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Old E. (Anglo-Saxon) era: 450A.D – 1066 • Social background: - Romans ( from Rome, Italy) occupied England from 43AD to 450AD - AS occupied England from 450 to 1066. AS drove away the native people (Celtic tribes) to the mountainous areas. (Bcs England is fertile, and the climate is the best one from Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. => Romans & AS occupied England) • Characteristics of old E. lit.: - chiefly orally made - dominated by poetry over prose (Bcs poetry made these orally made works easier to remember) - anonymous( hard to tell who made them bcs they’re told again and again through generations orally) • Beowulf: - 700-1000AD - Written in old E. - Not about England, but about Denmark (bcs the story was originally told from generations to generations in the continental Europe => about Denmark and Sweden.) • What is the significance of the epic? • What are the characteristics of the epic? - epic poem: a long narrative poem recounting in elevated style the deeds of a legendary hero, esp. one originating in oral folk tradition - Old E. lit. : old images, poem (poem is popular), anonymous, does not have rhyme but uses alliteration.) - From this epic, we can draw something about the warrior society, the life of the A.S. • relationship between the king & the warriors: - The warriors fought to defend the interest of the king. - The king provided the warriors with material provisions: weapons, armor, gold, silver, food, and drinks in return. Middle English period (1066 to 1485) • Social background: England was invaded and occupied by the Normans, who came from Normandy, France • Characteristics: England was divided into 3 social classes:
England The ruling classes The nobility(The Normans) _ Physically control The clergy men The ordinary people (Anglo-Saxon)
Spiritually control Latin( lang of the Romans) Morals
English Fabliaux( funny stories)
THREE YOUNG MEN, DEATH AND BAG OF GOLD (Middle English period) 1. What are the young men doing when they see the funeral? They are drinking in an inn when they see the funeral of 1 of their friends. 2. Why dot hey decide to find Death to kill?
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They believe they can kill D to revenge the deaths of their friend and of many other people. They are a little drunk. Death: an abstract concept, sometimes symbolized as a very thin old man in black, with a hood, carrying a sickle. 3. What do they do before they set out looking for D to kill? They join their hands; promise they will help each other, consider themselves as brothers. Their friendship seems to be very strong; they are as loyal, close friends. 4. What does the pardoner mean by D? The plague 5. Who do you think is the old man? The Death himself. By the bag of gold, he means that the bag of gold of D is what kills them. D wants to challenge their loyalty, their greed and their friendship, and he’s successful in killing the young men with the bag of gold. 6. How and why do all the men die? 7. What historical event of England does the story mention? The plague. During the 14th Century, 3 epidemics attack England and killed nearly half population of England. 8. What is the theme of the story? The story is told by a pardoner. Pardoners are clergymen (churchmen). They usually tell morals (moralizing tales) to teach people some moral lessons. Here, he wants to teach: “avarice is the root of all evils”, not to be over greedy, to keep their friendship, loyalty and promises. 9. What is the genre of the story? ******************************************************************************* MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE (1485 TO NOW) THE RENAISSANCE: Italy C14th -> Europe C16th, was so call because it was a “rebirth” of a certain classical ideas that long has been lost to Europe. - Classical ideas: ancient Greek and Roman civilizations: great and glorious. - Europe: Ancient times------------- Middle Ages------- Modern Times ( Any period before C5th A.D.) (C5th -> C14th) Iliat & Odysseus: Homer ( Greek) Olympic Games: Greek Collossium: in Rome -- show the talents, the abilities of human kind, then the spirit of them is Humanism: any action or thought covered with the ideals as well as problems of the human. - Middle Age: = Dark Age. In this period, this movement was lost because the talents of the people were not emphasized ( they emphasized on super-natural power), they thought themselves sinful, ugly, stupid…, then they must depend on super-natural power, they feared cultural creations. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE ( 1564 – 1616) HAMLET (The renaissance) 1. Where is H when his father dies? The University of Wittenberg in Germany 2. How did H told about the cause of his father’s death? His father was stung by a serpent. 3. How does King H actually die? C poured poison into King’s ear when he was sleeping. 4. How is H sure that C killed his father? Three facts: - King H’s ghost: it met H in private, told H the truth of its death, H believed, then wondered whether the ghost was honest decided to find out the truth. - H invited a troupe of players into the court to recreate what the ghost had said, to watch how C reacts came to conclusion: C killed the King ( C left the performance because he could not stand) H believes the ghost. - H was summoned by his mother to her chamber because she hated that H being rude to his uncle. H encountered C praying for God to forgive him. By now, H is completely sure who killed his father.
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5. Why does H hesitate to kill the murderer of his father?
Because at that time it was believed that if you kill a sinner while he/she is praying, his/her sin will be forgive( not condemned) H continued to delay( leads to the bloodbath at the end of the play) because: + C was well protected + H is very moral/ gentle. + C is not only his uncle, but also his mother’s husband. + The ghost told him: --- to kill the murderer ---- Not to hurt his mother -- H is torn between --- his moral integrity --- Revenge ( fulfill the task) 6. Why does H pretend to be mad? - To disguise his feeling - To have time to observe what happen in the court His feelings: - sad because of his father’s death - angry with the murdered - ashamed of what happened in his family ( C & his mother) - revengeful How he pretended to be mad: - speaking very wildly - wearing strange clothes - wondering everywhere H wants to figure out the nature of the trouble. 7. How does C attempt to get rid of H? Two attempts: - Sending H to be killed in England ( pretext: for H’s safety from being persecuted by the court because H killed P, and from being revenged by P’s son). Letter -> luckily H escaped and returned to Denmark. - Arranging a fencing match between H and Laertes: L uses a poisoned sword in case L wound H ( while in friendship match, the swords must be blunt), and a poisoned cup if H win. H : sorry about P & O’s deaths, want to reconcile with L; L : revenge. 8. How do the principle characters of the play die? - Hamlet: killed by L’s poisoned sword in the fencing match. - Claudius: killed by H with a poisoned cup - Gertrude: drinks the poisoned cup that C prepares for H - Ophelia: mad, fell into a crook from a tree while singing - Laertes: killed by the poisoned sword - Polonius: killed by H when concealed himself behind the tapestry HAMLET’S SOLILOQUYS 1. What is a soliloquy? A soliloquy is a monologue in which c character reveals inner thoughts, motivations, and a feelings. 2. What is the situational background of the soliloquy? After the ghost told him the truth and told him what to do, and the ghost disappear, and H is alone on the battlements of the castle, H makes the soliloquy. 3. The first four lines express its strong emotion. What is it? The shock and shame How he expresses? He is so shocked and ashamed that he: - exclaims to God, to the earth, and to the hell - using the exclamation word O - Besides, he is so shamed that he feels that his heart is going to fall off/drop. At the same time, his sinews, his body are becoming very weak, exhausted, they can’t support himself, so he feels he is going to collapse/ fall down he tells his body to be strong. 4. What does H promise to the ghost?
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5. What does H discover about his mother and his uncle? 6. What is H going to do?
But bear me stiffly up. Remember thee!( l4) Referred to the ghost. H talks to himself that he’ll remember what the ghost had said to him and remember the ghost - Ay, thou poor ghost….yes, by heaven(l5-13): what H promises to the ghost Ay, thou poor ghost… Remember thee!(l5,6) H ‘ll hold a place in his memory for what the ghost said to him although the truth is terrible. From now on, he’ll wipe away/clean up all the trivial fond records from his memory, all the things H’s learnt in the past, from books, all his experiences collected in his life since his childhood and thru his observation. What for? And thy… by heaven : thy: the ghost’s. So that from now on, only the ghost’s commandment shall live in his mind and he will not mix what the ghost said with all the trivial fond records( because these records are baser matter compared with the ghost’s commandment.) To H, now, the ghost’s commandment is sacred, everything else is base. His determination to carry out what the ghost tells him to do. Yes, by heaven : I make this promise to my father, God and Heaven see that promise, so I must carry out it. Show his determination to revenge again. - O most pernicious woman! His mother is the wicked woman, he has never seen such a woman. She remarried so soon (< 2 months) after his husband’s death; moreover, to the murdered. He is so shocked, so disappointed about his mother he exclaims: O - O villain, smiling damned villain! His uncle is a villain, more than that, he’s a smiling villain. Means: + outwardly: he seems to be a very polite, moral, gentle man because he always smiles to any one -> he’s nice. + Inwardly: he is wicked, villain, he should be condemned. - My table:= my slates: now it is suitable for me to write it( his experiences learnt from his uncle: smile villain) down on my slates as a lesson for him to remember. - May be so: every body in Denmark is like that. from a specific case of his uncle, he comes to the conclusion that all people in Denmark are like that reveals his state: H is so disappointed/ in despair (because H is a prince, he’s been taught a lot of morality, this is the 1 st time he experiences a terrible thing, so he feels despair) he begins to write on his slates: - So, uncle, there you are: tells his uncle to hear his goodbye before he stops talking to him, before he leaves the battlements. His goodbye : remember, I am going to revenge. Main idea: H’s determination to carry out the ghost’s commandment. ROBINSON CRUSOE ( The age of enlightenment) 1. How many voyages does Robinson make during his life? Five voyages ( four trading voyages + 1st: York -> London) - 1st: trading voyage/ merchant -> encouraged by the success - 2nd: pirates -> enslaved -> Portuguese captain picks up R form after the escape from the Moors and takes him to Brazil. - 3rd: as a slave-trader. Not lucky. Wreck ship. Only survivor, inhabited island . 28 years. - 4th: after his wife died. As a merchant, too, to East Indies. Revisit the island. Brazil. China: quarrel with the captain. The captain leaves him on the shore. Join a caravan back home( group of trading travelers, travel by horses, camels). 2. How does he manage to survive on the desert island? - spiritually: Bible to read, animal companions, keep journal - materially: built a shelf, make cloths, pottery, grow grain, and raise goats… -> make his life better and better 3. How can he at last return to his homeland? - one day he saw an English ship, stopping at the island to abandon the captives(captain and other 2 sailors). 11 mutineers. R helped the Captain to retake the ship -> captain feel happy -> take him to England again. 4. How does the spirit of Enlightenment embody in the book? - The spirit of the Enlightenment is: Embody R through his personalities: + adventurous( 45 years on the sea) + enterprising ( năng động ), resourceful ( tháo vát): during his stay in the island
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+optimistic: built his house on the hillside to have a good view of the sea to discover any passing ship, then he will have chance to be rescued. -> R is a typical man of Enlightenment( a typical English man, C 17 th , 18th , British Navigation was very developed, they travel around the world, adventurous ) GETTING A HUMAN COMPANION 1. what is the setting of the excerpt? - one early morning in the 24th year of his days on the island - on the beach near R’s habitation on his island 2. What did R see one early morning? He saw no less than 5 canoes and no less than 30 peoples. Bcs he could not see them clearly bcs although he has perspective glass, they were out of his sight. They are the cannibals and their victims. They cam to the island to have a feast/ party/ to eat the victims. The victims are their prisoners( the victims’ tribe was attack by another tribe, were captured and prisoned, and they have a practice of eating their prisoners during the fight). 3. What did he do at first? After a little while? At first, he stayed in his house, didn’t come out to fight with the cannibals bcs he was alone, single-handed, and he knew that he couldn’t cope with so many cannibals. He didn’t know what they are doing outside. He didn’t know if they were attacking him or not, he didn’t know if they were toward his house. Then, he became impatience, he tried to climb up the hill to have a look. What did he see? He saw a fire, and he saw dressed, cooked meat, he saw the cannibals dancing barbarously around the fire, then he saw 2 victims were led to the shore to be slaughtered( more than 2 victims) 4. How could one of the victims start running away from the cannibals? While the cannibals were busy slaughtering the other victim, he felt a little free bcs he was standing alone from the cannibals, then he start to run. He ran and swam fast bcs he was young( 26 years old), and because he was inspired by his surviving nature. He was running toward R’s habitation bcs he saw a grove and he thought that he could hide himself behind the grove. 5. How could R rescue him? Why R wanted to rescue him? How? - he ran down from the top of the hill toward the beach, try to get himself between the victim and the pursuers. - Halloo the victim to attract his attention - Knock the 1st cannibal with the stock of his gun.( ?) - Shoot the 2nd pursuers with his gun.(?) - Next, he tried to come near him ( how?). Victim’s react? After the other 2 people died? Then, what did he do to show his gratitude? 6. What is the main idea of the excerpt? How R rescue Friday/ How R get a human companion. • On seeing F running toward him, why does R feel very frighten? ========== # Theme: - The ambivalence (sự mâu thuẫn trong tư tưởng) of mastery - The necessity of Repentance (sự ăn năn, hối hận): R’s repents. On the island, he’s always repentant about not obey his father. He believes that wretchedness (tình trạng khốn khổ) is due to his disobedience. He considers himself as Adam and Eva (punished by leaving Eden, coming living on the Earth) because he disobeys his father, thus he was punished by being expelled (bi trục xuất) from human society. R’s repentance includes his acknowledging his wretchedness and his dependence on God. - The importance of self-awareness: R’s erection (sự tạo dựng) of the cross to keep track of time is the way for him to be related to the human world. 2nd thing is his keeping journal/ diary to record daily activities. # Symbol: - The footprint: symbol of conflicted feelings. 1st time R discovers footprints on the beach, on one hand, he is happy because he’s going to have a human companion, that he’s not alone, he’ll have someone to share his situation. On the
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other hand, he is unhappy. His happy feelings disappear quickly, unhappy one come quickly too because he thinks that maybe he is going to be attacked by some other people, or his territory is going to be invaded and this negative feelings is overwhelming. - The cross: as soon as he arrives at the island, he starts erecting cross to keep track of time, at the same time to mark his existence. - Crusoe’s Bower (nhà nghỉ mát trong lùm cây): besides the house, R builds a bower in a beautiful place so as to he can enjoy, relax. This indicates a change in R’s attitude toward his living on the island (being punished by God, disaster vs. not a disaster, very enjoyable) GULLIVER’S TRAVELS (1726) JONATHAN SWIFT (Enlightenment) 1. How many voyages does Gulliver make? 4 voyages DIVERSIONS Which country is the excerpt about? Lilliput 1. What is the setting of the excerpt? - In the court of Lilliput - G stays in the country for sometime and gains the trust of the Emperor and the people. 2. How does G gain on the people and the Emperor of the country? People and the Emperor are pleased and trusted G, because he behaves well, he isn’t a danger to him anymore. -> They show their sympathy to him: they go and play with him (dance on his hands, play at seek-and-hide in his hair). The Emperor entertains G by showing him the country show. The Emperor is very proud of the diversions in his country, thinks they are the best. This means he treats him as a special guest. 3. How are the diversions played? • The 1st diversion: The performers are expected to dance on the rope extended about 2 feet, and 12 inches from the ground, jump as high as possible without falling on the ground. This is called “rope dancing and jumping”. • The 2nd diversion: The performers are expected to leap over the stick, or creep under it, depending on how the emperor moves the stick. The winner is who performs his part with most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping. This is called “stick leaping and creeping”. 4. By who are they played? • The 1st diversion; This game is played by the ministers and the candidates. + Ministers are those who used to be successful candidates, and are in high positions in the court. They are sometimes commanded to play the diversion, to entertain the E and to show how that they haven’t lost their skill/talent of jumping and dancing on the rope. + Candidates are people who are trained from their childhood, they don’t need education, but must be well trained the art of dancing, jumping on the rope. • The 2nd diversion: This game is played by the candidates, whom the E has a mind to distinguish by a peculiar mark of his favor. The prizes are 3 fine silken threads of 6 inches long, one is blue (1), one is red (2), and one is green (3). 5. Why and when are they played? When? The 1st diversion: when a great office in vacant, either by death or disgrace (which often happens), five or six of the candidates petition the E to entertain his majesty and the court, the best performer succeeds in the office. The 2nd diversion: only shown before the emperor and empress, and first minister, upon particular occasions. Why? The 1st diversion: + to entertain the Emperor + For candidates to get favor from the E, for ministers to show their skill, and to convince the E that they have not lost their faculty.
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The 2nd diversion:
+ to entertain the E + To get the prizes which help candidates show how much favor they get from
the E. 6. Who are the winners? The 1st: ones who dance and jump on the rope with the most agility (nhanh nhẹn, khéo léo), without falling on the ground. The 2nd: ones who leap and creep with the most agility and hold out the longest. 7. What are the prizes? The 1st: favor of the E The 2nd: silken threads which they wear girt twice round about the middle, and great persons about this court are adorned with threads. 8. How dangerous are the games? The 1st: fatal accidents: 2 or 3 candidates break a limb. Especially the minister (Flimnap would have broke his neck) The 2nd: performers may get exhausted. 9. What is the main idea of the excerpt? 10. What is the satire of the games? 1st satire: The E considers G as a special guest, and then he entertains G with the diversions which he considers as the best ones. He thinks that those diversions are something intellectual, the most amusing. Actually, they are not intellectual, are very dangerous, foolish and stupid. The E doesn’t care about the danger; he enjoys the diversions very much. The performers don’t need to have any education, all what they need is training hard from childhood. -> The E has a small mind, like his size, and by the E, the writer mocks the small minds of the English King at that time. 2nd satire: the ways people get high positions, high favors from the E: don’t need any education, don’t need any intellectual quality, only train for the art of jumping, dancing on the rope, and leaping, creeping over or under the stick. Especially, the 2nd diversion suggests the English phrase, the base manners “to go on all fours”: to get high positions, sometimes people have to go on their all fours. ====== # Themes: 1. Might versus right: Might refers to physical power. When Gulliver is in Lilliput, he becomes a giant, so he has the advantages of physical power, he helps Lilliput to defeat Blefuscu due to his physicality. In this case, might is right, the more physical you have, the more right you have. In Brobdingnag, G loses his power because in that country, he becomes a pet, and his advantages in Lilliput now belong to Brobdingnagians, he gets lots of troubles by the physicality of Brobdingnagians. Here, small mistakes by a Brobdingnag can be magnified to big ones. 2. The individual vs. society * Individual: G is an individual, lonely individual, even in his homeland: trained as a surgeon, but his business is not successful; he leaves his homeland with the hope that he will improve his financial situation. Travel to many countries, after each one, he comes to England but he doesn’t stay in England because he can’t integrate himself to any country; in other words, he doesn’t feel happy in any country (except in Houyhnhnms but unfortunately he isn’t allowed to stay) * Society: + Lilliput: communal life is very strong. Ex: in Lilliput, there’s a policy that the children are brought up collectively, don’t care about personal characteristics. + Houyhnhnms: communal life is strong too: each individual is completely fused with the community, the horses have no proper name, no personal identity. The writer criticizes the excessive of individualism and collectivism. 3. The limits of human understanding: Laputa and Balnibarni: most of the habitants are scientists, seem to be very busy with doing researches. They are very proud, consider themselves the most rational, but their researches don’t help improve the social life. They don’t realize that their understandings, their knowledge is very impractical, and very limited. # Symbol: 1. Lilliputians: boastful, pompous, always believe that they can do anything, and what they do are best. Lilliputians are the symbols of human’s over pride.
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2. Brobdingnagians: G is treated as a pet, a play thing, most people don’t pay attention to him, they aren’t careful
about their personal life, private affairs physically and spiritually. Every thing is magnified, so G has chances to see things that he’s never seen in other countries. => Symbols of private/ personal side of human life. 3. Laputans: are the symbols of the kind of knowledge that is not related to human life. This work was written in Enlightenment, so many new ideas were developed, beside helpful ideas, there’re many useless ideas . 4. Houymhnhnms: polite and civilized, symbols of rational and moderate way of life. 5. England: FRANKENSTEIN (1818) MARY SHELLY (The romantic age) Topic: about nature, about exotic and supernatural things. (Vs. super nature Rip Van Winkle in American Romanticism) Summary: the novel is about specific researches and their unintended consequences. 1. Who is Robert Walton? What’s wrong with his mission to the North Pole? RW is a scientist, and he wants to do some exploration in the North Pole. Actually, he wants to do some things that no one could do before that, or he wants to do something unusual. So, he becomes a captain on a ship going for the North Pole. Similarity bet. RW & Victor Frankenstein: both want to do something that unusual, other people could not do. What wrong? 1st, the trip is ok, but after that the trip is struck into the ice. He meets VF when his ship is trapped, and he can’t move. He helps VF to return to his health. VF tells him his story of creating the monster, and what the monster has done. RW is the only person that VF tells his story of creating the monster. => RW stops his exploration and return to England. He has learnt a lesson from VF: bcs VF tried to satisfy his own desire, he receives the terrible consequences. 2. Why does VF create the monster? To satisfy his desire to discover the secret of life by applying his knowledge he gets from the Middle Age materials of alchemy combining with the knowledge of modern science he gets at university. He joints the parts of old body. The creature looks ugly, horrifying. VF is very successful, but he is not happy/ he is horrified because the creature is horrifying. He rejects/ abandons the creature. It wanders every where and wherever it goes, people chase him away, thus he feels lonely, miserable. He’s intelligent, sensitive, but being shunned -> desperate -> kill William => + revenge + warning his cruel creator 3. Who does the monster kill? Why? Direct: + William: why? -> Bcs he’s so lonely, miserable. He wants to injure his creator, and to warn him that he so bcs of his creator. How? Strangling. + Henry: After VF destroys the work of the female. By strangling. Revenge V’s destroying the work of the female + Elizabeth: by strangling. After VF damage the work of the female, the monster tries to persuade VF to resume the work but VF determines not to resume, so the monster kills Elizabeth to revenge. Indirect: + Justine Moritz: a kind, gentle girl who had been adopted by the Frankenstein household. Being tried, condemned, and executed, despite her assertions of innocence over the death of William. + VF’s father: died after the death of Elizabeth. Grief stricken (his 3 children died) + VF: died of exhaustion after chasing the monster for a long way to the North Pole. 4. What happens at the end of the book? VF, already ill when the 2 men meet, worsens and dies shortly there after. When RW returns, several days later, to the room in which the body lies, he startled to see the monster weeping over VF. The monster tells RW of his immense solitude, suffering, hatred, and remorse. He asserts that now that his creator has died, he too can end his suffering. The monster then departs for the northernmost ice to die. A DETERMINED REFUSAL Setting: Place: in a lab by the sea in Scotland. (Why Scotland? Bcs Scotland itself is a very mysterious country with many ancient castles, and it’s a mountainous country). Besides, the lab is very isolated, too. It’s located by the sea; in other words, the lab is such a place that it creates the mystery. It helps the story more and more mysterious. Time: in the evening, when the sun has set, and not enough light in the lab. The moon is rising, and the winds are harsh and the sea is very quiet. The time setting is mysterious, too, helps the story more and more mysterious.
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What happens before the excerpt? On the mountain, the monster meets VF and persuades VF to create a female for him, and VF agrees. Then, VF moves to Scotland and starts doing it. However, at the moment, he is taking a pause/ rest. He considers the possible effects of the female monster. In other words, he is creating the female. 3. Why does VF decide to throw away the work of creating the female monster? (2 reason to stop) 1st: the possible effects: + She might become ten thousand times more malignant than her mate, and delight in murder and wretchedness. + He had sworn to quit the neighborhood of human, hide himself in deserts, but she hadn’t. + They might even hate each other. She also might turn with disgust from him to the superior beauty of man, she might quit him, and he be again alone, exasperated by the fresh provocation of being deserted by one of his own species. + Even if they were to leave, and inhabit the deserts of the new world, yet one of the result of those sympathies for which the daemon thirst for would be children, and a race of devils would propagated upon the earth who might make the very existence of the species of man a condition precarious and full of terror. nd 2 : while VF is considering the possible effects, he looks out the window, and he saw the monster: a ghastly (khủng khiếp, rung rợn) grin wrinkled his lips as he gazed on me; his countenance expressed the utmost extent of malice (thâm hiểm, ác độc) and treachery (phản bội, lừ lọc). This makes VF trembling with passion. Why the monster grins? Bcs he seems to be very proud of his success, and he seems to say that he can control his creator, and he can make his creator do what he wants. 5. How the monster react to VF’s decision to damage the work of creating the female monster? He howl devilishly (vô cùng) Withdrew/ went away, then he returns several hour passed, tells VF how much he has suffered to follow VF to the lab. How much he has suffered? He has endured toil (vất vả cực nhọc) and misery: he left Switzerland with VF; he crept along the shore of the Rhine, among its willow (cây liễu) islands, and over the summits (đỉnh, chóp) of its hills. He has dwelt many months in the heaths (bụi rậm) of England, and among the deserts of Scotland. He has endured incalculable fatigue, and cold, and hunger). He is eager, earnest (sốt sắng, tha thiết), passionate in having the female. “The wretch (kẻ độc ác, xấu xa) saw me destroy the creature on whose future existence he depended for happiness...” He has traveled a long way under the miserable to Scotland to come to the lab to mark VF’s progress, and claim the fulfillment of VF’s promise. His reasoning? “Shall each man find wife for his bosom, and each beast have his mate, and I be alone? I had feelings of affection, and they were requited by detestation (sự ghẻ lạnh) and scorn (khinh miệt).” VF determined not to resume. The monster threatens that he will be at VF’s wedding. By this, the monster means he’ll kill the bride. VF misunderstands that the monster will kill VF himself, thus he sends Elizabeth away, and he stays to fight against the monster. =========== # VF vs. Titan (Greek) mythology (thần thoại) Titan creates human, steals fire from heaven to give it to human, so he is punished by being fixed/ chained to a rock. Similarity bet. VF and Titan: + They are both create something (V creates a creature, Prometheus creates human) + They both steal something (Prometheus steals fire, VF steals the secret of life from God + They are both punished (Prometheus is punished by fixed to a rock, VF is punished by having his friends, his relatives killed) # Genre: Gothic science fiction (literary genre which combines horror and romance). # Themes: - Dangerous knowledge: They both have desires to do something unusual, nobody else could do. RW travels to the North Pole to do some explorations which nobody before him could do, as a result, his ship is trapped in the ice. Luckily, he meets VF, and after hearing the story of VF about creating the creature, he learns a lesson. The lesson: VF’s desire of doing something unusual has caused him a lot of danger. After learning the lesson, RW stops the
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exploration and returns to England. It’s also a warning to + scientist who are not aware of the unintended consequences which the scientific researches create . + To parents who have desire to have children that are not aware of how their children are brought up/ educated/ fed. - Sublime (hung vĩ, siêu phàm) nature: After the death of W and JM. The nature here is described carefully and magnificently, and it serves as a revival (sự trở lại) of VF’s feelings. And besides, sublime nature also described in the North Pole. Here the beauty is of the white ice, but it doesn’t serve as a revival, but as a witness which VF suffers.(VF chases the monster a long way in North Pole, he suffers a lot from his chase, and his health becomes worse and worse, and finally he die because of cold, hunger, exhaustion) # Symbol: light and fire. The light here is the eternal light: knowledge. Light here is a symbol of VF and RW’s knowledge, but it is ironic (mỉa mai) that finally they’re suffer from the knowledge; and (where?) suffer in the light of the North Pole. In other words, the light now becomes the witness of their suffering. The fire here is the symbol of knowledge, but dangerous knowledge, which VF and RW use to do those scientific researches. In the mountain, the creature invites VF so that he can tell VF about what he has suffered, his demand of a female, between is a fire. Or, between the fire, VF makes the promise that causes the disasters to him. THE SOLITARY REAPER (1805) WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (The romantic Age) # Topic: nature and humble people (the young girl working on a field) close to each other. # 4 stanzas # Rhyme scheme (mẫu gieo vần); end rhyme # Setting: + place: on the field in a valley on a Highland in Scotland + time: harvest time 1. 1st stanza: introducing the scene - behold her (imperative sentence) to require/ tell/ ask passers-by/ readers to look at her. The poet is on the way, encounters the girl by chance, he is impressed by physical and spiritual beauty the beauty of the picture. The physical beauty includes a yellow field, a working girl surrounding by green hills. The spiritual beauty is the beauty/ quality of the working girl. That’s he stops and watch. He is so impressed by the physical and spiritual beauty of the picture that he wants to share with the passers-by, so he asks any possible passer-by to stop and look at her. The girl is cutting and binding grains, works alone. She doesn’t know the poet is there because he is at a distance from the girl. She’s working and singing too. She work hard (she does the work all by herself). She enjoys working (sings to enjoy her work, doesn’t mind working hard). She sings loudly “ the vale profound is overflowing with the sound”. The poet is impressed by the beauty but also by the voice of the girl. It’s a sad song (a melancholy (u sầu) strain). 2. 2nd stanza: the comparison between the voice of the girl with that of the birds when they have best quality. Nightingale sings in shady chant, among Arabian sands (in hot desert), sings for weary bands of travelers. That’s is the time when Nightingale has best quality voice, and most appreciated by the travelers. Cuckoo-bird sings best in spring time, among the quiet sea of farthest Hebrides. That the girl’s voice is excellent in the scene. 3. 3rd stanza: the possible topics/ meanings of the songs. The poem ponders the limitations of language Will no one tell me what she sings? (rhetorical question). No one tells him what she sings because nobody is there. This also means, the poet doesn’t understand the content of the song because the song is in her native language (the language of a Highland ethnic group), but he can get the meaning/ topic, the song maybe plaintive numbers (verse (câu thơ)). Surely the song is sad, maybe about old, unhappy, far-off things (or maybe about the battle where many people died, some heroes were killed for the cause (sự nghiệp)) because it sounds very sad. Or it is about some more humble lay: maybe about something very familiar and very ordinary of the modern time. Some natural sorrow, loss and pain: every body will experience these sorrow at least once in their life. That has been or may be again?: those things may have occurred in the past, and maybe it is inherited in modern time today, or those things are eternal. 4. 4th stanza: the impression the beauty of the picture makes on the poet. Whate’er the theme, the Maiden sang : the role of the language in the song is nor important, not decisive because the poet can perceive the spirit/ emotion of the song. In other words, he can overcome the barrier of language.
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As if her song could have no ending;/ I saw her singing at her work/ And o’er the sickle bending:--: what important is the way she sang, she sang so passionately while she was working, and this is the real beauty of an ordinary person, and the poet is impressed by the simple beauty of the working girl. I listen, motionless and still: the attitude of the poet. He didn’t move because he was just standing and watching and listening, so he put his whole heart / mind on the beauty of the working girl, on the song. And, as I mounted up the hill: he was on the way (not had intended to come here) and he encountered/ met with the working girl by chance on his way to some where, so he stopped and listened, but now he had to go. The music in my heart I bore: when I climb up the hill, I bore the music in my heart Long after it was heard no more: although I didn’t hear her anymore, the music was still in my heart. LORD OF THE FLIES PLOT OVERVIEW (modernism) Modernism is a literary and cultural movement which flourished in the 1st decades of the 20th C. Characteristics: - modernist literature often moves beyond the limitations of the Realist novel with a concern for larger factors such as social or historical change. - It is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the ‘ reality’ of the realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive (gợi mở), discontinuous. - Modernist literature often features a marked pessimism. ------------Pig head: pig that J’s hunters kill. How does it become lord of the flies? - Physically: (lord of the flies is the pig head) It becomes lord of the flies when J’s hunters kill the beast, cut the head, stick it on the pike, put the pike in the middle of the forest clearing. What for? As a scarify/ offering to the beast. After a while, the pig head smells, and it attracts a lot of flies. As a result, the pig head is filled with flies. - Symbolically: Lord of the flies is the symbol of the beast, and it as the physical manifestation of the evil/ savagery instinct. 1. How do the boys come to live on the deserted island? The boys are traveling on a plane when it crashes, and the boys survive on the deserted island. The boys are being evacuated ( sơ tán) from Britain, but the destination is not clear. 2. How does Ralph become leader of the boys? He becomes the leader of the boys through an election in which R receive the most votes. - Ages of the boys are form 6 to 12, they are so young, how they get the idea of holding election? -> the laws and the principles of civilized way of life was brought to them through their up-bring, so the idea appears in the boys very naturally. - How the boys get together? -> during the crash, the boys are scattered on the island, they gather by using a conch, actually, Piggy and R are the 1st boys to discover the conch, and P is the 1st one who has the idea to use the conch to gather the boys, later, P becomes R’s adviser. 3. How do the boys live together at first? 1st they live together happily, peacefully in a civilized way. How? They obey their leader, they do their jobs that nominated by the leader. Ex: Jack and his choral are nominated to do the hunting and keep the signal fire alight. They do their jobs very well, later they are more interested in hunting and neglect the job of keeping the signal fire. 4. How does jack endeavor to empower himself? Why? Jack becomes jealous of R, and he has a desire for power, and he wants to be the chief of the boys. So, he tries to persuade the boys that R is not s proper leader. 5. Why do the boys begin to lose their discipline in the middle of the book? At the beginning, the boys live peacefully. At the middle, they lose their principle. They are lazy, do not do the job, they don’t want to obey the leader any more. Why? Because by now they are more interested in hunting, and this implies that now, after their taken away the civilized society sometime, they are not controlled by a civilized way of life any more. Their savagery instinct in themselves become larger and larger. They want to live up to their instinct. 6. What do the boys mistake for the beast? The boys mistake the parachute and the dead body of the parachutist (the pilot) of the fight plane which was shot down.
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Why are the boys afraid of the beast? After living on the island, the youngest boys have nightmares and become more and more frighten, and they think that there is a beast going to attack them. One night, Sam and Eric are on duty of keeping the signal fire alight, they are asleep, and when they wake up, they find the parachute and the pilot hanging in the three near the fire, because it us very dark at night, when they look up on the tree, the wind makes the parachute flap, the boys run back to the shelter and tell that they see the beast. What hallucination does Simon experience? Now the boys are really afraid of the beast. One day, S goes to sees himself, he sees the big head with the flies, and when he looks at the pig head, he experiences an hallucination that it talks to him: it is the beast, and it is within themselves. S faints, then he sees the parachute, he recognizes the truth, he come s to the shelter. Meanwhile, the hunters are having a feast to celebrate their success of killing the pig, and in the party, they decorate themselves like barbarians, and they are dancing, singing wildly. After killing the pig, they are blood fusty, focus their mind in hunting, thus when S is back in such appearance, and it’s dark, they mistake S for the beast, they kill S. Now the savagery instinct is at the peak. How are the boys at last rescued? Most the boys leave R and joint J’s tribe because they are more and more interested in hunting, they don’t want to be controlled by civilized way of life anymore. They are stimulated by J’s persuasion and their savagery instinct, so they all go hunting for R to kill, and that causes R have to run and hide himself, and the boys set fire to smoke R out, R has no way to escape, he runs to the beach, waiting for being killed, luckily, a navy officer appears and rescues the boys. ( His ship passes by and see the fire on the island) EXCERPT What is the time and place setting of the excerpt? Place: on the beach Time: at the dawn. After R and J comeback from the mountain. They go to the mountain to find out the beast themselves. Because when they go up the mountain, they see the dead body of the parachutist too, but they are at a distance, so they mistake it for the beast, they think that it is a giant ape. -> J & R are horrified, too, they come back to tell the boys, and when they come back, it was at the dawn. How do the boys feel about the beast? They feel frighten. How they think they can cope with the beast? Ralph: R is frighten, as a leader, he can’t suggest any solution to cope with this. “the beast had teeth,” said R, “ and big black eyes.”“ i don’t think we’d ever fight a thing that size, ..” “…We would talk but we wouldn’t fight a tiger. We’d hide. Even J ‘ud hide.”“as long as there’s light we’re brave enough. But then? And now that thing squats by the fire as though it didin’t want us to be rescued” Jack: J is too frighten to suggest any solution. “ the beast is a hunter..” “..the next thing is that we couldn’t kill it..” Piggy: P is particularly frighten because he keeps asking about the beast. “ are you sure? Really sure, I mean?” “D’you think we are safe down here?” “ are you sure? Really?” “what we are going to do?” What do the boys know about the beast? R & J: “ the beast is sitting up there, whatever it is” Other boys: “ the beast comes out of the sea” “out of the dark” “ tree” “ perhaps it’s waiting” “ hunting” “yes, hunting” Why does Jack blow the conch? J blows the conch to 1st summon the boys for the meeting. Another reason is to persuade the boys that R is not a proper leader anymore and he himself should replace R to be the leader. How does Jack try to persuade the boys that Ralph is not a proper leader? R says: “as long as there’s light we’re brave enough. But then? And now that thing squats by the fire as though it didn’t want us to be rescued” , but J says: “ he’s a coward himself.” “ on top, when Roger and me went on-he stayed back.” R: “ I went too” J: “ after” R: “ I went on too, then I ran away. So did you.” J: “ he is not a hunter…He just gives orders and expects people to obey for nothing.” -> persuasions of J are not very exact. Is Jack successful in doing so? Not successful. Why? Because the boys keep silent and their silence means they don’t agree to vote R out of the leadership, so J feels very embarrassed and ashamed because his face turns red, and finally he angrily runs away. However, after that, he’s going to create his own tribe, and little by little the boys leave R to join J’s tribe. This implies that the savagery instinct gets stronger and stronger, and the boys do in their own ways, not controlled by any principle. --------
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Main idea of the excerpt: J rebels against R’s leadership because he wants to be the leader.
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