You are on page 1of 32

Enriched Biology Notes pay back daddy lunch money

Levels of Knowledge
 Fact – An observation that is repeatedly confirmed.
 Hypothesis – A testable statement about the natural world.
 Law – A generalization about how something works in the natural world (describes behaviors).
 Theory (in science) – A well substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world (the
best possible explanation).
Scientific Method
 Purpose or Problem statement
 Hypothesis
o If…then…because…
 Methods and Materials
 Results
 Conclusions
o Mention hypothesis (accepted or rejected), errors that have occurred in the lab
(scientific errors), analyze results (this is what we got, this is why I think we got this).
Lab write-up
 Analyze:
o The quality of your experimental design.
o The quality of your write-up.
 Make notes or comments in a different colored writing utensil.
 Don’t panic. You will have the opportunity to re-do.
 What are the elements of a good Purpose?
o Detailed yet brief.
o Includes variables (What are you changing? What are you measuring?)
 Independent variable: The variable that doesn’t depend on other variables and
the one that you change during the experiment.
 Dependent variable: What you’re measuring. It’s dependent on the
independent variable.
 What are the elements of a good Hypothesis?
o Independent and dependent variables.
o Prediction of results.
o Justification for prediction (background information)
o “If…then…because…” format for hypothesis.
 What are the elements of a good methods section?
o Detailed!
 Step by step instructions
 List all materials needed for the experiment to succeed
o Multiple trials
o Control
o Single variable being tested
o Constants
 What is a control group?
o The absence of the independent variable.
 What is an experimental group?
o The group with the independent variable.
 What is a constant?
o All the details that should stay the same throughout the entire experiment in both the
experimental and the control group.
 Example: amount of soil, amount of water, etc.
 What makes a good conclusion?
o Was your hypothesis supported or rejected?
 Don’t use the word “prove”
o Explain your data.
o Sources of Error vs. “Whoopsies”
Unit 1: Biochemistry
Chemistry Review
 Matter – anything that takes up space
o Atoms:
 Most common atoms in living things are: C, H, O, N… and P, S
 Nucleus contains:
 Protons (positive charge)
 Neutrons (no charge)
 Electrons (negative charge)
o Energy levels: Energy of electrons, based on distance from
 Octet Rule:
 Atoms “want” to fill outer energy level
 Share, donate, or accept electrons
 Example: Carbon
 6 total electrons
 4 valence electrons:
o Electrons in outermost energy level
o Involved in chemical bonds
 Molecule: 2
atoms bonded together
o Examples: H
O, C
(Glucose), DNA
Chemical Bonds
 Strong Bonds:
o Covalent Bonds – share electrons
 Polar Bonds – share electrons unevenly
 Example: H
 Non-Polar Bonds – Share electrons evenly.
 Example: Methane (CH
o Ionic Bonds – attraction between opposite ions
 Example: Sodium Ion, Chloride Ion, Positive Sodium Ion, Negative Sodium Ion.
 Weak Bond:
o Hydrogen Bonds – strong attraction, but a weak bond!
 Hydrogen Bonds are the strongest kindergartners.
Properties of Water
 Cohesion – water is attracted to itself.
 Adhesion – water is attracted to other substances.
 Temperature moderation – takes a lot of energy to heat up.
 Solvent – Used to dissolve many substances.
 Biochemistry is a discipline which focuses on the chemicals of living organisms.
o “Bio-” means life.
 All biological molecules are organic.
 All organic molecules have carbon in them.
 The Carbon atom: 4 valence electrons means it has a lot of bonding possibilities.
 Most biological molecules are Polymers (chains) of smaller Monomers (subunits).
 Polymers: Train-like (or chain-like) molecule made of repeating monomers.
o “Poly-” means many.
 Monomers: The “building blocks” or subunits of polymers.
o “Mono-” means one.
 Polymers are made through a process called Condensation Reactions.
Condensation Reactions
 Similar to linking box cars together, these reactions:
o Link monomers together.
o Form relatively strong bonds where energy is stored.
o Form water as a by-product (hence the name condensation reactions).
 OH + OH = H
o If Condensation reaction builds a polymer, what breaks it down?
 Polymers are “broken down” through a process called Hydrolysis.
o Think of this like dismantling the train.
o The bonds holding monomers together are broken, releasing energy.
 Hydrolysis Reactions – Use water to help break polymers apart into their smaller monomers.
o “Hydro-” means water.
o “–lys” means to break.
 All Biological molecules are synthesized and hydrolyzed in the same way.
4 Main Macromolecules
 Carbohydrates: The main “fuel” which run most living organisms.
o Structure:
 Ring-shaped molecules.
 Three main types of carbohydrates:
o Monosaccharides (Simple Carbohydrates)
 Primary monomer of carbohydrate polymers.
 General formula for all monosaccharides is C
 All monosaccharides have the same chemical formula.
 Examples: Glucose (C
), Galactose, Fructose.
o Disaccharides
 2 monosaccharide monomers bonded/linked together.
 General formula for all disaccharides is C
 When 2 monosaccharides are bonded together, water is created as a by-product;
therefore, the formula will be missing 2 H and 1 O molecule.
 Examples: Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose.
o Polysaccharides (Complex Carbohydrates)
 Complex carbohydrates.
 Long chains of monosaccharides bonded together.
 No general formula because there are so many different forms of
 Examples:
o Glycogen (stores energy in animals).
o Cellulose (found in plant cell walls).
 High fiber carbohydrate.
 Human body cannot break down cellulose; therefore, it
is not digested.
o Starch (stores energy in plants).
 Lipids:
o Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, etc.
o Structure:
 All lipids have fatty acid tails.
 Saturated fats:
 Long, straight chains of Hydro-carbon atoms.
 Saturated with Hydrogen atoms.
o Solid at room temperature.
o Animal products
 Unsaturated fats:
 Long, kinked chains of carbons due to one or more double bonds.
o Unsaturated with Hydrogen atoms.
o Liquid at room temperature.
o Plant products
o Functions:
 Long term energy storage molecule.
 Insulation (blubber)
 Cell membranes (Phospholipids)
 Protective coating
 Steroids (Cholesterol)
o Extra information about lipids:
 Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL):
 Bad kind of lipid. Causes blockages in blood vessels.
 High Density Lipoproteins (HDL):
 Good kind of lipid. Removes cholesterol from blood.
 Trans Fats
 Use a chemical catalyst to add hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat to
make it a Saturated Fat.
 By hydrogenating, you make them more attractive for cooking and
extend shelf life.
 Problems with Trans Fat:
o Body cannot metabolize or remove Trans fats, so they stay in
the blood stream longer.
o Contribute to coronary heart disease by raising levels of (LDL)
and lowering levels of HDL
o Suspected as contributing to other conditions such as certain
types of cancer, diabetes, and obesity.
 Nucleic Acids
o DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), RNA
o Structure:
 Large Polymer
 Monomers are called nucleotides.
 Each nucleotide contains:
o One 5 Carbon sugar
 Called Deoxyribose in DNA
o One phosphate group
o One nitrogen base
 Adenine
 Thymine
 Cytosine
 Guanine
 Uracil
 Phosphate  Pentose Sugar  Nitrogenous
o The order of the nucleotides determines how people/animals
o Functions:
 DNA stores genetic information.
 RNA used as codes or templates for making proteins.
 Proteins
o Grouped according to their function.
o Skin, hair, muscle, blood, enzymes are made of proteins.
 Structure:
o Tons of different types and shapes of proteins.
o Monomers are called amino acids.
 Amino group – NH

 Every single amino acid has NH

 All amino acids also have a Carboxylic acid group – (C(O)OH)
 The ‘R’ group (side group) changes depending on what amino acid it is.
 There are 20 types of amino acids.
 Arranging these in different combinations allows for a huge diversity of
 Analogy: Our 26 letter alphabet can be used to create millions of different
o Peptide bonds:
 Formed between 2 amino acids following a condensation reaction (rxn)
between the acidic group and the amino group.
 Amino acids form H-bonds with each other to produce different 3D shapes.
 Proteins: Energy and Enzymes
o Energy – The ability to do work or cause change.
 Potential Energy – Energy of position.
 Kinetic Energy – Energy of movement.
 Exothermic Energy Diagram (Energy that is released from the reaction)

 Endothermic Energy Diagram (Energy is needed/gained)

 Enzymes
o Proteins that speed up chemical reactions (AKA organic catalysts).

o Enzyme Structure
 Very specific 3-D shape.
 Active Site – Pocket of the enzyme that binds to the substrate (reactant).
 Each enzyme can only work with certain reactants because of the
specific shape.
o Enzyme Function
 1. Substrate binds to active site of the enzyme.
 2. Enzyme lowers activation energy and reaction occurs faster.
 3. Products are released.
 Activation Energy
o The energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
o Example
 Salivary amylase
 Enzyme in spit that breaks polysaccharide (starch) down to the
monosaccharide (glucose).
o If it ends with “-ase”, it’s most likely an enzyme.
o Coenzymes
 (AKA Cofactor) assist in enzyme action by being part of the active site.
 Example:
o Vitamins
o Competitive Inhibitors
 Bind to the active site but don’t react; slow the reaction by getting in the way.
 Factors Affecting Enzymatic Speed
o Enzyme Concentration
 Increase enzymes, increase enzyme activity.
 Due to more collisions between substrate molecules and the enzymes.
 Will eventually “level out”.
o Substrate Concentration
 Increase substrates, increase enzyme activity.
 Due to more collisions between substrate molecules and the enzymes.
 Will eventually level out when the number of enzymes and substrates
even out.
o Temperature
 Increase in temperature increases enzyme activity. (Up to a certain point)
 If the temperature is too high, enzyme activity levels out and then declines
rapidly because the enzyme gets denatured.
 Denatured: A change in the shape of the enzyme where it’s no longer
 The same thing happens if the temperature gets too cold.
o pH
 Each enzyme has an optimal pH at which the rate of reaction is highest.
 Too drastic of a change in pH will also lead to denatured enzymes.
Unit 2: Cells
Types of Microscopes
 Compound Microscope
o Allows humans to see things so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye.
o Allows us to see individual cells.
 Stereomicroscope
o Sees things in greater detail.
o Sometimes called a ‘Dissecting scope’.
Microscope Terms
 Magnification: How much large an object appears.
 For our ‘scopes:
o Eyepiece
 10x magnification
o Objective lenses
 Scanning: 4x magnification
 Low: 10x magnification
 High: 40x magnification
o Total magnification
 Scanning: 40x magnification
 Low: 100x magnification
 High: 400x magnification
 Resolution: The ability of a microscope to distinguish two objects as separate.
 Field of View: Everything that can be seen through a microscope.
 Depth of Field: Portion of field that appears sharp.
o Determined by adjusting the fine adjustment knob.
Microscope Lab Skills
 Carrying: 2 hands, 1 hand on arm, and 1 hand on base.
 Preparing a wet mount:
o Obtain a clean slide.
o Put a drop of water on the slide and put your object on top of it.
o Obtain a clean cover slip and put it over your object at a 45
angle and slowly push it
down into place.
 Focusing:
o Always begin with the scanning objective lens.
o Use the course adjustment knob to adjust focus only when the scanning objective lens is
in use.
o Never use the course adjustment knob when using the high power objective lens.
o Use the fine adjustment knob when using high and low power lenses.
 Discovery of the cell
o Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703): First identified cells using a microscope.
o Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723): First person to identify living cells.
o Cell Theory: (Schleiden, Schwann & Virchow, 1839)
 All living things are made up of cells.
 Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
 Cells come only from the reproduction of living cells.
 Cells are limited in size.
 The only cell that is visible to the naked eye is a human egg cell.
 Why are they limited in size?
o Specific cells for specific functions.
o They could fall apart if they’re too big.
 Cell size: Small cells are more efficient because of the high surface area to volume ratio.
Eukaryotic Cells (plants, animals, fungi, protists)
Eukaryotic Cells
 Eukaryotic Cells: Have a nucleus and other organelles.
Animal Cells
 Have all the following structures/organelles:
o Cell (plasma) membrane:
 Regulates what enters/exits the cell.
o Cytoplasm:
 Cell’s interior; water with “stuff” dissolved in it.
o Cytoskeleton:
 Provide internal structure within the cell.
 Microtubules – Tracks for transporting vesicles.
 Microfilaments – Support, muscle contractions.
 Intermediate Filaments – Holds things in place.
o Ribosomes:
 Help build proteins.
 Organelles – Membrane bound structures.
o Nucleus:
 Contains DNA, controls the cell.
 Nucleolus:
 Makes ribosomes.
o Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
 Rough ER: Contains ribosomes; transports proteins.
 Smooth ER: Makes fats; breaks down toxins.
o Golgi Apparatus:
 Modifies proteins from Rough ER.
o Vesicles:
 Transports materials through cell; rides on “tracks” of cytoskeleton.
o Lysosomes:
 Digests materials not needed by the cell.
o Mitochondria:
 Produce energy for the cell (“powerhouse” of the cell).
Plant Cells
 Plant cells have all of the above (animal cells) PLUS…
o Vacuoles:
 Store material (water).
 Plant cells and some protists.
o Cell Wall:
 Protective barrier; supports cell shape.
o Chloroplasts:
 Produce energy by photosynthesis.
Animal Cell
DNA inside nucleus

Plant Cell

Prokaryotic Cells
 Prokaryotic Cells
o Ex: Bacteria
o Smaller than eukaryotic cells.
o Contain no membrane bound organelles, only:
 Cell membrane
 Cytoplasm
 Ribosomes
 Ribosomes are pieces of RNA. RNA are pieces of rewritten DNA.
 Nuclear Material
 Cell Wall

Other Cell Structures
 Modes of Locomotion (movement):
o Flagella: Long, whip-like tails.
o Cilia: Short hair-like projections.
Cell Transport
 Cells regulate movement of materials across their membrane.
o This maintains internal balance (we call this homeostasis) despite changes in their
 Cell (plasma) membrane: regulates what can enter or exit a cell
o Selectively permeable: Only certain substances may pass through.
 “Fluid-Mosaic Model” – Name scientists use to describe the structure of the cell membrane.
o Membrane acts more fluid than solid.
 Components:
o Phospholipids
 “Head”: Hydrophilic (polar) (loves water)
 Two fatty acid tails(long Hydrocarbon chains): Hydrophobic (non-polar) (hates
 Lipid Bilayer: Two layers of phospholipids, move laterally.
 If you added phospholipids to a mixture of oil and water, where will they align?
 Heads facing the water, tails facing the oil.
o Proteins: Perform various jobs within the membrane
 Peripheral Proteins: Act as enzymes; NOT embedded in bilayer, on the surface.
 Integral Proteins: Regulate transport across membrane, serve as markers;
extend across entire membrane. Fully embedded in membrane.
 Polar ends, non-polar mid section.
Membrane Transport
 Equilibrium: Molecules move until the concentration is the same throughout a space.
 Concentration gradient: A difference in concentration of a substance across a space.
 Passive Transport: When molecules move from a high concentration area to a low concentration
o The movement of molecules, across the membrane, that does NOT use energy.
o Substance moves “down” the concentration gradient (from high to low concentration).
o 3 main types:
 Diffusion
 NET movement of molecules from high to low concentration.
o Ex: food coloring, perfume, sugar cube
 Osmosis
 The diffusion of water.
 Solvent molecules can diffuse across a membrane.
 Set up Eggs
o Types of Solutions
 Hypotonic: Solution with less dissolved particles than
the inside of the cell.
 Hypertonic: Solution with more dissolved particles than
inside of the cell.
 Isotonic: Solution with the same amount of dissolved
particles as the inside of the cell.
 Turgor Pressure: The pressure that water exerts against
the cell wall.
 Plasmolysis: Loss of pressure when cell shrinks away
from cell wall.
 Cytolysis: Animal cells bursting due to water diffusing
into the cell.
 Facilitated diffusion
 Diffusion of molecules across a membrane using a channel or carrier
o Carrier proteins: Similar to enzymes, in that a specific shape
allows a specific molecule to pass.
o Channel Protein: An open passage for molecules to pass
 Active Transport
o Transport of substance against the concentration gradient.
 Molecules move from low concentration to high concentration.
 Uses energy and a membrane protein.
 Vesicular Transport
o Movement of large amounts of material using a vesicle.
 Endocytosis: Moves substances into the cell.
 Exocytosis: Moves substances out of the cell.
Unit 3: Energy (Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis)
Types of Energy
 Kinetic Energy – Energy of motion.
 Potential Energy – Stored energy (energy of position).
Laws of Thermodynamics
 First Law of Thermodynamics
o Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes forms.
 Examples:
 Dropping a book.
 Dropping an object.
 Potential energy Kinetic energy Sound/heat energy.
 Converting food energy into usable (ATP) energy in our cells.
o Heat is given off in every energy transfer.
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
o Entropy of the universe always increases.
 The universe is always moving closer to chaos (entropy).
 Entropy – Measure of disorder (randomness/chaos).
o If entropy always increases, why can we clean our rooms?
 Room is a closed system.
 Use energy to clean.
 Put energy into a closed system.
 Using energy actually increases entropy.
 By putting energy into something (like cleaning your room) you are
increasing the entropy of the universe.
 Living things work this way… we require an input of energy… therefore we
increase the entropy of the universe.
o Heat is a highly disordered form of energy.
Overview of Photosynthesis
 Where does all the energy that supports life come from?
o The sun
 Sunlight
o Photosynthesis converts solar energy into the chemical energy:
 6CO
+ 6H
O + Sun  C
+ 6O

o Cellular Respiration
 C
+ 6O
 6CO
+ 6H
o Autotrophs: Organisms that can produce their own food.
 Example: Plants, algae, and certain bacteria.
Overview of Cellular Respiration
 Converts food energy into usable energy, called ATP, for the cell (+heat)
 C
+ 6O
 6CO
+ 6H
 Heterotrophs: Organisms that get their energy from another source.
o Example: animals, fungi, bacteria, protists.
Overview of important molecules
 ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate
o Structure
 Adenine (nitrogen base)
 Sugar
 THREE phosphates
o Energy in bonds between phosphates.
o Function
 Provides energy to cell for cellular processes and chemical reactions.
 Entire pool of ATP is recycled once per minute.
o ATP + H
O  ADP + Inorganic Phosphate + Energy
 ATP Cycle
o ATP breaks down into ADP + phosphate
 Use energy!
 Movement
 Active Transport
 Making molecules
o Transport energy from food to replenish the missing phosphate group
 Make ATP!
 Breakdown of food.
 Food molecules: (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins)
o Food contains potential energy.
o By breaking the chemical bonds in the good, we can release energy and transfer it to
other forms.
 Food
 Release energy quickly producing heat and light
 Release energy slowly in the form of ATP
 Wait… doesn’t food provide energy? Why do we need ATP?
o We cannot utilize the energy that directly comes from food, so we need to convert it
into ATP so our body can use it.
 Electron Carriers: Temporary energy storing molecules.
 NADH (Nicotinamine Adenine Dinucleotide)
(Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide)
Energy in Heterotrophs making ATP
 Overview:
o 3 Methods to make ATP.
 Phosphocreatine
 Glycolysis and (Lactic Acid) Fermentation
 (Aerobic) Cellular Respiration
o Track two things:
 What energy transfers are occurring?
 Where are the carbon atoms?
 Phosphocreatine: Enzyme that adds P
(Phosphate) directly onto ADP to make more ATP.
o Used for quick energy.
o Anaerobic (doesn’t use oxygen)
o Stored in muscles.
o Only works for ~30 seconds!
 1. Glycolysis: The partial breakdown of glucose.
o Features:
 Used for short term energy production.
 Anaerobic
 Occurs in the cytoplasm.
o Process:
 Priming: ATP is used to add phosphates to glucose.
 Cleavage: 6C unit split into 2 – 3C units.
 Energy Recovery: Production of ATP and NADH.
 Ends with 2 molecules of Pyruvate (AKA Pyruvic Acid).
 Electron Carriers:
o NADH is formed to temporarily hang on to energy before making ATP.
 Nicotinamine Adenine Dinucleotide.
and NADH are recycled over and over again!
 Glycolysis Summary
o Inputs
 Glucose
 2 NAD

 2 ATP
 4 ADP + 2 P
o Outputs
 2 Pyruvate
 2 NADH
 2 ATP (NET gain)
 After Glycolysis, the fate of Pyruvate depends…
o Oxygen Absent
 Fermentation
o Oxygen Present
 Cell Respiration
Energy in Heterotrophs Fermentation
 If oxygen is NOT available, fermentation occurs.
o Fermentation – Anaerobic process (does not require oxygen).
o In animals – Lactic Acid Fermentation
 Pyruvate is converted into Lactic Acid.
o In plants and yeast – Alcoholic Fermentation
 Pyruvate is converted into ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and CO
 Why go through Fermentation? Why not just stop and wait for Oxygen?
o To regenerate the NAD
o Need Glycolysis to take place even when there’s no Oxygen.
o Fermentation regenerates NAD
from NADH so that Glycolysis can repeat.
 Recall: NET of 2 ATP produced in Glycolysis!
 Why is Fermentation cool…
o Alcoholic Fermentation.
 If the plants are dead, what is alive that undergoes Glycolysis?
o Bacteria or yeast consumes the cells of the dead plant and it undergoes Glycolysis.
Energy in Heterotrophs
 Fate of Pyruvate
o Oxygen absent
 Fermentation (in cytoplasm)
o Oxygen present
 Cellular Respiration (transition into mitochondria)
Energy in Heterotrophs Cellular Respiration
 If oxygen IS available, cellular respiration continues in the mitochondria:
o 4 main steps of Cellular Respiration:
 1. Glycolysis
 2. Transition reaction
 3. Kreb’s Cycle
 4. Electron Transport Chain
 Features:
o Used for long term energy production.
o Aerobic (requires oxygen)
o Occurs in mitochondrial matrix
o Can use glucose, fats or proteins as fuel.
 The Mitochondria:

2. Transition Reaction
 Occurs between cytoplasm and the mitochondrial matrix.
o Pyruvate combines with Coenzyme A (CoA) to produce Acetyl-CoA.
o 2 CO
o 2 NAD
is reduced to 2 NADH
 End of Transition Reaction
o So…
 Where is the potential energy of glucose now being stored?
 Some of it is in the NADH, and some of it is in the Acetyl-CoA.
 In addition to ATP and NADH from Glycolysis.
 Where are the 6 carbons we started with?
 2 C exhaled as CO

 Other 4 C in Acetyl-CoA (2 each)
3. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
 Acetyl-CoA combines with a 4C molecule.
 The 6C molecule releases a CO
, and NAD
is reduced to NADH.
 The 5C molecule releases another CO
, and NAD
is reduced to NADH.
 ATP is generated.
and NAD
are reduced to FADH
and NADH.
 The 4C molecule is recycled.
 Happens two times.
 NET Output of Kreb’s Cycle (per glucose molecule)
o 6 NADH
o 2 FADH

o 2 ATP
o 4 CO

 End of Kreb’s
o So…
 Where is the potential energy of glucose now being stored?
 In addition to ATP and NADH from Glycolysis and Transition.
 Where are the 6 carbons we started with?
 All 6C exhaled as CO

4. Electron Transport Chain (Electron Transport System)
 What’s involved?
o Electron carriers: NADH and FADH
are temporarily storing energy.
o Electron transport proteins: Membrane proteins (part of the mitochondrial membranes).
 H
Pumps: Membrane protein to pump a proton against concentration gradient.
 ATP Synthase: Protein that uses energy released by movement of protons down
concentration gradient to make ATP.
 This process is called Chemiosmosis.
o Oxygen: An “input” and final electron acceptor of the process.
 “Catches” electrons and binds to H
to form water.
 Process
o How many ATP does each NADH yield?
 3 ATP
o How many ATP does each FADH
 2 ATP
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
 C
+ O
 H
O + CO
 C
 Glycolysis
 O
 ()  +H
+ e

 H
 CO
 Transition (2) Kreb’s (4)
Energy in Heterotrophs Making ATP
 End of electron transport chain:
o Where is the potential energy of glucose now being stored?
o Where are the 6 carbons we started with?
 Exhaled as CO

Energy in Autotrophs: Photosynthesis
 Light Energy:
o Light is a wave.
 Wavelength (λ) – Distance between two peaks.
 Small wavelength = higher energy
 Large wavelength = lower energy
 Different wavelengths reflect different colors.
o Pigments: Molecules that absorb/reflect sunlight.
 Examples:
 Chlorophyll (absorbs red, reflects green)
 Carotenoids (absorbs violet/blue, reflects yellow/orange)
 How they work:
 Molecules absorb a photon of light.
 Electrons become energized and jump to a higher energy levels.
 Electrons typically fall back down, but in photosynthesis – they are
“caught” by electron carriers and are used to do work.
 Photosynthesis:
o Takes place in the Chloroplast:
 Thylakoid: Flattened disc; contains chlorophyll.
 Stroma: Fluid filled region.
 Grana: Stacks of Thylakoids.

o 2 Reactions
 1. Light-dependent reactions
 Occurs in Thylakoid membrane.
 2. Light-independent Reactions (AKA Calvin Cycle)
 Occurs in Stroma.
 Also known as Carbon fixation.
o Process
 Light-dependent Reactions:
 1. Sunlight excites e
in chlorophyll of photosystem II and “caught” by an
 2. e
transferred along an electron transport chain (ETC).
 3. Sunlight excites e
in photosystem I and again, it is “caught” by an e

 4. e
are transferred along the ETC and will eventually combine with
to make NADPH.
 5. Restoring Photosystem II:
o Enzyme in Thylakoid splits water into protons, electrons, and
oxygen. (H
O  e
+ H
+ O
o Electrons replace photosystem II; protons are left inside
Thylakoid; oxygen gas diffuses out.
 6. Synthesis of ATP:
o Chemiosmosis: Build up of a H
concentration gradient (high in
Thylakoid space).
o ATP Synthase: Located in the Thylakoid membrane, makes ATP
as H
moves down the concentration gradient.
 Order of pigments is photosystem II, then photosystem I.
 Light-independent Reactions (AKA Calvin Cycle):
 1. CO
enters and combines with RuBP to form PGA.
 2. ATP and NADPH provide energy and H
to convert PGA to PGAL.
 3. Most PGAL is converted back to RuBP, but some is eventually used to
Cell Reproduction
Human (Eukaryotic) DNA
 Storing DNA
o Nucleus:
 Nuclear Envelope: Double membrane surrounding the nucleus.
 Nuclear Pores: Small holes in the membrane.
o Packaging DNA
 Chromatin – Long, thin, uncoiled DNA.
 Histone Proteins – DNA wraps around to help coil.
 Chromosomes – DNA coiled, thick (stored this way for replication).
 Chromosome (cont.)
 Replicated Chromosomes
 Chromatin replicates itself into 2 identical pieces of chromatin.
 Chromatin condenses and forms 2 identical chromosomes.
 Chromosomes connect together at a structure called centromere. When
they stick together at the centromere, it creates one big chromosome
made up of two identical chromatids.
 Sister Chromatids – Exact copies of DNA
 Centromere – Connects sister chromatids.
 Karyotype: Photograph of all chromosomes in a cell.
o Homologous Chromosomes – Two chromosomes that carry the same type of
information, but are not identical.
 Autosomes – Non-sex chromosomes (22 pairs).
 Sex Chromosomes – Usually XX or XY; determines sex (1 pair).
Quiz Time
 How many chromosomes do human cells have?
o 46
 How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
o 23
 Autosomes?
o 22
 Sex chromosomes?
o 1
Prokaryotic Cell Division
 Binary Fission:
o (Remember: no nucleus)
o Single piece of DNA (circular)
o Copies DNA
o DNA moves to opposite sides.
o Cell divides in half.
o Happens very fast.
Eukaryotic Cells
 Cell Cycle: Sequence of growth and division of a body cell.
o Importance: Growth, healing, and repair.
o 3 main parts:
 Interphase
 Mitosis
 Cytokinesis
 Structures involved:
o Chromosomes: DNA
o Spindle Fibers: Microtubules that attach to the centromere and move chromosomes.
o Centrioles: Structures that anchor the spindles at opposite ends of the cells.
Cell Cycle: Interphase
 Interphase is the cell carrying out its normal life activities and chromosomes become duplicated.
 G
– “Gap” between cell division, cell grows.
 G
– “Gap” phase. Cells are NOT undergoing any preparation for cell division – just “being”.
 S – “Synthesis”; DNA is copied.
o When the DNA is copied inside the nucleus. It’s preparing for the cell to divide.
 G
– “Gap” cells prepare for division; Centrioles replicate, spindles form.

Cell Cycle: Mitosis
 Prophase:
o Chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes.
o Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear.
o Spindle fibers form between Centrioles, which move to opposite ends of cell.
 Metaphase:
o Chromosomes meet in the middle.
o Each chromatid is attached to separate spindle fibers.
 Anaphase:
o Centromeres split and sister chromatids separate as they are pulled apart to opposite
sides of cell.
 Telophase:
o Nucleus and nucleolus reappear.
o Cells form two new daughter nuclei.
o Chromosomes begin to uncoil
o Cell begins to divide.

Cell Cycle: Cytokinesis
 Cytokinesis: Complete division of cytoplasm.
o In plants, cell plate forms and eventually becomes the cell wall that separates the two
o In animal cells, a protein ring encircles the plasma membrane.
o Ring contracts producing a cleavage furrow.