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Member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

As of 2010 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) has 10 member states, one candidate member state, and one
observer state.
ASEAN was founded on 8 August 1967 with five members: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines.
A list of member states is provided below. The members of ASEAN Plus Three and the East Asia Summit are also listed. Both
forums are ASEAN led and meetings are held following the ASEAN Summit.
Also listed are participants of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), an organisation throughout the Asia-Pacific region whose
objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation, and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the region.[1]
The ASEAN is an organisation on the Southeast Asian region that aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress, and
cultural development among its members and to promote regional peace.[2]
Country Capital Population Currency Official
Language
Accession Political System
Brunei Bandar Seri
Begawan
401,890
(2011 Est.
Brunei dollar
(BND)
Malay January 7,
1984

Cambodia Phnom Pehn 13,388,910
(2008 Census
Cambodian
Reil
Khmer April 30,
1999

Indonesia Jakarta 237,556,363
(2010 Census
Indonesian
rupiah
Indonesian August 8,
1967

Laos Vientiane 6,477,211
(2011 Est.
Lao kip Lao July 23,
1997

Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 27,565,821
(2010 Census)
Malaysian
ringgit
Malay August 8,
1967

Myanmar Naypyidaw 58,840,000
(2010 Est.
Myanmar kyat
(MMK)
Burmese July 23,
1967

Philippines Manila 101,833,938
(2011 Est.)
Philippine
peso
Filipino,
English
August 8,
1967
Presidential-
Unitary
Singapore Singapore 5,076,700
(2010 Census)
Singapore
dollar
Malay,
Mandarin,
English,
Tamil
August 8,
1967

Thailand Bangkok 66,720,153
(2011 Est.
Baht Thai August 8,
1967

Vietnam Hanoi 90,549,390
(2011 Est.
Vietnamese
đồng
Vietnamese July 28,
1995




NON-MEMBER STATES
 Papua New Guinea
 Timor-Leste

ASEAN Plus Three
The present members of ASEAN together with: China, Japan, Korea

ASEAN History
ASEAN was preceded by an organisation called the Association of Southeast Asia, commonly called ASA, an alliance
consisting of the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand that was formed in 1961. The bloc itself, however, was established on 8
August 1967, when foreign ministers of five countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand – met at
the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration, more commonly known as
the Bangkok Declaration. The five foreign ministers – Adam Malik of Indonesia, Narciso Ramos of the Philippines, Abdul
Razak of Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat Khoman of Thailand – are considered the organisation's Founding
Fathers.[12]
The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were so that its members‘ governing elite could concentrate on nation building, the
common fear of communism, reduced faith in or mistrust of external powers in the 1960s, and a desire for economic
development.
The bloc grew when Brunei Darussalam became the sixth member on 8 January 1984, barely a week after gaining
independence on 1 January.[13]
Continued expansion
On 28 July 1995, Vietnam became the seventh member.[14] Laos and Myanmar (Burma) joined two years later on 23 July
1997.[15] Cambodia was to have joined together with Laos and Burma, but was deferred due to the country's internal political
struggle. The country later joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilisation of its government.[15][16]
During the 1990s, the bloc experienced an increase in both membership and drive for further integration. In 1990, Malaysia
proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus[17] comprising the then members of ASEAN as well as the People's
Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing influence of the United States
in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and in the Asian region as a whole.[18][19] This proposal failed, however,
because of heavy opposition from the United States and Japan.[18][20] Despite this failure, member states continued to work
for further integration and ASEAN Plus Three was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to
increase the region‘s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. This law would act as the
framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal
was established in Chiang Mai, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, which calls for better integration between the economies of
ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three countries (China, Japan, and South Korea).[21]
Aside from improving each member state's economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15
December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast
Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on 28 March 1997 after all but one of the member states have
ratified it. It became fully effective on 21 June 2001, after the Philippines ratified it, effectively banning all nuclear weapons in
the region.[22]
East Timor and Papua New Guinea
East Timor submitted a letter of application to be the eleventh member of ASEAN at the summit in Jakarta in March 2011.
Indonesia has shown a warm welcome to East Timor.[23][24][25
Papua New Guinea was accorded Observer status in 1976 and Special Observer status in 1981.[26] Papua New Guinea is a
Melanesian state. ASEAN embarked on a programme of economic cooperation following the Bali Summit of 1976. This
floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area.

The ASEAN way
Since the post-independence phases of Southeast Asian states, efforts were made to implement regional foreign policies, but
with a unifying focus to refrain from interference in domestic affairs of member states.
There was a move to unify the region under what was called the ‗ASEAN Way‘ based on the ideals of non-interference,
informality, minimal institutionalisation, consultation and consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation. ASEAN
members (especially Singapore) approved of the term ‗ASEAN Way‘ to describe a regional method of multilateralism.
Thus the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia adopted fundamental principles:[39]
 Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations
 The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion
 Non-interference in internal affairs
 Settlement of differences or disputes in a peaceful manner
 Renunciation of the threat or use of force
 Effective regional cooperation
The ‗ASEAN way‘ is said to contribute durability and longevity within the organisation, by promoting regional identity and
enhancing a spirit of mutual confidence and cooperation. ASEAN agreements are negotiated in a close, interpersonal process.
The process of consultations and consensus is designed to engender a democratic approach to decision making. These leaders
are wary of any effort to legitimise efforts to undermine their nation or contain regional co-operation.
ASEAN Summits
The organisation holds meetings, known as the ASEAN Summit, where heads of government of each member meet to discuss
and resolve regional issues, as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc with the intention of
promoting external relations.
The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. Its third meeting was held in Manila in 1987
and during this meeting, it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years.[43] Consequently, the fourth meeting was
held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently, deciding to hold the summit every three
years.[43] In 2001, it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were
assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Burma which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004
due to pressure from the United States and the European Union.[44]
By December 2008, the ASEAN Charter came into force and with it, the ASEAN Summit will be held twice in a year.
The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows:
 Leaders of member states would hold an internal organisation meeting.
 Leaders of member states would hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
 A meeting, known as ASEAN Plus Three, is set for leaders of three Dialogue Partners (People's Republic of China,
Japan, South Korea)
 A separate meeting, known as ASEAN-CER, is set for another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia, New
Zealand).[citation needed]























Economic community

ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the ―three pillars‖, which are security, sociocultural integration, and economic
integration.[60] The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration by creating an ASEAN Economic
Community (AEC) by 2015.[61] The average economic growths of ASEAN's member nations during 1989–2009 was
Singapore with 6.73 percent, Malaysia with 6.15 percent, Indonesia with 5.16 percent, Thailand with 5.02 percent, and the
Philippines with 3.79 percent. This economic growth was greater than the average Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
economic growth, which was 2.83 percent.[62]
From CEPT to AEC[edit]

A Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN lead to the ASEAN
Free Trade Area (AFTA).[61] The AFTA is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN concerning local manufacturing
in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore.[63] When the AFTA agreement
was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and
Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Burma in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999. The latecomers have not fully met the
AFTA's obligations, but they are officially considered part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry
into ASEAN, and were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations.[64]

The next step is ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with main objectives are to create a:
 single market and production base
 highly competitive economic region
 region of equitable economic development
 region fully integrated into the global economy

Since 2007, the ASEAN countries gradually lower their import duties among them and targeted will be zero for most of the
import duties at 2015.[65]

Since 2011, AEC has agreed to strengthen the position and increase the competitive edges of small and medium enterprises
(SME) in the ASEAN region.[66]

Comprehensive Investment Area

The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA) will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN. The main
principles of the ACIA are as follows[67]
All industries are to be opened up for investment, with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules
National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions
Elimination of investment impediments
Streamlining of investment process and procedures
Enhancing transparency
Undertaking investment facilitation measures

Full realisation of the ACIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture, fisheries, forestry and
mining is scheduled by 2010 for most ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Burma, and
Vietnam) countries.[67]

Trade in Services[edit]

An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in December
1995.[68] Under AFAS, ASEAN Member States enter into successive rounds of negotiations to liberalise trade in services with
the aim of submitting increasingly higher levels of commitments. The negotiations result in commitments that are set forth in
schedules of specific commitments annexed to the Framework Agreement. These schedules are often referred to as packages of
services commitments. At present, ASEAN has concluded seven packages of commitments under AFAS.[69]

Single Aviation Market[edit]

The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (ASEAN-SAM), is the region's major aviation policy geared towards the development of
a unified and single aviation market in Southeast Asia by 2015. The aviation policy was proposed by the ASEAN Air Transport
Working Group, supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting, and endorsed by the ASEAN Transport
Ministers.[70] The ASEAN-SAM is expected to fully liberalise air travel between member states in the ASEAN region,
allowing ASEAN countries and airlines operating in the region to directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the
world, and also freeing up tourism, trade, investment and services flows between member states.[70][71] Since 1 December
2008, restrictions on the third and fourth freedoms of the air between capital cities of member states for air passengers services
have been removed,[72] while from 1 January 2009, full liberalisation of air freight services in the region took effect.[70][71]
On 1 January 2011, full liberalisation on fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities took effect.[73]

The ASEAN Single Aviation Market policy will supersede existing unilateral, bilateral and multilateral air services agreements
among member states which are inconsistent with its provisions.
Free-trade agreements with other countries[edit]

ASEAN has concluded free trade agreements with China (expecting bilateral trade of $500 billion by 2015),[74] Korea, Japan,
Australia, New Zealand, and India.[75] ASEAN-India bilateral trade crossed the $ 70 billion target in 2012 (target was to reach
the level only by 2015).[citation needed] The agreement with People's Republic of China created the ASEAN–China Free
Trade Area (ACFTA), which went into full effect on 1 January 2010. In addition, ASEAN is currently negotiating a free trade
agreement with the European Union.[76] Republic of China (Taiwan) has also expressed interest in an agreement with ASEAN
but needs to overcome diplomatic objections from China.[77]
ASEAN six majors[edit]

ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the remaining four
ASEAN countries.



Intra-ASEAN travel[edit]

With the institutionalisation of visa-free travel between ASEAN member states, intra-ASEAN travel has boomed, a sign that
endeavours to form an ASEAN Community shall bear fruit in years to come. In 2010, 47 percent or 34 million out of 73
million tourists in ASEAN member-states were from other ASEAN countries.[85]

Intra-ASEAN trade[edit]

Until end of 2010, Intra-Asean trade were still low which mainly of them were mostly exporting to countries outside the region,
except Laos and Myanmar were ASEAN-oriented in foreign trade with 80 percent and 50 percent respectively of their exports
went to other ASEAN countries.[86]

ASEAN CHARTER

On 15 December 2008, the members of ASEAN met in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in
November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community".[87] The charter turns ASEAN into a legal entity
and aims to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo
Bambang Yudhoyono stated that "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating, integrating and
transforming itself into a community. It is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a
time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift", he added, referring to climate change and economic
upheaval, and concluded "Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s". The
fundamental principles include:

a) respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all ASEAN Member States;

b) shared commitment and collective responsibility in enhancing regional peace, security and prosperity;

c) renunciation of aggression and of the threat or use of force or other actions in any manner inconsistent with international
law;

d) reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes;

e) non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN Member States;

f) respect for the right of every Member State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion and
coercion;

g) enhanced consultations on matters seriously affecting the common interest of ASEAN;

h) adherence to the rule of law, good governance, the principles of democracy and constitutional government;

i) respect for fundamental freedoms, the promotion and protection of human rights, and the promotion of social justice;

j) upholding the United Nations Charter and international law, including international humanitarian law, subscribed to by
ASEAN Member States;

k) abstention from participation in any policy or activity, including the use of its territory, pursued by an ASEAN Member
State or non-ASEAN State or any non-State actor, which threatens the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political and
economic stability of ASEAN Member States;

l) respect for the different cultures, languages and religions of the peoples of ASEAN, while emphasising their common values
in the spirit of unity in diversity;

m) the centrality of ASEAN in external political, economic, social and cultural relations while remaining actively engaged,
outward-looking, inclusive and non-discriminatory; and

n) adherence to multilateral trade rules and ASEAN's rules-based regimes for effective implementation of economic
commitments and progressive reduction towards elimination of all barriers to regional economic integration, in a market-driven
economy.[88]

However, the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter,[89] and also set
forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused
controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries who violate citizens' rights and
would therefore be limited in effectiveness.[90] The body was established later in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental
Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). In November 2012, the Commission adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration.

Secretary – General of ASEAN

The Secretary-General of ASEAN is appointed by the ASEAN Summit for a non-renewable term of office of five years,
selected from among nationals of the ASEAN Member States based on alphabetical rotation. The Secretary-General of ASEAN

The Secretary-General of ASEAN 2008-2012 is Dr Surin Pitsuwan from Thailand.

Find out more about the Secretary-General of ASEAN from Article 11 of the ASEAN Charter.

































ASEAN Motto

The motto of ASEAN is ―One Vision, One Identity, One Community‖.




















Guidelines on the Use of the ASEAN Emblem


1. The ASEAN Emblem shall be the official emblem of ASEAN.

2. The ASEAN Emblem represents a stable, peaceful, united and dynamic ASEAN. The colours of the Emblem — blue, red,
white and yellow — represent the main colours of the state crests of all the ASEAN Member States.

3. The blue represents peace and stability. Red depicts courage and dynamism, white shows purity and yellow symbolises
prosperity.

4. The stalks of padi in the centre of the Emblem represent the dream of ASEAN‘s Founding Fathers for an ASEAN
comprising all the countries in Southeast Asia, bound together in friendship and solidarity.

5. The circle represents the unity of ASEAN.



6. The ASEAN Emblem is the reserved copyright of ASEAN.

A. Use of the ASEAN Emblem

7. The ASEAN Emblem shall be used in a manner that promotes ASEAN and its purposes and principles. It shall not be used
for political purposes or for activities that harm the dignity of ASEAN.

8. The ASEAN Emblem shall not be used for commercial purposes unless the entities concerned obtain official approval
through the procedures stipulated in Article A.4.

A.1. Use of the ASEAN Emblem by ASEAN Member States

9. ASEAN Member States are encouraged to use the ASEAN Emblem in official functions relating to ASEAN.

10. The ASEAN Emblem shall be placed to the right of the ASEAN Member States‘ National Symbols, as seen by the viewer.

A.2. Use of the ASEAN Emblem by the ASEAN Secretariat

11. The ASEAN Secretariat shall use the ASEAN Emblem in the manner considered appropriate by the Secretary-General
which may include the following:

a. Display at the Secretariat buildings and residence of the Secretary-General;
b. Use in its official correspondence as letterhead;
c. Use as the official seal for the ASEAN Secretariat;
d. Use in its official publications, stationery and souvenirs;
e. Mark or engrave on properties belonging to the ASEAN Secretariat; and
f. Display at ASEAN official functions.

A.3. Use of the ASEAN Emblem by Entities Associated with ASEAN

12. Entities officially associated with ASEAN as in Annex 2 of the ASEAN Charter may use the ASEAN Emblem in their
official correspondences and meetings.

A.4. Use of the ASEAN Emblem by Other Entities

13. Other entities based in an ASEAN Member State shall submit their request for the use of the ASEAN Emblem to the
ASEAN National Secretariat concerned.

14. Other entities outside the ASEAN region shall submit their request for the use of the ASEAN Emblem to the Public
Outreach and Civil Society Division of the ASEAN Secretariat:

Public Outreach and Civil Society Division
The ASEAN Secretariat
70 A, Jl. Sisingamangaraja
Jakarta 12110
Indonesia
E-mail: public@asean.org

15. Requests for the use of the ASEAN Emblem shall be submitted in writing, and accompanied with the following
information:

• organisational profile;
• nature and purpose of the proposed activity;
• duration of the use of the ASEAN Emblem; and
• prototype of the proposed use of the ASEAN Emblem.

16. The ASEAN National Secretariats and the ASEAN Secretariat shall consider
the requests accordingly. The approval granted shall be exclusive to the proposed activity. Such approval shall not be extended
to third parties.

17. Authorisation to use the ASEAN Emblem does not confer on those to whom it is granted any right of exclusive use, nor
does it allow them to appropriate the Emblem or any similar trademark or logo, either by registration or any other means.

B. Reproduction of the ASEAN Emblem

18. The ASEAN Emblem shall be reproduced in accordance with the Specifications and Colours indicated in the Annex.

C. Approval of and Amendments to the Guidelines

19. The Guidelines shall be approved by the ASEAN Coordinating Council (ACC).

20. Any Member State may propose amendments to the Guidelines, which shall be submitted to the Committee of Permanent
Representatives (CPR) for its consideration and agreed upon by consensus. The agreed amendments shall be submitted to the
ASEAN Coordinating Council (ACC) for notation, and thereafter come into immediate effect.


















ASEAN FUN FACTS!

1. ASEAN is the 9
th
largest economy in the world.
2. In Philippines, what part of chicken sold as a street food called ADIDAS? The feet.
3. The region has a combined population of about 537 million, and an area of around 4.5 million square kilometers.
4. The United States, the European Union and Japan continued to be ASEAN‘s largest export markets.

The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the group are: (1) to accelerate economic growth, social progress
and cultural development in the region and (2) to promote regional peace and stability by respecting justice and the rule of law
to maintain friendly relations among countries in the region, and by adhering to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

In February 1976, ASEAN held its first summit on the resort island of Bali, Indonesia. During the meeting, ASEAN leaders
signed the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in East Asia (TAC) and the Declaration of ASEAN Concord. In implementing
these documents, ASEAN countries have strengthened cooperation in political, economic and military fields and took
pragmatic strategies to achieve the rapid development of their economies.

The ASEAN Vision 2020, adopted by the ASEAN leaders on the group's 30th anniversary, agreed on a shared vision of
ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in
partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.

In 2003, the ASEAN leaders agreed that an ASEAN Community shall be established comprising three pillars -- the ASEAN
Security Community, the ASEAN Economic Community and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

In January 2007, during the 12th ASEAN summit held in Cebu, the Philippines, participants signed a series of declarations on
the blueprint for the ASEAN Charter and the establishment of the ASEAN Community.

ASEAN's highest decision-making body is the ASEAN summit.

The secretary-general of ASEAN is appointed on merit and accorded ministerial status. The secretary-general, who has a five-
year term, is mandated to initiate, advise, coordinate and implement ASEAN activities.

ASEAN's economic cooperation covers areas of trade, investment, industry, services, finance, agriculture, forestry, energy,
transportation and communications, intellectual property, small- and medium-sized enterprises and tourism.

In the early 1990s, ASEAN initiated regional cooperation with East Asia. Now, "ASEAN plus Three" and "ASEAN plus One"
(ASEAN plus China, ASEAN plus Japan and ASEAN plus South Korea) have developed into major channels for cooperation
between the two regions.

In addition, ASEAN has established dialogue partnerships with the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the
European Union, South Korea, China, Russia and India.

Since its establishment 40 years ago, ASEAN has made a series of achievements in promoting economic growth, the
integration process and comprehensive strength of its member states, and contributed greatly to peace, stability, development
and prosperity in the region.











ASEAN Community
 ASEAN Political-Security Community – peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differences
and it has the following components: political development, shaping and sharing of norms, conflict prevention, conflict
resolution, post-conflict peace building, and implementing mechanisms

 ASEAN Economic Community - creating a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN economic
region in which there is a free flow of goods, services, investment and a freer flow of capital, equitable economic
development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities in year 2020;

 ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community - envisages a community of caring societies and founded on a
common regional identity, with cooperation focused on social development aimed at raising the standard of living of
disadvantaged groups and the rural population, and shall seek the active involvement of all sectors of society, in
particular women, youth, and local communities



ASEAN Political - Security Community


To build on what has been constructed over the years in the field of political and security cooperation, the ASEAN Leaders
have agreed to establish the ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC). The APSC shall aim to ensure that countries in the
region live at peace with one another and with the world in a just, democratic and harmonious environment.

The members of the Community pledge to rely exclusively on peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differences
and regard their security as fundamentally linked to one another and bound by geographic location, common vision and
objectives. It has the following components: political development; shaping and sharing of norms; conflict prevention; conflict
resolution; post-conflict peace building; and implementing mechanisms.

The APSC Blueprint envisages ASEAN to be a rules-based Community of shared values and norms; a cohesive, peaceful,
stable and resilient region with shared responsibility for comprehensive security; as well as a dynamic and outward-looking
region in an increasingly integrated and interdependent world.

The APSC Blueprint is guided by the ASEAN Charter and the principles and purposes contained therein. It provides a roadmap
and timetable to establish the APSC by 2015. It also leaves room for flexibility to continue programmes/activities beyond 2015
in order to retain its significance and have an enduring quality.

The APSC Blueprint was adopted by the ASEAN Leaders at the 14th ASEAN Summit on 1 March 2009 in Cha-am/Hua Hin,
Thailand.

ORGANS UNDER APSC

1. "The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) is the an ASEAN organ as stipulated in
Article 14 of the ASEAN Charter. AICHR is the overarching body with a cross-cutting mandate that handles matters related to
human rights cooperation with other ASEAN bodies, external partners and stakeholders.

2. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (AMM)
 Established in 1967
 Meets annually, with informal meetings and retreats in between
 Last meeting : 45rd AMM, Cambodia, 9-13 July 2012

3. ASEAN Regional Forum
 The Twenty-Sixth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting and Post Ministerial Conference, which were held in Singapore on 23-
25 July 1993, agreed to establish the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).
 The inaugural meeting of the ARF was held in Bangkok on 25 July 1994.
 The objectives of the ASEAN Regional Forum are outlined in the First ARF Chairman's Statement (1994), namely:
 to foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and
concern; and
 to make significant contributions to efforts towards confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in
the Asia-Pacific region.
 The 27th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (1994) stated that "The ARF could become an effective consultative Asia-
Pacific Forum for promoting open dialogue on political and security cooperation in the region. In this context, ASEAN
should work with its ARF partners to bring about a more predictable and constructive pattern of relations in the Asia
Pacific."

4. ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM)
 The ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting (ADMM) is the highest defence mechanism within ASEAN. The annual
ADMM facilitates the ASEAN defence ministers to discuss and exchange views on current defence and security issues
and challenges faced in the region. The ADMM aims to promote mutual trust and confidence through greater
understanding of defence and security challenges as well as enhancement of transparency and openness.
 With the completion of the first term in 2010, the 5th ADMM adopted the new ADMM Three-Year Work Programme
(2011-2013), which focuses on measures and activities in four areas, namely 1) strengthening regional defence and
security cooperation; 2) enhancing existing practical cooperation and developing possible cooperation in defence and
security; 3) promoting enhanced ties with Dialogue Partners; 4) shaping and sharing of norms.

 Objectives

 The objectives of the ADMM, as outlined in the Concept Paper for the Establishment of an ADMM endorsed
at the Inaugural ADMM in Kuala Lumpur on 9 May 2006, are as follows:
 To promote regional peace and stability through dialogue and cooperation in defence and security;
 To give guidance to existing senior defence and military officials dialogue and cooperation in the field of
defence and security within ASEAN and between ASEAN and dialogue partners;
 To promote mutual trust and confidence through greater understanding of defence and security challenges as
well as enhancement of transparency and openness; and
 To contribute to the establishment of an ASC as stipulated in the Bali Concord II and to promote the
implementation of the Vientiane Action Programme (VAP) on ASC.

5. ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM)
 Established in 1986
 Meets once in 36 months
 Last meeting: 8th ALAWMM, Phnom Penh, 4-5 November 2011
6. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC)
 Established in 1997
 Meets once in two years
 Last meeting: 8th AMMTC, Bali, Indonesia, 9-13 October 2011

ASEAN Economic Community

The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) shall be the goal of regional economic integration by 2015. AEC envisages the
following key characteristics: (a) a single market and production base, (b) a highly competitive economic region, (c) a region of
equitable economic development, and (d) a region fully integrated into the global economy.

The AEC areas of cooperation include human resources development and capacity building; recognition of professional
qualifications; closer consultation on macroeconomic and financial policies; trade financing measures; enhanced infrastructure
and communications connectivity; development of electronic transactions through e-ASEAN; integrating industries across the
region to promote regional sourcing; and enhancing private sector involvement for the building of the AEC. In short, the AEC
will transform ASEAN into a region with free movement of goods, services, investment, skilled labour, and freer flow of
capital.

ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) Blueprint

The ASEAN Leaders adopted the ASEAN Economic Blueprint at the 13th ASEAN Summit on 20 November 2007 in
Singapore to serve as a coherent master plan guiding the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community 2015.

ORGANS OF THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC)

1. ASEAN Economic Ministers (AEM)
2. ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA Council)
3. ASEAN Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM)
 The ASEAN Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM), held in Langkawi in July 2003, called for intensified cooperation
in the development and exploitation of the energy resource potentials in the ASEAN region, as well as in attracting
private sector participation and investment in the ASEAN energy sector.
 The Ministers agreed to work collectively in moving forward the Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) and the ASEAN
Power Grid Projects to provide greater stability and security of energy supply in the ASEAN region.
 The Ministers also agreed to enhance the ASEAN Energy Business Forum (AEBF) as an important platform for
facilitating business interaction, technology exchange and project financing opportunities between ASEAN energy
authorities and the private sector.

4. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF)
 ASEAN cooperation in the agriculture sector dated back as early as 1968, with cooperation in food production and
supply.
 In 1977, the scope of cooperation was broadened to include the greater area of agriculture and forestry as the needs
have increased.
 Currently, the specific areas under the ASEAN cooperation in food, agriculture and forestry includes food security,
food handling, crops, livestock, fisheries, agricultural training and extension, agricultural cooperatives, forestry and
joint cooperation in agriculture and forest products promotion scheme.
5. ASEAN Finance Ministers Meeting (AFMM)
6. ASEAN Investment Area (AIA) Council
7. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals (AMMin)
8. ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Science and Technology (AMMST)
9. ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation (AMBDC)
10. ASEAN Transport Ministers Meeting (ATM)
11. ASEAN Telecommunications and IT Ministers Meeting (TELMIN)
12. ASEAN Tourism Ministers Meeting (M-ATM)
13. Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) and Narrowing the Development Gap (NDG)
14. Sectoral Bodies under the Purview of AEM