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United States History

Unit 1 Identifications (IDs): Foundations of the United States
For each of the following write one sentence that defines the term, followed by one or two
sentences that EXPLAINS THE SIGNIFICANCE of each term (why it is important in context of the
unit.) Please take note of the different due dates for each set of IDs! All sets will be submitted
through Turn It In.
DUE via Turn It THURSDAY SEPT. 4__
1. Columbian Exchange – The widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human
populations, communicable diseases, technology, and ideas between the American and
Afro-Eurasian hemispheres.
2. Puritan – A group of English protestants in the 16
and 17
centuries. Puritanism was
founded by some Marian exiles.
3. mercantilism – It was the economic counterpart of absolutism. It includes an economic
policy aimed at accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade.
4. Jamestown – The first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was established
by the Virginia Company of London as “James Fort” and considered permanent after a
brief abandonment in 1610.
5. joint-stock company – A business entity where different stakes can be bought and
owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion. This
allows for unequal ownership of a business and shareholders are able to transfer their
shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company.
6. Quaker – Members of a family of religious movements known as the Religious Society of
Friends. The central unifying doctrine of these movements is the priesthood of all
7. Middle Passage – The stage of the triangular trade where millions of people from Africa
were shipped to the New World as a part of the Atlantic Slave Trade.
8. Enlightenment – A cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in the late 17
in Europe, emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. Purpose was to
reform society using reason and to challenge tradition and faith and to advance
knowledge through the scientific method.
9. Great Awakening – Several periods of religious revival in American religious history.
There was a total of four Great Awakenings.
10. Stamp Act – A direct tax by the British Parliament specifically on the colonies of British
America, and it required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on
stamped paper produced in London to carry a revenue stamp.
11. Sugar Act – A revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5,
12. Boston Tea Party – A political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston on December 16,
1773. They threw chests of tea into the Boston Harbor. The British retaliated and it led
to the American Revolution.
13. Declaration of Independence – A statement adopted by the Continental Congress on
July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies regarded themselves
as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer part of the British
Empire. They formed a new nation know as the United States of America.
14. Loyalist – American colonists who remained loyal to the British Empire and the British
Monarchy during the American Revolution. They were often called Tories, Royalists, or
King’s Men.
15. Patriot – Colonists who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution
and declared the United States of America an independent nation.
16. Treaty of Paris – Ended the American Revolution between Great Britain and the United
States. Made Britain officially recognize America as a country.
17. Christopher Columbus – Italian explorer who tried to sail to Asia, but discovered the
Americas instead.
18. John Smith – English soldier, explorer, and author. Made maps that were very helpful
during European exploration.
19. Benjamin Franklin – One of the founding fathers of America and “the First American”.
20. King George III – King of Great Britain and King of Ireland. His reign was marked by a
series of military conflicts involving much of Europe and Asia.
21. Pueblo, Pontiac, Navajo, Cherokee – Indian tribes that caused problems with the
colonists and rebelled often. They resisted slavery and expansion of European colonies.
22. Thomas Jefferson – The third President of the United States. He was the chief drafter of
the Declaration of Independence, made the Louisiana Purchase and sent out the Lewis
and Clark Expedition to explore it. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United
23. James Madison – The fourth President of the United States. He was a member of the
Continental Congress and reporter at the Constitutional Convention. He helped frame
the Bill of Rights.
24. Alexander Hamilton – He was a United States statesman and leader of the Federalists.
He was the first Secretary of the Treasury and he established a federal bank.