4 kJ
 Ion – Dipole  5 – 50 kJ
 Hydrogen bonding  10 – 40 kJ
Chemical bonding
 Ionic  100 – 1000 kJ
 Covalent  100 – 1000 kJ
IMF and Properties
 Energy needed to break IMF (Intermolecular Forces).
 Energy released when new IMF form.
o Higher IMF, higher melting point/boiling point.
 Solubility
o To dissolve, the solute and solvent must break the IMF’s they form within itself,
o And form new IMF’s with each other.
o Like dissolves like
 Polar covalent dissolves polar covalent, non-polar dissolves non-polar
o As new IMF’s are formed, the solvent dissolves the solute.
o Oil and Water do not mix.
Soap and Water
 Soap has a polar head with a non-polar tail.
 Polar portion interacts with water.
 Non-polar portion interacts with dirt and grease.
 The soap surrounds the dirt, forming a Micelle.
 Micelle interacts with the water.
Micelles
 Made up of:
o Hydrophilic head – Water loving head.
o Hydrophobic tail – Water fearing tail.
o Organic matter.
Surface Tension
 Amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area.
o Strong IMF, High surface tension.
Capillary Action
 Cohesion
o Intermolecular attraction between like molecules.
 Adhesion
o Intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules.
Viscosity
 Resistance to flow.
o IMF becomes more intertwined.
o Higher IMF, higher viscosity.
The Solid State chapter 12.6
Crystalline Solid
 Solid composed of 1 or more crystals with each crystal having a well-defined, ordered
arrangement of structural units.
o Example: Sodium Chloride, Sucrose.
Amorphus Solid
 Solid that lacks order and, as a result, does not have a well-defined arrangement of structural
units.
o Example: Glass
Atomic Solid
 Solid containing atoms from a nonmetallic element.
o Example: Ne, remainder of the noble gases.
Metallic Solid
 Solid containing atoms from a metallic element.
o Example: Cu, Ag, Au.
Covalent Network Solid
 Solid containing atoms held in large networks or chains by covalent bonds.
o Example: Carbon (graphite, diamond, Buckminsterfullerene), silicon dioxide.
Molecular Solid
 Solid consisting of molecules.
o Example: Water (ice), carbon dioxide (dry ice), and sucrose (table sugar).
Ionic Solid
 Solid consisting of ions.
o Example: Sodium chloride (table salt).
Solutions and Concentration Chapter 12.4, 12.7 – 12.9
What is a solution?
 Homogeneous mixture (solid, liquid, gas).
 Largest portion is the solvent.
 Smaller portion is the solute(s).
 Solutes dissolve in the solvent.
Solution Composition
 Saturated – Contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature.
 Unsaturated – Can still dissolve solute.
 Supersaturated – Contains more solutes that in a saturated solution.
Mass Percent
 Expresses concentration of solute as a percentage of the mass of solution (weight/weight).
(


)
 Example:
o A solution is prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of NaCl in 48 g of H
2
O.
 (


)
Mass Concentration Expressions
 Volume Percent – Volume of solute expressed as a percent solution volume (volume/volume)
 Percent Weight to Volume – Mass of solute expressed as a percent of solution volume
(Weight/Volume).
 Parts Per Million (PPM) – Parts of solute per parts of solution by mass.
o Or: PPB (Parts Per Billion), PPT (Parts Per Trillion), PPTH (Parts Per Thousand).
o (


)
Molarity (M)
 The number of moles of solute per volume of solution in liters, represented by the equation:
o (


)

 Example:
o Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.5 g of solid NaOH in
enough H
2
O to make 1.5 L of solution.
o

o



 Example:
o A flask contains a solution with an unknown amount of NaOH, A chemist adds 0.154 M
H
2
SO
4
to complete the following reaction.
H
2
SO
4(aq)
+ 2 NaOH
(aq)
 Na
2
SO
4(aq)
+ 2 H
2
O
(l)

o If 48.6 mL of H
2
SO
4
is required to complete the reaction, how many grams of NaOH were
in the flask?


Normality (N)
 Number of equivalents of acid or base solute in one liter of solution.
 ()



 Equivalent of an acid – Amount of acid that yields 1 mol of H
+
.
 Equivalent of a base – Amount of base that yields 1 mol of OH
-
.
o 1 mol HCl = 1 equivalent.
o 1 mol H
2
SO
4
= 2 equivalents.
o 1 mol H
3
PO
4
= 3 equivalents.
Molality (m)
 Moles of solute dissolved in a kilogram of solvent.
o

Dilution
 The process of adding more solvent to a solution.
 A standard solution (known concentration) is brought to a certain volume to achieve the desired
molarity.
 For example, I buy concentrated acids for the lab and simply add water to a known amount to
dilute the concentration to the desired molarity.
 IMPORTANT!!!
o Moles of solute after dilution = moles of solution before dilution.
 In a dilution, the only thing we are changing is the volume of solvent. The number of moles
remain the same (they are just getting more spread out).
 If M
1
* V
1
= moles of solute and M
2
* V
2
= moles of solute, then M
1
* V
1
= M
2
* V
2

Colligative Properties Chapter 13.10 – 13.11
Colligative Property
 Depends only on the number of solute particles in a given quantity of solution and not on the
characteristics of the solute.
o Vapor pressure depression
o Freezing point depression
o Boiling point elevation
o Osmotic pressure
Freezing Point Depression, ΔT
f

 Equal to the freezing point of the pure solvent minus the freezing point of the solution.
o ΔT
f
= K
f
* m
o K
f
= Freezing point depression constant (solvent)
o m = molality
 Example:
o What is the freezing point of an aqueous solution that is 0.15 m glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
)? K
f
=
1.86
o
C
Boiling Point Elevation, ΔT
b

 Equal to the boiling point of the solution plus the boiling point of the pre solvent.
o ΔT
b
= K
b
* m
o K
b
= Boiling point elevation constant (solvent)
o m = molality
 Example:
o What is the boiling point elevation of an aqueous solution that is 0.15 m glucose? K
b
=
0.52
o
C
Van’t Hoff Factor
 The van’t Hoff Factor, symbol I, expresses how many ions and particles are formed on an
average in a solution from one formula unit of solute.
 Freezing point depression
o ΔT
f
= K
f
* m * i
 Boiling Point Elevation
o ΔT
b
= K
b
* m * i
Osmosis
 Process of solvent flow through a semipermeable membrane in order to equalize the
concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the membrane.
Osmotic Pressure
 Pressure that must be exerted on a solution to stop osmosis.
o П = MRT
o R = universal gas constant
o T = Temperature in Kelvin
o M = Molarity
Kinetics and Reaction Rates Chapter 14.1 – 14.2
Kinetics and Collision Theory
 Kinetics – The study of rates of reactions.
 Collision Theory – Defines 3 criteria for a reaction to occur.
o Reactants must collide.
o Even if a collision occurs, collisions must occur in the correct orientation for a reaction
to occur.
o Collisions require a minimum energy.
o If only two of these criteria are met, a reaction does not occur. All three criteria must be
met in order for a reaction to occur.
o Activation Energy (E
a
) – The minimum energy of a collision that leads to a reaction. Each
reaction has its own Activation Energy.
Reaction Coordinate Diagram
 Reaction coordinate diagrams show the energy changes throughout the reaction.

Activation Energy
 Exothermic and Endothermic

Reaction Rates
 Rate at which reactants produce products.
 Four factors affect reaction rates.
o Surface Area.
o Concentration.
o Temperature.
o Presence of a catalyst.
Affecting Reaction Rates
 Surface Area
o More surface area means more collisions.
o Increasing surface area means increased reaction rates.
 Concentration
o More reactants means more collisions.
o Higher concentration means increased reaction rate.
 Temperature
o Higher temperature means higher energy.
o Increased temperature means increased reaction rate (for most reactions).
 Presence of a catalyst
o Catalyst – Substance that increases the reaction rate without being consumed.
 A + B + C  D + C
o Lowers E
a.

 E.g. Enzymes are catalysts in the body.
Bond Energies and Heat of Reaction
 Bond Energy – Enthalpy (energy) required to break a bond.
o Enthalpy (ΔH) – Thermodynamic quantity used to describe heat changes taking place at
constant pressure.
o Standard Enthalpy (ΔH
o
) – Enthalpy at standard state (1 atm).
 Heat of Reaction
o ΔH
o
rxn
= SumΔH
bonds broken
– SumΔH
bonds formed

o ΔH
o
rxn
= ΔH
reactants
– ΔH
products

 Example:
o Find ΔH
o
for the following reaction given the following bond energies:
 2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
 2H
2
O
(g)

 H-H = 436 kJ/mol
 O=O – 499 kJ/mol
 O-H = 463 kJ/mol
 ΔH
o
= ΔH
reactants
- ΔH
products

 ΔH
o
= [2(436)+499] – [4(463)] = – 481 kJ/mol
 Exothermic
 Example 2:
o The complete combustion of propane can be represented by the following equation:
 CH
3
CH
2
CH
3(g)
+ 5O
2(g)
 3CO
2(g)
+ 4H
2
O
(g)

 C-H = 413 kJ/mol
 C-C = 347 kJ/mol
 O=O = 499 kJ/mol
 C=O = 805 kJ/mol
 H-O = 464 kJ/mol
 ΔH
o
= [413(8) + 347(2) + 499(5)] – [805(6) + 464(8)] = – 2049 kJ/mol
 Exothermic
Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 14.3 – 14.7
Chemical Equilibrium
 Dynamic state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
 2NO
2(g)
⇌ N
2
O
4

 ⇌ - Equilibrium

Equilibrium Expression
 aA + bB ⇌ cC + dD
 Lower case letters are the coefficients, upper case letters are the molar masses.
 Equilibrium Constant (K or K
c
)

 Brackets are concentration in molarity.
Equilibrium Example 1
 Write the equilibrium expression for
o 4NH
3(g)
+ 3O
2(g)
⇌ 2N
2(g)
+ 6H
2
O
(g)

o

o The following equation represents the reversible decomposition of PCl
5
.
o PCl
5(g)
⇌ PCl
3(g)
+ Cl
2(g)

o

o
()()

o If K < 1, reactants (left side) is favored.
o If K > 1, products (right side) is favored.
o If K = 1, neither side is favored.
Equilibrium Example 2
 The equilibrium constant for the following reaction is 4.00 x 10
-4
at a particular temperature.
o N
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
⇌ 2NO
(g)

 If the concentration of nitrogen is 3.19 x 10
-2
M and of nitrogen monoxide is 1.05 x 10
-3
M, what
is the concentration of O
2
?

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)(

)

Heterogeneous vs Homogeneous Equilibria
 Homogeneous equilibrium
o All substance are a single state of matter (gas).
 N
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
⇌ 2NO
(g)

 Heterogeneous equilibrium
o Involves more than 1 state of matter.
 H
2
O
(l)
⇌ 2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)

o Because liquids and solids occupy a fixed volume, they are essentially incompressible,
and therefore their concentration is constant.
Heterogeneous Equilibria
 Write the equilibrium expression for the following reaction:
o H
2
O
(l)
⇌ 2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)

o

 Generally, we omit the concentration terms for pure solids and pure liquids.
o The same is true for soluble solids (i.e. aq)
 CaCo
3(s)
⇌ Ca
2+
(aq)
+ CO
3
2-
(aq)

 K
sp
= 8.7 x 10
-9

 K
sp
= Solubility product constant.
o What is more soluble, CaCO
3
or AgBr?
o AgBr
(s)
⇌ Ag
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)

Le Châtelier’s Principle Chapter 14.8
Let’s Think
 Consider the reaction of CO
2
in soda. Here is the reaction:
o CO
2(g)
⇌ CO
2(aq)

o What happens when you leave your open can of soda out?
 The CO
2
escapes.
o Why doesn’t it get flat in the store?
 It’s closed.
o Why?
 Le Châtelier’s Principle – If you disturb an equilibrium, the reaction will shift to counteract the
change and reestablish the equilibrium.
Change in Reactant or Product Concentration
 Adding a reactant or product shifts the equilibrium away from the increase.
o A ⇌ B
o If we increase A, the equilibrium will shift towards B.
o If we increase B, the equilibrium will shift towards A.
 Removing a reactant or product shifts the equilibrium towards the decrease.
o A⇌B
o If we decrease A, the equilibrium will shift towards A.
Change in Volume and Pressure
 As volume decreases, pressure increases.
o If pressure increases, the reaction shifts towards fewer molecules.
o 2NO
2(g)
⇌ N
2
O
4(g)

o If we decrease the volume of the reaction mixture, it’s going to increase the pressure
and equilibrium will shift towards the right side (the side with fewer molecules).
o If pressure decreases, the reaction shifts toward more molecules.
 What about this reaction?
o H
2(g)
+ I
2(g)
⇌ 2HI
(g)

o If pressure is changed, the equilibrium won’t shift since the numbers of molecules on
each side are the same.
Change in Temperature
 Heat can be treated as if it were a component of the reaction.
o Exothermic – Heat is a product.
o Endothermic – Heat is a reactant.
 If the temperature increases, the reaction shifts away from the heat.
o Exothermic
 A ⇌ B + heat
 If the temperature increases, the equilibrium will shift towards A.
o Endothermic
 A + heat ⇌ B
 If the temperature increases, the equilibrium will shift towards B.
 If the temperature decreases, the reaction shifts towards the heat.
 K and temperature changes.
o If the reaction shifts from left to right, K increases.
o If the reaction shifts from right to left, K decreases.
Adding a Catalyst?
 No effect on equilibrium.
o A catalyst for the forward reaction is also a catalyst for the reverse reaction.
o Equilibrium will be achieved faster with a catalyst.
o A catalyst has no effect on the equilibrium concentrations or the equilibrium constant
of a reaction; it merely increases the rate at which equilibrium is reached.
Acids and Bases Chapter 15.1 – 15.4
Everyday Acids and Bases
 Acids tend to be foods and drinks.
 Bases tend to be cleaning products.
Properties of Acids and Bases
 Properties of Acids.
o Taste sour.
o Found in many foods.
o Generally corrosive (eating away at).
o Reacts with many metals.
o pH < 7.
o Electrolytes (charged ions that help with the transportation of water through cells).
 Properties of Bases.
o Taste bitter.
o Feel slippery to the touch (reacts to the fat cells with your skin and turns it into soap).
o Used in many cleaning products.
o Generally caustic (destroying living tissue).
o pH > 7.
o Electrolytes.
2 Models
 Arrhenius Model (Svante Arrhenius).
o Acids produce hydrogen ions (H
+
) (in reality, H
3
O
+
ion) in an aqueous solution.
o Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH
-
) in an aqueous solution.
o Acids: HCl
(g)
 H
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)

o Bases: NaOH
(s)
 Na
+
(aq)

+ OH
-
(aq)

 Bronsted-Lowry model (Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry).
o Acid is a proton (H
+
) donor.
o Base is a proton (H
+
) acceptor.
 General reaction – An acid (HA) donates a proton to a water molecule to form a new acid (the
conjugate acid) and a new base (the conjugate base).
o Conjugate acids and bases differ by a proton (H
+
).
Bronsted-Lowry Model
 HCl + H
2
O  Cl
-
+ H
3
O
+

 Acid Base CB CA
 HCl donates an H
+
ion to H
2
O, making HCl the acid and H
2
O the base. The H
3
O accepts the H
+
ion,
making it the Conjugate acid, and the Cl
-
rejects the H
+
ion, making it the Conjugate Base.
Practice
 What is the conjugate base of each of the following acids?
o HBr  Br
-

o HNO
3
 NO
3
-

o H
2
SO
4
 HSO
4
-

 What is the conjugate acid of each of the following bases?
o F
-
 HF
o HSO
3
-
 H
2
SO
3

o SO
3
2 -
 HSO
3
-

Strong Acids and Bases
 Completely ionize in H
2
O.
 HCl (100%)(H
2
O) H
+
+ Cl
-

 Reaction of a strong acid and strong base
 Molecular Equation.
o HCl
(aq)
+ NaOH
(aq)
 H
2
O
(L)
+ NaCl
(aq)

 Total Ionic Equation
o H
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)
+ Na
+
(aq)
+ OH
-
(aq)
 H
2
O
(L)
+ Na
+
(aq)
+ Cl
-
(aq)

 Net Ionic Equation
o H
+
(aq)
+ OH
-
(aq)
 H
2
O
(L)

Strength of Acids and Bases
 Strong Acids completely dissociate (Arrhenius) and completely donate H
+
(Bronsted-Lowry).
o E.g. HCl + H
2
O (100%) Cl
-
+ H
3
O
+

o 6 strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO
3
, HClO
4
, and H
2
SO
4
.
 Weak Acids do not completely dissociate and do not completely donate H
+
.
o E.g. H
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O (>5%) H
2
PO
4
-
+ H
3
O
+

Strength of Acids and Bases
 We can compare the strength of acids using their K
a
values.
Strong Acid
 HCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 Cl
-
(aq)
+ H
3
O
+
(aq)

 K
a
>> 1 favors right
Weak Acid
 H
3
PO
4(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 H
2
PO
4
+
(aq)
+ H
3
O
+
(aq)
 K
a
<<1 favors left.

Strong Bases
 Strong Bases contain OH
-
.
o E.g. NaOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)
2
, Ca(OH)
2
, etc.
o K
b
>>1 favors right.
 Weak Bases produce OH
-
by reacting with water.
o E.g. NH
3
+ H
2
O (<5%) NH
4
+
+ OH
-

o Weak bases produce fewer OH
-
ions than strong bases.
o K
b
<1 favors left.
 We can compare the strength of bases using their K
b
values.
Strength of Acids and Bases
 The strength of an acid and its conjugate base are inversely related.
o Stronger Acid = Weaker conjugate base.
o Stronger Base = Weaker conjugate acid.
Titrations Chapter 15
Measuring pH
 Indicator – A substance changes colors depending on pH.
 Indicator Paper – Changes color and gives the approximate pH.
 pH Meter – Yields a numerical pH value.
Acid – Base Titrations
 Titration – The delivery of a measured volume of a solution of known concentration (titrant)
into a solution being analyzed (analyte) until an equivalence point is measured.
 The titrant is also known as a standard solution.
 Burette delivers an accurate amount of solution.
 Equivalence Point – The point in a titration where the amount of acid equals the amount of
base in the solution (indicator changes color).
o Also known as the end point.
o mol H
+
= mol OH
-

o

o

o

o

o M
a
V
a
= M
b
V
b

 Example: If 26.5 mL of 0.20 M NaOH is required to titrate 50.0 mL of an aqueous solution of
HNO
3
, what is the concentration of the HNO
3
solution?
o M
a
V
a
= M
b
V
b

o M
a
(50mL) = 0.2M(26.5mL)
o

()

o M
a
= 0.106M HNO
3

pH Chapter 15.7
Water as an Acid and a Base
 Water is an amphoteric substance, acting as both an acid and a base.
 In pure water, slight ionization occurs.
o H
2
O
(L)
+ H
2
O
(L)
⇌ H
3
O
+
(aq)
+ OH
-
(aq)

o H
2
O ⇌ H
+
+ OH
-

 Writing the equilibrium expression:
o K
w
= [H
3
O
+
][OH
-
]
o K
w
is the ion product constant for water.
 We know,
o [H
3
O
+
] = [OH
-
] = 1.0 * 10
-7
M
 Therefore,
o K
w
= (1.0 * 10
-7
)(1.0 * 10
-7
) = 1.0 * 10
-14

Neutral, Acidic, and Basic Solutions
 Because K
w
= 1 * 10
-14
, for a:
o Neutral solution, [H
+
] = [OH
-
]
o Acidic solution, [H
+
] > [OH
-
]
o Basic solution, [H
+
] < [OH
-
]
The pH Scale
 pH scale represents solution acidity.
 pH relates [H
+
].
o pH = -log[H
+
]
 pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
o pH = 7 is neutral.
o pH < 7 is acidic.
o pH > 7 is basic.
pOH
 Similar to the pH scale, pOH relates [OH
-
].
 pOH = -log[OH
-
]
 Remember,
o [H
+
][OH
-
] = 1.0 * 10
-14

 So…
o pH + pOH = 14
Important Equations
 [H
+
][OH
-
] = 1.0 * 10
-14
= K
w

 pH = - log [H
+
]
 pOH = - log [OH
-
]
 pH + pOH = 14
 [H
+
] = inverse log (-pH) = 10
-pH

 [OH
-
] = inverse log (-pOH) = 10
-pOH

 0.01M HCL  [H
+
] = 0.01.
Polyprotic Acids and Buffers Chapter 15.9 … Mostly
Acids
 Monoprotic
o Donates 1 H
+

o HCl

 Diprotic (Polyprotic)
o Donates 2 H
+

o H
2
SO
4

o Multiple K
a
values
o K
a1
> K
a2


 Triprotic (Polyprotic)
o Donates 3 H
+

o H
3
PO
4

o Multiple K
a
values
o K
a1
> K
a2
> K
a3


Polyprotic Acid Concentration
 Molarity (M)
o Moles/Liter
 Normality (N)
o Equivalents/Liter
 N = M * n
o Where n is the number of equivalents. (n = number of equivalents = number of H
+
or
OH
-
)
Buffers
 A buffer is a solution that can resist changes in pH when limited amounts of acids or base are
added to it.
 A buffer solution is made from a weak acid and its conjugate base.
o E.g. H
2
CO
3
(Weak acid) and HCO
3
-
(Conjugate Base)
 Buffers keep pH constant by reacting with any extra H
+
or OH
-
that get added to the solution.
How Buffers Work
 Imagine a buffer solution that contains H
2
CO
3
and HCO
3
-
.
o When acid (H
+
) is added to the solution… the conjugate base reacts with it to turn it into
water.
 H
+
+ HCO
3
-
 H
2
O + H
2
CO
3

 This gets rid of the extra H
+
and keeps pH constant.
 Imagine the same buffer solution containing H
2
CO
3
and HCO
3
-
.
o When base (OH
-
) is added to the solution… the weak acid reacts with it to turn it into
water.
 OH
-
+ H
2
CO
3
 H
2
O + HCO
3
-

 This gets rid of the extra OH
-
and keeps pH constant.
 Why are buffered solutions important?
 Human blood
o In order for humans to survive, the pH of blood must be between 7.35 and 7.45.
o This narrow range of pH is maintained because blood is a buffered solution.
 A buffered solution is one that resists a change in pH even when a strong acid or base is added
to it.
 A solution is buffered by the presence of a weak acid and its conjugate base.
o Adding 0.01 mol of HCl to 1 L of pure water changes the pH from 7 to 2.
Organic Chemistry Nonmenclature – Chapters 18.1 – 18.5
Organic Molecules and Hydrocarbons
 Organic Molecules – Contain Carbon atoms.
 Hydrocarbons – Molecules composed of Carbon and Hydrogen.
o Non-polar molecules.
o Only London Dispersion forces present.
Alkanes
 Contain only single bonds.
 General formula is C
n
H
2n+2
.
 Naming
o Longest Carbon chain is counted to determine prefix.
o Suffix with Alkanes will always be “–ane”.
o # of Carbon
 1: meth-
 2: eth-
 3: prop-
 4: but-
 5: pent-
 6: hex
 7: hept-
 8: oct-
 9: non-
 10: dec-
 Example
o CH
3
– CH
2
– CH
2
– CH
3

o Butane – N
 N = 4 Carbons
Branched Alkanes
 Find the longest Carbon chain.
o This is the root name
 Identify branch groups
o Add “–yl” to the prefix.
 Number Carbons starting closest to the first branch.
 Use numbers to indicate the Carbon the side chain is attached to
o Alphabetical order
o If >1, use prefixes di, tri, etc.
 5-ethyl-3-methyloctane
Example
 3-methylheptane
 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylheptane
 3,3,4-trimethyl-5-propyloctane
Alkenes
 Contain at least 1 double bond.
 General formula is C
n
H
2n
.
 Naming
o Same as alkanes, except
 Longest Carbon chain must include the double bond.
 Count from the side that yields the smallest number for the double bond.
o Suffix is “–ene”
o Have to tell where the double bond is located.
o 1,2-propadiene
 Two double bonds; CH
2
= C = CH
2

Alkynes
 Contain at least 1 triple bond.
 General formula is C
n
H
2n-2
.
 Naming
o Same as alkanes, except
 Longest Carbon chain must include the triple bond.
 Count from the side that yields the smallest number for the triple bond.
o Suffix is “–yne”
Branched Alkenes and Alkynes
 Find the longest Carbon chain.
o This is the root name.
 Identify branch groups.
o Add “–yl” to the prefix.
 Number Carbon starting closest to the double/triple bond.
 Use numbers to indicate the Carbon the side chain is attached to.
o Alphabetical order
o If >1, use prefixes di, tri, etc.
o 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-Octyne
Isomers
 Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
o Different properties.
o Technically structural isomers or constitutional isomers.
Functional Groups chapter 18.6 – 18.9
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
 Hydrocarbon based on the benzene ring.
o Most have odors.
o Often carcinogens.
 Derivatives of benzene exist, e.g.
o Phenol
o 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
Functional Groups
 Reactive portion of a molecule (group of atoms) that undergo predictable reactions.
o Include: alkenes and alkynes.
Alcohols
 Compound with formula ROH.
o “R” represents some carbon chain.
o Polar molecules
o Toxic
o Named using the suffix “–ol”
Carbonyl Compounds
 Contains a carbonyl, C=O, group
 Includes
o Aldehyde – Compound with the formula RCHO.
 Suffix “–al”
o Ketone – Compound with formula RCOR’.
 Suffix “–one”
o Carboxylic Acid – Compound with formula RCOOH.
 Suffix “–oic acid” replaces the “e” of the alkane.
o Ester – Compound with formula RCOOR’.
 Suffix “–ate”.
Amine
 Compound with formula RNH
2
or RNHR’.
o Formed by the reaction of ammonia with a carboxylic acid.
o May smell poorly (i.e. decaying material).
Ether
 Compound with formula ROR’.
Practice #1 – Identify the Functional Groups
 Double bonded OH – Alcohol.
 H
2
N, NH – Amine.
 Heptagon with three double bonds – Aromatic Hydrocarbon.
 COC – Ether group.
 Carbonyl group + Ether group = Ester group.
Organic Reactions, Polymers, and Biochemistry – Chapter 18.11 & Some of 19
Organic Reactions
 Between functional groups.
 Alkanes undergo substitution reactions.
o CH
4
+ Br
2
 CH
3
Br + HBr
 Alkenes and Alkynes undergo addition reactions.
o Breaking down a double bond and replace it with different compound so there’s only all
single bonds.
Condensation Reactions
 Occur between Carboxylic acids and alcohols or between Carboxylic acids and Amines.
o A small molecule (often water) forms as a product.
Polymers
 Long chain-like molecules made of repeating smaller molecules called monomers.
o Poly– means many.
o –mer means part.
Addition Polymers
 Ethylene monomers break apart their double bond and bond with other Ethylene monomers,
creating Polyethylene.
 Polyvinylidene Chloride (Saran Wrap)
o Cl’s create dipole-dipole attractions with glass, making it stick.
 Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)
o Surrounded by F atoms makes it non-polar so nothing sticks.
Condensation Polymers
 Formed by a condensation reaction.
o E.g. Polyethylene Terephthalate.
o Used for plastic pop bottles.
Polymer Properties
 Determined by:
o Length of Polymer chain.
o Monomer properties.
o Amount of branching.
 Straight chains mean more Intermolecular Forces (IMFs), more rigid.
 Branched chains prevent IMFs, looser packing, more flexible.
Cross Linking
 Chemical bonds forming links between the Polymer chains makes them more rigid and/or elastic.
o Chemical reaction needed to break them.
o Can change a liquid Polymer into a solid or gel-like Polymer.
o Less Cross Linking = weaker polymer.
o More Cross Linking = stronger polymer.
Amino Acids
 Organic molecule containing an Amine and a Carboxylic Acid group.
o 20 common Amino Acids.
Protein
 Biological Polymer whose Amino Acid monomers are linked by a Peptide bond.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
 Polymer of Deoxyribonucleotides, a Polynucleotide.
o Nucleotide – Molecule consisting of a sugar (either Ribose or 2-Deoxyribose) to which is
attached a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base.
Homework
 18.7, 18.9-18.10, 18.5