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Leaching characteristics of fly ash

Aysenur Ugurlu
Abstract The disposal of fly ash as a byproduct of
thermic power stations, results in significant
environmental problems. The leaching of coal fly ash
during disposal is of concern for possible
contamination, especially for the aquatic
environment when ash is in contact with water. The
aim of this study was to investigate the leaching
behaviour of fly ashes currently disposed in
Kemerkoy Power Plant (Turkey) fly-ash-holding
pond. The studies were conducted with fly ashes
from the electrostatic precipitators (fresh fly ash)
and from the fly ash pond (pre-leached fly ash). The
fly ashes has alkaline in nature and pH ranges
between 11.9 to 12.2. The pre-leached fly ash
exhibited lower EC values (7,400 lS) than the fresh
fly ash (10,300 lS). In contrast to Fe and Pb, the
elements such as Cr, Cd, Cu and Co did not leach
from the fly ash. The Ca and Mn concentrations
decreased with increasing temperature whereas, Na
and K concentrations increased. The results showed
that the most important effects of fly ash leaching
were pH, Na, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Mn and Pb.
Keywords Ash pond Æ Coal solid waste Æ Fly
ash Æ Leaching
Introduction
Coal is the most abundant and widely spread fossil energy
resource in the world (Benito and others 2001). Fly ash is a
byproduct of incineration of coal. More than 150 million
tons of fly ash are produced annually worldwide from the
combustion of coal in power plants. Fly ash is utilized in
cement and construction industry. However, the rate of
production is greater than the consumption. The unused
fly ash is disposed into the holding ponds, lagoons, land-
fills and slag heaps. Disposal of huge amounts of fly ash in
landfills and surface impoundments or its re-use in con-
struction materials is of environmental concern (Piekos
and Paslawska 1998). Fly ash is classified as a hazardous
residue.
Coal contains significant quantities of various trace ele-
ments and, during combustion of coal, trace elements are
enriched as a result of carbon loss as carbon dioxide and
the trace elements are associated with the surface of the
ash particle due to evaporation and condensation. The
characteristics of the coal used and the type of the
installation employed in generating the solid combustion
wastes (fly ash) have a direct influence on chemical and
mineralogical composition of fly ash (Benito and others
2001).
The disposal of fly ash is considered a potential source of
contamination due to the enrichment and surface associ-
ation of trace elements in the ash particles (Choi and
others 2002). The elements Mn, Ba, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Ln, Ga,
Nd, As, Sb, Sn, Br, Zn, Se, Pb, Hg and S in the coal are
volatile to a significant extent in the combustion process.
However, the elements Mg, Na, K, Mo, Ce, Rb, Cs and Nb
appear to have smaller fraction volatilized during com-
bustion. Whereas, Si, Fe, Ca, Sr, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Py, Yb, Y,
Se, Zr, Ta, Na, Ag, and Zn are either not volatilized or only
show minor trends related to geochemistry of mineral
matter (Iyer 2002).
During transport, disposal and storage phases, the resi-
dues from coal combustion are subjected to leaching ef-
fects of rain and part of the undesirable components in the
ashes may pollute both ground and surface waters (Benito
and others 2001). These solid residues (fly ash) can be
leached in higher concentrations than drinking water
standards and can cause contamination in drinking water
sources.
Therefore, it is important to predict the leaching behaviour
of residues to prevent the environmental effects, especially
for the aquatic environment when ash is in contact with
water. The toxic elements leached from fly ash can con-
taminate soil, ground water and surface water. Therefore,
effective water management plans are required for fly ash
disposal. Although chemical composition of coal waste can
Received: 8 July 2003 / Accepted: 7 May 2004
Published online: 9 June 2004
ª Springer-Verlag 2004
A. Ugurlu
Environmental Engineering Department, Hacettepe University,
06532 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey
E-mail: ugurlu@hacettepe.edu.tr
Tel.: +90-312-2977822
Fax: +90-312-2992053
890 Environmental Geology (2004) 46:890–895 DOI 10.1007/s00254-004-1100-6
Original article
give us an idea about the pollutants passing through water,
in order to quantify these phenomena it is necessary to
carry out leaching tests.
Lau and Wong (2001) found that different elements have
different leaching behaviours because of differences in
elemental properties and pH of the solution and leaching
time, which strongly influence the leaching behaviour.
Seferinoglu and others (2003) reported that trace-element
leaching from bottom ash is slower and often requires that
the entire bulk matrix be dissolved.
The aim of this study is to investigate the leaching
behaviour of fly ashes disposed in the Kemerkoy Power
Plant (Turkey) ash pond and to investigate the potential
influence from the ash disposal on ground water quality.
The study includes batches of leaching tests with fly ash
before disposal and with fly ash slurry collected from the
fly ash pond.
Materials and methods
Chemical composition
The main method of disposal of fly ash from the power
plant is mixing with water. The resultant slurry is trans-
ferred to an ash-disposal pond. Random samples of freshly
generated fly ash have been collected (5 kg) from the
electrostatic precipitators in the Kemerkoy Thermoelectric
Power Plant and then mixed. The pre-leached fly ash was
collected at various parts of the fly ash pond located 800 m
to the Plant at 5 cm below the surface and then mixed. The
samples were taken from the part where the fly ash had
been stored for 1 week to 3 months. The coal and fly ash
samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The
physico-chemical properties of the elements in the fly ash
is related to their chemical form in the coal, coal com-
bustion process and mechanisms of emission-control
devices. The fly ash was produced through the combustion
of lignite coal, which is transported from the nearby area
(Yatagan). The composition of the lignite coal and some
physical properties are shown in Table 1. The ash content
of the coal was about 33%. The lignite coal burnt in the
power plant produced fly ash with a high lime content
(15.8–19.7%) as well as Fe
2
O
3
(1.2–2.8%), SiO
2
(8.2–12.6%)
and Al
2
O
3
(3.0–5.1%; Baba 2000). The fly ash is a fine
powdery residue with particle sizes in the range of 63 to
125 lm. Data on chemical composition of fly ash taken
from the incinerator (FA-1) and from the fly ash pond
(FA-2) are shown in Table 2. The fly ash contains high
concentrations of silica together with oxides of Ca, Al and
Fe. The fly ash has very high organic content that was not
lost during combustion (12.7%). Mg, Na, Ti, K and P
content account for only 3.5%. Trace elements make up
the rest of the fly ash.
As can be seen from the Table 2, there are slight differ-
ences between the chemical composition of FA-1 and
FA-2. The wet disposal of the fly ash into the ash pond
caused leaching of some constituents from the fly ash due
to weathering. Some constituents showed an increase due
to leaching of some constituents from the fly ash particles.
Batch leaching tests
A series of batch leaching tests were conducted in the
laboratory. In order to better simulate the natural condi-
tions and susceptibility to release a lower-liquid-to-solid
(L/S) ratio was used. Therefore, 5-g fly ash samples were
mixed with 25 ml of de-ionized water, giving a liquid/solid
ratio of 5. Three subsequent extractions with the same
volume were applied and gentle stirring was continued
during the extraction (2 h). The experiments were carried
out at room temperature (23 °C), and at 40 and 50 °C. The
results were calculated using the mean value of duplicates.
The fly ash samples were tested for characteristic proper-
ties related to leaching behaviour. The tests were con-
ducted in order to distinguish the easily leachable and less
readily released loads of soluble components. The fly ash
samples were tested for characteristic properties related to
leaching behaviour. In these studies, the leaching of Ca,
Mg, Na, K, SO
4
, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, pH and con-
ductivity (EC) from fly ash were investigated in order to
predict potential pollution. The results were calculated
using the mean value of duplicates of each extraction.
Environmental Geology (2004) 46:890–895 891
Table 1
Chemical and physical characteristics coal
Parameter Coal
(mean ± SD)
Moisture (%) 31.6±5
Ash (%) 33.4±10
Sulfur (%) 0.82±0.25
Gross calorific value (kcal/kg) 1,805±288
Density (g/cm
3
) 1.14±0.06
Table 2
Chemical analysis of fly ash. FA-1 fly ash from Incinerator; FA-2 fly
ash from pond; DLS dolomitic limestone; CLS cherty limestone
Fly-ash-1 Fly-ash-2 DLS CLS
Major elements (wt%)
SiO
2
26.4 25.3 4.61 57.85
Al
2
O
3
10.0 9.43 – 9.87
Fe
2
O
3
3.4 3.3 0.48 4.24
MnO 0.05 0.04 – 0.133
MgO 1.72 1.84 10.56 1.34
CaO 33.8 30.1 37.86 9.95
Na
2
O 0.15 0.16 – –
K
2
O 1.0 1.0 – 1.81
Ti
2
O 0.43 0.41 – 0.47
P
2
O
5
0.23 0.21 – 0.13
Trace elements (ppm)
Nb 6.3 8.1 1.3 1.1
Zr 73.5 74.2 15.0 12.2
Y 13.9 14.5 3.5 8.0
Sr 380.7 358.4 100.1 88.6
Rb 41.7 41.7 2.6 5.0
Ga 6.3 6.5 <0.01 <0.01
Ni 87.2 68.9 14.8 12.5
Co 3.4 3.8 <0.01 <0.01
Cr 210.3 163.4 23.6 21.0
V 97.2 85.1 32.3 0.3
Ba 166.0 142.1 <0.01 66.2
Original article
In addition to the leaching tests using de-ionized water,
adsorption studies were also conducted by using the typ-
ical ground profile beneath the ash pond. The fly ash was
stored in a valley located on a karstic and fractured
dolomitic and cherty limestone basin. The ash level was
3 m at the time of sampling (during plant start-up stud-
ies). It was expected that the ash level in the pond would
increase to 130 m. Limestone is the most extensive rock
unit in this area and it is reported that it is densely frac-
tured, porous and partly karstified (Baba 2000). These
basins are present beneath an alluvial layer (1 m). The
leaching studies with these rock types were also conducted
in order to determine the background concentrations, the
possible elemental contamination from fly ash disposal
and possible adsorption on these rock types. These rock
samples were collected nearby the ash-disposal site from
drilling studies (1–50 m), which did not come into contact
with leachates. In these studies, the leaching behaviour of
FA-1 and FA-2 samples (5 g) were studied when they were
in contact with dolomitic (DLS) or cherty (CLS) limestone
samples (5 g) and 25 ml of distilled water. The ash samples
were dried at 110 °C prior to batch analysis.
Analytical methods
All the analyses were carried out according to standard
methods (APHA 1989). The Ca, Mg, Na, K and trace ele-
ments were analysed by an atomic adsorption spectro-
photometer (Perkin Elmer 2280). pH was measured by an
EDT instruments BA 350 pH meter. All the samples were
filtered through a 0.45-lm micropore membrane filter
prior to analyses.
Results and discussion
Leaching studies are important in predicting the envi-
ronmental impacts associated with the disposal into fly ash
ponds. In these studies, the leachability of elements from
fresh fly ash (FA-1) and weathered fly ash samples taken
from the ash pond (FA-2) in the Kemerkoy Power Plant
were compared. During these studies, leaching of calcium,
sodium, magnesium, sulphates, potassium and various
heavy metals from fly ash was determined. The fly ash
samples were extracted three times with each extraction
lasting 2 h.
The effect of number of extractions on the leachability of
EC and pH was studied. It is suggested that the leachability
of toxic trace elements from fly ash particles is affected by
the number of extractions. The EC values decreased with
the number of extractions at all temperatures applied and
the highest EC values were observed in the first extraction
(see Table 3). Therefore, cation concentrations decreased
after each extraction. The EC from FA-1 reduced from
10,300 to 5,400 lS after the third extraction at room
temperature. The leachate of the pre-leached fly ash (FA-2)
exhibited lower EC values than the fresh fly ash (FA-1).
The difference was significant. This is probably related to
the higher ion dissolution that occurred from the FA-1.
The lower EC values of the FA-2 can be explained by
leaching to some extent in the ash pond.
The ECs of the rock samples were low and average values
were about 70 lS for both rock types. The studies with the
underlying rock samples showed that a decrease in EC
values of the fly ash samples was not significant for both
rock types and, therefore, it can be expected that high EC
values are released to the ground water. The pre-leached
fly ash reaction with both rock samples resulted in lower
EC values than fresh fly ash. In these studies, FA-1 with
dolomitic limestone exhibited slightly lower EC values
than that of cherty limestone.
There are significant differences among the conductivity of
the leachates at room temperature and at 40 and 50 °C.
The first extraction of FA-2 at room temperature was
7,420 lS. It decreased to 4,170 lS at 40 °C and increased
to 7,000 lS at 50 °C. The conductivity change of leachate
from FA-1, with respect to temperature, was different than
that of FA-2. The EC decreased with increasing tempera-
ture. However, higher conductivity cannot be attributed to
the higher dissolution rates of K and Na for both fly ashes
in the heated leaching experiments with respect to ambient
extractions.
892 Environmental Geology (2004) 46:890–895
Table 3
EC values from the batch leaching tests (lS). FA-1 fly ash from incinerator; FA-2 fly ash from ash pond; FA-1+DLS FA-1 mixed with dolomitic
limestone; FA-1+CLS FA-1 mixed with cherty limestone; FA-2+DLS FA-2 mixed with dolomitic limestone; FA-2+CLS FA-2 mixed with cherty
limestone
Batch leaching
tests
T FA-1 FA-2 DLS CLS FA-1 +
DLS
FA-1 +
CLS
FA-2 +
DLS
FA-2 +
CLS (°C)
Test 1
1st extraction 23 10,300 7,420 90 92 7,840 8,540 3,260 4,830
2nd extraction 23 5,730 4,310 69 64 5,630 6,470 2,530 3,680
3rd extraction 23 5,400 3,550 60 48 5,370 5,630 2,820 2,960
Test 2
1st extraction 40 7,860 4,170 105 88 5,450 8,880 1,980 2,700
2nd extraction 40 6,140 4,470 89 60 5,130 5,620 1,718 2,750
3rd extraction 40 5,990 4,050 80 52 4,860 5,700 1,388 2,430
Test 3
1st extraction 50 7,500 7,000 88 120 7,160 5,800 4,160 3,480
2nd extraction 50 3,400 4,500 55 98 4,610 4,170 2,900 2,480
3rd extraction 50 2,350 3,490 49 83 3,950 3,750 1,906 2,060
Original article
Batch leaching tests showed that the pH values of the
weathered and fresh fly-ash samples were both alkaline in
nature and the pH of the leachate from FA-1 and FA-2
ranged from 11.88–12.97 and 11.27–12.48, respectively
(Table 4). This was probably due to the high Ca content of
the fly-ash samples. Similar results have been observed in
previous studies (Choi and others 2002). The change in pH
with the number of extractions was insignificant. The
effect of temperature on leaching of fly ash was studied in
the range of 23–50 °C using distilled water. The effect of
temperature on pH-leaching tests showed that for both fly
ash samples pH values decrease when the temperature was
increased to 40 °C and increase when the temperature was
further increased to 50 °C. The leaching tests were also
conducted for rock samples. Both rock types have alkaline
properties and the pH of the dolomitic limestone (DLS)
ranged from 8.31 to 8.65 and the cherty limestone (CLS)
ranged between 8.36 to 9.23. When the ash samples were
mixed with DLS or CLS samples, the pH of the leachate
was slightly lower than the pH values observed for FA-1
and FA-2 leachates. This may indicate that the high pH
values will probably reach the groundwater.
The main components of the fly ash are Ca, Na, K and Mg
and they were leached in high amounts from the fly ash
samples. Calcium amounts leached from FA-1 and FA-2
showed significant differences. The leaching studies at
room temperature showed that about 50% lower Ca was
extracted from FA-2 than FA-1. The Ca concentration
leached from FA-1 was 880 mg/l whereas it was 460 mg/l
from FA-2 at this temperature. This can be explained by
the leaching of Ca in some extent in the ash pond. It
probably combined with CO
2
present in the rock and/or in
the air, and resulted in the formation of low solubility
calcium carbonate (CaCO
3
). The concentration of Ca de-
creased when temperature was increased. A similar trend
was also observed by Khanra and others (1998). It is
suggested that Ca can be precipitated as CaSO
4
and/or
CaCO
3
. The Ca concentrations leached at 50 °C were
similar for both fly ash samples (about 600 mg/l). How-
ever, Na and K concentrations increased with temperature.
The coal solid waste is disposed of in an ash pond lying on
a dolomitic and cherty limestone basin. The leaching
studies of dolomitic and cherty limestone showed very low
Ca concentrations. When the rock samples were in contact
with fly ash samples, this resulted in Ca concentrations
being increased. The FA-2 reaction with rock samples
exhibited lower Ca values than FA-1. In these studies both
fly ash samples, in contact with DLS, showed lower Ca
values than that of CLS. However, most of the Ca was not
retained in the rock.
Higher concentrations of Mg were extracted from rock
samples than that of both fly ash samples. Magnesium was
found as a less readily soluble component of the fly ash
and this suggests that it was incorporated within the
interior of the fly ash. Slightly lower Mg values were
measured from the pre-leached fly ash. Potassium and
sodium were also leached in higher amounts from FA-2
than FA-1. They were probably present in the interior part
of the fly ash and were leached for longer periods. Sig-
nificantly higher K concentrations were leached from FA-2
samples (255 mg/l) than FA-1 (49 mg/l). It was seen that
when both of the fly ash samples were in contact with rock
samples, the K concentration did not interact with any
rock samples. The potassium concentration leached from
FA-2 was slightly reduced when it was in contact with CLS.
Therefore, it can be expected that K concentrations will
also be transported to the ground water. High Na con-
centrations will also be transported to the ground water.
The leachability of Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co and Fe from fly ash
was also studied. Chromium did not leach from the fly ash
samples. The leached Cu concentrations were close to the
detection limit. This is probably because Cr and Cu are
precipitated as their insoluble hydroxides. The lead con-
centration of FA-1 and FA-2 samples did not show dif-
ferences. Higher Mn concentrations (0.21–0.76 mg/l) were
leached out from both rock types than any fly ash samples
at any temperature applied. In the present studies, Ca, SO
4
,
Pb, Mn and Co leached in higher amounts from fresh fly
ash than the pre-leached fly ash. However, Mg, Na, K, Cu
and Fe are higher in the pre-leached fly ash. The effect of
temperature was insignificant for some ions. Mn and Cu
concentrations did not change with temperature.
Iron oxides have a lower solubility in distilled water. Iron
leached from fly ash is probably precipitated as hydroxides
Environmental Geology (2004) 46:890–895 893
Table 4
pH values from the batch leaching tests. FA-1 fly ash from Incinerator; FA-2 fly ash from ash pond; FA-1+D FA-1 mixed with dolomitic
limestone; FA-1+C FA-1 mixed with cherty limestone; FA-2+D FA-2 mixed with dolomitic limestone; FA-2+C FA-2 mixed with cherty
limestone
Batch leaching
tests
T FA-1 FA-2 DLS CLS FA-1 +
DLS
FA-1 +
CLS
FA-2 +
DLS
FA-2 +
CLS (°)
Test 1
1st extraction 23 12.78 12.47 8.31 8.36 12.66 12.03 11.97 12.00
2nd extraction 23 12.28 12.07 8.40 9.23 13.03 12.04 12.52 11.98
3rd extraction 23 12.28 11.97 8.40 9.18 12.17 12.12 11.87 11.88
Test 2
1st extraction 40 11.88 11.27 7.67 8.01 11.68 12.14 11.15 11.12
2nd extraction 40 11.82 11.33 7.93 8.30 11.95 11.97 11.04 11.52
3rd extraction 40 12.16 11.29 8.37 8.63 11.39 11.32 10.87 11.23
Test 3
1st extraction 50 12.70 12.48 8.15 7.70 12.44 12.71 12.00 11.68
2nd extraction 50 11.98 12.01 8.20 7.85 11.75 12.05 11.56 11.58
3rd extraction 50 12.28 12.30 8.50 8.04 11.90 11.53 11.29 11.64
Original article
due to the alkaline nature of fly ash. The concentration of
Pb, Fe and Mn in leachates depends on the test conditions.
During the leaching studies, the resulting high pH in the
leachates led to a limited removal of Pb and Fe from fly
ash, which was even less removal than the other metals
(Cu, Co, Mn). The leachability of trace elements will de-
pend more or less on the leachability of iron (Khanra and
others, 1998).
Leaching of the metals decreased generally with increasing
temperature. In most cases, a direct link between extrac-
tion and leachability could not be found. It is suggested
that the degree of extraction does not exclusively deter-
mine the leachability of all metals, rather, it is temperature.
However, the applied leaching conditions did not lead to
the complete removal of soluble compounds due to a low
L/S ratio of only 5.
Choi and others (2002) have suggested that the elements in
the ash particles were mainly associated with the surface
and these surface-associated fractions might dominate the
leachate chemistry at the early stages of fly-ash disposal in
contact with water. Some elements showed a rapid release.
However, the elements incorporated within the interior of
the fly ash dissolved in a slower mode compared with the
readily leachable surface-associated elements.
This may explain why EC, Ca, Na, K and Fe leaching was
different for un-leached (FA-1) and pre-leached (FA-2)
samples. The fly ash from the ash pond was pre-leached
and exhibited lower EC and Ca values than FA-1. However,
the calcium that is leached from the pre-leached fly ash
(FA-2) is probably retained in the interior. This supports
the theory that these elements were surface associated and
they leached in the ash pond where they were weathered.
In contrast, FA-2 exhibited higher K, Na and Fe values
than FA-1, which are thought to be associated within the
interior of the fly ash.
Although both fly-ash samples showed no increase in
conductivity, the dissolution of K and Na increased with
temperature. It is suggested that leaching with respect to
the ambient extraction principally affected the aluminium
silicate fraction of the fly ash, mainly K and Na. However,
a major impurity such as Ca and many trace elements,
such as Cd, Co and Cu, did not increase considerably.
Sulfates were leached in high amounts from the fly ash
(Table 5). The difference between the leached SO
4
con-
centration of the FA-1 and FA-2 was not significant. The
interaction of both fly ash samples with dolomitic lime-
stone was slightly stronger than cherty limestone. It can be
expected that the leachable fraction of this ion can be
washed out completely into the ground water.
The leached concentrations of some ions decreased when
the fly ash samples were in contact with typical rock
samples from beneath the ash pond. In these studies, FA-1
mixed with cherty limestone samples exhibited lower
leaching of any constituents than FA-1 with dolomitic
limestone. In contrast, FA-2 mixed with dolomitic lime-
stone showed lower concentrations of constituents than
FA-2 with cherty limestone. Therefore, the elements that
do not or are that are weakly interact with rock will
probably be transported to deeper layers and ultimately to
the ground water. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Co and
894 Environmental Geology (2004) 46:890–895
Table 5
Concentrations of major and minor elements in leachates. FA-1+DLS FA-1 mixed with dolomitic limestone; FA-1+CLS FA-1 mixed with cherty
limestone; FA-2+DLS FA-2 mixed with dolomitic limestone; FA-2+CLS FA-2 mixed with cherty limestone
Element T FA-1 FA-2 DLS CLS FA-1
+DLS
FA-1
+CLS
FA-2 +DLS FA-2
+CLS (°)
Ca 23 880 460 25.3 20.5 1340 905 243 305
40 830 670 2.5 43 740 1020 350 435
50 640 610 51.0 21 670 670 230 305
Mg 23 2.0 3.0 9.5 2.5 4.0 4.0 8.5 3.0
40 5.0 5.0 2.5 17 10 24 3.0 14
50 0.8 1.3 13.5 1.2 0.2 0.9 3.1 0.4
Na 23 25 67 4.8 7.5 41 31 33 52
40 9 85 6.3 8.0 11 10.5 26 29
50 81 150 8.0 4.5 95 14 90 52
K 23 49 255 4.3 6.0 9.5 44 265 190
40 32 205 11.5 2.3 36 17 205 178
50 105 255 9.5 4.5 95 30 265 110
SO
4
40 1016 904 35 48 704 920 504 624
50 946 960 16 24 600 688 510 560
Pb 23 0.37 0.23 0.08 – 0.35 0.27 0.10 0.08
40 0.30 0.30 0.08 0.08 0.32 0.28 0.19 0.15
50 0.12 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.12 0.12 0.07 0.11
Mn 23 0.13 0.08 0.21 0.32 0.05 0.07 0.02 0.05
40 0.05 0.09 0.30 0.76 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.12
50 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.34 0.02 0.09 0.05 0.11
Co 23 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.03 0.02
40 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.02
50 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03
Cu 23 0.01 0.01 – 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04
40 0.01 0.02 – 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03
50 0.01 0.02 – 0.02 0.02 – 0.02 0.04
Fe 50 0.80 1.35 0.16 0.38 0.38 0.22 0.61
Original article
Cr, are not expected to leach from fly ash. In contrast,
elements such as Na, K, Mg, Pb and Mn will be transported
to the ground water.
Conclusions
A major part of the water soluble compounds was removed
in the fly ash pond. The results of batch tests, especially
with pre-leached fly ash, showed that the release of ele-
ments into the solution continues over long periods. The
EC values decreased after each extraction. In the both fly-
ash samples Ca, Na, K, Mn, Fe, S and Pb showed maximum
leachability, whereas, Cd, Mg, Cu, Cr, Zn and Co showed
minimum leachability. The leaching of heavy metals was
low for the studied fly ash. The low metal leaching due to
high pH resulted in low contamination of the leachate. The
leached concentration of Mg, Pb and Mn decreased when
they were in contact with typical rock samples from be-
neath the ash pond. However, the elements (Na, K, Mg, Pb,
Mn, SO
4
) that do not or that weakly interacted with the
underlying rock types will probably be transported to the
ground water.
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