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A Psychological Interpretation of Mythology
(Translation of Der Mythus von der Geburt des Helden: Versuch einer Psychologischen Mythendeutung. Leipig! "e#tic$e! %&'&(
)y Otto Ran$
Translate* fro+ the ,er+an )y "rs. F. Ro))ins an* -+ith Ely .elliffe
/er0o#s an* Mental "isease Monograph -eries /o. %1.
The .o#rnal of /er0o#s an* Mental "isease P#)lishing 2o+pany! /e3 Yor$
Otto Rank, (b. 1884, d. 1939), was a brilliant Austrian psychologist who was part o
!ig"und #r$ud%s inn$r circl$. &his $arly "onograph by Rank is a groundbr$aking
application o th$ psychoanalytic "$thod to co"parati'$ "ythology. At th$ turn o th$
()th c$ntury psychologists w$r$ b$ginning to att$"pt to unra'$l th$ "yst$ri$s o th$
hu"an psych$, particularly through th$ "$diu" o classical "ythology. &his would
lat$r l$ad to th$ insights o *ung, *os$ph +a"pb$ll and oth$rs. ,ut on$ o th$ irst
scholars who $-plor$d this con'$rg$nc$ was Otto Rank.
On$ o th$ "ost '$-ing .u$stions o co"parati'$ "ythology, which will b$ "or$ than
ob'ious to $'$n casual r$ad$rs o this sit$, ar$ th$ cross/cultural si"ilariti$s in "yths,
olklor$ and l$g$nds. #or instanc$, th$ lood "yth, th$ h$roic .u$st, and particularly
birth/tal$s o th$ h$ro, app$ar around th$ world, ro" Arica to !outh A"$rica. 0h$n
this was writt$n th$ study o "ythology was $"$rging ro" a p$riod wh$r$ att$"pts to
$-plain this by diusion or astrono"ical ph$no"$na had b$$n $-haust$d. Rank inst$ad
att$"pt$d to $-plain th$s$ co""on "otis in t$r"s o what h$ b$li$'$d to b$
psychological uni'$rsals.
1n this study Rank looks at a a wid$ 'ari$ty o 2urasian h$ro birth narrati'$s, including
3r$$k, Ro"an, *ud$o/+hristian, 1ndian, and 3$r"anic l$g$ndary igur$s. 4$ us$s th$
"$thodology and 'ocabulary o classic #r$udian psychoanalysis to do so. &h$ "iddl$
part o this book, wh$r$ Rank $nu"$rat$s so"$ o th$s$ tal$s, will b$ th$ "ost us$ul
or "od$rn r$ad$rs, as h$ draws on a wid$ rang$ o sourc$s, so"$ o th$" airly
obscur$. 1n th$ last part h$ puts th$s$ "yths %on th$ couch% as it w$r$, and ti$s up his
th$sis '$ry coh$r$ntly.
1n lat$r y$ars, Rank brok$ with #r$ud, who had b$$n so"$what o a ath$r igur$ to hi",
ironically ulilling hal o th$ O$dipus co"pl$- about which th$y part$d ways. 4$
"o'$d to 5aris in 19(6 wh$r$ h$ took cli$nts such as 4$nry 7ill$r and Ana8s 9in, who
"$ntions Rank ot$n in h$r "$"oirs.
Production notes. &his was $-tract$d ro" th$ 19:9 ;intag$ r$print o this t$-t in The
Myth of the Birth of the Hero and other Writings. 5ag$ nu"b$rs ar$ ro" that $dition.
2ditorial ootnot$s and th$ additional writings ro" th$ 19:9 $dition w$r$ o"itt$d. &h$
r$st o th$ (original) ootnot$s w$r$ r$nu"b$r$d on a pag$/by/pag$ basis.
--J.B. Hare, October 16th, 26
p. 3
I. Introduction
&42 pro"in$nt ci'ili<$d nations//th$ ,abylonians and 2gyptians, th$ 4$br$ws and
4indus, th$ 5$rsians, th$ 3r$$ks and th$ Ro"ans, as w$ll as th$ &$utons and oth$rs//all
b$gan at an $arly stag$ to gloriy th$ir national h$ro$s//"ythical princ$s and kings,
ound$rs o r$ligions, dynasti$s, $"pir$s, or citi$s//in a nu"b$r o po$tic tal$s and
l$g$nds. &h$ history o th$ birth and o th$ $arly li$ o th$s$ p$rsonaliti$s ca"$ to b$
$sp$cially in'$st$d with antastic $atur$s, which in di$r$nt nations//$'$n though
wid$ly s$parat$d by spac$ and $ntir$ly ind$p$nd$nt o $ach oth$r//pr$s$nt a baling
si"ilarity or, in part, a lit$ral corr$spond$nc$. 7any in'$stigators ha'$ long b$$n
i"pr$ss$d with this act, and on$ o th$ chi$ probl$"s o "ythological r$s$arch still
consists in th$ $lucidation o th$ r$ason or th$ $-t$nsi'$ analogi$s in th$ unda"$ntal
outlin$s o "ythical tal$s, which ar$ r$nd$r$d still "or$ pu<<ling by th$ unani"ity in
c$rtain d$tails and th$ir r$app$aranc$ in "ost o th$ "ythical groupings.
&h$ "ythological th$ori$s, ai"ing at th$ $-planation o th$s$ r$"arkabl$ ph$no"$na,
ar$, in a g$n$ral way, as ollows= 1
p. 4
1. &h$ >1d$a o th$ 5$opl$,> propound$d by Adol ,astian. 1 &his th$ory assu"$s th$
$-ist$nc$ o e!e"enta! ideas, so that th$ unani"ity o th$ "yths is a n$c$ssary s$.u$nc$
o th$ unior" disposition o th$ hu"an "ind and th$ "ann$r o its "ani$station,
which within c$rtain li"its is id$ntical at all ti"$s and in all plac$s. &his int$rpr$tation
was urg$ntly ad'ocat$d by Adol ,au$r as accounting or th$ wid$ distribution o th$
h$ro "yths. (
(. &h$ $-planation by origina! co""unity, irst appli$d by &h$odor ,$n$y to th$
wid$ly distribut$d parall$l or"s o olklor$ and airy tal$s 3. Originating in a a'orabl$
locality (1ndia), th$s$ tal$s w$r$ irst acc$pt$d by th$ pri"arily r$lat$d (1ndo/3$r"anic)
p$opl$s, th$n continu$d to grow whil$ r$taining th$ co""on pri"ary traits, and
ulti"at$ly radiat$d o'$r th$ $ntir$ $arth. &his "od$ o $-planation was irst adapt$d to
th$ wid$ distribution o th$ h$ro "yths by Rudol !chub$rt. 4
3. &h$ "od$rn th$ory o "igration, or borro#ing, according to which indi'idual "yths
originat$ ro" d$init$ p$opl$s ($sp$cially th$ ,abylonians) and ar$ acc$pt$d by oth$r
p$opl$s through oral tradition (co""$rc$ and traic) or through lit$rary inlu$nc$s. :
&h$ "od$rn th$ory o "igration and borrowing can b$ r$adily shown to b$ "$r$ly a
"odiication o ,$n$y%s th$ory, n$c$ssitat$d by n$wly disco'$r$d and irr$concilabl$
"at$rial. &his proound and $-t$nsi'$ r$s$arch o "od$rn in'$stigations has shown that
1ndia, rath$r than ,abylonia, "ay b$ r$gard$d as th$ irst ho"$ o th$ "yths. 7or$o'$r,
th$ tal$s pr$su"ably did not radiat$ ro" a singl$ point, but tra'$l$d o'$r and across th$
$ntir$ inhabit$d glob$. &his brings into pro"in$nc$ th$ id$a o th$ int$rd$p$nd$nc$ o
"ythological structur$s, an id$a which was g$n$rali<$d by ,raun as th$ basic law o th$
natur$ o th$ hu"an
p. :
"ind= 9othing n$w is $'$r disco'$r$d as long as it is possibl$ to copy. 1 &h$ th$ory o
$l$"$ntal id$as, so str$nuously ad'ocat$d by ,au$r o'$r a .uart$r o a c$ntury ago, is
unconditionally d$clin$d by th$ "ost r$c$nt in'$stigators (0inckl$r, ( !tuck$n), who
"aintain th$ "igration th$ory.
&h$r$ is r$ally no such sharp contrast b$tw$$n th$ 'arious th$ori$s or th$ir ad'ocat$s,
or th$ conc$pt o $l$"$ntal id$as do$s not int$r$r$ with th$ clai"s o pri"ary co""on
poss$ssion or o "igration. #urth$r"or$, th$ ulti"at$ probl$" is not wh$nc$ and how
th$ "at$rial r$ach$d a c$rtain p$opl$? th$ .u$stion is= 0h$r$ did it co"$ ro" to b$gin
with@ All th$s$ th$ori$s would $-plain only th$ 'ariability and distribution o th$ "yths,
but not th$ir origin. 2'$n !chub$rt, th$ "ost in'$t$rat$ oppon$nt o ,au$r%s 'i$w,
acknowl$dg$s this truth, by stating that all th$s$ "aniold sagas dat$ back to a singl$
'$ry anci$nt prototyp$. ,ut h$ is unabl$ to t$ll us anything o th$ origin o this
prototyp$. ,au$r lik$wis$ inclin$s to this "$diating 'i$w? h$ points out r$p$at$dly that
in spit$ o th$ "ultipl$ origin o ind$p$nd$nt tal$s, it is n$c$ssary to conc$d$ a "ost
$-t$nsi'$ and ra"ii$d borrowing, as w$ll as an original co""unity o th$ conc$pts in
r$lat$d p$opl$s. 3 &h$ sa"$ conciliatory attitud$ is "aintain$d by A$ss"ann in a r$c$nt
publication (19)8), in which h$ r$B$cts th$ assu"ption o $l$"$ntal id$as, but ad"its
that pri"ary r$lationship and borrowing do not $-clud$ $ach oth$r. 4 As point$d out by
0undt, how$'$r, it "ust b$ k$pt in "ind that th$ appropriation o "ythological
cont$nts always r$pr$s$nts at th$ sa"$ ti"$ an ind$p$nd$nt "ythological construction?
b$caus$ only that can b$ r$tain$d p$r"an$ntly which corr$sponds to th$ borrow$r%s
stag$ o "ythological id$ation. &h$ aint r$coll$ctions o pr$c$ding narrati'$s would
hardly suic$ or th$ r$iguration o th$ sa"$ "at$rial, without
p. 6
th$ p$rsist$nt pr$s$nc$ o th$ und$rlying "otis? but pr$cis$ly or this r$ason, such
"otis "ay produc$ n$w cont$nts that agr$$ in th$ir unda"$ntal th$"$s, $'$n in th$
abs$nc$ o si"ilar associations. 1
A$a'ing asid$ or th$ pr$s$nt th$ in.uiry as to th$ "od$ o distribution o th$s$ "yths,
th$ origin o th$ h$ro "yth in g$n$ral is now to b$ in'$stigat$d, ully anticipating that
"igration (or borrowing) will pro'$ to b$ dir$ctly and airly positi'$ly d$"onstrabl$ in
a nu"b$r o th$ cas$s. 0h$n this is not $asibl$, oth$r 'i$wpoints will ha'$ to b$
conc$d$d, at l$ast or th$ pr$s$nt, rath$r than bar th$ way to urth$r progr$ss by th$
so"$what unsci$ntiic attitud$ o 4ugo 0inckl$r, who says= 0h$n hu"an b$ings and
products, $-actly corr$sponding to $ach oth$r, ar$ ound at r$"ot$ parts o th$ $arth, w$
"ust conclud$ that th$y ha'$ wand$r$d thith$r? wh$th$r w$ ha'$ knowl$dg$ o th$ how
or wh$n "ak$s no di$r$nc$ in th$ assu"ption o th$ act its$l. ( 2'$n granting th$
"igration o all "yths, th$ origin o th$ irst "yth would still ha'$ to b$ $-plain$d. 3
1n'$stigations along th$s$ lin$s will n$c$ssarily h$lp to pro'id$ a d$$p$r insight into th$
cont$nts o th$ tal$s. 9$arly all authors who ha'$ hith$rto b$$n $ngag$d in th$
int$rpr$tation o th$ birth "yths o h$ro$s ind in th$" a p$rsoniication o th$
proc$ss$s o natur$, ollowing th$ do"inant "od$ o natural "ythological
p. C
Dparagraph continu$sE &h$ n$wborn h$ro is th$ young sun rising ro" th$ wat$rs, irst
conront$d by low$ring clouds, but inally triu"phing o'$r all obstacl$s. 1 &h$ taking
into consid$ration o all natural (chi$ly at"osph$ric) ph$no"$na//as was don$ by th$
irst r$pr$s$ntati'$s o this "$thod o "yth int$rpr$tation (//and th$ r$garding o th$
l$g$nds, in a "or$ r$strict$d s$ns$, as astral "yths (!tuck$n, 0inckl$r, and oth$rs) ar$
approach$s not so $ss$ntially distinct as th$ ollow$rs o $ach indi'idual dir$ction
b$li$'$ to b$ th$ cas$. 9or do$s it s$$" a basic i"pro'$"$nt wh$n th$ pur$ly solar
int$rpr$tation, as ad'ocat$d $sp$cially by #rob$nius, 3 was no long$r acc$pt$d and th$
'i$w was ad'anc$d that all "yths w$r$ originally lunar. 4Fsing holds this th$ory in his
discussion o th$ "yth o +yrus th$ 3r$at? !i$ck$ also clai"s this 'i$w as th$ only
l$giti"at$, ob'ious int$rpr$tation o th$ birth "yths o th$ h$ro$s? and it is a conc$pt
that is b$ginning to gain popularity. 4
&h$ int$rpr$tation o th$ "yths th$"s$l'$s will b$ tak$n up in d$tail lat$r on, and w$
shall r$rain h$r$ ro" all d$tail$d critical co""$nts on th$ abo'$ "od$ o $-planation.
Although signiicant, and undoubt$dly in part corr$ct, th$ astral th$ory is not altog$th$r
satisactory and ails to aord an insight into th$ "oti'$s o "yth or"ation. &h$
obB$ction "ay b$ rais$d that th$ tracing to astrono"ical proc$ss$s do$s not ully
r$pr$s$nt th$ cont$nt o th$s$ "yths, and that "uch cl$ar$r and si"pl$r r$lations "ight
b$ $stablish$d through anoth$r "od$ o int$rpr$tation. &h$ "uch abus$d th$ory o
$l$"$ntal id$as indicat$s a practically
p. 8
n$gl$ct$d asp$ct o "ythological r$s$arch. At th$ b$ginning, as w$ll as at th$ $nd o his
contribution, ,au$r points out how "uch "or$ natural and probabl$ it would b$ to s$$k
th$ r$ason or th$ g$n$ral unani"ity o th$s$ "yths in th$ '$ry g$n$ral traits o th$
hu"an psych$, rath$r than in pri"ary co""unity or "igration. &his assu"ption app$ars
to b$ "or$ Bustiiabl$, sinc$ such g$n$ral "o'$"$nts o th$ hu"an "ind ar$ also
$-pr$ss$d in still oth$r or"s and in oth$r do"ains, wh$r$ th$y can b$ d$"onstrat$d as
+onc$rning th$ charact$r o th$s$ g$n$ral "o'$"$nts o th$ hu"an "ind, th$
psychological study o th$ $ss$nc$ o th$s$ "yths "ight h$lp to r$'$al th$ sourc$ ro"
which has low$d unior"ly, at all ti"$s and in all plac$s, an id$ntical "ythological
cont$nt. !uch a d$ri'ation o an $ss$ntial constitu$nt, ro" a co""on hu"an sourc$,
has alr$ady b$$n succ$ssully att$"pt$d with on$ o th$s$ l$g$ndary "otis. #r$ud, in
his $nter%retation of &rea"s, r$'$als th$ conn$ction o th$ O$dipus abl$//wh$r$
O$dipus is told by th$ oracl$ that h$ will kill his ath$r and "arry his "oth$r, as h$
unwittingly do$s lat$r//with two typical dr$a"s $-p$ri$nc$d by "any now li'ing= th$
dr$a" o th$ ath$r%s d$ath, and th$ dr$a" o s$-ual int$rcours$ with th$ "oth$r. O
Ging O$dipus h$ says=
4is at$ "o'$s us only b$caus$ it "ight ha'$ b$$n our own, b$caus$ th$ oracl$
laid upon us b$or$ our birth th$ '$ry curs$ which r$st$d upon hi". 1t "ay b$
that w$ w$r$ all d$stin$d to dir$ct our irst s$-ual i"puls$s toward our "oth$rs,
and our irst i"puls$s o hatr$d and r$sistanc$ toward our ath$rs? our dr$a"s
con'inc$ us that w$ w$r$. Ging O$dipus, who sl$w his ath$r Aaius and w$dd$d
his "oth$r *ocasta, is
p. 9
nothing "or$ or l$ss than a wish/ulill"$nt//th$ ulill"$nt o th$ wish o our
childhood. 1
&h$ "ani$station o th$ inti"at$ r$lationship b$tw$$n dr$a" and "yth//not only in
r$gard to th$ cont$nt but also as to th$ or" and "otor orc$s o this and "any oth$r,
"or$ particularly pathological, psych$ structur$s//$ntir$ly Bustii$s th$ int$rpr$tation o
th$ "yth as a dr$a" o th$ "ass$s o th$ p$opl$, which 1 ha'$ r$c$ntly shown
$ls$wh$r$. At th$ sa"$ ti"$, th$ trans$r$nc$ o th$ "$thod, and in part also o th$
r$sults, o #r$ud%s t$chni.u$ o dr$a" int$rpr$tation to th$ "yths would s$$" to b$
Bustiiabl$, as was d$$nd$d by Abraha", and illustrat$d in an $-a"pl$, in his pap$r on
>Hr$a"s and 7yths.> 1n th$ circl$ o "yths that ollow, th$ inti"at$ r$lations b$tw$$n
dr$a" and "yth ind urth$r conir"ation, with r$.u$nt opportunity or r$asoning ro"
&h$ hostil$ attitud$ o th$ "ost "od$rn "ythological t$nd$ncy (chi$ly r$pr$s$nt$d by
th$ !oci$ty or +o"parati'$ 7ythological R$s$arch) against all att$"pts at $stablishing
a r$lation b$tw$$n dr$a" and "yth is or th$ "ost part th$ outco"$ o th$ r$striction o
th$ parall$li<ation to th$ so/call$d night"ar$s ('!%tr(u"e), as att$"pt$d in Aaistn$r%s
notabl$ book, and also o ignoranc$ o th$ r$l$'ant t$achings o #r$ud. ( &h$ latt$r not
only h$lp us to und$rstand th$ dr$a"s th$"s$l'$s but also show th$ir sy"bolis" and
clos$ r$lationship with all psychic ph$no"$na in g$n$ral, $sp$cially with daydr$a"s or
antasi$s, with artistic cr$ati'$n$ss, and with c$rtain disturbanc$s o th$ nor"al psychic
unction. A co""on shar$ in all
p. 1)
th$s$ productions b$longs to a singl$ psychic unction= th$ hu"an i"agination. 1t is to
this i"aginati'$ aculty//o hu"anity at larg$ rath$r than o th$ indi'idual//that th$
"od$rn "yth th$ory is oblig$d to conc$d$ a high rank, p$rhaps th$ irst, as th$ ulti"at$
sourc$ o all "yths. &h$ int$rpr$tation o th$ "yths in th$ astral s$ns$//or "or$
accurat$ly sp$aking, as >al"anac tal$s>//gi'$s ris$ to th$ .u$ry= 1n 'i$w o a cr$ati'$
i"agination in hu"anity, should w$ s$$k (with A$ss"ann) or th$ irst g$r" o th$
origin o such tal$s pr$cis$ly in th$ proc$ss$s o th$ h$a'$ns, or on th$ contrary, should
w$ conclud$ that r$ady/"ad$ tal$s o an $ntir$ly di$r$nt (but pr$su"ably psychic)
origin w$r$ only subs$.u$ntly trans$rr$d to th$ h$a'$nly bodi$s@ 1 2hr$nr$ich "ak$s a
"or$ positi'$ ad"ission= &h$ "ythologic $'olution c$rtainly b$gins on t$rr$strial soil,
in so ar as $-p$ri$nc$s "ust irst b$ gath$r$d in th$ i""$diat$ surroundings b$or$
th$y can b$ proB$ct$d into th$ h$a'$nly uni'$rs$. ( And 0undt t$lls us that th$ th$ory o
th$ $'olution o "ythology according to which it irst originat$s in th$ h$a'$ns, wh$nc$
at a lat$r dat$ it d$sc$nds to $arth, is contradictory both to th$ history o th$ "yth
(which is unawar$ o such a "igration) and to th$ psychology o "yth or"ation (which
"ust r$pudiat$ such a translocation as int$rnally i"possibl$). 3 0$ ar$ also con'inc$d
that th$ "yths, 4 originally at l$ast, ar$ structur$s o th$ hu"an aculty o i"agination,
which w$r$ at so"$ ti"$ proB$ct$d or c$rtain r$asons upon th$ h$a'$ns, and "ay b$
s$condarily trans$rr$d to th$ h$a'$nly bodi$s, with th$ir baling ph$no"$na. &h$
p. 11
o th$ un"istakabl$ trac$s//th$ i-$d igur$s, and so orth//that ha'$ b$$n i"print$d
upon th$ "yth by this trans$r$nc$ "ust by no "$ans b$ und$rrat$d, although th$ origin
o th$s$ igur$s was possibly psychic in charact$r? th$y w$r$ subs$.u$ntly "ad$ th$
basis o th$ al"anac and ir"a"$nt calculations pr$cis$ly on account o this
1n a g$n$ral way, it would s$$" as i th$ in'$stigators who apply an $-clusi'$ly
>natural> sch$"$ o int$rpr$tation ha'$ b$$n unabl$, in any s$ns$//in th$ir $nd$a'or to
disco'$r th$ original s$ns$ o th$ "yths//to g$t away $ntir$ly ro" a psychological
proc$ss such as "ust b$ assu"$d si"ilarly or th$ cr$ators o th$ "yths. 1 &h$ "oti'$ is
id$ntical, and l$d to th$ sa"$ cours$ or "yth/cr$ators and or "yth/int$rpr$t$rs. 1t is
"ost na8'$ly utt$r$d by on$ o th$ ound$rs and cha"pions o co"parati'$ "yth
in'$stigation and o th$ natural "ythological "od$ o int$rpr$tation? 7a- 7Fll$r points
out in his )ssays that this proc$dur$ not only in'$sts "$aningl$ss l$g$nds with a
signiicanc$ and b$auty o th$ir own but also h$lps to r$"o'$ so"$ o th$ "ost
r$'olting $atur$s o classical "ythology, as w$ll as to $lucidat$ th$ir tru$ "$aning. (
&his r$adily und$rstandabl$ r$'ulsion naturally pr$'$nts th$ "ythologist ro" assu"ing
that such "otis//inc$st with "oth$r, sist$r, or daught$r? "urd$r o ath$r, grandath$r,
or broth$r//could b$ bas$d on uni'$rsal antasi$s, which according to #r$ud%s t$achings
ha'$ th$ir sourc$ in th$ inantil$ psych$, with its p$culiar int$rpr$tation o th$ $-t$rnal
world and its d$ni<$ns. &his r$'ulsion is, th$r$or$, only th$ r$action o th$ di"ly
s$ns$d painul r$cognition o th$ actuality o th$s$ r$lations? and this r$action i"p$ls th$
"yth int$rpr$t$rs, or th$ir own subconscious r$habilitation, and that o all "ankind, to
cr$dit th$s$ "otis with an $ntir$ly di$r$nt "$aning ro" th$ir original signiicanc$.
&h$ sa"$ int$rnal r$pudiation pr$'$nts th$ "yth/cr$ating p$opl$ ro" b$li$'ing in th$
possibility o such r$'olting thoughts, and this d$$ns$ probably was
p. 1(
th$ irst r$ason or proB$cting th$s$ r$lations onto th$ ir"a"$nt. &h$ psychological
paciying through such a r$habilitation, by proB$ction upon $-t$rnal and r$"ot$ obB$cts,
can still b$ r$ali<$d//to a c$rtain d$gr$$, at l$ast//by a glanc$ at on$ o th$s$
int$rpr$tations, or instanc$ that o th$ obB$ctionabl$ O$dipus abl$, as gi'$n by
3oldhi<$r, a r$pr$s$ntati'$ o th$ natural school o "yth int$rpr$t$rs= O$dipus (who
kills his ath$r, "arri$s his "oth$r, and di$s old and blind) is th$ solar h$ro who
"urd$rs his procr$ator, th$ darkn$ss? h$ shar$s his couch with his "oth$r, th$ gloa"ing,
ro" whos$ lap, th$ dawn, h$ has b$$n born? h$ di$s, blind$d, as th$ s$tting sun. 1
1t is und$rstandabl$ that so"$ such int$rpr$tation is "or$ soothing to th$ "ind than th$
r$'$lation o th$ act that inc$st and "urd$r i"puls$s against th$ir n$ar$st r$lati'$s ar$
ound in th$ antasi$s o "ost p$opl$, as r$"nants o inantil$ id$ation. ,ut this is not a
sci$ntiic argu"$nt, and r$'ulsion o this kind//although it "ay not always b$ $.ually
conscious//is altog$th$r out o plac$ in 'i$w o $-isting acts. On$ "ust $ith$r b$co"$
r$concil$d to th$s$ ind$c$nci$s, pro'id$d th$y ar$ $lt to b$ such, or on$ "ust abandon
th$ study o psychological ph$no"$na. 1t is $'id$nt that hu"an b$ings, $'$n in th$
$arli$st ti"$s, and with a "ost na8'$ i"agination, n$'$r saw inc$st and parricid$ in th$
ir"a"$nt on high, ( but it is ar "or$ probabl$ that th$s$ id$as ar$ d$ri'$d ro"
anoth$r sourc$, pr$su"ably hu"an. 1n what way th$y ca"$ to r$ach th$ sky, and what
"odiications or additions th$y r$c$i'$d in th$ proc$ss, ar$ .u$stions o a s$condary
charact$r that cannot
p. 13
b$ s$ttl$d until th$ psychic origin o th$ "yths in g$n$ral has b$$n $stablish$d.
At any rat$, b$sid$s th$ astral conc$ption, th$ clai"s o th$ part play$d by th$ psychic
li$ "ust b$ cr$dit$d with th$ sa"$ rights or "yth or"ation, and this argu"$nt will b$
a"ply 'indicat$d by th$ r$sults o our "$thod o int$rpr$tation. 0ith this obB$ct in
'i$w, w$ shall irst tak$ up in th$ ollowing pag$s th$ l$g$ndary "at$rial on which such
a psychological int$rpr$tation is to b$ att$"pt$d on a larg$ scal$ or th$ irst ti"$.
3=1 A short and airly co"pl$t$ r$'i$w o th$ g$n$ral th$ori$s o "ythology, and o th$
principal ad'ocat$s o $ach, is to b$ ound in 0ilh$l" 0undt= *+!,er%sycho!ogie
(A$ip<ig, 19):/9), ;ol. 11, 5art 1, p. :(C.
4=1 &as Best(ndige in den Menschenrassen and die -%ie!#eise ihrer *er(nder!ich,eit
(,$rlin, 1868).
4=( >&ie .yros -age and *er#andtes,> -it/ungsberichte der Wiener ',ade"ie, 9o. 1))
(188(), 5. 49:.
4=3 Pantschatantra (18:9).
4=4 Herodots &arste!!ung der 0yrussage (,r$slau, 189)).
4=: +o"par$ 2. !trick$n= 'stra! Mythen (A$ip<ig, 1896/19)C), $sp$cially 5art ;,
>7os$s>? and 4. A$ss"ann= >&ie .yrossage in )uro%e,> Wissen. beit. /. Jahresbericht
d. st(dt. 1ea!schu!e /u 0har!ottenburg (19)6).
:=1 2aturgeschichte der -age, ( 'ols. (7unich, 1864/:), tracing all r$ligious id$as,
l$g$nds, and syst$"s back to th$ir co""on a"ily tr$$ and pri"ary root.
:=( !o"$ o th$ i"portant writings by 0inckl$r will b$ "$ntion$d in th$ cours$ o this
:=3 3eitschrift f4r der Oesterr. 5y"nasiu" (1891), pp. 161 . !chub$rt%s r$ply is also
ound h$r$, pp. :94 .
:=4 >ObB$ct and Ai" o 7ythological R$s$arch,> Mytho!og. Bib!iot. (A$ip<ig), ;ol. 1,
9o. 4.
6=1 0undt, op. cit., 5art 111.
6=( >&ie baby!onische 5eistes,u!tur in ihren Be/iehungen /ur .u!turent#ic,!ung der
Menschheit,> Wissenschaft and Bi!dung, ;ol. I; (19)C), p. 4C.
6=3 O cours$ no ti"$ will b$ wast$d h$r$ on th$ util$ .u$stion as to what th$ irst
l$g$nd "ay ha'$ b$$n? in all probability this n$'$r $-ist$d, any "or$ than >th$ irst
hu"an coupl$.>
C=1 ,rodb$ck= 3oroaster (A$ip<ig, 1893), p. 138.
C=( As an $sp$cially discouraging $-a"pl$ o this "od$ o proc$dur$ "ay b$ "$ntion$d
a contribution by th$ w$ll/known natural "ythologist !chwart<, which touch$s on this
circl$ o "yths, and is $ntitl$d= &er 6rs%rung der -ta"" and 5r4ndungssage 1o"s
unter de" 1ef!e7 indoger"anischer Mythen (*$na, 1898).
C=3 A$o #rob$nius= &as 3eita!ter des -onnengotten (,$rlin, 19)4).
C=4 3. 4Fsing= 0ontributions to the .yros Myth (,$rlin, 19)6). !i$ck$, >4$r"$s als
7ondgott,> 7ytholog. ,ibliot., ;ol. 11, 9o. 1 (19)8), 5. 48. +o"par$, or $-a"pl$,
5aul Goch= -agen der Bibe! and ihre 6bereinsti""ung "it der Mytho!ogie der
$ndoger"anen (,$rlin, 19)C). +o"par$ also th$ partly lunar, partly solar, but at any rat$
$ntir$ly on$/sid$d conc$ption o th$ h$ro "yth in 3usta' #ri$drich= 5rund!age,
)ntstehung and genaue )in/e!deutung der be,anntesten ger"anischen M(rchen,
Mythen and -agen (A$ip<ig, 19)9), p. 118.
9=1 &h$ abl$ o !hak$sp$ar$%s 4a"l$t also p$r"its o a si"ilar int$rpr$tation, according
to #r$ud. 1t will b$ s$$n lat$r on how "ythological in'$stigators bring th$ 4a"l$t
l$g$nd ro" $ntir$ly di$r$nt 'i$wpoints into th$ corr$lation o th$ circl$ o "yths.
9=( Aaistn$r= The 1idd!e of the -%hin7 (1889). +o"par$ A$ss"ann, >ObB$ct and Ai" . . .
,> loc. cit. 2hr$nr$ich alon$ (5enera! Psycho!ogy, p. 149) ad"its th$ $-traordinary
signiicanc$ o dr$a"/li$ or th$ "yth/iction o all ti"$s. 0undt do$s so lik$wis$, or
indi'idual "ythological "otis.
1)=1 !tuck$n (op. cit., p. 43() says in this s$ns$= &h$ "yth trans"itt$d by th$ anc$stors
was trans$rr$d to natural proc$ss$s and int$rpr$t$d in a naturalistic way, not 'ic$ '$rsa.
>1nt$rpr$tation o natur$ is a "oti'$ in its$l> (p. 636 n.). 1n a '$ry si"ilar way, 2duard
7$y$r (5eschichte des '!tertu"s, 1884/19)(, ;ol. ;. p. 48) has writt$n= >1n "any
cas$s, th$ natural sy"bolis", sought in th$ "yths, is only appar$ntly pr$s$nt or has
b$$n s$condarily introduc$d, as ot$n in th$ ;$das and in th$ 2gyptian "yths? it is a
pri"ary att$"pt at int$rpr$tation, lik$ th$ "yth/int$rpr$tations that aros$ a"ong th$
3r$$ks as $arly as th$ ith c$ntury.>
1)=( Op. cit., p. 1)4.
1)=3 Op. cit., p. (8(.
1)=4 #or airy tal$s, in this as w$ll as in oth$r $ss$ntial $atur$s, &hi""$ ad'ocat$s th$
sa"$ point o 'i$w as is h$r$ clai"$d or th$ "yths. +o"par$ Adol &hi""$= Has
7Jrch$n, ;ol. 11 o Handb4cher /ur *o!,s,unde (A$ip<ig, 19)9).
11=1 O this "yth int$rpr$tation, 0undt (op. cit., p. 3:() has w$ll said that it r$ally
should ha'$ acco"pani$d th$ original "yth or"ation.
11=( ;ol. 11, p. 143, in th$ 3$r"an translation (A$ip<ig, 1869).
1(=1 !$$ 1gna< 3oldhi<$r= &er Mythus bei den Hebr(ern and seine geschicht!iche
)nt#ic,e!ung (A$ip<ig, 18C6), p. 1(:. According to th$ writings o !i$ck$ (loc. cit., p.
39), th$ inc$st "yths los$ all unusual $atur$s through b$ing r$$rr$d to th$ "oon and its
r$lation to th$ sun. 4is $-planation is .uit$ si"pl$= th$ daught$r (th$ n$w "oon) is th$
r$p$tition o th$ "oth$r (th$ old "oon)? with h$r th$ ath$r (th$ sun) (also th$ broth$r,
th$ son) b$co"$s r$unit$d.
1(=( 1s it to b$ b$li$'$d@ 1n an articl$ $ntitl$d >6rre!igion der $ndoger"anen> (,$rlin,
189C), wh$r$ !i$ck$ points out that th$ inc$st "yths ar$ d$scripti'$ narrations o th$
s$$n but inconc$i'abl$ proc$ss o natur$, h$ obB$cts to th$ assu"ption by Old$nburg
(R$ligion d$r ;$da, p. :) o a pri"$'al t$nd$ncy o "yths to th$ inc$st "oti, with th$
r$"ark that in th$ days o yor$ th$ th$"$ was thrust upon th$ narrator, without an
inclination o his own, through th$ orc$uln$ss o th$ witn$ss$d acts.
p. 14
II. The Circle of Myths
#RO7 th$ "ass o chi$ly biographic h$ro "yths, w$ ha'$ s$l$ct$d thos$ that ar$ b$st
known and so"$ that ar$ $sp$cially charact$ristic. 1 &h$s$ "yths will b$ gi'$n in
abbr$'iat$d or", as ar as r$l$'ant or this in'$stigation, with stat$"$nts conc$rning
th$ sourc$s. Att$ntion will b$ call$d to th$ "ost i"portant and constantly r$curring
"otis by th$ us$ o italic typ$.
5robably th$ old$st trans"itt$d h$ro "yth in our poss$ssion is d$ri'$d ro" th$ p$riod
o th$ oundation o ,abylonia (about (8)) ,.+.) and conc$rns th$ birth history o its
ound$r, !argon th$ #irst. ( &h$ lit$ral translation
p. 1:
o th$ r$port//according to th$ "od$ o r$nd$ring, it app$ars to b$ an original inscription
by Ging !argon hi"s$l//is as ollows=
!argon, th$ "ighty king, Ging o Agad$, a" 1. My "other #as a 8esta!, "y
father $ ,ne# not, whil$ "y ath$r%s broth$r dw$lt in th$ "ountains. 1n "y city
A<uripani, which is situat$d on th$ bank o th$ 2uphrat$s, "y "oth$r, th$ '$stal,
bor$ "$. 1n a hidd$n plac$ sh$ brought "$ orth. !h$ laid "$ in a '$ss$l "ad$ o
r$$ds, clos$d "y door with pitch, and dropp$d "$ down into th$ ri'$r, which did
not drown "$. &h$ ri'$r carri$d "$ to Akki, th$ wat$r carri$r. Akki th$ wat$r
carri$r lit$d "$ up in th$ kindn$ss o his h$art, Akki th$ wat$r carri$r rais$d "$
as his own son, Akki th$ wat$r carri$r "ad$ o "$ his gard$n$r. 1n "y work as a
gard$n$r 1 was b$lo'$d by 1shtar, 1 b$ca"$ th$ king, and or orty/i'$ y$ars 1
h$ld kingly sway. 1
14=1 Att$ntion has b$$n drawn to th$ gr$at 'ariability and wid$ distribution o th$ birth
"yths o th$ h$ro by th$ writings o ,au$r, !chub$rt, and oth$rs r$$rr$d to in th$
pr$c$ding pag$s. &h$ co"pr$h$nsi'$ cont$nts o th$ "yths and th$ir in$ ra"iications
ha'$ b$$n $sp$cially discuss$d by 4Fsing, A$ss"ann, and oth$r r$pr$s$ntati'$s o th$
"od$rn tr$nd.
14=( 1nnu"$rabl$ airy tal$s, stori$s, and po$"s o all ti"$s, up to th$ "ost r$c$nt
dra"atic and no'$listic lit$ratur$, show '$ry distinct indi'idual "ain "otis o this
"yth. &h$ $-posur$/ro"anc$ app$ars in th$ lat$ 3r$$k pastorals//4$liodorus%
'ethio%ica, 2ustathius% $s"enias and $s"ene, and Aongus% story o th$ two $-pos$d
childr$n, Haphnis and +hlo$. &h$ "or$ r$c$nt 1talian pastorals ar$ lik$wis$ '$ry
r$.u$ntly bas$d upon th$ $-posur$ o childr$n, who ar$ rais$d as sh$ph$rds by p. 1: th$ir
ost$r par$nts, but ar$ lat$r r$cogni<$d by th$ tru$ par$nts, through id$ntiying "arks
r$c$i'$d at th$ ti"$ o th$ir $-posur$. &o th$ sa"$ s$t b$long th$ a"ily history in
3ri""$lshaus$n%s 9i"%!i/issi"us (166:), in *$an 5aul%s Titan (18))), as w$ll as c$rtain
or"s o th$ Robinson stori$s and +a'ali$r ro"anc$s (co"par$ 0Fr<bach%s 1ntroduction
to 4$ss$%s $dition o &on :ui7ote).
&h$ biblical birth history o 7os$s, which is told in th$ s$cond chapt$r o 2-odus,
pr$s$nts th$ gr$at$st si"ilarity to th$ !argon l$g$nd, $'$n an al"ost lit$ral
corr$spond$nc$ o indi'idual traits. ( Alr$ady th$ irst chapt$r ((() r$lat$s that 5haraoh
co""and$d his p$opl$ to throw into
p. 16
th$ ri'$r all sons that w$r$ born to 4$br$ws, whil$ th$ daught$rs w$r$ p$r"itt$d to li'$?
th$ r$ason or this ord$r is gi'$n as $ar o th$ o'$r$rtility o th$ 1sra$lit$s. &h$ s$cond
chapt$r continu$s as ollows=
And th$r$ w$nt a "an o th$ hous$ o A$'i, and took to wi$ a daught$r o
A$'i. 1 And th$ wo"an conc$i'$d, and bar$ a son= and wh$n sh$ saw hi" that h$
was a goodly child, sh$ hid hi" thr$$ "onths. And wh$n sh$ could not long$r
hid$ hi", sh$ took or hi" an ark o bulrush$s, and daub$d it with sli"$ and
with pitch, and put th$ child th$r$in? and sh$ laid it in th$ lags by th$ ri'$r%s
brink. And his sist$r stood aar o, to wit what would b$ don$ to hi". And th$
daught$r o 5haraoh ca"$ down to wash h$rs$l at th$ ri'$r? and h$r "aid$ns
walk$d along by th$ ri'$r%s sid$? and wh$n sh$ saw th$ ark a"ong th$ lags, sh$
s$nt h$r "aid to $tch it. And wh$n sh$ had op$n$d it, sh$ saw th$ child and,
b$hold, th$ bab$ w$pt. And sh$ had co"passion on hi" and said, this is on$ o
th$ 4$br$ws% childr$n. &h$n said his sist$r to 5haraoh%s daught$r, !hall 1 go and
call to th$$ a nurs$ o th$ 4$br$w wo"$n, that sh$ "ay nurs$ th$ child or th$$@
And 5haraoh%s daught$r said to h$r, 3o. And th$ "aid w$nt and call$d th$
child%s "oth$r. And 5haraoh%s daught$r said unto h$r, &ak$ this child away, and
nurs$ it or "$, and 1 will gi'$ th$$ thy wag$s. And th$ wo"an took th$ child,
and nurs$d it. And th$ child gr$w, and sh$ brought hi" unto 5haraoh%s daught$r,
and h$ b$ca"$ h$r son. And sh$ call$d his na"$ 7os$s= ( and sh$ said, ,$caus$
1 dr$w hi" out o th$ wat$r.
p. 1C
&his account is orna"$nt$d by rabbinical "ythology with an account o th$ $'$nts
pr$c$ding 7os$s% birth. 1n th$ si-ti$th y$ar at$r *os$ph%s d$ath, th$ r$igning 5haraoh
saw in a dr$a" an old "an who h$ld a pair o scal$s? all th$ inhabitants o 2gypt lay on
on$ sid$, with only a suckling 1a"b on th$ oth$r, but n$'$rth$l$ss this outw$igh$d all
th$ 2gyptians. &h$ startl$d king at onc$ consult$d th$ wis$ "$n and astrolog$rs, who
d$clar$d th$ dr$a" to "$an that a son would b$ born to th$ 1sra$lit$s who would
d$stroy all 2gypt. &h$ king was right$n$d, and at onc$ ord$r$d th$ d$ath o all n$wborn
childr$n o th$ 1sra$lit$s in th$ $ntir$ country. On account o this tyrannical ord$r, th$
A$'it$ A"ra", who li'$d in 3osh$n, d$cid$d to s$parat$ ro" his wi$ *och$b$d, so as
not to or$doo" to c$rtain d$ath th$ childr$n conc$i'$d through hi". ,ut this r$solution
was oppos$d lat$r on by his daught$r 7iria", who or$told with proph$tic assuranc$
that pr$cis$ly th$ child sugg$st$d in th$ king%s dr$a" would co"$ orth ro" h$r
"oth$r%s wo"b, and would b$co"$ th$ lib$rator o his p$opl$. 1
A"ra" th$r$or$ r$Boin$d his wi$, ro" who" h$ had b$$n s$parat$d or thr$$ y$ars.
At th$ $nd o thr$$ "onths, sh$ conc$i'$d, and lat$r on bor$ a boy at whos$ birth th$
$ntir$ hous$ was illu"inat$d by an $-traordinary lu"inous radianc$, sugg$sting th$
truth o th$ proph$cy. (
!i"ilar accounts ar$ gi'$n o th$ birth o th$ anc$stor o th$ 4$br$w nation, Abraha".
4$ was a son o &$rah//9i"rod%s captain//and A"t$lai. 5rior to his birth, it was
r$'$al$d to Ging 9i"rod ro" th$ stars that th$ co"ing child would o'$rthrow th$
thron$s o pow$rul princ$s and tak$ poss$ssion o th$ir lands. Ging 9i"rod plann$d to
ha'$ th$ child kill$d i""$diat$ly at$r its birth. ,ut wh$n th$ boy was r$.u$st$d ro"
&$rah, h$ said, >&ruly a son was born to "$, but h$ has di$d.> 4$ th$n d$li'$r$d a
strang$ child, conc$aling his own son in a ca'$ und$rn$ath th$ ground, wh$r$ 3od
p$r"itt$d hi" to suck "ilk ro" a ing$r o th$ right hand. 1n this ca'$, Abraha" is
p. 18
said to ha'$ r$"ain$d until th$ third (according to oth$rs th$ t$nth) y$ar o his li$. 1
1n th$ n$-t g$n$ration, in th$ story o 1saac, th$ sa"$ "ythological "otis app$ar. 5rior
to his birth, Ging Abi"$l$ch is warn$d by a drea" not to touch !arah, as this would
caus$ wo$ to b$tid$ hi". At$r a long p$riod o barr$nn$ss, sh$ inally b$ars h$r son,
who (in lat$r li$, in this r$port) at$r ha'ing b$$n d$stin$d to b$ sacrificed by his o#n
father, Abraha", is ulti"at$ly r$scu$d by 3od. ,ut Abraha" casts out his $ld$r son
1sh"a$l, with 4agar, th$ boy%s "oth$r. (
1:=1 &h$ 'arious translations o th$ partly "utilat$d t$-t di$r only in un$ss$ntial
d$tails. +o"par$ 4o""$l= History of Baby!onia and 'ssyria (,$rlin, 188:), p. 3)(,
wh$r$ th$ sourc$s o th$ tradition ar$ lik$wis$ ound? and A. *$r$"ias= The O!d
Testa"ent in the 9ight of the 'ncient Orient, ad $d. (A$ip<ig, 19)6), p. 41).
1:=( On account o th$s$ r$s$"blanc$s, a d$p$nd$nc$ o th$ 2-odus tal$ ro" th$
!argon l$g$nd has ot$n b$$n assu"$d, but appar$ntly not $nough att$ntion has b$$n
paid to c$rtain unda"$ntal distinctions, which will b$ tak$n up in d$tail in th$
16=1 &h$ par$nts o 7os$s w$r$ originally na"$l$ss, as w$r$ all p$rsons in this, th$
old$st account. &h$ir na"$s w$r$ only con$rr$d upon th$" by th$ pri$sthood. +hapt$r
6.(), says= >And A"ra" took hi" *och$b$d his ath$r%s sist$r to wi$? and sh$ bar$ hi"
Aaron and 7os$s>? 9u"b$rs (6.:8 adds= >. . . and 7iria" th$ir sist$r.> Also co"par$
0inckl$r= History of $srae!, ;ol. 11? and *$r$"ias, op. cit., p. 4)8.
16=( &h$ na"$, according to 0inckl$r (>&ie baby!onische 5eistes,u!tur . . .> loc. cit., p.
119), "$ans >&h$ 0at$r/Hraw$r> (s$$ also 0inckl$r= 'ncient Orienta! -tudies, ;ol. 111,
pp. 468 .)//which would still urth$r approach th$ 7os$s l$g$nd to th$ !argon l$g$nd,
or th$ na"$ Akki signii$s >1 ha'$ drawn wat$r.>
1C=1 !ch$"ot Rabba (.4 says conc$rning 2-odus 1.(( that 5haraoh was told by th$
astrolog$rs o a wo"an who was pr$gnant with th$ R$d$$"$r o 1sra$l.
1C=( At$r ,$rg$l= Mytho!ogy of the Hebre#s (A$ip<ig, 188().
A clos$ r$lationship with th$ !argon l$g$nd is also shown in c$rtain $atur$s o th$
anci$nt 4indu $pic 7ahabharata, in its account o th$ birth o th$ h$ro Garna. 3 &h$
cont$nts o th$ l$g$nd ar$ bri$ly r$nd$r$d by Aass$n. 4
&h$ princ$ss 5ritha, also known as Gunti, bor$ as a 'irgin th$ boy Garna, whos$ ath$r
was th$ sun/god !urya. &h$ young Garna was born with th$ gold$n $ar orna"$nts o his
ath$r and with an unbr$akabl$ coat o "ail. &h$ "oth$r in h$r distr$ss conc$al$d and
$-pos$d th$ boy. 1n th$ adaptation o th$ "yth by A. 4olt<"ann, '$rs$ 14:8 r$ads=
>&h$n "y nurs$ and 1 "ad$ a larg$ bask$t o rush$s, plac$d a lid th$r$on, and lin$d it
with wa-? into this bask$t 1 laid th$ boy and carri$d hi" down to th$ ri'$r Ac'a.>
#loating on th$ wa'$s, th$ bask$t r$ach$s th$ ri'$r
p. 19
Dparagraph continu$sE 3ang$s and tra'$ls as ar as th$ city o +a"pa. >&h$r$ was passing along
th$ bank o th$ ri'$r, th$ chariot$$r, th$ nobl$ ri$nd o Hhritarashtra, and with hi" was
Radha, his b$autiul and pious spous$. !h$ was wrapt in d$$p sorrow, b$caus$ no son
had b$$n gi'$n to h$r. On th$ ri'$r sh$ saw th$ bask$t, which th$ wa'$s carri$d clos$ to
h$r on th$ shor$? sh$ show$d it to A<irath, who w$nt and dr$w it orth ro" th$ wa'$s.>
&h$ two tak$ car$ o th$ boy and rais$ hi" as th$ir own child.
Gunti lat$r on "arri$s Ging 5andu, who is orc$d to r$rain ro" conBugal int$rcours$
by th$ curs$ that h$ is to di$ in th$ ar"s o his spous$. ,ut Gunti b$ars thr$$ sons, again
through di'in$ conc$ption, on$ o th$ childr$n b$ing born in th$ ca'$ o a wol. On$ day
5andu di$s in th$ $"brac$ o his s$cond wi$. &h$ sons grow up, and at a tourna"$nt
which th$y arrang$, Garna app$ars to "$asur$ his str$ngth against th$ b$st ight$r,
ArBuna, th$ son o Gunti. ArBuna scoingly r$us$s to ight th$ chariot$$r%s son. 1n ord$r
to "ak$ hi" a worthy oppon$nt, on$ o thos$ pr$s$nt anoints hi" as king. 7$anwhil$
Gunti has r$cogni<$d Garna as h$r son, by th$ di'in$ "ark, and prays hi" to d$sist ro"
th$ cont$st with his broth$r, r$'$aling to hi" th$ s$cr$t o his birth. ,ut h$ consid$rs h$r
r$'$lation as a antastic tal$, and insists i"placably upon satisaction. 4$ alls in th$
co"bat, struck by ArBuna%s arrow. 1
A striking r$s$"blanc$ to th$ $ntir$ structur$ o th$ Garna l$g$nd is pr$s$nt$d by th$
birth history o 1on, th$ anc$stor o th$ 1onians. &h$ ollowing account is bas$d on a
r$lati'$ly lat$ tradition. (
Apollo, in th$ grotto o th$ rock o th$ Ath$nian Acropolis, procr$at$d a son with
+r$usa, th$ daught$r o 2r$chth$us. 1n this grotto th$ boy was also born, and $-pos$d?
th$ "oth$r l$a'$s th$ child b$hind in a wo'$n bask$t, in th$ hop$ that Apollo will not
l$a'$ his son to
p. ()
p$rish. At Apollo%s r$.u$st, 4$r"$s carri$s th$ child th$ sa"$ night to H$lphi, wh$r$ th$
pri$st$ss inds hi" on th$ thr$shold o th$ t$"pl$ in th$ "orning. !h$ brings th$ boy up,
and wh$n h$ has grown into a youth "ak$s hi" a s$r'ant o th$ t$"pl$. 2r$chth$us lat$r
ga'$ his daught$r +r$usa in "arriag$ to Iuthus. As th$ "arriag$ long r$"ain$d
childl$ss, th$y addr$ss$d th$ H$lphian oracl$, praying to b$ bl$ss$d with prog$ny. &h$
god r$'$als to Iuthus that th$ irst to "$$t hi" on l$a'ing th$ sanctuary is his son. 4$
hast$ns outsid$ and "$$ts th$ youth, who" h$ Boyully gr$$ts as his own son, gi'ing
hi" th$ na"$ 1on, which "$ans >walk$r.> +r$usa r$us$s to acc$pt th$ youth as h$r son?
h$r att$"pt to poison hi" ails, and th$ inuriat$d p$opl$ turn against h$r. 1on is about
to attack h$r, but Apollo, who do$s not wish th$ son to kill his own "oth$r, $nlight$ns
th$ "ind o th$ pri$st$ss so that sh$ und$rstands th$ conn$ction. ,y "$ans o th$ bask$t
in which th$ n$wborn child had lain, +r$usa r$cogni<$s hi" as h$r son, and r$'$als to
hi" th$ s$cr$t o his birth.
18=1 +o"par$ ,$$r= The 9ife of 'braha" (A$ip<ig, 18:9), according to th$
int$rpr$tation o *$wish traditions? also August 0Fnsch$= ;ro" $srae!<s Te"%!es of
9earning (A$ip<ig, 19)C).
18=( !$$ chapt$rs () and (1 o 3$n$sis, and also ,$rg$l, op. cit.
18=3 &h$ 4indu birth l$g$nd o th$ "ythical king ;ikra"aditya "ust also b$ "$ntion$d
in this conn$ction. 4$r$ again occur th$ barr$n "arriag$ o th$ par$nts, th$ "iraculous
conc$ption, ill/o"$n$d warnings, th$ $-posur$ o th$ boy in th$ or$st, his nourish"$nt
with hon$y, inally th$ acknowl$dg"$nt by th$ ath$r. !$$ *Flg= Mongo!ische M(rche
(1nnsbruck, 1868), 55. C3 .
18=4 $ndische '!teru"s,unde (Garlsruh$, 1846).
19=1 +o"par$ th$ d$tail$d account in A$"ann= History of 'ncient $ndia (,$rlin, 189)),
pp. 181 .
19=( !$$ RKsch$r, conc$rning th$ $on o 2uripid$s. 0h$r$ no oth$r sourc$ is stat$d, all
3r$$k and Ro"an "yths ar$ tak$n ro" th$ 'usf4hr!iches 9e7i,on der griechischen
and r+"ischen Mytho!ogie, $dit$d by 0. 4. RKsch$r, which also contains a list o all
&h$ par$nts o O$dipus, Ging Aaius and his .u$$n, *ocasta, li'$d or a long ti"$ in
childl$ss w$dlock. Aaius, who longs or an h$ir, asks th$ H$lphic Apollo or ad'ic$. &h$
oracl$ answ$rs that h$ "ay ha'$ a son i h$ so d$sir$s? but at$ has ordain$d that his
own son will kill hi". #$aring th$ ulill"$nt o th$ oracl$, Aaius r$rains ro" conBugal
r$lations, but b$ing into-icat$d on$ day h$ n$'$rth$l$ss procr$at$s a son, who" h$
caus$s to b$ $-pos$d in th$ ri'$r +itha$ron, bar$ly thr$$ days at$r his birth. 1n ord$r to
b$ .uit$ sur$ that th$ child will p$rish, Aaius ord$rs his ankl$s to b$ pi$rc$d. According
to th$ account o !ophocl$s, which is not th$ old$st, how$'$r, th$ sh$ph$rd who has
b$$n intrust$d with th$ $-posur$, surr$nd$rs th$ boy to a sh$ph$rd o Ging 5olybus, o
+orinth, at whos$ court h$ is brought up, according to th$ uni'$rsal stat$"$nt. Oth$rs
say that th$ boy was $-pos$d in a bo- on th$ s$a, and was
p. (1
tak$n ro" th$ wat$r by 5$ribKa, th$ wi$ o Ging 5olybus, as sh$ was rinsing h$r
cloth$s by th$ shor$. 1 5olybus brought hi" up as his own son.
O$dipus, on h$aring accid$ntally that h$ is a oundling, asks th$ H$lphian oracl$ about
his tru$ par$nts, but r$c$i'$s only th$ proph$cy that h$ will kill his ath$r and "arry his
"oth$r. 1n th$ b$li$ that this proph$cy r$$rs to his ost$r par$nts, h$ l$$s ro" +orinth
to &h$b$s, but on th$ way unwittingly kills his ath$r Aaius. ,y sol'ing a riddl$, h$ r$$s
th$ city ro" th$ plagu$ o th$ !phin-, a "an/d$'ouring "onst$r, and in r$ward is gi'$n
th$ hand o *ocasta, his "oth$r, as w$ll as th$ thron$ o his ath$r. &h$ r$'$lation o
th$s$ horrors and th$ subs$.u$nt "isortun$ o O$dipus w$r$ a a'orit$ subB$ct or
sp$ctacular display a"ong th$ 3r$$k trag$dians.
An $ntir$ s$ri$s o +hristian l$g$nds ha'$ b$$n $laborat$d on th$ patt$rn o th$ O$dipus
"yth, and th$ su""ari<$d cont$nts o th$ *udas l$g$nd "ay s$r'$ as a paradig" o this
group. ,$or$ his birth, his "oth$r, +ybor$ad, is warn$d by a dr$a" that sh$ will b$ar a
wick$d son, to th$ ruin o all his p$opl$. &h$ par$nts $-pos$ th$ boy in a bo- on th$ s$a.
&h$ wa'$s cast th$ child ashor$ on th$ 1sl$ o !cariot, wh$r$ th$ childl$ss .u$$n inds
hi", and brings hi" up as h$r son. Aat$r on, th$ royal coupl$ ha'$ a son o th$ir own,
and th$ oundling, who $$ls hi"s$l slight$d, kills his ost$r broth$r. As a ugiti'$ ro"
th$ country, h$ tak$s s$r'ic$ at th$ court o 5ilat$, who "ak$s a conidant o hi" and
plac$s hi" abo'$ his $ntir$ hous$hold. 1n a ight, *udas kills a n$ighbor, without
knowing that h$ is his ath$r. &h$ widow o th$ "urd$r$d "an//his own "oth$r//th$n
b$co"$s his wi$. At$r th$ r$'$lation o th$s$ horrors, h$ r$p$nts and s$$ks
p. ((
th$ !a'iour, who r$c$i'$s hi" a"ong his apostl$s. 4is b$trayal o *$sus is known ro"
th$ 3osp$ls.
&h$ l$g$nd o !t. 3r$gory on th$ !ton$//th$ subB$ct o th$ narrati'$ o 4art"ann 'on
Au$//r$pr$s$nts a "or$ co"plicat$d typ$ o this "ythological cycl$. 3r$gory, th$ child
o th$ inc$stuous union o royal lo'$rs, is $-pos$d by his "oth$r in a bo- on th$ s$a,
sa'$d and rais$d by ish$r"$n, and is th$n $ducat$d in a con'$nt or th$ church. ,ut h$
pr$$rs th$ li$ o a knight, is 'ictorious in co"bats, and in r$ward is gi'$n th$ hand o
th$ princ$ss, his "oth$r. At$r th$ disco'$ry o th$ inc$st, 3r$gory do$s p$nanc$ or
s$'$nt$$n y$ars on a rock in th$ "idst o th$ s$a, and h$ is inally "ad$ th$ 5op$, at th$
co""and o 3od. 1
A '$ry si"ilar l$g$nd is th$ 5$rsian $pic o Ging Harab, told by th$ po$t #irdausi. ( &h$
last Giranian ,$h"$n no"inat$d as his succ$ssor his daught$r and si"ultan$ous wi$
4u"Li? his son !LsLn was gri$'$d and withdr$w into solitud$. A short ti"$ at$r th$
d$ath o h$r husband, 4u"Li ga'$ birth to a son, who" sh$ r$sol'$d to $-pos$. 4$ was
plac$d in a bo-, which was put into th$ 2uphrat$s and drit$d downstr$a", until it was
stopp$d by a ston$ that had b$$n plac$d in th$ wat$r by a tann$r. &h$ bo- with th$ child
was ound by hi", and h$ carri$d th$ boy to his wi$, who had r$c$ntly lost h$r own
child. &h$ coupl$ agr$$d to rais$ th$ oundling. As th$ boy gr$w up, h$ soon b$ca"$ so
strong that th$ oth$r childr$n w$r$ unabl$ to r$sist hi". 4$ did not car$ or th$ work o
his ost$r ath$r, but l$arn$d to b$ a warrior. 4is ost$r "oth$r was orc$d by hi" to
r$'$al th$ s$cr$t o his origin, and h$ Boin$d th$ ar"y that 4u"Li was th$n s$nding out
to ight th$ king o Ri". 4$r att$ntion b$ing call$d to hi" by his bra'$ry, 4u"Li r$adily
r$cogni<$d hi" as h$r son, and na"$d hi" h$r succ$ssor.
(1=1 According to ,$th$ (Thebanische He!den!ieder), th$ $-posur$ on th$ wat$rs was
th$ original r$nd$ring. According to oth$r '$rsions, th$ boy is ound and rais$d by
hors$h$rds? according to a lat$r "yth, by a country"an, 7$libios.
((=1 +hol$'icas= History of 5er"an Poetry 'ccording to the 'nti=ue )!e"ents.
((=( #irdausi= -hah 2a"ah (>&h$ ,ook o Gings>), as r$nd$r$d by #. !pi$g$l=
)ranische '!teru"s,unde, ;ol. 11, p. :84.
p. (3
&h$ a"$d 3r$$k l$g$nd o th$ birth o 5aris r$lat$s that Ging 5ria" o &roy had with
his wi$ 4$cuba a son, na"$d 4$ctor. 0h$n 4$cuba was about to b$ar anoth$r child,
she drea"ed that sh$ brought orth a burning log o wood, which s$t ir$ to th$ $ntir$
city. 5ria" ask$d th$ ad'ic$ o Aisakos, who was his son with his irst wi$, Arisb$, and
an $-p$rt in th$ int$rpr$tation o dr$a"s. Aisakos d$clar$d that th$ child would bring
troubl$ upon th$ city, and ad'is$d that it b$ $-pos$d. 5ria" ga'$ th$ littl$ boy to a
sla'$, Ag$laos, who carri$d hi" to th$ top o 7ount 1da. The chi!d #as nursed during
fi8e days by a she-bear. 0h$n Ag$laos ound that h$ was still ali'$, h$ pick$d hi" up,
and carri$d hi" ho"$ to rais$ hi". 4$ na"$d th$ boy 5aris? but at$r th$ child had
grown into a strong and handso"$ youth, h$ was call$d Al$-and$r, b$caus$ h$ ought
th$ robb$rs and prot$ct$d th$ locks. ,$or$ long h$ disco'$r$d his par$nts. 4ow this
ca"$ about is told by 4yginus, according to whos$ r$port th$ inant is found by
she%herds. On$ day "$ss$ng$rs, s$nt by 5ria", co"$ to th$s$ h$rd$rs to $tch a bull
which is to s$r'$ as th$ pri<$ or th$ 'ictor in so"$ co""$"orati'$ ga"$s. &h$y
s$l$ct$d a bull that 5aris 'alu$d so highly that h$ ollow$d th$ "$n who l$d th$ b$ast
away, assist$d in th$ co"bats, and won th$ pri<$. &his arous$d th$ ang$r o his broth$r
H$iphobus, who thr$at$n$d hi" with his sword, but his sist$r +assandra r$cogni<$d hi"
as h$r broth$r, and 5ria" Boyully r$c$i'$d hi" as his son. &h$ "isortun$ which 5aris
lat$r brought to his a"ily and his nati'$ city, through th$ abduction o 4$l$n, is w$ll
known ro" 4o"$r%s $!iad, as w$ll as ro" countl$ss $arli$r and lat$r po$"s.
A c$rtain r$s$"blanc$ with th$ story o th$ birth o 5aris is pr$s$nt$d by th$ po$" o
Mal, in #irdausi%s 5$rsian h$ro "yths. 1 &h$ irst son is born to !a", king o !istan, by
on$ o his consorts. ,$caus$ h$ had whit$ hair, his
p. (4
"other concea!ed the birth. ,ut th$ nurs$ r$'$als th$ birth o his son to th$ king. !a" is
disappoint$d, and co""ands that th$ child b$ $-pos$d. &h$ s$r'ants carry it to th$ top
o 7ount 2lbur<, wh$r$ it is rais$d by th$ !$$"urgh, a pow$rul bird. &h$ ull/grown
youth is s$$n by a tra'$ling cara'an, whos$ "$"b$rs sp$ak o hi" as >whos$ nurs$ a
bird is suici$nt.> Ging !a" onc$ sees his son in a drea", and salli$s orth to s$$k th$
$-pos$d child. 4$ is unabl$ to r$ach th$ su""it o th$ $l$'at$d rock wh$r$ h$ inally
$spi$s th$ youth. ,ut th$ !$$"urgh b$ars his son down to hi"? h$ r$c$i'$s hi" Boyully
and no"inat$s hi" as his succ$ssor.
(3=1 1bid., translat$d by !chack.
Al$os, Ging o &$g$a, was inor"$d by th$ oracl$ that his sons would p$rish through a
d$sc$ndant o his daught$r. 4$ th$r$or$ "ad$ his daught$r Aug$ a pri$st$ss o th$
godd$ss Ath$na, and thr$at$n$d h$r with d$ath should sh$ "at$ with a "an. ,ut wh$n
4$rcul$s dw$lt as a gu$st in th$ sanctuary o Ath$na, on his $-p$dition against Aug$as,
h$ saw th$ "aid$n, and whil$ into-icat$d, h$ rap$d h$r. 0h$n Al$os b$ca"$ awar$ o
h$r pr$gnancy, h$ d$li'$r$d h$r to 9auplius, a rough sailor, with th$ co""and to throw
h$r into th$ s$a. ,ut on th$ way sh$ ga'$ birth to &$l$phus on 7ount 5arth$nios, and
9auplius, un"indul o th$ ord$rs h$ had r$c$i'$d, carri$d both h$r and th$ child to
7ysia, wh$r$ h$ d$li'$r$d th$" to Ging &$uthras.
According to anoth$r '$rsion, Aug$ s$cr$tly brought orth as a pri$st$ss, but k$pt th$
child hidd$n in th$ t$"pl$. 0h$n Al$os disco'$r$d th$ sacril$g$, h$ caus$d th$ child to
b$ $-pos$d in th$ 5arth$nian "ountains. 9auplius was instruct$d to s$ll th$ "oth$r in
or$ign lands, or to
p. (:
kill h$r. !h$ was d$li'$r$d by hi" into th$ hands o &$uthras 1
According to th$ curr$nt tradition, Aug$ e7%oses the ne#born chi!d and $scap$s to
7ysia, wh$r$ th$ childl$ss Ging &$uthras adopts h$r as his daught$r. &h$ boy, how$'$r,
is nurs$d by a do$, and is ound by sh$ph$rds who tak$ hi" to Ging +orythos. &h$ king
brings hi" up as his son. 0h$n &$l$phus has grown into a youth, h$ b$tak$s hi"s$l to
7ysia, on th$ ad'ic$ o th$ oracl$, to s$$k his "oth$r. 4$ r$$s &$uthras, who is in
dang$r ro" his $n$"i$s, and in r$ward r$c$i'$s th$ hand o th$ suppos$d daught$r o
th$ king, na"$ly his own "oth$r Aug$. ,ut sh$ r$us$s to sub"it to &$l$phus, and
wh$n h$ in his ir$ is about to pi$rc$ th$ disob$di$nt on$ with his sword, sh$ calls on h$r
lo'$r 4$rcul$s in h$r distr$ss, and &$l$phus thus r$cogni<$s his "oth$r. At$r th$ d$ath
o &$uthras h$ b$co"$s Ging o 7ysia.
Acrisius, th$ king o Argos, had alr$ady r$ach$d an ad'anc$d ag$ without ha'ing "al$
prog$ny. As h$ d$sir$d a son, h$ consult$d th$ H$lphian oracl$, but this warn$d hi"
against "al$ d$sc$ndants, and inor"$d hi" that his daught$r HanaN would b$ar a son
through whos$ hand h$ would p$rish. 1n ord$r to pr$'$nt this, h$ had his daught$r
lock$d up in an iron tow$r, which h$ caus$d to b$ car$ully guard$d. ,ut M$us
p$n$trat$d through th$ roo, in th$ guis$ o a gold$n show$r, and HanaN b$ca"$ th$
"oth$r o a boy. ( On$ day Acrisius h$ard th$ 'oic$ o young 5$rs$us in his daught$r%s
roo", and in this way l$arn$d that sh$ had gi'$n birth to a child. He ,i!!ed the nurse, but
carri$d his daught$r with h$r son to th$ do"$stic
p. (6
altar o M$us, to ha'$ an oath tak$n on th$ tru$ ath$r%s na"$. ,ut h$ r$us$s to b$li$'$
his daught$r%s stat$"$nt that M$us is th$ ath$r, and he enc!oses her #ith the chi!d in a
bo7, #hich is cast into the sea. 1 &h$ bo- is carri$d by th$ wa'$s to th$ coast o
!$riphos, wh$r$ Hictys, a fisher"an, usually call$d a broth$r o Ging 5olyd$ct$s, sa8es
"other and chi!d by dra#ing the" out of the sea #ith his nets. Hictys l$ads th$ two into
his hous$ and k$$ps th$" as his r$lations. 5olyd$ct$s, how$'$r, b$co"$s $na"or$d o
th$ b$autiul "oth$r, and as Perseus #as in his #ay, he tried to re"o8e hi" by s$nding
hi" orth to $tch th$ h$ad o th$ 3orgon 7$dusa. ,ut against th$ king%s anticipations
5$rs$us acco"plish$s this diicult task, and a nu"b$r o h$roic d$$ds b$sid$s. Aat$r, in
throwing th$ discs during a cont$st, h$ accid$ntally kills his grandath$r, as or$told by
th$ oracl$. 4$ b$co"$s th$ king o Argos, th$n o &iryns, and th$ build$r o 7yc$na$. (
(:=1 1n th$ '$rsion o 2uripid$s, Al$os caused the "other and the chi!d to be thro#n
into the sea in a bo7, but through th$ prot$ction o Ath$na this bo- was carri$d to th$
$nd o th$ 7ysian ri'$r Gaikos. &h$r$ it was ound by &$uthras who "ad$ Aug$ his
wi$ and took h$r child into his hous$ as his ost$r son.
(:=( Aat$r authors, including 5indar, stat$ that HanaN was i"pr$gnat$d, not by M$us, but
by th$ broth$r o h$r ath$r.
A$lian, who li'$d about ()) A.H., r$lat$s in his >Ani"al !tori$s> th$ history o a boy
#ho #as sa8ed by an eag!e>
Ani"als ha'$ a charact$ristic ondn$ss or "an. An $agl$ is known to ha'$
nourish$d a child. 1 shall t$ll th$ $ntir$ story, in proo o "y ass$rtion. 0h$n
!$n$choros r$ign$d o'$r th$ ,abylonians, th$ +hald$an ortun$t$ll$rs or$told
that th$ son o th$ king%s daught$r would tak$ th$ kingdo" ro" his grandath$r?
this '$rdict was a proph$cy o th$ +hald$ans. &h$ king was araid o this
proph$cy, and hu"orously sp$aking, h$ b$ca"$ a s$cond Acrisius or his
daught$r, o'$r who" h$ watch$d with th$ gr$at$st s$'$rity. ,ut his daught$r,
at$ b$ing wis$r than th$ ,abylonian,
p. (C
conc$i'$d s$cr$tly ro" an inconspicuous "an. #or $ar o th$ king, th$
guardians thr$w th$ child down ro" th$ acropolis, wh$r$ th$ royal daught$r
was i"prison$d. &h$ $agl$, with his k$$n $y$s, saw th$ boy%s all, and b$or$ th$
child struck th$ $arth, h$ caught it on his back, bor$ it into a gard$n, and s$t it
down with gr$at car$. 0h$n th$ o'$rs$$r o th$ plac$ saw th$ b$autiul boy, h$
was pl$as$d with hi" and rais$d hi". &h$ boy r$c$i'$d th$ na"$ 3ilga"$sh,
and b$ca"$ th$ king o ,abylonia. 1 anyon$ r$gards this as a abl$, 1 ha'$
nothing to say, although 1 ha'$ in'$stigat$d th$ "att$r to th$ b$st o "y ability.
Also o Acha$"$n$s, th$ 5$rsian, ro" who" th$ nobility o th$ 5$rsians is
d$ri'$d, 1 l$arn that h$ was th$ pupil o an $agl$. 1
(6=1 !i"onid$s o +$os sp$aks o a cas$"$nt strong as or$, in which HanaN is said to
ha'$ b$$n $-pos$d. 3$ib$l= .!assisches 9iederbuch, p. :(.
(6=( According to 4Fsing, th$ 5$rs$us "yth in s$'$ral '$rsions is also d$"onstrabl$ in
*apan. +o"par$ also !ydn$y 4artland= 9egend of Perseus, 3 'ols. (Aondon, 1894/6).
&h$ "yth o +yrus th$ 3r$at, which th$ "aBority o in'$stigators plac$ in th$ c$nt$r o
this $ntir$ "ythical circl$//without $ntir$ly suici$nt grounds, it would app$ar//has
b$$n trans"itt$d to us in s$'$ral '$rsions. According to th$ r$port o 4$rodotus (about
4:) ,.+.), who stat$s that a"ong our r$nd$rings known to hi", h$ s$l$ct$d th$ l$ast
>gloriying> '$rsion, ( th$ story o th$ birth and youth o +yrus is as ollows=
Royal sway o'$r th$ 7$d$s was h$ld, at$r +ya-ar$s, by his son Astyag$s, who
had a daught$r na"$d 7andan$. Onc$ h$ saw, in a dr$a", so "uch wat$r
passing ro" h$r as to ill an $ntir$ city and inundat$ all Asia. 4$ r$lat$d his
dr$a" to th$ dr$a" int$rpr$t$rs a"ong th$ "agicians, and was in gr$at
p. (8
$ar at$r th$y had $-plain$d it all to hi". 0h$n 7andan$ had grown up, h$
ga'$ h$r in "arriag$, not to a 7$d$, his $.ual in birth, but to a 5$rsian, by na"$
o +a"bys$s. &his "an ca"$ o a good a"ily and l$d a .ui$t li$. &h$ king
consid$r$d hi" o low$r rank than a "iddl$/class 7$d$. At$r 7andan$ had
b$co"$ th$ wi$ o +a"bys$s, Astyag$s saw anoth$r dr$a"/'ision in th$ irst
y$ar. 4$ dr$a"$d that a 'in$ gr$w ro" his daught$r%s lap, and this 'in$
o'$rshadow$d all Asia. At$r h$ had again r$lat$d this 'ision to th$ dr$a"
int$rpr$t$rs, h$ s$nt or his daught$r, who was with child, and at$r h$r arri'al
ro" 5$rsia, h$ watch$d h$r, b$caus$ h$ "$ant to kill h$r ospring. #or th$
dr$a" int$rpr$t$rs a"ong th$ "agicians had proph$si$d to hi" that his
daught$r%s son would b$co"$ king in his plac$. 1n ord$r to a'$rt this at$, h$
wait$d until +yrus was born, and th$n s$nt or 4arpagos, who was his r$lati'$
and his gr$at$st conidant a"ong th$ 7$d$s, and who" h$ had plac$d o'$r all
his aairs. 4i" h$ addr$ss$d as ollows= >7y d$ar 4arpagos, 1 shall charg$ th$$
with an $rrand which thou "ust consci$ntiously p$ror". ,ut do not d$c$i'$ "$,
and l$t no oth$r "an att$nd to it, or all "ight not go w$ll with th$$. &ak$ this
boy, who" 7andan$ has brought orth, carry hi" ho"$, and kill hi".
At$rwards thou canst bury hi", how and in whatso$'$r "ann$r thou d$sir$st.>
,ut 4arpagos "ad$ answ$r= >3r$at Ging, n$'$r hast thou ound thy s$r'ant
disob$di$nt, and also in utur$ 1 shall b$war$ not to sin b$or$ th$$. 1 such is thy
will, it b$hoo'$s "$ to carry it out aithully.> 0h$n 4arpagos had thus spok$n,
and th$ littl$ boy with all his orna"$nts had b$$n d$li'$r$d into his hands, or
d$ath, h$ w$nt ho"$ w$$ping. On his arri'al h$ told his wi$ all that Astyag$s
had said to hi". ,ut sh$ in.uir$d, >0hat art thou about to do@> 4$ "ad$ r$ply=
>1 shall not ob$y Astyag$s, $'$n i h$ ra'$d and stor"$d t$n ti"$s wors$ than h$
is doing. 1 shall not do as h$ wills, and cons$nt to such a "urd$r. 1 ha'$ a
nu"b$r o r$asons= in th$ irst plac$, th$ boy is
p. (9
"y blood r$lati'$? th$n, Astyag$s is old, and h$ has no "al$ h$ir. !hould h$ di$,
and th$ kingdo" go to his daught$r, whos$ son h$ bids "$ kill at pr$s$nt, would
1 not run th$ gr$at$st dang$r@ ,ut th$ boy "ust di$, or th$ sak$ o "y sa$ty.
4ow$'$r, on$ o Astyag$s% "$n is to b$ his "urd$r$r, not on$ o "in$.>
4a'ing thus spok$n, h$ at onc$ d$spatch$d a "$ss$ng$r to on$ o th$ king%s
cattl$ h$rd$rs, by na"$ 7ithradat$s, who, as h$ happ$n$d to know, was k$$ping
his h$rd in a '$ry suitabl$ "ountain pasturag$, ull o wild ani"als. &h$ h$rd$r%s
wi$ was also a sla'$ o Astyag$sO, by na"$ +yno in 3r$$k, or !pako (>a bitch>)
in th$ 7$dian languag$. 0h$n th$ h$rd$r hurri$dly arri'$d, on th$ co""and o
4arpagos, th$ latt$r said to hi"= >Astyag$s bids th$$ tak$ this boy and $-pos$
hi" in th$ wild$st "ountains, that h$ "ay p$rish as pro"ptly as "ay b$, and th$
Ging has ord$r$d "$ to say to th$$= 1 thou do$st not kill th$ boy, but l$t hi"
li'$, in what$'$r way, thou art to di$ a "ost disgrac$ul d$ath. And 1 a" charg$d
to s$$ to it that th$ boy is r$ally $-pos$d.> 0h$n th$ h$rd$r had list$n$d to this,
h$ took th$ boy, w$nt ho"$, and arri'$d in his cottag$. 4is wi$ was with child,
and was in labor th$ $ntir$ day, and it happ$n$d that sh$ was Bust bringing orth,
wh$n th$ h$rd$r had gon$ to th$ city. &h$y w$r$ gr$atly worri$d about $ach
oth$r. ,ut wh$n h$ had r$turn$d and th$ wo"an saw hi" again so un$-p$ct$dly,
sh$ ask$d in th$ irst plac$ why 4arpagos had s$nt or hi" so hurri$dly. ,ut h$
said= >7y d$ar wi$, would that 1 had n$'$r s$$n what 1 ha'$ s$$n and h$ard in
th$ city, and what has happ$n$d to our "ast$rs. &h$ hous$ o 4arpagos was ull
o cri$s and la"$nts. &his startl$d "$, but 1 $nt$r$d, and soon at$r 1 had $nt$r$d,
1 saw a s"all boy lying b$or$ "$, who struggl$d and cri$d and was dr$ss$d in
in$ gar"$nts and gold. 0h$n 4arpagos saw "$, h$ bid "$ .uickly tak$ th$
boy, and $-pos$ hi" in th$ wild$st spot o th$ "ountains. 4$ said Astyag$s had
ord$r$d this, and add$d awul thr$ats i 1 ail$d to do so. 1 took th$ child and
w$nt away with it, thinking
p. 3)
that it b$long$d to on$ o th$ s$r'ants, or it did not occur to "$ wh$nc$ it had
co"$. ,ut on th$ way, 1 l$arn$d th$ $ntir$ story ro" th$ s$r'ant who l$d "$
ro" th$ city, and plac$d th$ boy in "y hands. 4$ is th$ son o 7andan$,
daught$r o Astyag$s, and +a"bys$s, th$ son o +yrus? and Astyag$s has
ord$r$d his d$ath. ,$hold, h$r$ is th$ boy.>
4a'ing thus spok$n, th$ h$rd$r unco'$r$d th$ child and show$d it to h$r, and
wh$n th$ wo"an saw that h$ was a in$ strong child, sh$ w$pt, and $ll at h$r
husband%s $$t, and i"plor$d hi" not to $-pos$ it. ,ut h$ said h$ could not do
oth$rwis$, or 4arpagos would s$nd s$r'ants to s$$ i this had b$$n don$? h$
would ha'$ to di$ a disgrac$ul d$ath unl$ss h$ did so. &h$n sh$ said again= >1 1
ha'$ ail$d to "o'$ th$$, do as ollows, so that th$y "ay s$$ an $-pos$d child= 1
ha'$ brought orth a d$ad child? tak$ it and $-pos$ it, but th$ son o th$ daught$r
o Astyag$s w$ will rais$ as our own child. 1n this way, thou wilt not b$ ound a
disob$di$nt s$r'ant, nor will w$ ar$ ill ours$l'$s. Our stillborn child will b$
gi'$n a kingly burial, and th$ li'ing child%s li$ will b$ pr$s$r'$d.> &h$ h$rd$r
did as his wi$ had b$gg$d and ad'is$d hi" to do. 4$ plac$d his own d$ad boy
in a bask$t, dr$ss$d hi" in all th$ in$ry o th$ oth$r, and $-pos$d hi" on th$
"ost d$s$rt "ountain. &hr$$ days lat$r h$ announc$d to 4arpagos that h$ was
now $nabl$d to show th$ boy%s cada'$r. 4arpagos s$nt his "ost aithul body
guardians, and ord$r$d th$ burial o th$ cattl$ h$rd$r%s son. &h$ oth$r boy,
how$'$r, who was known lat$r on as +yrus, was brought up by th$ h$rd$r%s
wi$. &h$y did not call hi" +yrus, but ga'$ hi" anoth$r na"$.
0h$n th$ boy was tw$l'$ y$ars old th$ truth was r$'$al$d, through th$
ollowing accid$nt. 4$ was playing on th$ road, with oth$r boys o his own ag$,
in th$ 'illag$ wh$r$ th$ cattl$ w$r$ k$pt. &h$ boys play$d >Ging,> and $l$ct$d
th$ suppos$d son o th$ cattl$ h$rd$r. 1 ,ut h$ co""and$d so"$ to build
p. 31
hous$s, oth$rs to carry lanc$s? on$ h$ "ad$ th$ king%s watch"an, th$ oth$r was
charg$d with th$ b$aring o "$ssag$s? bri$ly, $ach r$c$i'$d his appoint$d task.
On$ o th$ boy%s play"at$s, how$'$r, was th$ son o Art$"bar$s, a r$sp$ct$d
"an a"ong th$ 7$d$s, and wh$n h$ did not do as +yrus ordain$d, th$ latt$r
"ad$ th$ oth$r boys s$i<$ hi". &h$ boys ob$y$d, and +yrus chastis$d hi" with
s$'$r$ blows. At$r th$y l$t hi" go, h$ b$ca"$ uriously angry, as i h$ had
b$$n tr$at$d i"prop$rly. 4$ ran into th$ city and co"plain$d to his ath$r o
what +yrus had don$ to hi". 4$ did not "$ntion th$ na"$ o +yrus or h$ was
not y$t call$d so, but said th$ cattl$ h$rd$r%s son. Art$"bar$s w$nt wrathully
with his son to Astyag$s, co"plain$d o th$ disgrac$ul tr$at"$nt, and spok$
thus= >3r$at king, w$ su$r such outrag$ous tr$at"$nt ro" thy s$r'ant, th$
h$rd$r%s son,> and h$ show$d hi" his own son%s should$rs. 0h$n Astyag$s h$ard
and saw this, h$ wish$d to 'indicat$ th$ boy or th$ sak$ o Art$"bar$s, and h$
s$nt or th$ cattl$ h$rd$r with his son. 0h$n both w$r$ pr$s$nt, Astyag$s look$d
at +yrus and said= >&hou, a lowly "an%s son, hast had th$ $ront$ry to tr$at so
disgrac$ully th$ son o a "an who" 1 gr$atly honorP> ,ut h$ "ad$ answ$r=
>Aord, h$ has only r$c$i'$d his du$. #or th$ boys in th$ 'illag$, h$ b$ing a"ong
th$", w$r$ at play, and "ad$ "$ th$ir king, b$li$'ing "$ to b$ th$ b$st adapt$d
th$r$to. And th$ oth$r boys did as th$y w$r$ told, but h$ was disob$di$nt, and
did not "ind "$ at all. #or this h$ has r$c$i'$d his r$ward. 1 1 ha'$ d$s$r'$d
punish"$nt, h$r$ 1 a" at your s$r'ic$.> 0h$n th$ boy spok$ in this way,
Astyag$s kn$w
p. 3(
hi" at onc$. #or th$ $atur$s o th$ ac$ app$ar$d to hi" as his own, and th$
answ$r was that o a highborn youth? urth$r"or$, it s$$"$d to hi" that th$ ti"$
o th$ $-posur$ agr$$d with th$ boy%s ag$. &his s"ot$ his h$art, and h$ r$"ain$d
sp$$chl$ss or a whil$. 4ardly had h$ r$gain$d control o'$r hi"s$l, wh$n h$
spok$ to g$t rid o Art$"bar$s, so as to b$ abl$ to .u$stion th$ cattl$ h$rd$r
without witn$ss$s. >7y d$ar Art$"bar$s,> h$ said, >1 shall tak$ car$ that n$ith$r
thou nor thy son shall ha'$ caus$ or co"plaint.> &hus h$ dis"iss$d Art$"bar$s.
+yrus, how$'$r, was l$d into th$ palac$ by th$ s$r'ants, on th$ co""and o
Astyag$s, and th$ cattl$ h$rd$r bad to stay b$hind. 0h$n h$ was all alon$ with
hi", Astyag$s .u$stion$d hi" wh$nc$ h$ had obtain$d th$ boy, and who had
gi'$n th$ child into his hands. ,ut th$ h$rd$r said that h$ was his own son, and
that th$ wo"an who had born$ hi" was li'ing with hi". Astyag$s r$"ark$d that
h$ was '$ry unwis$, to look out or "ost cru$l tortur$s, and h$ b$ckon$d th$
sword/b$ar$rs to tak$ hold o hi". As h$ was b$ing l$d to tortur$, th$ h$rd$r
con$ss$d th$ whol$ story, ro" b$ginning to $nd, th$ $ntir$ truth, inally
b$ginning to b$g and i"plor$ orgi'$n$ss and pardon. 7$anwhil$ Astyag$s was
not so inc$ns$d against th$ h$rd$r, who had r$'$al$d to hi" th$ truth, as against
4arpagos? h$ ord$r$d th$ sword/b$ar$rs to su""on hi", and wh$n 4arpagos
stood b$or$ hi", Astyag$s ask$d hi" as ollows= >7y d$ar 4arpagos, in what
ashion hast thou tak$n th$ li$ o "y daught$r%s son, who" 1 onc$ d$li'$r$d
o'$r to th$$@> !$$ing th$ cattl$ h$rd$r standing n$ar, 4arpagos did not r$sort to
untruthuln$ss, or $ar that h$ would b$ r$ut$d at onc$, and so h$ proc$$d$d to
t$ll th$ truth. Astyag$s conc$al$d th$ ang$r which h$ had arous$d in hi", and
irst told hi" what h$ had l$arn$d ro" th$ h$rd$r? th$n h$ "$ntion$d that th$
boy was still li'ing, and that $'$rything had turn$d out all right. 4$ said that h$
had gr$atly r$gr$tt$d what h$ had don$ to th$ child, and that his daught$r%s
r$proach$s had pi$rc$d
p. 33
his soul. >,ut as $'$rything has $nd$d so w$ll, s$nd thy son to gr$$t th$
n$wco"$r, and th$n co"$ to $at with "$, or 1 a" r$ady to pr$par$ A $ast in
honor o th$ 3ods who ha'$ brought all this about.>
0h$n 4arpagos h$ard this, h$ prostrat$d hi"s$l on th$ ground b$or$ th$ king,
and prais$d hi"s$l or his $rror ha'ing turn$d out w$ll, and or b$ing in'it$d to
th$ king%s tabl$, in co""$"oration o a happy $'$nt. !o h$ w$nt ho"$, and
wh$n h$ arri'$d th$r$, h$ at onc$ s$nt o his only son, a boy o about thirt$$n
y$ars, t$lling hi" to go to Astyag$s, and to do as h$ was bid. &h$n 4arpagos
Boyully told his wi$ what had b$all$n hi". ,ut Astyag$s butch$r$d th$ son o
4arpagos wh$n h$ ca"$, cut hi" to pi$c$s, and roast$d th$ l$sh in part? anoth$r
portion o th$ l$sh was cook$d, and wh$n $'$rything was pr$par$d h$ k$pt it in
r$adin$ss. 0h$n th$ hour o th$ "$al had co"$, 4arpagos and th$ oth$r gu$sts
arri'$d. A tabl$ with sh$$p%s "$at was arrang$d in ront o Astyag$s and th$
oth$rs, but 4arpagos was s$r'$d with his own son%s l$sh, without th$ h$ad, and
without th$ chop/pings o hands and $$t, but with $'$rything $ls$. &h$s$ parts
w$r$ k$pt hidd$n in a bask$t. 0h$n 4arpagos s$$"$d to ha'$ tak$n his ill,
Astyag$s ask$d hi" i th$ "$at had tast$d good to hi", and wh$n 4arpagos
answ$r$d that h$ had $nBoy$d it, th$ s$r'ants, who had b$$n ord$r$d to do so,
brought in his own son%s co'$r$d h$ad, with th$ hands and $$t, st$pp$d up to
4arpagos, and told hi" to unco'$r and tak$ what h$ d$sir$d. 4arpagos did so,
unco'$r$d th$ bask$t, and saw th$ r$"nants o his son. 0h$n h$ saw this, h$ did
not gi'$ way to his horror, but controll$d hi"s$l. Astyag$s th$n ask$d hi" i h$
kn$w o what ga"$ h$ had $at$n? and h$ r$pli$d that h$ kn$w it '$ry w$ll, and
that what$'$r th$ king did was w$ll don$. &hus h$ spok$, took th$ l$sh that
r$"ain$d, and w$nt ho"$ with it, wh$r$ h$ probably "$ant to bury it tog$th$r.
&his was th$ r$'$ng$ o Astyag$s upon 4arpagos. +onc$rning +yrus, h$ took
couns$l, and su""on$d
p. 34
th$ sa"$ "agicians who had $-plain$d his dr$a", th$n h$ ask$d th$" how th$y
had at on$ ti"$ int$rpr$t$d his 'ision in a dr$a". ,ut th$y said that th$ boy "ust
b$co"$ a king, i h$ r$"ain$d ali'$, and did not di$ pr$"atur$ly. Astyag$s
"ad$ r$ply= >&h$ boy is ali'$, and is h$r$, and as h$ was staying in th$ country,
th$ boys o th$ 'illag$ $l$ct$d hi" or th$ir king. ,ut h$ did $'$rything lik$ th$
r$al kings, or h$ ordain$d to hi"s$l as th$ "ast$r, sword/b$ar$rs, gat$k$$p$rs,
"$ss$ng$rs, and $'$rything. 4ow do you "$an to int$rpr$t this@> &h$ "agicians
"ad$ r$ply= >1 th$ boy is ali'$, and has b$$n "ad$ king without th$ h$lp o
anyon$, thou canst b$ at $as$ so ar as h$ is conc$rn$d, and b$ o good ch$$r, or
h$ will not again b$ "ad$ a king. Alr$ady s$'$ral proph$ci$s o ours ha'$
appli$d to insigniicant tril$s, and what r$sts upon dr$a"s is apt to b$ 'ain.>
Astyag$s "ad$ r$ply= >Q$ sorc$r$rs, 1 a" $ntir$ly o your opinion that th$ dr$a"
has b$$n ulill$d wh$n th$ boy was king in na"$, and that 1 ha'$ nothing "or$
to $ar ro" hi". Q$t couns$l "$ car$ully as to what is sa$st or "y hous$ and
or yours$l'$s.> &h$n th$ "agicians said= >!$nd th$ boy away, that h$ "ay g$t
out o thy sight, s$nd hi" to th$ land o th$ 5$rsians, to his par$nts.> 0h$n
Astyag$s had h$ard this, h$ was gr$atly pl$as$d. 4$ s$nt or +yrus, and said to
hi"= >7y son, 1 ha'$ wrong$d th$$ gr$atly, "isl$d by a d$c$itul dr$a", but thy
good ortun$ has sa'$d th$$. 9ow go ch$$rully to th$ land o th$ 5$rsians? 1
shall gi'$ th$$ sa$ conduct. &h$r$ wilt thou ind a '$ry di$r$nt ath$r, and a
'$ry di$r$nt "oth$r than th$ h$rd$rs, 7ithradat$s and his wi$.> &hus spak$
Astyag$s, and +yrus was s$nt away. 0h$n h$ arri'$d in th$ hous$ o +a"bys$s,
his par$nts r$c$i'$d hi" with gr$at Boy wh$n th$y l$arn$d who h$ was, or th$y
b$li$'$d hi" to ha'$ p$rish$d at that ti"$, and th$y d$sir$d to know how h$ had
b$$n pr$s$r'$d. 4$ told th$" that h$ had b$li$'$d hi"s$l to b$ th$ son o th$
cattl$ h$rd$r, but had l$arn$d $'$rything on th$ way ro" th$ co"panions who"
Astyag$s had
p. 3:
s$nt with hi". 4$ r$lat$d that th$ cattl$ h$rd$r%s wi$ had sa'$d hi", and prais$d
h$r throughout. &h$ >bitch> (!pako) play$d th$ principal part in his
con'$rsation. &h$ par$nts took hold o this na"$, so that th$ pr$s$r'ation o th$
child "ight app$ar still "or$ wond$rul, and thus was laid th$ oundation o th$
"yth that th$ $-pos$d +yrus was nurs$d by a bitch.
Aat$r on, +yrus, on th$ instigation o 4arpagos, stirr$d up th$ 5$rsians against th$
7$d$s. 0ar was d$clar$d, and +yrus, at th$ h$ad o th$ 5$rsians, con.u$r$d th$ 7$d$s
in battl$. Astyag$s was tak$n prison$r ali'$, but +yrus did not har" hi", and k$pt hi"
with hi" until his $nd. 4$rodotus% r$port conclud$s with th$ words= >,ut ro" that ti"$
on th$ 5$rsians and +yrus r$ign$d o'$r Asia. &hus was +yrus born and rais$d, and
"ad$ a king.>
&h$ r$port o 5o"p$ius &rogus is pr$s$r'$d only in th$ $-tract by *ustin, according to
who" Astyag$s had a daught$r but no "al$ h$ir. 1 &his '$rsion continu$s=
1n his dr$a" h$ saw a 'in$ grow orth ro" h$r lap, th$ sprouts o which
o'$rshadow$d all Asia. &h$ dr$a" int$rpr$t$rs d$clar$d that th$ 'ision signii$d
th$ "agnitud$ o his grandson, who" his daught$r was to b$ar? but also his own
loss o his do"inions. 1n ord$r to banish this dr$ad, Astyag$s ga'$ his daught$r
in "arriag$ n$ith$r to a pro"in$nt "an nor to a 7$d$, so that his grandson%s
"ind "ight not b$ uplit$d by th$ pat$rnal $stat$ b$sid$s th$ "at$rnal? but h$
"arri$d h$r to +a"bys$s, a "iddl$/class "an ro" th$ th$n unknown p$opl$ o
th$ 5$rsians. ,ut this was not $nough to banish th$ $ars o Astyag$s, and h$
su""on$d his pr$gnant daught$r, in ord$r to ha'$ h$r inant d$stroy$d b$or$
his $y$s. 0h$n a boy had b$$n born, h$ ga'$ hi" to 4arpagos, his ri$nd and
conidant, to kill hi". #or $ar that th$ daught$r o Astyag$s would tak$ r$'$ng$
upon hi" or th$ d$ath o h$r boy, wh$n sh$ ca"$ to r$ign
p. 36
at$r h$r ath$r%s d$ath, h$ d$li'$r$d th$ boy to th$ king%s h$rd$r or $-posur$. At
th$ sa"$ ti"$ that +yrus was born, a son happ$n$d to b$ born also to th$ h$rd$r.
0h$n his wi$ l$arn$d that th$ king%s child had b$$n $-pos$d, sh$ urg$ntly
pray$d or it to b$ brought to h$r, that sh$ "ight look at it. 7o'$d by h$r
$ntr$ati$s, th$ h$rd$r r$turn$d to th$ woods. &h$r$ h$ ound a bitch standing
b$sid$ th$ child, gi'ing it h$r t$ats, and k$$ping th$ b$asts and birds away ro"
it. At this asp$ct h$ was ill$d with th$ sa"$ co"passion as th$ bitch? so that h$
pick$d up th$ boy and carri$d hi" ho"$, th$ bitch ollowing hi" in gr$at
distr$ss. 0h$n his wi$ took th$ boy in h$r ar"s, h$ s"il$d at h$r as i h$
alr$ady kn$w h$r? and as h$ was '$ry strong, and ingratiat$d hi"s$l with h$r by
his pl$asant s"il$, sh$ 'oluntarily b$gg$d th$ h$rd$r to D$-pos$ h$r own child
inst$ad andE 1 p$r"it h$r to rais$ th$ boy? b$ it that sh$ was int$r$st$d in his
w$lar$, or that sh$ plac$d h$r hop$s on hi".
&hus th$ two boys had to $-chang$ at$s? on$ was rais$d in plac$ o th$ h$rd$r%s child,
whil$ th$ oth$r was $-pos$d inst$ad o th$ grandson o th$ king. &h$ r$"aind$r o this
appar$ntly "or$ pri"iti'$ r$port agr$$s $ss$ntially with th$ account o 4$rodotus.
An altog$th$r di$r$nt '$rsion o th$ +yrus "yth is $-tant in th$ r$port o +t$sias, a
cont$"porary o 4$rodotus. &h$ original o his narrati'$, which co"pris$d "or$ than
an $ntir$ book in his 5$rsian history, has b$$n lost? but a sur'i'ing rag"$nt o 9icholas
o Ha"ascus su""ari<$s th$ +t$sian account. ( Astyag$s is said to ha'$ b$$n th$
worthi$st king o th$ 7$d$s, at$r Abak$s. Rnd$r his rul$ occurr$d th$ gr$at
trans"utation through which th$ rul$rship pass$d ro" th$ 7$d$s to th$ 5$rsians, in th$
ollowing "ann$r=
&h$ 7$d$s had a law that a poor "an who w$nt to a
p. 3C
rich "an or his support, and surr$nd$r$d hi"s$l to hi", had to b$ $d and cloth$d and
k$pt lik$ a sla'$ by th$ rich "an, or in cas$ th$ latt$r r$us$d to do so, th$ poor "an was
at lib$rty to go $ls$wh$r$. 1n this way a boy by na"$ o +yrus, a 7ard by birth, ca"$ to
th$ king%s s$r'ant who was at th$ h$ad o th$ palac$ sw$$p$rs. +yrus was th$ son o
Atradat$s, whos$ po'$rty "ad$ hi" li'$ as a robb$r, and whos$ wi$, Argost$, +yrus%
"oth$r, "ad$ h$r li'ing by t$nding th$ goats. +yrus surr$nd$r$d hi"s$l or th$ sak$ o
his daily br$ad, and h$lp$d to cl$an th$ palac$. As h$ was dilig$nt, th$ or$"an ga'$
hi" b$tt$r clothing and ad'anc$d hi" ro" th$ outsid$ sw$$p$rs to thos$ who cl$an$d
th$ int$rior o th$ king%s palac$, placing hi" und$r th$ir sup$rint$nd$nt. &his "an was
s$'$r$, how$'$r, and ot$n whipp$d +yrus. &h$ boy l$t hi" and w$nt to th$
la"plight$r, who lik$d +yrus and "o'$d hi" clos$r to th$ king, by placing hi" a"ong
th$ royal torchb$ar$rs. As +yrus distinguish$d hi"s$l also in his n$w position, h$ ca"$
to Art$"bar$s, who was at th$ h$ad o th$ cupb$ar$rs and hi"s$l pr$s$nt$d th$ cup to
th$ king. Art$"bar$s gladly acc$pt$d +yrus, and bad$ hi" pour th$ win$ or th$ gu$sts
at th$ king%s tabl$. 9ot long at$rwards, Astyag$s notic$d th$ d$-t$rity and ni"bl$n$ss
o +yrus% s$r'ic$, and his grac$ul pr$s$ntation o th$ win$ cup, so that h$ ask$d o
Art$"bar$s wh$nc$ this youth had co"$ who was so skillul a cupb$ar$r.
>O Aord,> spak$ h$, >this boy is thy sla'$, o 5$rsian par$ntag$, ro" th$ trib$ o
th$ 7ards, who has surr$nd$r$d hi"s$l to "$ to "ak$ a li'ing.> Art$"bar$s
was old, and onc$ on b$ing attack$d by a $'$r, h$ pray$d th$ king to l$t hi"
stay at ho"$ until h$ had r$co'$r$d. >1n "y st$ad, th$ youth who" thou hast
prais$d will pour th$ win$, and i h$ should pl$as$ th$$, th$ king, as a cupb$ar$r,
1 who a" a $unuch, will adopt hi" as "y son.> Astyag$s cons$nt$d, but th$
oth$r conid$d in "any ways in +yrus as in a son. +yrus thus stood at th$ king%s
sid$, and pour$d his win$ by day and by night, showing gr$at ability and
cl$'$rn$ss. Astyag$s con$rr$d upon hi"
p. 38
th$ inco"$ o Art$"bar$s, as i h$ had b$$n his son, adding "any pr$s$nts, and
+yrus b$ca"$ a gr$at "an whos$ na"$ was h$ard $'$rywh$r$.
Astyag$s had a '$ry nobl$ and b$autiul daught$r, 1 who" h$ ga'$ to th$ 7$d$
!pita"as, adding all 7$dia as h$r dowry. &h$n +yrus s$nt or his ath$r and
"oth$r, in th$ land o th$ 7$d$s, and th$y r$Boic$d in th$ good ortun$ o th$ir
son, and his "other to!d hi" the drea" #hich she had at the ti"e that she #as
bearing hi", whil$ asl$$p in th$ sanctuary as sh$ was t$nding th$ goats. -o
"uch #ater %assed a#ay fro" her that it beca"e as a !arge strea", inundating
a!! 'sia, and f!o#ing as far as the sea. 0h$n th$ ath$r h$ard this, h$ ord$r$d th$
dr$a" to b$ plac$d b$or$ th$ +hald$ans in ,abylon. +yrus su""on$d th$
wis$st a"ong th$", and co""unicat$d th$ dr$a" to hi". 4$ d$clar$d that th$
dr$a" or$told gr$at good ortun$ to +yrus, and the highest dignity in 'sia? but
Astyag$s "ust not l$arn o it, >or $ls$ h$ would disgrac$ully kill th$$, as w$ll
as "ys$l th$ int$rpr$t$r,> said th$ ,abylonian. &h$y swor$ to $ach oth$r to t$ll
no on$ o this gr$at and inco"parabl$ 'ision. 0yrus !ater on rose to sti!! higher
dignities, created his father a -atra% of Persia, and raised his "other to the
highest ran, and %ossessions a"ong the Persian #o"en. ,ut wh$n th$
,abylonian was kill$d soon at$rwards by O$bar$s, th$ conidant o +yrus, his
wi$ b$tray$d th$ at$ul dr$a" to th$ king, wh$n sh$ l$arn$d o +yrus%
$-p$dition to 5$rsia, which h$ had und$rtak$n in pr$paration o th$ r$'olt. &h$
king s$nt his hors$"$n at$r +yrus, with th$ co""and to d$li'$r hi" d$ad or
ali'$. ,ut +yrus $scap$d th$" by a rus$. #inally a co"bat took plac$,
t$r"inating in th$ d$$at o th$ 7$d$s. +yrus also con.u$r$d 2gbatana, and h$r$
th$ daught$r o Astyag$s and h$r husband !pita"as, with th$ir two sons, w$r$
tak$n prison$rs. ,ut Astyag$s hi"s$l could not b$ ound,
p. 39
or A"ytis and !pita"as had conc$al$d hi" in th$ palac$, und$r th$ rat$rs o
th$ roo. +yrus th$n ord$r$d that A"ytis, h$r husband, and th$ childr$n should
b$ tortur$d until th$y r$'$al$d th$ hiding plac$ o Astyag$s, but h$ ca"$ out
'oluntarily, that his r$lati'$s "ight not b$ tortur$d on his account. 0yrus
co""anded the e7ecution of -%ita"as, b$caus$ h$ had li$d in air"ing to b$ in
ignoranc$ o Astyag$sO hiding plac$? but '"ytis beca"e the #ife of 0yrus. 4$
r$"o'$d th$ $tt$rs o Astyag$s, with which O$bar$s had bound hi", honored
hi" as a father, and "ad$ hi" a !atrap o th$ ,arkanians.
A gr$at si"ilarity to 4$rodotus% '$rsion o th$ +yrus "yth is ound in th$ $arly history
o th$ 5$rsian royal h$ro, Gaikhosra', as r$lat$d by #irdausi in th$ !hah 9a"ah. &his
"yth is "ost $-t$nsi'$ly r$nd$r$d by !pi$g$l. 1 Huring th$ warar$ o Ging GaikLus, o
,actria and 1ran, against Ging ArLsiLb, o &uran, .ai,@us fe!! out #ith his son,
-i@8a,sh, who appli$d to ArLsiLb or prot$ction and assistanc$. 4$ was kindly r$c$i'$d
by ArLsiLb, who ga'$ hi" his daught$r #$ringis to wi$, on th$ p$rsuasion o his 'i<i$r,
5irLn, a!though he had recei8ed the %ro%hecy that the son to be born of this union
#ou!d bring great "isfortune u%on hi". 3ars$'a<, th$ king%s broth$r, and a n$ar r$lati'$
o !iL'aksh, calu"niat$s th$ son/in/law, and ArLsiLb l$ads an ar"y against hi".
Before the birth of his son, -i@8a,sh is #arned by a drea", #hich foreto!d destruction
and death to hi"se!f, but roya!ty to his offs%ring. 4$ th$r$or$ li$s ro" ArLsiLb, but is
tak$n prison$r and kill$d, on th$ co""and o th$ !hah. 4is wi$, who is pr$gnant, is
sa'$d by 5irLn ro" th$ hands o th$ "urd$r$rs. On condition o announcing at onc$ th$
d$li'$ry o #$ringis to th$ king, 5irLn is grant$d p$r"ission to k$$p h$r in his hous$.
&h$ shad$ o th$ "urd$r$d !iL'aksh onc$ co"$s to hi" in a dr$a" and t$lls hi" that an
a'$ng$r has b$$n born? 5irLn actually inds in th$ roo" o #$ringis a n$wborn boy,
who" h$ na"$s Gaikhosra'. ArLsiLb no long$r insist$d upon th$ killing o th$ boy, but
h$ ord$r$d
p. 4)
Dparagraph continu$sE 5irLn to surrender the chi!d #ith a nurse to the herders, #ho #ere to
raise hi" in ignorance of his origin. ,ut his royal d$sc$nt is pro"ptly r$'$al$d in his
courag$ and his d$"$anor? and as 5irLn tak$s th$ boy back into his ho"$, ArLsiLb
b$co"$s distrustul, and ord$rs th$ boy to b$ l$d b$or$ hi". 1nstruct$d by 5irLn,
Gaikhosra' plays th$ ool, 1 and r$assur$d as to his har"l$ssn$ss, th$ !hah dis"iss$s
hi" to his "oth$r, #$ringis. #inally, Gaikhosra' is crown$d as king by his grandath$r,
GaikLus. At$r prolong$d, co"plicat$d, and t$dious co"bats, ArLsiLb is at last tak$n
prison$r, with di'in$ assistanc$. Gaikhosra' strik$s his h$ad o, and also caus$s
3ars$'a< to b$ d$capitat$d.
A c$rtain r$s$"blanc$ to th$ pr$c$ding saga, although "or$ r$"ot$, is pr$s$nt$d by th$
"yth o #$ridun, as told by #irdausi. ( 3oh@,, the ,ing of $ran, once sees in a drea"
three "en of roya! tribe. &wo o th$" ar$ b$nt with ag$, but b$tw$$n th$" is a younger
"an who holds a club,
p. 41
with a bull%s h$ad, in his right hand? this "an st$ps up to hi", and fe!!s hi" #ith his c!ub
to the ground. &h$ dr$a" int$rpr$t$rs d$clar$d to th$ king that th$ young h$ro who will
d$thron$ hi" is #$ridun, a scion o th$ trib$ o Hsch$"schid. MohLk at onc$ s$ts out to
look or th$ tracks o his dr$ad$d $n$"y. #$ridun is th$ son o Abtin, a grandson o
Hsch$"schid. 4is ath$r hid$s ro" th$ pursuit o th$ tyrant, but h$ is s$i<$d and kill$d.
#$ridun hi"s$l, a boy o t$nd$r ag$, is sa8ed by his "other, ;ir@ne,, #ho esca%es #ith
hi" and entrusts hi" to the care of the guardian of a distant forest. Here he is suc,!ed
by a co#. #or thr$$ y$ars h$ r$"ains hidd$n in this plac$, but th$n his "oth$r no long$r
b$li$'$s hi" sa$, and sh$ carri$s hi" to a h$r"it on 7ount 2lbur<. !oon at$rwards
MohLk co"$s to th$ or$st and kills th$ guardian as w$ll as th$ cow.
0h$n #$ridun was si-t$$n y$ars old, h$ ca"$ down ro" 7ount 2lbur<, l$arn$d o his
origin through his "oth$r, and swor$ to a'$ng$ th$ d$ath o his ath$r and o his nurs$.
On th$ $-p$dition against MohLk h$ is acco"pani$d by his two old$r broth$rs, 5ur"LB$
and GayLnus$h. 4$ ord$rs a club to b$ org$d or his us$, and orna"$nts it with th$
bull%s h$ad, in "$"ory o his ost$r "oth$r, th$ cow. 0ith this club h$ s"it$s MohLk, as
or$told by th$ dr$a".
(C=1 +laudius A$lianus= Historia 'ni"a!iu", translat$d by #. *acobs (!tuttgart, r841),
;ol. I11, p. (1. &h$ sa"$ book t$lls o 5tol$"y 1, th$ son o Aagus and ArsinoN, that an
$agl$ prot$ct$d th$ $-pos$d boy with his wings against th$ sunshin$, th$ rain, and birds
o pr$y.
(C=( #. 2. Aang$= Herodots 5eschichten (R$cla" $dition), ;ol. 1, pp. 9:, 1)C .
+o"par$ also Hunck$r= History of 'nti=uity (A$ip<ig, 188)), p. (:6, n. :.
3)=1 &h$ sa"$ >playing king> is ound in th$ 4indu "yth o +handragupta,p. 31 th$
ound$r o th$ 7aurya dynasty, who" his "oth$r $-pos$d at$r his birth, in a '$ss$l at
th$ gat$ o a cowsh$d, wh$r$ a h$rd$r ound hi" and rais$d hi". Aat$r on h$ ca"$ to a
hunt$r, wh$r$ h$ as cowh$rd play$d >king> with th$ oth$r boys, and as king ord$r$d that
th$ hands and $$t o th$ gr$at cri"inals b$ chopp$d o. (&h$ "utilation "oti occurs
also in th$ +yrus saga, and is g$n$rally wid$ly distribut$d.) At his co""and, th$
s$parat$d li"bs r$turn$d to th$ir prop$r position. GanakBa, who onc$ look$d on as th$y
w$r$ at play, ad"ir$d th$ boy, and bought hi" ro" th$ hunt$r or on$ thousand
kLrshLpana? at ho"$ h$ disco'$r$d that th$ boy was a 7aurya. (At$r Aass$n, op. cit.,
;ol. 11, p. 196, n. 1.)
3:=1 *ustin (7arcus *unianus *ustin$s)= 2-tract ro" Po"%eius TrogusA Phi!i%%ian
History, ;ol. 1, pp. 4/C. H$"on%s 5$rsian tal$s (writt$n in th$ irst hal o th$ ourth
c$ntury b$or$ +hrist) ar$ pr$su"ably th$ sourc$s o &rogus% narrati'$.
36=1 &h$ words in par$nth$s$s ar$ said to b$ lacking in c$rtain "anuscripts.
36=( 9icol. Ha"asc. #rag. 66, +t$s.? #rag. 5$rs., 11, :.
38=1 &his daught$r%s na"$ is A"atyis (not 7andan$) in th$ '$rsion o +t$sias.
39=1 +p. cit., ;ol. 1, pp. :81 .
4)=1 On th$ basis o this "oti o si"ulat$d d$"$ntia and c$rtain oth$r corr$sponding
$atur$s, *iric<$k (>4a"l$t in 1ran,> in th$ 3eitschrift des *ereins f4r *o!,s,unde, ;ol.
I D19))E, p. 3:3) has r$pr$s$nt$d th$ 4a"l$t saga as a 'ariation o th$ 5$rsian "yth o
Gaikhosra'. &his id$a was ollow$d up by 4. A$ss"ann (>&ie .yrossage . . . ,> loc.
cit.), who shows that th$ 4a"l$t saga strikingly agr$$s in c$rtain it$"s//or $-a"pl$, in
th$ si"ulat$d olly//with th$ sagas o ,rutus and o &$ll. (+o"par$ also th$
prot$stations o 7os$s.) 1n anoth$r conn$ction, th$ d$$p$r roots o th$s$ r$lations ha'$
b$$n "or$ $-t$nsi'$ly discuss$d, $sp$cially with r$$r$nc$ to th$ &$ll saga. (!$$
$n/est"oti8, +hapt$r 'ii.)
Att$ntion is also dir$ct$d to th$ story o Ha'id, as it is told in th$ books o !a"u$l. 4$r$
again, th$ royal scion, Ha'id, is "ad$ a sh$ph$rd, who gradually ris$s in th$ social scal$
up to th$ royal thron$. 4$ lik$wis$ is gi'$n th$ king%s (!aul%s) daught$r in "arriag$, and
th$ king s$$ks his li$, but Ha'id is always sa'$d by "iraculous "$ans ro" th$ gr$at$st
p$rils. 4$ also $'ad$s p$rs$cution by si"ulating d$"$ntia and playing th$ ool. &h$
r$lationship b$tw$$n th$ 4a"l$t saga and th$ Ha'id saga has alr$ady b$$n point$d out
by *iric<$k and A$ss"ann. &h$ biblical charact$r o this $ntir$ "ythological cycl$ is
also $"phasi<$d by *iric<$k, who inds in th$ tal$ o !iL'aksh%s d$ath c$rtain $atur$s
ro" th$ 5assion o th$ !a'iour.
4)=( &ranslat$d by !chack (op. cit.). &h$ na"$ MohLk h$r$ is a "utilation o th$
original M$nd A'$sta $-pr$ssion 'shi-daha,a (A<is/dahaka), "$aning >p$rnicious
s$rp$nt.> (!$$ >&h$ 7yth o #$ridun in 1ndia and 1ran,> by Hr. R. Roth, in th$
3eitschrift der &eutschen Morgen!(ndischen 5ese!!schaft, ;ol. 11., p. (16.) &o th$
5$rsian #$ridun corr$sponds th$ 4indu &rita, whos$ A'$stian doubl$ is &hra$taona. &h$
last/na"$d or" is th$ "ost pr$do"inantly auth$nticat$d? ro" it was or"$d, by
transition o th$ aspirat$d sounds, irst 5hr$nduna, th$n #rSdTn or ArSdun? #$ridun is a
"or$ r$c$nt corruption. +o"par$ !pi$g$l, op. cit., ;ol. 1, pp. :3C .
&h$ th$"$ o th$ #$ridun story is pursu$d in th$ &ristan saga, as r$lat$d in th$ $pic
po$" by 3ottri$d 'on !trassburg. &his is $sp$cially $'id$nt in th$ prologu$ o th$
&ristan saga, which is r$p$at$d lat$r on in th$ ad'$ntur$s o th$ h$ro hi"s$l
(duplication) . Riwalin, king in th$ land o th$ 5ar"$nians, in an $-p$dition to th$ court
o 7ark, king o +ornwall and 2ngland, had b$co"$ ac.uaint$d with th$ latt$r%s
b$autiul sist$r, ,lanch$lur$, and his h$art was ala"$ with lo'$ or h$r. 0hil$
assisting 7ark in a ca"paign, Riwalin was "ortally wound$d and
p. 4(
was carri$d to &intaBol$. ,lanch$lur$, disguised as a beggar "aid, hast$n$d to his
sickb$d, and h$r d$'ot$d lo'$ sa'$d th$ king%s li$. !h$ l$d with h$r lo'$r to his nati'$
land (obstacl$s) and was th$r$ proclai"$d as his consort. ,ut 7organ attack$d Riwalin%s
country, or th$ sak$ o ,lanch$lur$, who" th$ king $ntrust$d to his faithfu! retainer
Rual, b$caus$ sh$ was carrying a child. Rual plac$d th$ .u$$n or sa$k$$ping in th$
castl$ o Gan$$l. 4$r$ she ga8e birth to a son and died, #hi!e her husband fe!! in the
batt!e against Morgan. $n order to %rotect the ,ing<s offs%ring fro" Morgan<s %ursuits,
Rual spr$ad th$ ru"or that th$ inant had b$$n born d$ad. &h$ boy was na"$d &ristan,
b$caus$ h$ had b$$n conc$i'$d and born in sorrow. Rnd$r th$ car$ o his ost$r par$nts,
&ristan gr$w up, $.ually straight in body and "ind, until his ourt$$nth y$ar, wh$n h$
was kidnapp$d by 9orw$gian "$rchants, who th$n put hi" ashor$ in +ornwall b$caus$
th$y $ar$d th$ wrath o th$ gods. 4$r$ the boy #as found by the so!diers of .ing Mar,,
who was so w$ll pl$as$d with th$ bra'$ and handso"$ youth that h$ pro"ptly "ad$
hi" his "ast$r o th$ chas$ (car$$r), and h$ld hi" in gr$at a$ction. 7$anwhil$,
aithul Rual had s$t orth to s$$k his abduct$d ost$r son, who" h$ ound at last in
+ornwall, wh$r$ Rual had co"$ b$gging his way. Rual re8ea!ed Tristan<s descent to th$
king, who was d$light$d to s$$ in hi" th$ son o his b$lo'$d sist$r, and rais$d hi" to
th$ rank o knight. 1n ord$r to a8enge his father, &ristan proc$$d$d with Rual to
5ar"$nia, 'an.uish$d 7organ, th$ usurp$r, and ga'$ th$ country to Rual as li$g$, whil$
h$ hi"s$l r$turn$d to his uncl$ 7ark. 1
&h$ actual &ristan saga go$s on with a r$p$tition o th$ principal th$"$s. 1n th$ s$r'ic$
o 7ark, &ristan kills 7orald, th$ brid$groo" o 1sold$, and b$ing wound$d unto d$ath,
h$ is sa'$d by 1sold$. 4$ asks h$r hand in "arriag$ on b$hal o his uncl$ 7ark. 0h$n
h$ ulills th$ condition o killing a dragon, sh$ acco"pani$s hi" r$luctantly to
+ornwall, to which th$y tra'$l by ship. On th$ Bourn$y th$y partak$ unwittingly o th$
disastrous lo'$ potion
p. 43
which binds th$" tog$th$r in r$n<i$d passion? th$y b$tray Ging 7ark. On th$ w$dding
night, 1sold$%s aithul "aid, ,rangJn$, r$pr$s$nts th$ .u$$n, and sacriic$s h$r 'irginity
to th$ king. 9$-t ollows th$ banish"$nt o &ristan, his s$'$ral att$"pts to r$gain his
b$lo'$d, although h$ had "$anwhil$ "arri$d anoth$r 1sold$//>1sold$ th$ 0hit$ 4and,>
o ,rittany, who r$s$"bl$d his lo'$, >1sold$ th$ #air.> At last h$ is again wound$d unto
d$ath, and 1sold$ arri'$s too lat$ to sa'$ hi". 1
A plain$r '$rsion o th$ &ristan saga//in th$ s$ns$ o th$ charact$ristic $atur$s o th$
"yth o th$ birth o th$ h$ro//is ound in th$ airy tal$ >&h$ &ru$ ,rid$,> .uot$d by
Riklin ro" Ritt$rshaus. ( A royal pair ha'$ no childr$n. &h$ king ha'ing thr$at$n$d to
kill his wi$ unl$ss sh$ b$ars a child by th$ ti"$ o his r$turn ro" his s$a 'oyag$, sh$ is
brought to hi" during his Bourn$y, by his <$alous "aid/s$r'ant, as th$ air$st o thr$$
pro"$nading ladi$s, and h$ tak$s h$r into his t$nt without r$cogni<ing h$r. 3 !h$ r$turns
ho"$ without ha'ing b$$n disco'$r$d, gi'$s birth to a daught$r, 1sol, and di$s. 1sol lat$r
on inds, in a bo- by th$ s$asid$, a "ost b$autiul littl$ boy, whos$ na"$ is &ristra",
and sh$ rais$s hi" to b$co"$ $ngag$d to hi". &h$ subs$.u$nt story, which contains th$
"oti o th$ tru$ brid$, is not$worthy or pr$s$nt purpos$s only in so ar as h$r$ again
occurs th$ draught o obli'ion, and two 1sold$s. &h$ king%s s$cond wi$ gi'$s a potion to
&ristra", which caus$s hi" to org$t th$ air 1sol $ntir$ly, so that h$ wish$s to "arry th$
black 1sota. Rlti"at$ly h$ disco'$rs th$ d$c$ption, how$'$r, and b$co"$s unit$d with
4(=1 At$r +hop= )r!(uterungen /u Wagner<s Tristan (R$cla" $dition).
43=1 +o"par$ 1""$r"ann= Tristan and $so!de, )in 5edicht in 1o"an/en (HFss$ldor,
1841). Aik$ th$ $pic o 3ottri$d 'on !trassburg, his '$rsion b$gins with th$ pr$li"inary
history o th$ lo'$s o &ristan%s par$nts, Ging Riwalin Gannl$ngr$s o 5ar"$nia and
7ark%s b$autiul sist$r ,lanch$lur. &h$ "aid$n n$'$r r$'$als h$r lo'$, which is not
sanction$d by h$r broth$r, but sh$ 'isits th$ king, who is wound$d unto d$ath, in his
cha"b$r, and dying h$ procr$at$s &ristan, >th$ son o th$ "ost daring and dol$ul lo'$.>
3rown up as a oundling in th$ car$ o Rual and his wi$, #lor$t$, th$ winso"$ youth
&ristan introduc$s hi"s$l to 7ark in a stag hunt, as an $-p$rt hunts"an, is r$cogni<$d
as his n$ph$w by a ring, th$ king%s git to his b$lo'$d sist$r, and b$co"$s his a'orit$.
43=( Wunscherf4!!ung and -y"bo!i, i" M(rchen, p. :6? ro" th$ Ritt$rshaus coll$ction
o airy tal$s (II;11, p. 113). !$$ translation by 0. A. 0hit$, 7.H., Psychoana!ytic
1e8ie#, ;ol. 1, 9o. 1.
43=3 +o"par$ th$ substitution o th$ brid$, through ,rangJn$.
p. 44
&h$ original '$rsion o th$ story o Ro"ulus and R$"us//as told by th$ "ost anci$nt
Ro"an annalist Uuintus #abius 5ictor//is r$nd$r$d as ollows by 7o""s$n= 1
The t#ins born$ by 1lia, th$ daught$r o th$ pr$c$ding king 9u"itor, fro" the
e"brace of the #ar-god Mars #ere conde"ned by .ing '"u!ius, th$ pr$s$nt
rul$r o Alba, to b$ cast into th$ ri'$r. &h$ king%s s$r'ants took th$ childr$n and
carri$d th$" ro" Alba as ar as th$ &ib$r on th$ 5alatin$ 4ill? but wh$n th$y
tri$d to d$sc$nd th$ hill to th$ ri'$r, to carry out th$ co""and, th$y ound that
th$ ri'$r had ris$n, and th$y w$r$ unabl$ to r$ach its b$d. &h$ tub with th$
childr$n was th$r$or$ thrust by th$" into th$ shallow wat$r at th$ shor$. $t
f!oated or a whil$? but the #ater %ro"%t!y receded, and ,noc,ing against a
stone, the tub ca%si/ed, and th$ scr$a"ing inants w$r$ ups$t into th$ ri'$r "ud.
They #ere heard by a she-#o!f #ho had Bust brought forth and had her udders
fu!! of "i!,? she ca"e and ga8e her teats to the boys, to nurs$ th$", and as th$y
w$r$ drinking sh$ lick$d th$" cl$an with h$r tongu$. Abo'$ th$" l$w a
woodp$ck$r, which guard$d th$ childr$n, and also carri$d ood to th$". &h$
ath$r was pro'iding or his sons= or th$ wol and th$ woodp$ck$r ar$ ani"als
cons$crat$d to ath$r 7ars. &his was s$$n by on$ o th$ royal h$rds"$n, who
was dri'ing his pigs back to th$ pastur$ ro" which th$ wat$r had r$c$d$d.
!tartl$d by th$ sp$ctacl$, h$ su""on$d his "at$s, who ound th$ sh$/wol
att$nding lik$ a "oth$r to th$ childr$n, and th$ childr$n tr$at$d h$r as th$ir
"oth$r. &h$ "$n "ad$ a loud nois$ to scar$ th$ ani"al away? but th$
p. 4:
wol was not araid? sh$ l$t th$ childr$n, but not ro" $ar? slowly, without
h$$ding th$ h$rds"$n, sh$ disapp$ar$d into th$ wild$rn$ss o th$ or$st, at th$
holy sit$ o #aunus, wh$r$ th$ wat$r gush$s ro" a gully o th$ "ountain.
7$anwhil$ th$ "$n pick$d up th$ boys and carri$d th$" to th$ chi$ swin$h$rd
o th$ king, #austulus, or th$y b$li$'$d that th$ gods did not wish th$ childr$n
to p$rish. But the #ife of ;austu!us had Bust gi8en birth to a dead chi!d, and #as
fu!! of sorro#. Her husband ga8e her the t#ins, and she nursed the"? the cou%!e
raised the chi!dren, and na"ed the" 1o"u!us and 1e"us.
At$r Ro"$ had b$$n ound$d, lat$r on, Ging Ro"ulus built hi"s$l a hous$ not ar
ro" th$ plac$ wh$r$ his tub had stood. &h$ gully in which th$ sh$/wol had
disapp$ar$d has b$$n known sinc$ that ti"$ as th$ 0ol%s 3ully, th$ Aup$rcal. &h$
i"ag$ in or$ o th$ sh$/wol with th$ twins was subs$.u$ntly $r$ct$d at this spot, 1 and
th$ sh$/wol h$rs$l, th$ Aupa, was worshipp$d by th$ Ro"ans as a di'inity.
&h$ Ro"ulus saga lat$r on und$rw$nt "aniold trans"utations, "utilations, additions,
and int$rpr$tations. ( 1t is b$st known in th$ or" trans"itt$d by Ai'y (1, 3 .), wh$r$
w$ l$arn so"$thing about th$ ant$c$d$nts and subs$.u$nt at$ o th$ twins=
Ging 5roca b$.u$aths th$ royal dignity to his irstborn son, 9u"itor. ,ut his
younger brother, '"u!ius, %ushes hi" fro" the throne, and b$co"$s king
hi"s$l. !o that no scion ro" 9u"itor%s a"ily "ay aris$, as th$ a'$ng$r, h$
kills th$ "al$ d$sc$ndants o his broth$r. 1hea -i!8ia, the daughter, he e!ects as
a 8esta!, and thus de%ri8es her of the ho%e of %rogeny, through %er%etua!
8irginity as $nBoin$d upon h$r und$r th$ s$"blanc$ o a "ost honorabl$
distinction. ,ut th$ '$stal "aid$n was o'$rco"$ by 'iol$nc$, and
p. 46
ha'ing brought forth t#ins, sh$ na"$d Mars as th$ father of her i!!egiti"ate
offs%ring, b$ it ro" con'iction, or b$caus$ a god app$ar$d "or$ cr$ditabl$ to
h$r as th$ p$rp$trator o th$ cri"$.
&h$ narrati'$ o th$ $-posur$ in th$ &ib$r go$s on to r$lat$ that th$ loating tub, in
which th$ boys had b$$n $-pos$d, was l$t on dry land by th$ r$c$ding wat$rs, and that
a thirsty wol, attract$d ro" th$ n$ighboring "ountains by th$ childr$n%s cri$s, o$r$d
th$" h$r t$ats. &h$ boys ar$ said to ha'$ b$$n ound by th$ chi$ royal h$rd$r,
suppos$dly na"$d #austulus, who took th$" to th$ ho"$st$ad o his wi$, Aar$ntia,
wh$r$ th$y w$r$ rais$d. !o"$ b$li$'$ that Aar$ntia was call$d Aupa (>sh$/wol>) by th$
h$rd$rs b$caus$ sh$ o$r$d h$r body, and that this was th$ origin o th$ wond$rul saga.
3rown to "anhood, th$ youths Ro"ulus and R$"us prot$ct th$ h$rds against th$
attacks o wild ani"als and robb$rs. On$ day R$"us is tak$n prison$r by th$ robb$rs,
who accus$ hi" o ha'ing stol$n 9u"itor%s locks. ,ut 9u"itor, to who" h$ is
surr$nd$r$d or punish"$nt, was touch$d by his t$nd$r ag$, and wh$n h$ l$arn$d o th$
twin broth$rs, h$ susp$ct$d that th$y "ight b$ his $-pos$d grandsons. 0hil$ h$ was
an-iously pond$ring th$ r$s$"blanc$ with th$ $atur$s o his daught$r, and th$ boy%s
ag$ as corr$sponding to th$ ti"$ o th$ $-posur$, #austulus arri'$d with Ro"ulus, and a
conspiracy was hatch$d wh$n th$ d$sc$nt o th$ boys had b$$n l$arn$d ro" th$
h$rd$rs. &h$ youths ar"$d th$"s$l'$s or '$ng$anc$, whil$ 9u"itor took up w$apons
to d$$nd his clai" to th$ thron$ h$ had usurp$d. At$r '"u!ius had been assassinated,
9u"itor was r$institut$d as th$ rul$r, and th$ youths r$sol'$d to ound a city in th$
r$gion wh$r$ th$y had b$$n $-pos$d and brought up. A urious disput$ aros$ upon th$
.u$stion o which broth$r was to b$ th$ rul$r o th$ n$wly $r$ct$d city, or n$ith$r twin
was a'or$d by th$ right o pri"og$nitur$, and th$ outco"$ o th$ bird oracl$ was
$.ually doubtul. &h$ saga r$lat$s that R$"us Bu"p$d o'$r th$ n$w wall, to d$rid$ his
twin, and 1o"u!us beca"e so "uch enraged that he s!e# his brother. Ro"ulus th$n
p. 4C
usurp$d th$ sol$ "ast$ry, and th$ city was na"$d Ro"$ at$r hi".
&h$ Ro"an tal$ o Ro"ulus and R$"us has a clos$ count$rpart in th$ 3r$$k "yth o a
city oundation by th$ twin broth$rs A"phion and M$thus, who w$r$ th$ irst to ound
th$ sit$ o &h$b$s o th$ !$'$n 3at$s. &h$ $nor"ous rocks which M$thus brought ro"
th$ "ountains w$r$ Boin$d by th$ "usic drawn ro" A"phion%s lyr$ strings to or" th$
walls which b$ca"$ so a"ous lat$r on. A"phion and M$thus pass$d as th$ chi!dren of
3eus and 'ntio%e, daught$r o Ging 9ykt$us. !h$ $scap$d by light ro" th$
punish"$nt o h$r ath$r, who di$d o gri$? on his d$athb$d h$ i"plor$d his brother
and successor on the throne, 9ycus, to punish th$ wrongdoing o Antiop$. 7$anti"$
sh$ had "arri$d 2pop$us, th$ king o !icyon, who was kill$d by Aycus. Antiop$ was
l$d away by hi" in $tt$rs. !h$ ga'$ birth to twin sons in th$ +itha$ron, wh$r$ sh$ l$t
th$". A sh$ph$rd rais$d th$ boys and call$d th$" A"phion and M$thus. Aat$r on,
Antiop$ succ$$d$d in $scaping ro" th$ tor"$nts o Aycus and his wi$, Hirc$. !h$
accid$ntally sought sh$lt$r in th$ +itha$ron, with th$ twin broth$rs, now grown up. &h$
sh$ph$rd r$'$als to th$ youths th$ act that Antiop$ is th$ir "oth$r. &h$r$upon th$y
cru$lly kill Hirc$, and d$pri'$ Aycus o th$ rul$rship.
&h$ r$"aining twin sagas, 1 which ar$ $-tr$"$ly nu"$rous, cannot b$ discuss$d in
d$tail in this conn$ction. 5ossibly th$y r$pr$s$nt a co"plication o th$ birth "yth by
anoth$r '$ry anci$nt and wid$ly distribut$d "yth co"pl$-, that o th$ hostil$ broth$rs,
th$ d$tail$d discussion o which b$longs $ls$wh$r$. &h$ appar$ntly lat$ and s$condary
charact$r o th$ twin typ$ in th$ birth "yths Bustii$s th$ s$paration o this part o
"ythology ro" th$ pr$s$nt th$"$. As r$gards th$ Ro"ulus saga, 7o""s$n consid$rs
it highly probabl$ that it originally told only o Ro"ulus, whil$ th$ igur$ o R$"us was
add$d subs$.u$ntly, and so"$what disBoint$dly, wh$n it b$ca"$ d$sirabl$
p. 48
to in'$st th$ consulat$ with a sol$"nity ound$d on old tradition. 1
44=1 &h$odor 7o""s$n= >&ie echte and die fa!sche 'cca 9arentia>? in ;estgaben f4r
5. Ho"eyer (,$rlin, 1891), pp. 93 ? and 1+"ische ;orschungen (,$rlin, 18C9), ;ol.
11, pp. 1 . 7o""s$n r$constructs th$ lost narrati'$ o #abius ro" th$ pr$s$r'$d
r$ports o Hionysius (1, C9/831) and o 5lutarch (1o"u!us).
4:=1 &h$ +apitolin$ !h$/0ol is consid$r$d th$ work o '$ry anci$nt 2truscan artists? it
was $r$ct$d at th$ Aup$rcal in th$ y$ar (96 ,.+., according to Ai'y (I, (31).
4:=( All th$s$ r$nd$rings w$r$ co"pil$d by !chw$gl$r, in his 1o"an History, ;ol. 1,
pp. 384 .
4C=1 !o"$ 3r$$k twin sagas ar$ .uot$d by !chub$rt (op. cit. pp. 13 .) in th$ir $ss$ntial
cont$nt. +onc$rning th$ $-t$nsi'$ distribution o this l$g$ndary or", co"par$ th$
so"$what conus$d book o *. 4. ,$ck$r= The T#in -aga as the .ey to the
$nter%retation of 'ncient Tradition (A$ip<ig, 1891).
HER28LE- 9
At$r th$ loss o his nu"$rous sons, 2l$ctryon b$troths his daught$r, Alc"$n$, to
A"phitryon, th$ son o his broth$r, Alca$us. 4ow$'$r, A"phitryon, through an
unortunat$ accid$nt, caus$s th$ d$ath o 2l$ctryon, and $scap$s to &h$b$s with his
aianc$d brid$. 4$ has not $nBoy$d h$r lo'$, or sh$ has sol$"nly pl$dg$d hi" not to
touch h$r until h$ has a'$ng$d h$r broth$rs on th$ &h$bans. An $-p$dition is th$r$or$
start$d by hi", ro" &h$b$s, and h$ con.u$rs th$ king o th$ hostil$ p$opl$, 5t$r$laos,
with all th$ islands. As h$ is r$turning to &h$b$s, M$us in th$ or" o A"phitryon
b$tak$s hi"s$l to Alc"$n$, to who" h$ pr$s$nts a gold$n gobl$t as $'id$nc$ o
'ictory. 3 4$ r$sts with th$ b$aut$ous "aid$n during thr$$ nights, according to th$ lat$r
po$ts, holding back th$ sun on$ day. 1n th$ sa"$ night, A"phitryon arri'$s, $-ultant in
his 'ictory and ala"$ with lo'$. 1n th$ ulln$ss o ti"$, th$ ruit o th$ di'in$ and th$
hu"an $"brac$ is brought orth, and M$us announc$s to th$ gods his son, as th$ "ost
pow$rul rul$r o th$ utur$. 4 ,ut his B$alous spous$, 4$ra, knows how to obtain ro"
hi" th$ p$rnicious oath that th$ irst/born grandson o 5$rs$us is to b$ th$ rul$r o all
th$ oth$r d$sc$ndants o 5$rs$us. 4$ra hurri$s to 7yc$na$,
p. 49
to d$li'$r th$ wi$ o 5$rs$usO third son, !th$n$los, o th$ s$'$n/"onths child,
2urysth$us. At th$ sa"$ ti"$ sh$ hind$rs and $ndang$rs th$ conin$"$nt o Alc"$n$,
through all sorts o wick$d sorc$ry, pr$cis$ly as at th$ birth o th$ god o light, Apollo.
Alc"$n$ inally gi'$s birth to 4$rcul$s and 1phicl$s, th$ latt$r in no way th$ or"$r%s
$.ual in courag$ or in str$ngth, but d$stin$d to b$co"$ th$ ath$r o his aithul ri$nd,
1olaos. 1 1n this way 2urysth$us b$ca"$ th$ king in 7yc$na$, in th$ land o th$
Argolians, in conor"ity with th$ oath o M$us, and th$ lat$r/born 4$rcul$s was his
&h$ old l$g$nd r$lat$d th$ raising o 4$rcul$s on th$ str$ngth/gi'ing wat$rs o th$
#ountain o Hirc$, th$ nourish"$nt o all &h$ban childr$n. Aat$r on, how$'$r, anoth$r
'$rsion aros$. #$aring th$ B$alousy o 4$ra, Alc"$n$ e7%osed the chi!d she had borne
in a plac$ that or a long ti"$ at$r was known as th$ #i$ld o 4$rcul$s. About this ti"$,
Ath$na arri'$d, in co"pany with 4$ra. !h$ "ar'$l$d at th$ b$autiul or" o th$ child,
and p$rsuad$d 4$ra to put hi" to h$r br$ast. ,ut th$ boy took th$ br$ast with ar gr$at$r
str$ngth than his ag$ s$$"$d to warrant? 4$ra $lt pains and angrily lung th$ child to
th$ ground. Ath$na, how$'$r, carri$d hi" to th$ n$ighboring city and too, hi" to
:ueen '!c"ene, #hose "aternity #as un,no#n to her, as a %oor found!ing, #ho" she
begged her to raise for the sa,e of charity. &his p$culiar accid$nt is truly r$"arkabl$P
&h$ child%s own "oth$r allows hi" to p$rish, disr$garding th$ duty o "at$rnal lo'$,
and th$ st$p"oth$r, who is ill$d with natural hatr$d against th$ child, sa'$s h$r $n$"y
without knowing it. ( 4$rcul$s had drawn only a $w drops ro" 4$ra%s br$ast,
p. :)
but th$ di'in$ "ilk was suici$nt to $ndow hi" with i""ortality. An att$"pt on 4$ra%s
part to kill th$ boy, asl$$p in his cradl$, by "$ans o two s$rp$nts, pro'$d a ailur$, or
th$ child awak$n$d and crush$d th$ b$asts with a singl$ pr$ssur$ o his hands. As a boy,
4$rcul$s on$ day kill$d his tutor, Ainos, b$ing inc$ns$d o'$r an unBust chastis$"$nt.
A"phitryon, $aring th$ wildn$ss o th$ youth, s$nt hi" to t$nd his o-/h$rds in th$
"ountains, with th$ h$rd$rs, a"ong who" h$ is said by so"$ to ha'$ b$$n rais$d
$ntir$ly, lik$ A"phion and M$thus, +yrus, and Ro"ulus. 4$r$ h$ li'$s ro" th$ hunt, in
th$ r$$do" o natur$. 1
&h$ "yth o 4$rcul$s sugg$sts in c$rtain $atur$s th$ 4indu saga o th$ h$ro Grishna,
who lik$ "any h$ro$s $scap$s a g$n$ral inanticid$, and is th$n brought up by a h$rd$r%s
wi$, 1asodha. A wick$d sh$/d$"on app$ars, who has b$$n s$nt by Ging Gansa to kill
th$ boy. !h$ tak$s th$ post o w$t nurs$ in th$ ho"$, but is r$cogni<$d by Grishna, who
bit$s h$r so s$'$r$ly in suckling//lik$ 4$ra, wh$n nursing 4$rcul$s, who" sh$ also
"$ans to d$stroy//that sh$ di$s.
48=1 7o""s$n= &ie 1e"us 9egende (,$rlin, 1881).
48=( At$r 5r$ll$r= 5ree, Mytho!ogy (A$ip<ig, 18:4), ;ol. 11, pp. 1() .
48=3 &h$ sa"$ transor"ation o th$ di'in$ procr$ator into th$ or" o th$ hu"an ath$r
is ound in th$ birth history o th$ 2gyptian .u$$n, 4atsh$psut (about 1:)) ,.+.), who
b$li$'$d that th$ god A"$n, in th$ or" o h$r ath$r, &hoth"$s 1, cohabit$d with h$r
"oth$r, Aaha"$s. (!$$ ,udg$= ' History of )gy%t.) Aat$r on sh$ "arri$d h$r broth$r,
&hoth"$s 11, at$r whos$ dishonorabl$ d$ath sh$ $nd$a'or$d to $radicat$ his "$"ory,
and h$rs$l assu"$d th$ rul$rship, in "asculin$ ashion. (!$$ The &euteroniu", $dit$d
by !chrad$r.)
48=4 A si"ilar "ingling o th$ di'in$ and hu"an post$rity is r$lat$d in th$ "yth o
&h$s$us, whos$ "oth$r, A$thra, th$ b$lo'$d o 5os$idon, was 'isit$d in on$ night by
this god and by th$ childl$ss Ging A$g$us o Ath$ns, who had b$$n brought und$r th$
inlu$nc$ o win$. &h$ boy was rais$d in s$cr$t and in ignoranc$ o his ath$r. (!$$
RKsch$r, op. cit., articl$ >A$g$us.>)
49=1 Alc"$n$ bor$ 4$rcul$s as th$ son o M$us, and 1phicl$s as th$ ospring o
A"phitryon. According to Apollodorus, th$y w$r$ twin childr$n, born at th$ sa"$ ti"$?
according to oth$rs, 1phicl$s was conc$i'$d and born on$ night lat$r than 4$rcul$s. (!$$
RKsch$r, op. cit., articl$s >A"phitryon> and >Alc"$n$.>) &h$ shadowy charact$r o th$
twin broth$r, and his loos$ conn$ction with th$ $ntir$ "yth, is again $'id$nt. 1n a
si"ilar way, &$l$phus, th$ son o Aug$, was $-pos$d tog$th$r with 5arth$nopa$us, th$
son o Atalanta, nurs$d by a do$, and tak$n by h$rd$rs to Ging +orythos. &h$ $-t$rnal
subs$.u$nt ins$rtion o th$ partn$r is h$r$ again .uit$ ob'ious.
49=( At$r Hiodorus !iculus, ,ook 1;, p. 9 o 0ur"%s 3$r"an translation (!tuttgart,
&h$ 3osp$l according to Auk$ (1=(6/3:) r$lat$s th$ proph$cy o th$ birth o *$sus, as
And in th$ si-th "onth th$ ang$l 3abri$l s$nt ro" 3od unto a city o 3alil$$,
na"$d 9a<ar$th, to a 8irgin es%oused to a "an #hose na"e #as Jose%h, o th$
hous$ o Ha'id? and th$ 'irgin%s na"$ was 7ary. And th$ ang$l ca"$ in unto
h$r, and said, 4ailP thou that art highly a'or$d, th$ Aord is with th$$= bl$ss$d art
thou a"ong wo"$n. And wh$n sh$ saw hi", sh$ was troubl$d at his saying, and
cast in h$r "ind what "ann$r o salutation this should b$. And th$ ang$l said
unto h$r, #$ar not, 7ary= or thou hast ound a'our
p. :1
with 3od. And, b$hold, thou sha!t concei8e in thy #o"b, and bring forth a son,
and sha!t ca!! his na"e J)-6-. He sha!! be great and sha!! be ca!!ed the -on of
the Highest> and th$ Aord 3od shalt gi'$ unto hi" th$ thron$ o his ath$r
Ha'id. And h$ shall r$ign o'$r th$ hous$ o *acob or $'$r? and o his kingdo"
th$r$ shall b$ no $nd. &h$n said 7ary unto th$ ang$l, 4ow shall this b$, seeing $
,no# not a "anC And th$ ang$l answ$r$d and said unto h$r, &h$ 4oly 3host
shall co"$ upon th$$, and th$ pow$r o th$ 4igh$st shall o'$rshadow th$$=
th$r$or$ also that holy thing which shall b$ born o th$$ sha!! be ca!!ed the -on
of 5od.
&his r$port is suppl$"$nt$d by th$ 3osp$l according to 7atth$w (1=18/(:), in th$
narrati'$ o th$ birth and childhood o *$sus= 1
9ow th$ birth o *$sus +hrist was on this wis$= wh$n as his "oth$r 7ary was
$spous$d to *os$ph, b$or$ th$y ca"$ tog$th$r, she #as found #ith chi!d of the
Ho!y 5host. &h$n *os$ph, h$r husband, b$ing a Bust "an, and not willing to
"ak$ h$r a publick $-a"pl$, was "ind$d to put h$r away pri'ily. ,ut, whil$ h$
thought on th$s$ things, b$hold, the ange! of the 9ord a%%eared unto hi" in a
drea", saying, *os$ph, thou son o Ha'id, $ar not to tak$ unto th$$ 7ary thy
wi$= or that which is conc$i'$d in h$r is o th$ 4oly 3host. And sh$ shall bring
orth a son, and thou shall call his na"$ *2!R!= or h$ shall sa'$ his p$opl$
ro" th$ir sins. 9ow all this was don$ that it "ight b$ ulill$d which was
spok$n o th$ Aord by
p. :(
th$ proph$t, saying, ,$hold, a 'irgin shall b$ with child, and shall bring orth a
son, and th$y shall call his na"$ 2""anu$l, which b$ing int$rpr$t$d is, 3od
with us. &h$n *os$ph b$ing rais$d ro" sl$$p did as th$ ang$l o th$ Aord had
bidd$n hi" and took unto hi" his wi$= 'nd ,ne# her not ti!! she had brought
forth her firstborn son> and h$ call$d his na"$ *2!R!.
4$r$ w$ int$rpolat$ th$ d$tail$d account o th$ birth o *$sus, ro" 3osp$l o Auk$
And *os$ph also w$nt up ro" 3alil$$, out o th$ city o 9a<ar$th, into *udVa,
unto th$ city o Ha'id, which is call$d ,$thl$h$"? (b$caus$ h$ was o th$ hous$
and lin$ag$ o Ha'id=) to b$ ta-$d with 7ary his $spous$d wi$, b$ing gr$at with
child. And so it was, that, whil$ th$y w$r$ th$r$, th$ days w$r$ acco"plish$d
that sh$ should b$ d$li'$r$d. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and
#ra%%ed hi" in s#add!ing c!othes, and !aid hi" in a "anger? 1 b$caus$ th$r$
was no roo" or th$" in th$ inn. And th$r$ w$r$ in th$ sa"$ country sh$ph$rds
abiding in th$ i$ld, k$$ping watch o'$r th$ir locks by night. And, lo, th$ ang$l
o th$ Aord ca"$ upon th$", and th$ glory o th$ Aord shon$ round about th$",
and th$y w$r$ sor$ araid. And th$ ang$l said unto th$", #$ar not? or, b$hold, 1
bring you good tidings o gr$at Boy, which shall b$ to all p$opl$. #or unto you is
born this day in th$ city o Ha'id a !a'iour, which is +hrist th$ Aord. And this
shall b$ a sign unto you? Q$ shall ind th$ bab$ wrapp$d in swaddling cloth$s,
lying in a "ang$r. And sudd$nly th$r$ was with th$ ang$l a "ultitud$ o th$
h$a'$nly host praising 3od, and saying, 3lory to 3od in th$ 4igh$st, and on
$arth p$ac$, good will toward "$n. And it ca"$ to pass, as th$ ang$ls w$r$ gon$
away ro" th$" into h$a'$n,
p. :3
th$ sh$ph$rds said on$ to anoth$r, A$t us now go $'$n unto ,$thl$h$", and s$$
this thing which has co"$ to pass, which th$ Aord has "ad$ known unto us. And
th$y ca"$ with hast$, and ound 7ary, and *os$ph, and th$ bab$ lying in a
"ang$r. And wh$n th$y had s$$n it, th$y "ad$ known abroad th$ saying which
was told th$" conc$rning this child. And all th$y that h$ard wond$r$d at thos$
things which w$r$ told th$" by th$ sh$ph$rds. ,ut 7ary k$pt all th$s$ things,
and pond$r$d th$" in h$r h$art. And th$ sh$ph$rds r$turn$d, gloriying and
praising 3od or all th$ things which th$y had h$ard and s$$n, as it was told unto
0$ now continu$ th$ account at$r 7atth$w, in th$ s$cond chapt$r=
9ow wh$n *$sus was born in ,$thl$h$" o *ud$a in th$ days o 4$rod th$ king,
b$hold, th$r$ ca"$ #ise "en fro" the east to *$rusal$", !aying, Where is he
that is born .ing of the Je#sC or w$ ha'$ s$$n his star in th$ $ast, and ar$ co"$
to worship hi". 0h$n 4$rod th$ king had h$ard th$s$ things, h$ was troubl$d,
and all *$rusal$" with hi". And wh$n h$ had gath$r$d all th$ chi$ pri$sts and
scrib$s o th$ p$opl$ tog$th$r, h$ d$"and$d o th$" wh$r$ +hrist should b$
born. And th$y said unto hi", 1n ,$thl$h$" o *ud$a= or thus it is writt$n by th$
proph$t, And thou ,$thl$h$", in th$ land o *uda, art not th$ l$ast a"ong th$
princ$s o *uda, or out o th$$ shall co"$ a 3o'$rnor, that shall rul$ "y p$opl$
&h$n 4$rod, wh$n h$ had pri'ily call$d th$ wis$ "$n, $n.uir$d o th$"
dilig$ntly what ti"$ th$ star app$ar$d. And h$ s$nt th$" to ,$thl$h$", and said,
3o and s$arch dilig$ntly or th$ young child? and wh$n y$ ha'$ ound hi", bring
"$ word again, that 1 "ay co"$ and worship hi" also. 0h$n th$y had h$ard th$
king, th$y d$part$d? and, lo, th$ star, which th$y saw in th$ $ast, w$nt b$or$
th$", till it ca"$ and stood o'$r wh$r$ th$ young child was. 0h$n th$y saw th$
star, th$y r$Boic$d with $-c$$ding gr$at Boy.
p. :4
And wh$n th$y w$r$ co"$ into th$ hous$, th$y saw th$ young child with 7ary
his "oth$r, and $ll down, and worshipp$d hi"= and wh$n th$y had op$n$d th$ir
tr$asur$s, th$y pr$s$nt$d unto hi" gits? gold, and rankinc$ns$, and "yrrh. And
b$ing warn$d o 3od in a dr$a", that th$y should not r$turn to 4$rod, th$y
d$part$d into th$ir own country anoth$r way. And wh$n th$y w$r$ d$part$d,
b$hold, the ange! of the 9ord a%%eareth to Jose%h in a drea", saying, 'rise, and
ta,e the young chi!d and his "other, and f!ee into )gy%t, and b$ thou th$r$ until
1 bring th$$ word= or 4$rod will s$$k th$ young child to d$stroy hi". 0h$n h$
aros$, h$ took th$ young child and his "oth$r by night, and d$part$d into 2gypt=
and was th$r$ until th$ d$ath o 4$rod= that it "ight b$ ulill$d which was
spok$n o th$ Aord by th$ proph$t, saying, Out o 2gypt ha'$ 1 call$d "y son.
&h$n 4$rod, wh$n h$ saw that h$ was "ock$d o th$ wis$ "$n, was $-c$$ding
wroth, and s$nt orth, and s!e# a!! the chi!dren that #ere in Beth!ehe", and in
a!! the coasts thereof, fro" t#o years o!d and under, according to th$ ti"$ which
h$ had dilig$ntly $n.uir$d o th$ wis$ "$n. . . .
,ut wh$n 4$rod was d$ad, b$hold, an ang$l o th$ Aord app$ar$th in a dr$a" to
*os$ph in 2gypt, !aying, Aris$, and tak$ th$ young child and his. "oth$r, and go
into th$ land o 1sra$l= for they are dead #hich sought the young chi!d<s !ife. And
h$ aros$, and took th$ young child and his "oth$r, and ca"$ into th$ land o
1sra$l. ,ut wh$n h$ h$ard Arch$laus did r$ign in *udVa in th$ roo" o his ath$r
4$rod, h$ was araid to go thith$r= notwithstanding, b$ing warn$d o 3od in a
dr$a", h$ turn$d asid$ into th$ parts o 3alil$$= And h$ ca"$ and dw$lt in a city
call$d 9a<ar$th= that it "ight b$ ulill$d which was spok$n by th$ proph$ts, 4$
shall b$ call$d a 9a<ar$n$. 1
p. ::
!i"ilar birth l$g$nds to thos$ o *$sus ha'$ also b$$n trans"itt$d o oth$r ound$rs o
r$ligions, such as Moroast$r, who is said to ha'$ li'$d about th$ y$ar 1))) ,.+. 4is
"oth$r, Hughda, dr$a"s, in the si7th "onth of her %regnancy, that th$ wick$d and th$
good spirits ar$ ighting or th$ $"bryonic Moroast$r? a "onst$r t$ars th$ utur$
Moroast$r ro" th$ "oth$r%s wo"b? but a light god ights th$ "onst$r with his horn o
light, r$/$nclos$s th$ $"bryo in th$ "oth$r%s wo"b, blows upon Hughda, and sh$
b$co"$s pr$gnant again. On awak$ning, sh$ hurri$s in h$r $ar to a wis$ dr$a"/
int$rpr$t$r, who is unabl$ to $-plain th$ wond$rul dr$a" b$or$ th$ $nd o thr$$ days.
4$ th$n d$clar$s that th$ child sh$ is carrying is d$stin$d to b$co"$ a "an o gr$at
i"portanc$? th$ dark cloud and th$ "ountain o light signiy that sh$ and h$r son will at
irst ha'$ to und$rgo nu"$rous trials, through tyrants and oth$r $n$"i$s, but at last th$y
will o'$rco"$ all p$rils. Hughda at onc$ r$turns to h$r ho"$ and inor"s 5ourushacpa,
h$r husband, o $'$rything that has happ$n$d. 1""$diat$ly at$r his birth, th$ boy was
s$$n to laugh? this was th$ irst "iracl$ through which h$ dr$w att$ntion to hi"s$l. The
"agicians announce the birth of the chi!d as a %ortent of disaster to the %rince of the
rea!", HurLnsarTn, who b$tak$s hi"s$l without d$lay to th$ dw$lling o 5ourushacpa,
in ord$r to stab th$ child. ,ut his hand alls paraly<$d, and h$ "ust l$a'$ with his $rrand
undon$? this was th$ s$cond "iracl$. !oon at$r, th$ wick$d d$"ons st$al th$ child ro"
his "oth$r and carry hi" into th$ d$s$rt, in ord$r to kill hi"? but Hughda inds th$
unhar"$d child, cal"ly sl$$ping. &his is th$ third "iracl$. Aat$r on, Moroast$r was to b$
tra"pl$d upon, in a narrow passag$way,
p. :6
by a h$rd o o-$n, by co""and o th$ king. 1 ,ut th$ larg$st o th$ cattl$ took th$ child
b$tw$$n his $$t and pr$s$r'$d it ro" har". &his was th$ ourth "iracl$. &h$ ith is
"$r$ly a r$p$tition o th$ pr$c$ding= what th$ cattl$ had r$us$d to do, was to b$
acco"plish$d by hors$s. ,ut again th$ child was prot$ct$d by a hors$ ro" th$ hoos o
th$ oth$r hors$s. HurLnsurTn th$r$upon had th$ cubs in a wol%s d$n kill$d during th$
abs$nc$ o th$ old wol'$s, and Moroast$r was laid down in th$ir plac$. ,ut a god clos$d
th$ Baws o th$ urious wol'$s, so that th$y could not har" th$ child. &wo di'in$ cows
arri'$d inst$ad and pr$s$nt$d th$ir udd$rs to th$ child, gi'ing it to drink. &his was th$
si-th "iracl$ through which Moroast$r%s li$ was pr$s$r'$d. (
R$lat$d th$"$s ar$ also $ncount$r$d in th$ history o ,uddha (si-th c$ntury b$or$
+hrist), such as th$ long st$rility o th$ par$nts, th$ dr$a", th$ birth o th$ boy und$r th$
op$n sky, th$ d$ath o th$ "oth$r and h$r substitution by a ost$r "oth$r, th$
announcing o th$ birth to th$ rul$r o th$ r$al", and lat$r on th$ losing o th$ boy in th$
t$"pl$. 3
:)=1 At$r 5r$ll$r, op. cit., ;ol. 11, p. 1(3.
:1=1 #or th$ or"al d$"onstration o th$ $ntir$ id$ntity with th$ oth$r h$ro "yths o th$
birth story and $arly history o *$sus, th$ author has pr$su"$d to r$arrang$ th$
corr$sponding paragraphs ro" th$ di$r$nt '$rsions in th$ 3osp$ls, irr$sp$cti'$ o th$
traditional s$.u$nc$ and th$ originality o th$ indi'idual parts. &h$ ag$, origin, and
g$nuin$n$ss o th$s$ parts ar$ bri$ly su""ari<$d and discuss$d in 0. !oltan= Birth
History of Jesus 0hrist (A$ip<ig, 19)(). &h$ trans"itt$d '$rsions o th$ s$'$ral
3osp$ls//which according to Rs$n$r= >&h$ ,irth and +hildhood o +hrist,> in 9ectures
and )ssays (A$ip<ig, 19)C), contradict and $'$n $-clud$ $ach oth$r//ha'$ b$$n plac$d,
or l$t, in Bu-taposition, pr$cis$ly or th$ r$ason that th$ appar$ntly contradictory
$l$"$nts in th$s$ birth "yths ar$ to b$ $lucidat$d in th$ pr$s$nt r$s$arch, no "att$r i
th$s$ contradictions b$ $ncount$r$d within a singl$ unior" saga, or in its di$r$nt
'$rsions (as, or $-a"pl$, in th$ +yrus "yth).
:(=1 +onc$rning th$ birth o *$sus in a ca'$, and th$ urnishing o th$ birthplac$ with
th$ typical ani"als (o- and ass), co"par$ *$r$"ias= Baby!onisches i" 2euen Testa"ent
(A$ip<ig, 19):), p. :6? and 5r$usch$n, >Jesu 5eburt in einer H+h!e,> 3eitschrift f4r die
2eutest. Wissenschaften, 19)(, p. 3:9.
:4=1 According to r$c$nt in'$stigations, th$ birth history o +hrist is said ha'$ th$
gr$at$st r$s$"blanc$ with th$ royal 2gyptian "yth, o'$r i'$ thousand y$ars old, which
r$lat$s th$ birth o A"$nophis 111. 4$r$ again r$curs th$ di'in$ proph$cy o th$ birth o
a son, to th$ waiting .u$$n? p. :: h$r $rtili<ation by th$ br$ath o h$a'$nly ir$? th$
di'in$ cows, which nurs$ th$ n$wborn child? th$ ho"ag$ o th$ kings? and so orth. 1n
this conn$ction, co"par$ A. 7al'$rt= Wissenschaft und 1e!igion (#rankort, 19)4), pp.
49 .? also th$ sugg$stion o 5ro$ssor 1dl$ib o ,onn (;eui!!eton o ;ran,furter
3eitung, 9o'$"b$r 8, 19)8).
&h$ old 9ors$ &hidr$ksaga, as r$cord$d about th$ y$ar 1(:) by an 1c$land$r, according
to oral traditions and anci$nt songs, r$lat$s th$ history o th$ birth and youth o
!i$gri$d. 4 Ging !ig"und o &arlungaland, on his r$turn
p. :C
ro" an $-p$dition, banish$s his wi$ !isib$, th$ daught$r o Ging 9idung o 4ispania,
who is accused by +ount 4art'in, whos$ ad'anc$s sh$ has spurn$d, o ha'ing had i!!icit
re!ations #ith a "enia!. &h$ king%s couns$lors ad'is$ hi" to "utilat$ th$ innoc$nt
.u$$n, inst$ad o killing h$r, and 4art'in is ord$r$d to cut out h$r tongu$ in th$ or$st,
so as to bring it to th$ king as a pl$dg$. 4is co"panion, +ount 4$r"ann, oppos$s th$
$-$cution o th$ cru$l co""and, and propos$s to pr$s$nt th$ tongu$ o a dog to th$
king. 0hil$ th$ two "$n ar$ $ngag$d in a 'iol$nt .uarr$l, -isibe gi8es birth to a
re"ar,ab!y beautifu! boy? she then too, a g!ass 8esse!, and after ha8ing #ra%%ed the
boy in !inens, she %!aced hi" in the g!ass 8esse!, which sh$ car$ully clos$d again and
plac$d b$sid$ h$r. +ount 4art'in was con.u$r$d in th$ ight, and in alling kick$d th$
glass '$ss$l, so that it fe!! into the ri8er. 0h$n th$ .u$$n saw this sh$ swoon$d, and
di$d soon at$rwards. 4$r"ann w$nt ho"$, told th$ king $'$rything, and was banish$d
ro" th$ country. The g!ass 8esse! "eanti"e drifted do#nstrea" to the sea, and it was
not long b$or$ th$ tid$ turn$d. Then the 8esse! f!oated onto a roc,y c!iff, and th$ wat$r
ran o so that th$ plac$ wh$r$ th$ '$ss$l was was p$r$ctly dry. &h$ boy insid$ had
grown so"$what, and wh$n th$ '$ss$l struck th$ rock, it brok$, and th$ child b$gan to
cry. &h$ boy%s wailing was h$ard by a doe, which s$i<$d hi" with h$r lips, and carri$d
hi" to h$r litt$r, #here she nursed hi" together #ith her young. At$r th$ child had
li'$d tw$l'$ "onths in th$ d$n o th$ do$, h$ had grown to th$ h$ight and str$ngth o
oth$r boys our y$ars o ag$. On$ day h$ ran into th$ or$st, wh$r$ dw$lt th$ wis$ and
skillul s"ith Mi"ir, #ho had !i8ed for nine years in chi!d!ess #ed!oc,. 4$ saw th$ boy,
who was ollow$d by th$ aithul do$, took hi" to his ho"$, and reso!8ed to bring hi"
u% as his o#n son. 4$ ga'$ hi" th$ na"$ o !i$gri$d. 1n 7i"ir%s ho"$, !i$gri$d soon
attain$d an $nor"ous statur$ and str$ngth, but his wiluln$ss
p. :8
caus$d 7i"ir to get rid of hi". 4$ s$nt th$ youth into th$ or$st, wh$r$ it had b$$n
arrang$d that th$ dragon ,$gin, 7i"ir%s broth$r, was to kill hi". ,ut !i$gri$d con.u$rs
th$ dragon, and kills 7i"ir. 4$ th$n proc$$ds to ,runhild, who na"$s his par$nts to
!i"ilar to th$ $arly history o !i$gri$d is an Austrasian saga that t$lls o th$ birth and
youth o 0oldi$trich. 1 4is "oth$r is lik$wis$ accus$d o unfaithfu!ness, and o
int$rcours$ with th$ d$'il, by a 'assal who" sh$ has r$puls$d, and who sp$aks $'il o
h$r to th$ r$turning king, 4ugdi$trich o +onstantinopl$. (
The ,ing surrenders the chi!d to the faithfu! Berchtung, #ho is to ,i!! it, but e7%oses it
instead in the forest, near the #ater, in th$ hop$ that it will all in o its own accord and
thus ind its d$ath. ,ut th$ rolicking child r$"ains unhurt, and e8en the #i!d ani"a!s//
lions, b$ars, and wol'$s, which co"$ at night to th$ wat$r//do not har" it. &h$
astonish$d ,$rchtung r$sol'$s to sa'$ th$ boy, and h$ surrenders hi" to a ga"e,ee%er
who, tog$th$r with his wi$, rais$s hi" and na"$s hi" 0oldi$trich. 3
&hr$$ lat$r h$ro $pics "ay also b$ .uot$d in this conn$ction= #irst, th$r$ is th$
thirt$$nth/c$ntury #r$nch saga o 4orn, th$ son o Alu, who, at$r ha'ing b$$n $-pos$d
on th$ s$a, inally r$ach$s th$ court o Ging 4unla? at$r nu"$rous ad'$ntur$s, h$ wins
th$ king%s daught$r, Ri"hilt, or his wi$. !$condly, a d$tail sugg$sti'$ o !i$gri$d
app$ars in th$ saga o th$ skillul s"ith 0i$land, who, at$r a'$nging his oully
"urd$r$d ath$r, loats down th$ ri'$r 0$s$r, artully $nclos$d in th$ trunk o a tr$$,
and load$d
p. :9
with th$ tools and tr$asur$s o his t$ach$rs. #inally, th$ Ging Arthur l$g$nd contains th$
co""ingling o di'in$ and hu"an pat$rnity, th$ $-posur$, and th$ $arly li$ with a
lowly "an.
:6=1 ;$ry si"ilar traits ar$ ound in th$ +$ltic saga o 4abis, as trans"itt$d by *ustin.
,orn as th$ ill$giti"at$ son o a king%s daught$r, 4abis is p$rs$cut$d in all sorts o ways
by his royal grandath$r, 3argoris, but is always sa'$d by di'in$ pro'id$nc$, until h$ is
inally r$cogni<$d by his grandath$r and assu"$s royal sway. As in th$ Moroast$r
l$g$nd, th$r$ occurs an $ntir$ s$ri$s o th$ "ost 'ari$d "$thods o p$rs$cution. 4$ is at
irst $-pos$d, but nurs$d by wild ani"als? th$n h$ was to b$ tra"pl$d upon by a h$rd in
a narrow path? th$n h$ was cast b$or$ hungry b$asts, but th$y again nurs$d hi"? and
inally h$ is thrown into th$ s$a, but is g$ntly lapp$d ashor$ and nurs$d by a do$, n$ar
which h$ grows up.
:6=( +o"par$ !pi$g$l, op. cit., ;ol. 1., pp. 688 .? also ,rodb$ck, op. cit.
:6=3 As in th$ history o *$sus? co"par$ Auk$ (=41/49.
:6=4 +o"par$ August Rass"ann= &ie deutsche He!densage and ihre Hei"at (4ano'$r,
18:C/8), ;ol. 11, pp. C? or th$ sourc$s, s$$ *iric<$k= Hi$ d$utsch$ 4$ld$nsag$, and
5ip$r%s introduction to th$ 'olu"$ &ie 2ibe!ungen, in GFrschn$r%s 5er"an 2ationa!
:8=1 +o"par$= &eutsches He!denbuch, ;ol. 1, 5art 111 (,$rlin, 18C1), $dit$d by
A"$lung and *a$nick$, which also contains a s$cond '$rsion o th$ 0oldi$trich saga.
:8=( &h$ "oti'$ o calu"niation o th$ wi$ by a r$B$ct$d suitor, in co"bination with
th$ $-posur$ and nursing by an ani"al (do$), or"s th$ nucl$us o th$ story o
3$no'$a and h$r son !ch"$r<$nr$ich, as told, or $-a"pl$, by th$ 3ri"" broth$rs=
H$utsch$ !ag$n (,$rlin, 1818), ;ol. 11, pp. (8) . 4$r$ again th$ aithl$ss calu"niator
propos$s to dro#n the countess and her chi!d. #or lit$rary and historical ori$ntation,
co"par$ A. Mach$r= &ie Historie 8on der Pfa!/gr(fin 5eno8efa (Go$nigsb$rg, 186))?
and ,. !$u$rt= &ie 9egende 8on der Pfa!/gr(fin 5eno8efa (0ur<burg, 18CC). !i"ilar
l$g$nds o wi'$s susp$ct$d o inid$lity and punish$d by $-posur$ ar$ discuss$d in
+hapt$r -i o "y $n/est"oti8.
:8=3 &h$ sa"$ acc$ntuation o th$ ani"al "oti is ound in th$ saga o !chalT, th$
4indu wol/child. +o"par$ *Flg, op. cit.
&h$ wid$ly distribut$d group o sagas that ha'$ b$$n wo'$n around th$ "ythical Gnight
with th$ !wan (th$ old #r$nch +h$'ali$r au cigne) can b$ trac$d back to '$ry anci$nt
+$ltic traditions. &h$ ollowing is th$ '$rsion which has b$$n "ad$ a"iliar by
0agn$r%s dra"ati<ation o this th$"$//th$ story o Aoh$ngrin, th$ Gnight with th$
!wan, as trans"itt$d by th$ "$di$'al 3$r"an $pic ("od$rni<$d by *unghaus) and
bri$ly r$nd$r$d by th$ 3ri"" broth$rs und$r th$ titl$ >Aoh$ngrin in ,rabant.> 1
&h$ Huk$ o ,rabant and Ai"burg di$d, without l$a'ing oth$r h$irs than a
young daught$r, 2ls, or 2lsa by na"$? h$r h$ r$co""$nd$d on his d$athb$d to
on$ o his r$tain$rs, #ri$drich 'on &$lra"und. #ri$drich, th$ intr$pid warrior,
b$ca"$ $"bold$n$d to d$"and th$ youthul duch$ssO hand and lands, und$r th$
als$ clai" that sh$ had pro"is$d to "arry hi". !h$ st$adastly r$us$d to do so.
#ri$drich co"plain$d to 2"p$ror 4$nry 1 (>th$ #owl$r>), and th$ '$rdict was
that sh$ "ust d$$nd h$rs$l against hi", through so"$ h$ro, in a so/call$d
di'in$ Budg"$nt, in which 3od would accord th$ 'ictory to th$ innoc$nt, and
d$$at th$ guilty. As non$ w$r$ r$ady to tak$ h$r part, th$ young duch$ss pray$d
ard$ntly to 3od to sa'$ h$r? and ar away in distant 7ontsal'atsch, in th$
+ouncil o th$ 3rail, th$ sound o th$ b$ll was h$ard, showing that th$r$ was
so"$on$ in
p. 6)
urg$nt n$$d o h$lp. &h$ 3rail th$r$or$ r$sol'$d to d$spatch as a r$scu$r,
Aoh$ngrin, th$ son o 5arsial. *ust as h$ was about to plac$ his oot in th$
stirrup a s#an ca"e f!oating do#n the #ater dra#ing a s,iff behind hi". As
soon as Aoh$ngrin s$t $y$s upon th$ swan, h$ $-clai"$d= >&ak$ th$ st$$d back
to th$ "ang$r? 1 shall ollow this bird wh$r$'$r h$ "ay l$ad "$.> 4a'ing aith in
3od%s o"nipot$nc$, h$ took no ood with hi" in th$ ski. At$r th$y had b$$n
aloat i'$ days, th$ swan dipp$d his bill in th$ wat$r, caught a ish, at$ on$ hal
o it, and ga'$ th$ oth$r hal to th$ princ$ to $at. Thus the ,night #as fed by the
7$anwhil$ 2lsa had su""on$d h$r chi$tains and r$tain$rs to a "$$ting in
Antw$rp. 5r$cis$ly on th$ day o th$ ass$"bly, a swan was sight$d swi""ing
upstr$a" (ri'$r !ch$ldt) and drawing b$hind hi" a ski, in which Aoh$ngrin lay
asl$$p on his shi$ld. &h$ swan pro"ptly ca"$ to land at th$ shor$, and th$
princ$ was Boyully w$lco"$d. 4ardly had his h$l"$t, shi$ld, and sword b$$n
tak$n ro" th$ ski, wh$n th$ swan at onc$ swa" away again. Aoh$ngrin h$ard
o th$ wrong which had b$$n don$ to th$ duch$ss and willingly cons$nt$d to
b$co"$ h$r cha"pion. 2lsa th$n su""on$d all h$r r$lati'$s and subB$cts. A
plac$ was pr$par$d in 7ain< or Aoh$ngrin and #ri$drich to ight in th$
$"p$ror%s pr$s$nc$. &h$ h$ro o th$ 3rail d$$at$d #ri$drich, who con$ss$d
ha'ing li$d to th$ duch$ss, and was $-$cut$d with th$ a-$. 2lsa was award$d to
Aoh$ngrin, th$y ha'ing long b$$n lo'$rs? but h$ s$cr$tly insisted u%on her
a8oiding a!! =uestions as to his ancestry, or #hence he had co"e, saying that
oth$rwis$ h$ would ha'$ to l$a'$ h$r instantan$ously and sh$ would n$'$r s$$
hi" again.
#or so"$ ti"$, th$ coupl$ li'$d in p$ac$ and happin$ss. Aoh$ngrin was a wis$
and "ighty rul$r o'$r his land, and also s$r'$d his $"p$ror w$ll in his
$-p$ditions against th$ 4uns and th$ h$ath$n. ,ut it ca"$ to pass that on$ day in
throwing th$ Ba'$lin h$ unhors$d th$ Huk$ o +l$'$, so that th$ latt$r brok$ an
ar". &h$ Huch$ss o +l$'$ was angry, and spok$
p. 61
out a"ongst th$ wo"$n, saying, >Aoh$ngrin "ay b$ bra'$ $nough, and h$ s$$"s
to b$ a good +hristian? what a pity that his nobility is not o "uch account for
no one ,no#s #hence he has co"e f!oating to this !and.> &h$s$ words pi$rc$d
th$ h$art o th$ Huch$ss o ,rabant, and sh$ chang$d color with $"otion. At
night, wh$n h$r spous$ was holding h$r in his ar"s, sh$ w$pt, and h$ said,
>0hat is th$ "att$r, 2lsa, "y own@> !h$ "ad$ answ$r, >&h$ Huch$ss o +l$'$
has caus$d "$ sor$ pain.> Aoh$ngrin was sil$nt and ask$d no "or$. &h$ s$cond
night, th$ sa"$ ca"$ to pass. ,ut in th$ third night, 2lsa could no long$r r$tain
h$rs$l, and sh$ spok$= >Aord, do not chid$ "$P $ #ish to ,no#, for our
chi!dren<s sa,e, #hence you #ere born? or "y h$art t$lls "$ that you ar$ o
high rank.> 0h$n th$ day brok$, Aoh$ngrin d$clar$d in public wh$nc$ h$ had
co"$, that 5arsial was his ath$r, and 3od had s$nt hi" ro" th$ 3rail. 4$ th$n
ask$d or his two childr$n, which th$ duch$ss had born$ hi", kiss$d th$", told
th$" to tak$ good car$ o his horn and sword, which h$ would l$a'$ b$hind, and
said= >9ow, 1 "ust b$ gon$.> &o th$ duch$ss h$ l$t a littl$ ring which his "oth$r
had gi'$n hi". &h$n th$ swan, his ri$nd, carn$ swi""ing switly, with th$ ski
b$hind hi"? th$ princ$ st$pp$d in and cross$d th$ wat$r, back to th$ s$r'ic$ o
th$ 3rail. 2lsa sank down in a aint. &h$ $"pr$ss r$sol'$d to ,ee% the younger
boy 9ohengrin, for his father<s sa,e, and to bring hi" u% as her o#n chi!d. ,ut
th$ widow w$pt and "ourn$d th$ r$st o h$r li$ or h$r b$lo'$d spous$, who
n$'$r ca"$ back to h$r. 1
On in'$rting th$ Aoh$ngrin saga in such a way that th$ $nd is plac$d irst//on th$ basis
o th$ r$arrang$"$nt, or $'$n trans"utation o "otis, not unco""only ound in
p. 6(
"yths//w$ ind th$ typ$ o saga with which w$ ha'$ now b$co"$ a"iliar= &h$ inant
Aoh$ngrin, who is id$ntical with his ath$r o th$ sa"$ na"$, f!oats in a 8esse! u%on the
sea and is carried ashore by a s#an. The e"%ress ado%ts hi" as her son, and he
beco"es a 8a!orous hero. 4a'ing "arri$d a nobl$ "aid$n o th$ land, h$ orbids h$r to
in.uir$ as to his origin. 0h$n th$ co""and is brok$n h$ is oblig$d to r$'$al his
"iraculous d$sc$nt and di'in$ "ission, at$r which th$ swan carri$s hi" back in his
ski to th$ 3rail.
Oth$r '$rsions o th$ saga o th$ Gnight with th$ !wan ha'$ r$tain$d this original
arrang$"$nt o th$ "otis, although th$y app$ar co""ingl$d with $l$"$nts o airy
tal$s. &h$ saga o th$ Gnight with th$ !wan, as r$lat$d in th$ #l$"ish Peo%!e<s Boo,, 1
contains in th$ b$ginning th$ history o th$ birth o s$'$n childr$n, ( born$ by ,$atri-,
th$ wi$ o Ging Oriant o #land$rs. 7atabruna, th$ wick$d "oth$r o th$ abs$nt king,
ord$rs that th$ childr$n b$ kill$d and th$ .u$$n b$ gi'$n s$'$n puppy dogs in th$ir
st$ad. ,ut th$ s$r'ant cont$nts hi"s$l with th$ $-posur$ o th$ childr$n, who ar$ ound
by a h$r"it na"$d 4$lias, and ar$ nourish$d by a goat until th$y ar$ grown. ,$atri- is
thrown into a dung$on. Aat$r on, 7atabruna l$arns that th$ childr$n ha'$ b$$n sa'$d?
h$r r$p$at$d co""and to kill th$" caus$s h$r hunt$r to bring h$r as a sign o appar$nt
ob$di$nc$ th$ sil'$r n$ck chains which th$ childr$n alr$ady wor$ at th$ ti"$ o th$ir
birth. On$ o th$ boys//na"$d 4$lias, at$r his ost$r ath$r//alon$ k$$ps his chain, and
is th$r$by sa'$d ro" th$ at$ o his broth$rs, who ar$ transor"$d into swans as soon
as th$ir chains ar$ r$"o'$d. 7atabruna 'olunt$$rs to pro'$ th$ r$lations o th$ .u$$n
with th$ dog, and upon h$r instigation, ,$atri-
p. 63
is to b$ kill$d, unl$ss a cha"pion aris$s to d$$nd h$r. 1n h$r n$$d, sh$ prays to 3od,
who s$nds h$r son 4$lias as a r$scu$r. &h$ broth$rs ar$ also sa'$d by "$ans o th$
oth$r chains, $-c$pt on$, whos$ chain has alr$ady b$$n "$lt$d down. Ging Oriant now
trans$rs th$ rul$rship to his son 4$lias, who caus$s th$ wick$d 7atabruna to b$ burn$d.
On$ day, 4$lias s$$s his broth$r, th$ swan, drawing a ski on th$ lak$ surrounding th$
castl$. &his h$ r$gards as a h$a'$nly sign? h$ ar"s hi"s$l and "ounts th$ ski. &h$
swan tak$s hi" through ri'$rs and lak$s to th$ plac$ wh$r$ 3od has ordain$d hi" to go.
9$-t ollows th$ lib$ration o an innoc$ntly accus$d duch$ss, in analogy with th$
Aoh$ngrin saga? and his "arriag$ to h$r daught$r +larissa, who is orbidd$n to ask
about h$r husband%s anc$stry. 1n th$ s$'$nth y$ar o th$ir "arriag$ sh$ disob$ys and
puts th$ .u$stion, at$r which 4$lias r$turns ho"$ in th$ swan%s ski. #inally, his lost
broth$r swan is lik$wis$ r$l$as$d.
&h$ charact$ristic $atur$s o th$ Aoh$ngrin saga//th$ disapp$aranc$ o th$ di'in$ h$ro
in th$ sa"$ "yst$rious ashion in which h$ has arri'$d? th$ trans$r$nc$ o "ythical
"otis ro" th$ li$ o th$ old$r h$ro to a young$r on$ b$aring th$ sa"$ na"$ (a
uni'$rsal proc$ss in "yth or"ation)//ar$ lik$wis$ $"bodi$d in th$ Anglo/Ao"bard
saga o !c$a, who r$app$ars in th$ 5r$lud$ to th$ Anglo/!a-on Beo#u!f, th$ old$st
&$utonic $pic. 4$r$, h$ is call$d !cyld th$ !c$ung ("$aning >son o !c$a>) and his
origin as a oundling is r$$rr$d to. &h$ old$r l$g$nd t$lls that h$ r$c$i'$d his na"$
b$caus$ as a '$ry young boy h$ was cast ashor$, as a strang$r, asl$$p in a boat on a
sh$a o grain (Anglo/!a-on= sceaf) . &h$ wa'$s o th$ s$a carri$d hi" to th$ coast o
th$ country h$ was d$stin$d to d$$nd. &h$ inhabitants w$lco"$d his arri'al as a
"iracl$, rais$d hi", and lat$r on "ad$ hi" th$ir king, consid$ring hi" a di'in$
$"issary. 1 0hat was told o th$ ath$r now is
p. 64
trans$rr$d in th$ ,$owul $pic to his son, also call$d !cyld. 1 4is body is $-pos$d, as
h$ had ord$r$d b$or$ his d$ath, surround$d by kingly spl$ndor, upon a ship without a
cr$w, which is s$nt out into th$ s$a. &hus h$ 'anish$d in th$ sa"$ "yst$rious "ann$r in
which his ath$r arri'$d ashor$, this trait b$ing account$d or, in analogy with th$
Aoh$ngrin saga, by th$ "ythical id$ntity o ath$r and son.
:9=1 *unghaus= 9ohengrin (R$cla" $dition)? 3ri"" broth$rs, op. cit., ;ol. 11, p. 3)6.
61=1 &h$ 3ri"" broth$rs (op. cit., ;ol. 11., pp. 3)6 .) .uot$ si- urth$r '$rsions o th$
saga o th$ Gnight with th$ !wan. +$rtain airy tal$s o th$ 3ri"" broth$rs//such as
>&h$ !i- !wans> (9o. 49), >&h$ &w$l'$ ,roth$rs> (9o. 9), and th$ >!$'$n Ra'$ns>
(9o. (:), with th$ir parall$ls and 'ariations, "$ntion$d in th$ third 'olu"$ o .inder-
and Haus"(rchen//also b$long to th$ sa"$ "ythological cycl$. #urth$r "at$rial ro"
this cycl$ "ay b$ ound in 4. A$o= ,$owul (4all$, 1839), and in 3Krr$= $ntroduction to
9ohengrin (4$id$lb$rg, 1813).
6(=1 3ri""= &eutsche -agen, ;ol. 1., p. (9.
6(=( &h$ anci$nt Ao"bard tal$ o th$ $-posur$ o Ging Aa"issio, r$lat$d by 5aulus
Hiaconus (A, 1:), gi'$s a si"ilar incid$nt. A public wo"an had thrown h$r s$'$n
n$wborn inants into a ishpond. Ging Ag$l"und pass$d by and look$d curiously at th$
childr$n, turning th$" around with his sp$ar. ,ut wh$n on$ o th$ childr$n took hold o
th$ sp$ar, th$ king consid$r$d this as a good augury? h$ ord$r$d this boy to b$ tak$n out
o th$ pond, and to b$ gi'$n to a w$t nurs$. As h$ had tak$n hi" ro" th$ pond, which
in his languag$ is call$d !a"a, h$ na"$d th$ boy Aa"issio. 4$ gr$w up into a stalwart
cha"pion, and at$r Ag$l"und%s d$ath, b$ca"$ king o th$ Ao"bards.
63=1 +o"par$ 3ri""= &eutsche -agen, ;ol. 1, p. 3)6? ;ol. 111, p. 391? and A$o, op. cit.,
p. (4.
64=1 -caf is th$ 4igh 3$r"an -chaffing (>barr$l>), which l$ads A$o (op cit.) to assu"$,
in conn$ction with !cyld%s b$ing call$d !c$ing, that h$ had no ath$r !c$a or !cha at
all, but was hi"s$l th$ boy cast ashor$ by th$ wa'$s, and was na"$d th$ >son o th$
barr$l> (-chaffing). &h$ na"$ ,$owul its$l, $-plain$d by 3ri"" as Bienen-Wo!f
(>b$$/wol>), s$$"s to "$an originally, according to 4. 'on 0ol<og$n (translator into
3$r"an o th$ R$cla" $dition o Beo#u!f), B(r#e!f, na"$ly Jungb(r (>b$ar cub> or
>b$ar wh$lp>), which is sugg$sti'$ o th$ saga o th$ origin o th$ 3u$lphs (3ri""=
H$utsch$ !ag$n, ;ol. 11, p. (33), wh$r$ th$ boys ar$ to b$ thrown into th$ wat$r as
p. 6:
III. The Interpretation of the Myths
A +RR!ORQ r$'i$w o th$s$ 'ari$gat$d h$ro "yths orcibly brings out a s$ri$s o
unior"ly co""on $atur$s, with a typical groundwork, ro" which a standard saga, as
it w$r$, "ay b$ construct$d. &his sch$dul$ corr$sponds appro-i"at$ly to th$ id$al
hu"an sk$l$ton that is constantly s$$n, with "inor d$'iations, on transillu"ination o
igur$s that outwardly di$r ro" on$ anoth$r. &h$ indi'idual traits o th$ s$'$ral
"yths, and $sp$cially th$ appar$ntly crud$ 'ariations ro" th$ prototyp$, can b$ $ntir$ly
$lucidat$d only by "yth int$rpr$tation.
&h$ standard saga its$l "ay b$ or"ulat$d according to th$ ollowing outlin$= &h$ h$ro
is th$ child o "ost distinguish$d par$nts, usually th$ son o a king. 4is origin is
pr$c$d$d by diiculti$s, such as contin$nc$, or prolong$d barr$nn$ss, or s$cr$t
int$rcours$ o th$ par$nts du$ to $-t$rnal prohibition or obstacl$s. Huring or b$or$ th$
pr$gnancy, th$r$ is a proph$cy, in th$ or" o a dr$a" or oracl$, cautioning against his
birth, and usually thr$at$ning dang$r to th$ ath$r (or his r$pr$s$ntati'$). As a rul$, h$ is
surr$nd$r$d to th$ wat$r, in a bo-. 4$ is th$n sa'$d by ani"als, or by lowly p$opl$
(sh$ph$rds), and is suckl$d by a $"al$ ani"al or by an hu"bl$ wo"an. At$r h$ has
grown up, h$ inds his distinguish$d par$nts, in a highly '$rsatil$ ashion. 4$ tak$s his
r$'$ng$ on his ath$r, on th$ on$ hand, and is acknowl$dg$d, on th$ oth$r. #inally h$
achi$'$s rank and honors. 1
!inc$ th$ nor"al r$lations o th$ h$ro toward his ath$r and his "oth$r r$gularly app$ar
i"pair$d in all th$s$
p. 66
"yths, as shown by th$ outlin$, th$r$ is r$ason to assu"$ that so"$thing in th$ natur$ o
th$ h$ro "ust account or such a disturbanc$, and "oti'$s o this kind ar$ not '$ry
diicult to disco'$r. 1t is r$adily und$rstood//and "ay b$ not$d in th$ "od$rn
i"itations o th$ h$roic ag$//that or th$ h$ro, who is $-pos$d to $n'y, B$alousy, and
calu"ny to a "uch high$r d$gr$$ than all oth$rs, th$ d$sc$nt ro" his par$nts ot$n
b$co"$s th$ sourc$ o th$ gr$at$st distr$ss and $"barrass"$nt. &h$ old saying that >A
proph$t is not without honour, sa'$ in his own country and in his ath$r%s hous$,> has no
oth$r "$aning but that h$ whos$ par$nts, broth$rs and sist$rs, or play"at$s, ar$ known
to us, is not so r$adily conc$d$d to b$ a proph$t. &h$r$ s$$"s to b$ a c$rtain n$c$ssity
or th$ proph$t to d$ny his par$nts? th$ w$ll/known 7$y$rb$$r op$ra is bas$d upon th$
a'owal that th$ proph$tic h$ro is allow$d, in a'or o his "ission, to abandon and
r$pudiat$ $'$n his t$nd$rly lo'ing "oth$r.
A nu"b$r o diiculti$s aris$, how$'$r, as w$ proc$$d to a d$$p$r in.uiry into th$
"oti'$s which oblig$ th$ h$ro to s$'$r his a"ily r$lations. 9u"$rous in'$stigators
ha'$ $"phasi<$d that th$ und$rstanding o "yth or"ation r$.uir$s our going back to
th$ir ulti"at$ sourc$, na"$ly th$ indi'idual aculty o i"agination. 1 &h$ act has also
b$$n point$d out that this i"aginati'$ aculty is ound in its acti'$ and unch$ck$d
$-ub$ranc$ only in childhood. &h$r$or$, th$ i"aginati'$ li$ o th$ child should irst b$
studi$d, in ord$r to acilitat$ th$ und$rstanding o th$ ar "or$ co"pl$- and also "or$
handicapp$d "ythological and artistic i"agination in g$n$ral.
7$anwhil$, th$ in'$stigation o th$ Bu'$nil$ aculty o i"agination has hardly
co""$nc$d, inst$ad o b$ing suici$ntly ad'anc$d to p$r"it th$ utili<ation o th$
indings or th$ $-planation o th$ "or$ co"plicat$d psychic acti'iti$s. &h$ r$ason or
this i"p$r$ct und$rstanding o th$ psychic li$ o th$ child is trac$abl$ to th$ lack o a
suitabl$ instru"$nt, as w$ll as o a r$liabl$ a'$nu$, l$ading into th$ intricaci$s o this
'$ry d$licat$ and rath$r inacc$ssibl$ do"ain. &h$s$ Bu'$nil$ $"otions can by no "$ans
p. 6C
studi$d in th$ nor"al hu"an adult, and it "ay actually b$ charg$d, in 'i$w o c$rtain
psychic disturbanc$s, that th$ nor"al psychic int$grity o nor"al subB$cts consists
pr$cis$ly in th$ir ha'ing o'$rco"$ and orgott$n th$ir childish 'agari$s and
i"aginations? so that th$ way has b$co"$ block$d. 1n childr$n, on th$ oth$r hand,
$"pirical obs$r'ation (which as a rul$ "ust r$"ain "$r$ly sup$ricial) ails in th$
in'$stigation o psychic proc$ss$s b$caus$ w$ ar$ not as y$t $nabl$d to trac$ all
"ani$stations corr$ctly to th$ir "oti'$ orc$s? so that w$ ar$ lacking th$ instru"$nt.
&h$r$ is a c$rtain class o p$rsons, th$ so/call$d psycho/n$urotics, shown by th$
t$achings o #r$ud to ha'$ r$"ain$d childr$n, in a s$ns$, although oth$rwis$ app$aring
grown/up. &h$s$ psychon$urotics "ay b$ said not to ha'$ gi'$n up th$ir Bu'$nil$
psychic li$, which on th$ contrary, in th$ cours$ o "aturity has b$co"$ str$ngth$n$d
and i-$d, inst$ad o "odii$d. 1n psychon$urotics, th$ $"otions o th$ child ar$
pr$s$r'$d and $-agg$rat$d, thus b$co"ing capabl$ o pathological $$cts, in which
th$s$ hu"bl$ $"otions app$ar broad$n$d and $nor"ously "agnii$d. &h$ anci$s o
n$urotics ar$, as it w$r$, th$ unior"ly $-agg$rat$d r$productions o th$ childish
i"aginings. &his would point th$ way to a solution o th$ probl$". Rnortunat$ly,
how$'$r, acc$ss is still "uch "or$ diicult to $stablish in th$s$ cas$s than to th$ child
"ind. &h$r$ is only on$ known instru"$nt which "ak$s this road practicabl$, na"$ly
th$ psychoanalytic "$thod, which has b$$n d$'$lop$d through th$ work o #r$ud.
+onstant handling o this instru"$nt will cl$ar th$ obs$r'$r%s 'ision to such a d$gr$$
that h$ will b$ $nabl$d to disco'$r th$ id$ntical "oti'$ orc$s, only in d$licat$ly shad$d
"ani$stations, also in th$ psychic li$ o thos$ who do not b$co"$ n$urotics lat$r on.
5ro$ssor #r$ud had th$ kindn$ss to plac$ at th$ author%s disposal his 'aluabl$
$-p$ri$nc$ with th$ psychology o th$ n$uros$s? and on this "at$rial ar$ bas$d th$
ollowing co""$nts on th$ i"aginati'$ aculty o th$ child as w$ll as o th$ n$urotic.
&h$ d$tach"$nt o th$ growing indi'idual ro" th$ authority o th$ par$nts is on$ o th$
"ost n$c$ssary, but also
p. 68
on$ o th$ "ost painul achi$'$"$nts o $'olution. 1t is absolut$ly n$c$ssary or this
d$tach"$nt to tak$ plac$, and it "ay b$ assu"$d that all nor"al grown indi'iduals ha'$
acco"plish$d it to a c$rtain $-t$nt. !ocial progr$ss is $ss$ntially bas$d upon this
opposition b$tw$$n th$ two g$n$rations. On th$ oth$r hand, th$r$ $-ists a class o
n$urotics whos$ condition indicat$s that th$y ha'$ ail$d to sol'$ this '$ry probl$". #or
th$ young child, th$ par$nts ar$, in th$ irst plac$, th$ sol$ authority and th$ sourc$ o all
aith. &o r$s$"bl$ th$", i.$., th$ prog$nitor o th$ sa"$ s$-//to grow up lik$ ath$r or
"oth$r//this is th$ "ost int$ns$ and port$ntous wish o th$ child%s $arly y$ars.
5rogr$ssi'$ int$ll$ctual d$'$lop"$nt naturally brings it about that th$ child gradually
b$co"$s ac.uaint$d with th$ cat$gory to which th$ par$nts b$long. Oth$r par$nts
b$co"$ known to th$ child, who co"par$s th$s$ with his own, and th$r$by b$co"$s
Bustii$d in doubting th$ inco"parability and uni.u$n$ss with which h$ had in'$st$d
th$". &riling occurr$nc$s in th$ li$ o th$ child, which induc$ a "ood o
dissatisaction, l$ad up to a criticis" o th$ par$nts? and th$ gath$ring con'iction that
oth$r par$nts ar$ pr$$rabl$ in c$rtain ways is utili<$d or this attitud$ o th$ child
toward th$ par$nts.
#ro" th$ psychology o th$ n$urosis, w$ ha'$ l$arn$d that '$ry int$ns$ $"otions o
s$-ual ri'alry ar$ also in'ol'$d in this conn$ction. &h$ causati'$ actor $'id$ntly is th$
$$ling o b$ing n$gl$ct$d. Opportuniti$s aris$ only too r$.u$ntly wh$n th$ child is
n$gl$ct$d, or at l$ast $$ls hi"s$l n$gl$ct$d, wh$n h$ "iss$s th$ $ntir$ lo'$ o th$
par$nts, or at l$ast r$gr$ts ha'ing to shar$ this with th$ oth$r childr$n o th$ a"ily. &h$
$$ling that on$%s own inclinations ar$ not $ntir$ly r$ciprocat$d s$$ks its r$li$ in th$
id$a//ot$n consciously r$"$"b$r$d ro" '$ry $arly y$ars//o b$ing a st$pchild, or an
adopt$d child. 7any p$rsons who ha'$ not b$co"$ n$urotics '$ry r$.u$ntly r$"$"b$r
occasions o this kind, wh$n th$ hostil$ b$ha'ior o th$ par$nts was int$rpr$t$d and
r$ciprocat$d by th$" in this ashion, usually und$r th$ inlu$nc$ o storybooks. &h$
inlu$nc$ o s$- is alr$ady $'id$nt, in so ar as th$ boy shows a ar gr$at$r t$nd$ncy to
harbor hostil$ $$lings
p. 69
against his ath$r than his "oth$r, with a "uch strong$r inclination to $"ancipat$
hi"s$l ro" th$ ath$r than ro" th$ "oth$r. &h$ i"aginati'$ aculty o girls is
possibly "uch l$ss acti'$ in this r$sp$ct.
&h$s$ consciously r$"$"b$r$d psychic $"otions o th$ y$ars o childhood supply th$
actor which p$r"its th$ int$rpr$tation o th$ "yth. 0hat is not ot$n consciously
r$"$"b$r$d, but can al"ost in'ariably b$ d$"onstrat$d through psychoanalysis, is th$
n$-t stag$ in th$ d$'$lop"$nt o this incipi$nt ali$nation ro" th$ par$nts, which "ay
b$ d$signat$d by th$ t$r" >a"ily ro"anc$ o n$urotics.> &h$ $ss$nc$ o n$urosis, and
o all high$r "$ntal .ualiications, co"pris$s a sp$cial acti'ity o th$ i"agination that is
pri"arily "ani$st$d in th$ play o th$ child, and which ro" about th$ p$riod pr$c$ding
pub$rty tak$s hold o th$ th$"$ o th$ a"ily r$lations. A charact$ristic $-a"pl$ o this
sp$cial i"aginati'$ aculty is r$pr$s$nt$d by th$ a"iliar daydrea"s, 1 which ar$
continu$d until long at$r pub$rty. Accurat$ obs$r'ation o th$s$ daydr$a"s shows that
th$y s$r'$ or th$ ulill"$nt o wish$s, or th$ righting o li$, and that th$y ha'$ two
$ss$ntial obB$cts, on$ $rotic, th$ oth$r o an a"bitious natur$ (usually with th$ $rotic
actor conc$al$d th$r$in). About th$ ti"$ in .u$stion, th$ child%s i"agination is $ngag$d
upon th$ task o g$tting rid o th$ par$nts, who ar$ now d$spis$d and ar$ as a rul$ to b$
supplant$d by oth$rs o a high$r social rank. &h$ child utili<$s an accid$ntal coincid$nc$
o actual happ$nings ("$$tings with th$ lord o th$ "anor or th$ propri$tor o th$ $stat$,
in th$ country? with th$ r$igning princ$, in th$ city? in th$ Rnit$d !tat$s, with so"$
gr$at stat$s"an or "illionair$). Accid$ntal occurr$nc$s o this kind arous$ th$ child%s
$n'y, and this inds its $-pr$ssion in ancy abrics which r$plac$ th$ two par$nts by
oth$rs o a high$r rank. &h$ t$chnical $laboration o th$s$ two i"aginings, which o
cours$ by this ti"$ ha'$ b$co"$ conscious, d$p$nds upon th$ child%s adroitn$ss and
also upon th$ "at$rial at his disposal. 1t is lik$wis$ a actor
p. C)
wh$th$r th$s$ anci$s ar$ $laborat$d with "or$ or l$ss clai" to plausibility. &his stag$ is
r$ach$d at a ti"$ wh$n th$ child is still lacking all knowl$dg$ o th$ s$-ual conditions
o d$sc$nt.
0ith th$ add$d knowl$dg$ o th$ "aniold s$-ual r$lations o ath$r and "oth$r//with
th$ child%s r$ali<ation o th$ act that th$ ath$r is always unc$rtain, wh$r$as th$ "oth$r
is '$ry c$rtain//th$ a"ily ro"anc$ und$rgo$s a p$culiar r$striction= it is satisi$d with
$nnobling th$ ath$r, whil$ th$ d$sc$nt ro" th$ "oth$r is no long$r .u$stion$d, but
acc$pt$d as an unalt$rabl$ act. &his s$cond (or s$-ual) stag$ o th$ a"ily ro"anc$ is
"or$o'$r support$d by anoth$r "oti'$, which did not $-ist in th$ irst (or as$-ual)
stag$. Gnowl$dg$ o s$-ual "att$rs gi'$s ris$ to th$ t$nd$ncy to pictur$ $rotic situations
and r$lations, i"p$ll$d by th$ pl$asurabl$ $"otion o placing th$ "oth$r, or th$ subB$ct
o th$ gr$at$st s$-ual curiosity, in th$ situation o s$cr$t unaithuln$ss and cland$stin$
lo'$ aairs. 1n this way th$ pri"ary or as$-ual antasi$s ar$ rais$d to th$ standard o th$
i"pro'$d lat$r und$rstanding.
&h$ "oti'$ o r$'$ng$ and r$taliation, which was originally to th$ ront, is again
$'id$nt. &h$s$ n$urotic childr$n ar$ "ostly thos$ who w$r$ punish$d by th$ par$nts to
br$ak th$" o bad s$-ual habits, and th$y tak$ th$ir r$'$ng$ upon th$ir par$nts by th$ir
i"aginings. &h$ young$r childr$n o a a"ily ar$ particularly inclin$d to d$pri'$ th$ir
pr$d$c$ssors o th$ir ad'antag$ by abl$s o this kind ($-actly as in th$ intrigu$s o
history). #r$.u$ntly th$y do not h$sitat$ in cr$diting th$ "oth$r with as "any lo'$
aairs as th$r$ ar$ ri'als. An int$r$sting 'ariation o this a"ily ro"anc$ r$stor$s th$
l$giti"acy o th$ plotting h$ro hi"s$l, whil$ th$ oth$r childr$n ar$ dispos$d o in this
way as ill$giti"at$. &h$ a"ily ro"anc$ "ay b$ go'$rn$d b$sid$s by a sp$cial int$r$st,
all sorts o inclinations b$ing "$t by its adaptability and 'ari$gat$d charact$r. &h$ littl$
ro"anc$r g$ts rid in this ashion, or $-a"pl$, o th$ kinship o a sist$r who "ay ha'$
attract$d hi" s$-ually.
&hos$ who turn asid$ with horror ro" this corruption o th$ child "ind, or p$rhaps
actually cont$st th$ possibility
p. C1
o such "att$rs, should not$ that all th$s$ appar$ntly hostil$ i"aginings ha'$ not such a
'$ry bad signiicanc$ at$r all, and that th$ original a$ction o th$ child or his par$nts
is still pr$s$r'$d und$r th$ir thin disguis$. &h$ aithl$ssn$ss and ingratitud$ on th$ part
o th$ child ar$ only appar$nt, or on in'$stigating in d$tail th$ "ost co""on o th$s$
ro"antic anci$s//th$ substitution o both par$nts, or o th$ ath$r alon$, by "or$
$-alt$d p$rsonag$s//th$ disco'$ry will b$ "ad$ that th$s$ n$w and highborn par$nts=
ar$ in'$st$d throughout with th$ .ualiti$s which ar$ d$ri'$d ro" r$al "$"ori$s o th$
tru$ lowly par$nts, so that th$ child do$s not actually r$"o'$ his ath$r but $-alts hi".
The entire endea8or to re%!ace the rea! father by a "ore distinguished one is "ere!y the
e7%ression of the chi!d<s !onging for the 8anished ha%%y ti"e, #hen his father sti!!
a%%eared to be the strongest and greatest "an, and the "other see"ed the dearest and
"ost beautifu! #o"an. &h$ child turns away ro" th$ ath$r, as h$ now knows hi", to
th$ ath$r in who" h$ b$li$'$d in his $arli$r y$ars, his i"agination b$ing in truth only
th$ $-pr$ssion o r$gr$t or this happy ti"$ ha'ing pass$d away. Thus the o8er8a!uation
of the ear!iest years of chi!dhood again c!ai"s its o#n in these fancies. 1 An int$r$sting
contribution to this subB$ct is urnish$d by th$ study o dr$a"s. Hr$a"/int$rpr$tation
t$ach$s that $'$n in lat$r y$ars, in th$ dr$a"s o th$ $"p$ror or th$ $"pr$ss, th$s$
princ$ly p$rsons stand or th$ ath$r and th$ "oth$r. ( &hus th$ inantil$ o'$r'aluation
o th$ par$nts is still pr$s$r'$d in th$ dr$a" o th$ nor"al adult.
As w$ proc$$d to it th$ abo'$ $atur$s into our sch$"$, w$ $$l Bustii$d in analogi<ing
th$ $go o th$ child with th$ h$ro o th$ "yth, in 'i$w o th$ unani"ous t$nd$ncy o
a"ily ro"anc$s and h$ro "yths? k$$ping in "ind that th$ "yth throughout r$'$als an
$nd$a'or to g$t rid o th$ par$nts, and that th$ sa"$ wish aris$s in th$ antasi$s o th$
indi'idual child at th$ ti"$ wh$n h$ is trying to
p. C(
$stablish his p$rsonal ind$p$nd$nc$. &h$ $go o th$ child b$ha'$s in this r$sp$ct lik$ th$
h$ro o th$ "yth, and as a "att$r o act, th$ h$ro should always b$ int$rpr$t$d "$r$ly
as a coll$cti'$ $go, which is $.uipp$d with all th$ $-c$ll$nc$s. 1n a si"ilar "ann$r, th$
h$ro in p$rsonal po$tic iction usually r$pr$s$nts th$ po$t hi"s$l, or at l$ast on$ sid$ o
his charact$r.
!u""ari<ing th$ $ss$ntials o th$ h$ro "yth, w$ ind th$ d$sc$nt ro" nobl$ par$nts,
th$ $-posur$ in a ri'$r, and in a bo-, and th$ raising by lowly par$nts? ollow$d in th$
urth$r $'olution o th$ story by th$ h$ro%s r$turn to his irst par$nts, with or without
punish"$nt "$t$d out to th$". 1t is '$ry $'id$nt that th$ two par$nt/coupl$s o th$ "yth
corr$spond to th$ r$al and th$ i"aginary par$nt/coupl$ o th$ ro"antic antasy. +los$r
insp$ction r$'$als th$ psychological id$ntity o th$ hu"bl$ and th$ nobl$ par$nts,
pr$cis$ly as in th$ inantil$ and n$urotic antasi$s.
1n conor"ity with th$ o'$r'aluation o th$ par$nts in $arly childhood, th$ "yth b$gins
with th$ nobl$ par$nts, $-actly lik$ th$ ro"antic antasy, wh$r$as in r$ality adults soon
adapt th$"s$l'$s to th$ actual conditions. &hus th$ antasy o th$ a"ily ro"anc$ is
si"ply r$ali<$d in th$ "yth, with a bold r$'$rsal to th$ actual conditions. &h$ hostility
o th$ ath$r, and th$ r$sulting $-posur$, acc$ntuat$ th$ "oti'$ which has caus$d th$
$go to indulg$ in th$ $ntir$ iction. &h$ ictitious ro"anc$ is th$ $-cus$, as it w$r$, or
th$ hostil$ $$lings which th$ child harbors against his ath$r, and which in this iction
ar$ proB$ct$d against th$ ath$r. &h$ $-posur$ in th$ "yth, th$r$or$, is $.ui'al$nt to th$
r$pudiation or nonr$cognition in th$ ro"antic antasy. &h$ child si"ply g$ts rid o th$
ath$r in th$ n$urotic ro"anc$, whil$ in th$ "yth th$ ath$r $nd$a'ors to los$ th$ child.
R$scu$ and r$'$ng$ ar$ th$ natural t$r"inations, as d$"and$d by th$ $ss$nc$ o th$
1n ord$r to $stablish th$ ull 'alu$ o this parall$li<ation, as Bust sk$tch$d in its g$n$ral
outlin$s, it "ust $nabl$ us to int$rpr$t c$rtain constantly r$curring d$tails o th$ "yth
which s$$" to r$.uir$ a sp$cial $-planation. &his d$"and would s$$" to ac.uir$
sp$cial i"portanc$ in 'i$w o th$
p. C3
act that no satisactory $-planation o th$s$ d$tails is orthco"ing in th$ writings o
$'$n th$ "ost $nthusiastic astral "ythologists or natural philosoph$rs. !uch d$tails ar$
r$pr$s$nt$d by th$ r$gular occurr$nc$ o dr$a"s (or oracl$s) and by th$ "od$ o
$-posur$ in a bo- and in th$ wat$r. &h$s$ "otis do not at irst glanc$ s$$" to p$r"it a
psychological d$ri'ation. #ortunat$ly th$ study o dr$a"/sy"bolis"s p$r"its th$
$lucidation o th$s$ $l$"$nts o th$ h$ro "yth. &h$ utili<ation o th$ sa"$ "at$rial in
th$ dr$a"s o h$althy p$rsons and n$urotics 1 indicat$s that th$ $-posur$ in th$ wat$r
signii$s no "or$ and no l$ss than th$ sy"bo!ic e7%ression of birth, &h$ childr$n co"$
out o th$ wat$r. ( &h$ bask$t, bo-, or r$c$ptacl$ si"ply "$ans th$ contain$r, th$
wo"b? 3 so that th$ $-posur$ dir$ctly signii$s
p. C4
th$ proc$ss o birth, although it is r$pr$s$nt$d by its opposit$.
&hos$ who obB$ct to this r$pr$s$ntation by opposit$s should r$"$"b$r how ot$n th$
dr$a" works with th$ sa"$ "$chanis". 1 A conir"ation o this int$rpr$tation o th$
$-posur$, as tak$n ro" th$ co""on hu"an sy"bolis", is urnish$d by th$ "at$rial
its$l, in th$ dr$a" by th$ grandath$r (or still "or$ con'incingly by th$ "oth$r
h$rs$l) ( in th$ +t$sian '$rsion o +yrus b$or$ his birth? in this dr$a", so "uch wat$r
lows ro" th$ lap o th$ $-p$ctant "oth$r as to inundat$ all Asia, lik$ an $nor"ous
oc$an. 3 1t is r$"arkabl$ that in both cas$s th$ +hald$ans corr$ctly int$rpr$t$d th$s$
wat$r dr$a"s as birth dr$a"s. 1n all probability,
p. C:
th$s$ dr$a"s th$"s$l'$s ar$ construct$d out o th$ knowl$dg$ o a '$ry anci$nt and
uni'$rsally und$rstood sy"bolis", with a di" or$sight o th$ r$lations and conn$ctions
which ar$ appr$ciat$d and pr$s$nt$d in #r$ud%s t$achings. &h$r$ h$ says, in r$$rring to
a dr$a" in which th$ dr$a"$r hurls h$rs$l into th$ dark wat$r o a lak$= Hr$a"s o this
sort ar$ birth dr$a"s, and th$ir int$rpr$tation is acco"plish$d by r$'$rsing th$ act as
co""unicat$d in th$ "ani$st dr$a"? na"$ly, inst$ad o hurling on$s$l into th$ wat$r,
it "$ans $"$rging ro" th$ wat$r, i.$., to b$ born. 1 &h$ Bustic$ o this int$rpr$tation,
which r$nd$rs th$ wat$r dr$a" $.ui'al$nt to th$ $-posur$, is again conir"$d by th$
act that pr$cis$ly in th$ +yrus saga, which contains th$ wat$r dr$a", th$ th$"$ o th$
$-posur$ in th$ wat$r is lacking, whil$ only th$ bask$t, which do$s not occur in th$
dr$a", plays a part in th$ $-posur$.
1n this int$rpr$tation o th$ $-posur$ as th$ birth, w$ "ust not l$t ours$l'$s b$ disturb$d
by th$ discr$pancy b$tw$$n th$ succ$ssion o th$ indi'idual $l$"$nts o th$ sy"boli<$d
"at$riali<ation and th$ r$al birth proc$ss. &his chronological r$arrang$"$nt or $'$n
r$'$rsal has b$$n $-plain$d by #r$ud as du$ to th$ g$n$ral "ann$r in which
r$coll$ctions ar$ $laborat$d into antasi$s? th$ sa"$ "at$rial r$app$ars in th$ antasi$s,
but in an $ntir$ly no'$l arrang$"$nt, and no att$ntion whatso$'$r is paid to th$ natural
s$.u$nc$ o th$ acts. (
,$sid$s this chronological r$'$rsal, th$ r$'$rsal o th$ cont$nts r$.uir$s sp$cial
$-planation. &h$ irst r$ason or th$ r$pr$s$ntation o th$ birth by its opposit$//th$ li$/
thr$at$ning $-posur$ in th$ wat$r//is th$ acc$ntuation o th$ par$ntal hostility toward
th$ utur$ h$ro. 3 &h$ cr$ati'$
p. C6
inlu$nc$ o this t$nd$ncy to r$pr$s$nt th$ par$nts as th$ irst and "ost pow$rul
oppon$nts o th$ h$ro will b$ appr$ciat$d wh$n it is k$pt in "ind that th$ $ntir$ a"ily
ro"anc$ in g$n$ral ow$s its origin to th$ $$ling o b$ing n$gl$ct$d//na"$ly, th$
assu"$d hostility o th$ par$nts. 1n th$ "yth, this hostility go$s so ar that th$ par$nts
r$us$ to l$t th$ child b$ born, which is pr$cis$ly th$ r$ason o th$ h$ro%s la"$nt?
"or$o'$r, th$ "yth plainly r$'$als th$ d$sir$ to $norc$ his "at$riali<ation $'$n against
th$ will o th$ par$nts. &h$ 'ital p$ril, thus conc$al$d in th$ r$pr$s$ntation o birth
through $-posur$, actually $-ists in th$ proc$ss o birth its$l. &h$ o'$rco"ing o all
th$s$ obstacl$s also $-pr$ss$s th$ id$a that th$ utur$ h$ro has actually o'$rco"$ th$
gr$at$st diiculti$s by 'irtu$ o his birth, or h$ has 'ictoriously thwart$d all att$"pts to
pr$'$nt it. 1 Or anoth$r int$rpr$tation "ay b$ ad"itt$d, according to which th$ youthul
h$ro, or$s$$ing his d$stiny to tast$ "or$ than his shar$ o th$ bitt$rn$ss o li$, d$plor$s
in a p$ssi"istic "ood th$ ini"ical act which has call$d hi" to $arth. 4$ accus$s th$
par$nts, as it w$r$, or ha'ing $-pos$d hi" to th$ struggl$ o li$, or ha'ing allow$d
hi" to b$ born. ( &h$ r$usal to l$t th$ son b$ born, which b$longs $sp$cially to th$
ath$r, is r$.u$ntly conc$al$d by th$ contrast "oti, th$ wish or a child (as in O$dipus,
5$rs$us, and oth$rs), whil$ th$ hostil$ attitud$ toward th$ utur$ succ$ssor on th$ thron$
and in th$ kingdo" is proB$ct$d to th$ outsid$//it is attribut$d to an oracular '$rdict,
which is th$r$by r$'$al$d as th$ substitut$ o th$ o"inous dr$a", or b$tt$r, as th$
$.ui'al$nt o its int$rpr$tation.
p. CC
#ro" anoth$r point o 'i$w, how$'$r, th$ a"ily ro"anc$ shows that th$ antasi$s o
th$ child, although appar$ntly $stranging th$ par$nts, ha'$ nothing $ls$ to say
conc$rning th$" b$sid$s th$ir conir"ation as th$ r$al par$nts. &h$ $-posur$ "yth,
translat$d with th$ assistanc$ o sy"bolis", lik$wis$ contains nothing but th$
assuranc$= this is "y "oth$r, who has born$ "$ at th$ co""and o th$ ath$r. ,ut on
account o th$ t$nd$ncy o th$ "yth, and th$ r$sulting trans$r$nc$ o th$ hostil$ attitud$
ro" th$ child to th$ par$nts, this assuranc$ o th$ r$al par$ntag$ can only b$ $-pr$ss$d
as th$ r$pudiation o such par$ntag$.
On clos$r insp$ction, it is not$worthy in th$ irst plac$ that th$ hostil$ attitud$ o th$
h$ro toward his par$nts conc$rns $sp$cially th$ ath$r. Rsually, as in th$ "yth o
O$dipus, 5aris, and oth$rs, th$ royal ath$r r$c$i'$s a proph$cy o so"$ disast$r,
thr$at$ning hi" through th$ $-p$ct$d son? th$n it is th$ ath$r who caus$s th$ $-posur$
o th$ boy and who pursu$s and "$nac$s hi" in all sorts o ways at$r his unlook$d/or
r$scu$, but inally succu"bs to his son, according to th$ proph$cy. 1n ord$r to
und$rstand this trait, which at irst "ay app$ar so"$what startling, it is not n$c$ssary to
$-plor$ th$ h$a'$ns or so"$ proc$ss into which this trait "ight b$ laboriously itt$d.
Aooking with op$n $y$s and unpr$Budic$d "inds at th$ r$lations b$tw$$n par$nts and
childr$n, or b$tw$$n broth$rs, as th$s$ $-ist in r$ality, 1 a c$rtain t$nsion is r$.u$ntly, i
not r$gularly r$'$al$d b$tw$$n ath$r and son, or still "or$ distinctly a co"p$tition
b$tw$$n broth$rs. Although this t$nsion "ay not b$ ob'ious and p$r"an$nt, it is lurking
in th$ sph$r$ o th$ unconscious, as it w$r$, with p$riodic $ruptions. 2rotic actors ar$
$sp$cially apt to b$ in'ol'$d, and as a rul$ th$ d$$p$st, g$n$rally unconscious root o
th$ dislik$ o th$ son or th$ ath$r, or o two broth$rs or $ach oth$r, is r$lat$d to b$
co"p$tition or th$ t$nd$r d$'otion and lo'$ o th$ "oth$r. &h$ O$dipus "yth shows
plainly, only in gross$r di"$nsions, th$ accuracy o this int$rpr$tation, or th$ parricid$
is h$r$ ollow$d by
p. C8
th$ inc$st with th$ "oth$r. &his $rotic r$lation with th$ "oth$r, which pr$do"inat$s in
oth$r "ythological cycl$s, is r$l$gat$d to th$ background in th$ "yths o th$ birth o th$
h$ro, whil$ th$ opposition against th$ ath$r is "or$ strongly acc$ntuat$d. 1
&h$ act that this inantil$ r$b$llion against th$ ath$r is appar$ntly pro'ok$d in th$ birth
"yths by th$ hostil$ b$ha'ior o th$ ath$r, is du$ to a r$'$rsal o th$ r$lation, known as
%roBection, which is brought about by '$ry p$culiar charact$ristics o th$ "yth/or"ing
psychic acti'ity. &h$ proB$ction "$chanis"//which also bor$ its part in th$
r$int$rpr$tation o th$ birth act, as w$ll as c$rtain oth$r charact$ristics o "yth
or"ation, to b$ discuss$d pr$s$ntly//n$c$ssitat$s th$ unior" charact$ri<ation o th$
"yth as a %aranoid structur$, in 'i$w o its r$s$"blanc$ to p$culiar proc$ss$s in th$
"$chanis" o c$rtain psychic disturbanc$s. 1nti"at$ly conn$ct$d with th$ paranoid
charact$r is th$ prop$rty o s$parating or dissociating what is us$d in th$ i"agination.
&his proc$ss, as illustrat$d by th$ two par$nt/coupl$s, pro'id$s th$ oundation or th$
"yth or"ation, and tog$th$r with th$ proB$ction "$chanis" suppli$s th$ k$y to th$
und$rstanding o an $ntir$ s$ri$s o oth$rwis$ in$-plicabl$ conigurations o th$ "yth.
As th$ "otor pow$r or this proB$ction o th$ h$ro%s hostil$ attitud$ onto
p. C9
th$ ath$r, th$r$ stands r$'$al$d th$ wish or its Bustiication, arising ro" th$
troubl$so"$ r$ali<ation o th$s$ $$lings against th$ ath$r. &h$ displac$"$nt proc$ss
that b$gins with th$ proB$ction o th$ troubl$so"$ s$nsation is still urth$r continu$d,
how$'$r, and with th$ assistanc$ o th$ "$chanis" o s$paration or dissociation, it has
ound a di$r$nt $-pr$ssion o its gradual progr$ss in '$ry charact$ristic or"s o th$
h$ro "yth. 1n th$ original psychologic s$tting, th$ ath$r is still id$ntical with th$ king,
th$ tyrannical p$rs$cutor. &h$ irst att$nuation o this r$lation is "ani$st$d in thos$
"yths in which th$ s$paration o th$ tyrannical p$rs$cutor ro" th$ r$al ath$r is alr$ady
att$"pt$d, but not y$t $ntir$ly acco"plish$d, th$ or"$r b$ing still r$lat$d to th$ h$ro,
usually as his grandath$r, or $-a"pl$ in th$ +yrus "yth with all its '$rsions, and in
th$ "aBority o all h$ro "yths in g$n$ral. 1n th$ s$paration o th$ ath$r%s part ro" that
o th$ king, this typ$ signii$s th$ irst r$turn st$p o th$ d$sc$nt antasy toward th$
actual conditions, and accordingly th$ h$ro%s ath$r app$ars in this typ$ "ostly as a
lowly "an (s$$ +yrus, 3ilga"$sh, and oth$rs) . &h$ h$ro thus arri'$s again at an
approach toward his par$nts, th$ $stablish"$nt o a c$rtain kinship, which inds its
$-pr$ssion in th$ act that not only th$ h$ro hi"s$l, but also his ath$r and his "oth$r
r$pr$s$nt obB$cts o th$ tyrant%s p$rs$cution. &h$ h$ro in this way ac.uir$s a "or$
inti"at$ conn$ction with th$ "oth$r//th$y ar$ ot$n $-pos$d tog$th$r (5$rs$us,
&$l$phus, #$ridun)//who is n$ar$r to hi" on account o th$ $rotic r$lation? whil$ th$
r$nounc$"$nt o his hatr$d against th$ ath$r h$r$ attains th$ $-pr$ssion o its "ost
orcibl$ r$action, 1 or th$ h$ro h$nc$orth app$ars, as in th$ 4a"l$t saga, not as th$
p$rs$cutor o his ath$r (or grandath$r) but as th$ a'$ng$r o th$ p$rs$cut$d ath$r. &his
in'ol'$s a d$$p$r r$lation o th$ 4a"l$t saga with th$ 5$rsian story o Gaikhosra',
wh$r$ th$ h$ro lik$wis$ app$ars as th$ a'$ng$r o his "urd$r$d ath$r (co"par$ #$ridun
and oth$rs).
p. 8)
&h$ p$rson o th$ grandath$r hi"s$l, who in c$rtain sagas app$ars r$plac$d by oth$r
r$lati'$s (th$ uncl$, in th$ 4a"l$t saga), also poss$ss$s a d$$p$r "$aning. 1 &h$ "yth
co"pl$- o th$ inc$st with th$ "oth$r//and th$ r$lat$d r$'olt against th$ ath$r//is h$r$
co"bin$d with th$ s$cond gr$at co"pl$-, which has or its cont$nts th$ $rotic r$lations
b$tw$$n ath$r and daught$r. Rnd$r this h$ading b$longs, b$sid$s oth$r wid$ly ra"ii$d
groups o sagas, ( th$ story which is told in countl$ss '$rsions o a ne#born boy, o
who" it is %ro%hesied that h$ is to b$co"$ th$ son-in-!a# and heir o a c$rtain rul$r or
pot$ntat$, and who inally do$s so in spit$ o all p$rs$cutions ($-posur$ and so orth) on
th$ part o th$ latt$r. 3 &h$ ath$r who r$us$s to gi'$ his daught$r to any o h$r suitors,
or who attach$s to th$ winning o th$ daught$r c$rtain conditions diicult o ulill"$nt,
do$s this b$caus$ h$ r$ally b$grudg$s h$r to all oth$rs, or wh$n all is told h$ wish$s to
poss$ss h$r hi"s$l. 4$ locks h$r up in so"$ inacc$ssibl$ spot, so as to sa$guard h$r
'irginity (5$rs$us, 3ilga"$sh, &$l$phus, Ro"ulus), and wh$n his co""and is
disob$y$d h$ pursu$s th$ daught$r and h$r ospring with insatiabl$ hatr$d. 4ow$'$r,
th$ unconscious s$-ual "oti'$s o his hostil$ attitud$, which is lat$r on a'$ng$d by his
grandson, r$nd$r it $'id$nt that again th$ h$ro kills in hi" si"ply th$ "an who is trying
to rob hi" o th$ lo'$ o his "oth$r? na"$ly, th$ ath$r.
Anoth$r att$"pt at a r$'$rsal to a "or$ original typ$ consists in th$ ollowing th$"$=
&h$ r$turn to th$ lowly ath$r, which has b$$n brought about through th$ s$paration o
th$ ath$r%s rWl$ ro" that o th$ king, is again nullii$d through th$ lowly ath$r%s
s$condary $l$'ation to th$ rank o a god, as in 5$rs$us and th$ oth$r sons o 'irgin
"oth$rs (Garna, 1on, Ro"ulus, *$sus) . &h$ s$condary charact$r o this godly pat$rnity
is $sp$cially $'id$nt in thos$ "yths wh$r$ th$ 'irgin who has b$$n i"pr$gnat$d by
p. 81
di'in$ conc$ption lat$r on "arri$s a "ortal (*$sus, Garna, 1on), who th$n app$ars as th$
r$al ath$r, whil$ th$ god as th$ ath$r r$pr$s$nts "$r$ly th$ "ost $-alt$d childish id$a
o th$ "agnitud$, pow$r, and p$r$ction o th$ ath$r. 1 At th$ sa"$ ti"$, th$s$ "yths
strictly insist upon th$ "oti o th$ 'irginity o th$ "oth$r, which $ls$wh$r$ is "$r$ly
hint$d at. &h$ irst i"p$tus is p$rhaps suppli$d by th$ transc$nd$ntal t$nd$ncy,
n$c$ssitat$d through th$ introduction o th$ god. At th$ sa"$ ti"$, th$ birth ro" th$
'irgin is th$ "ost abrupt r$pudiation o th$ ath$r, th$ consu""ation o th$ $ntir$ "yth,
as illustrat$d by th$ !argon l$g$nd, which do$s not ad"it any ath$r b$sid$s th$ '$stal
&h$ last stag$ o this progr$ssi'$ att$nuation o th$ hostil$ r$lation to th$ ath$r is
r$pr$s$nt$d by that or" o th$ "yth in which th$ p$rson o th$ royal p$rs$cutor not
only app$ars $ntir$ly d$tach$d ro" that o th$ ath$r, but has $'$n lost th$ r$"ot$st
kinship with th$ h$ro%s a"ily, which h$ oppos$s in th$ "ost hostil$ "ann$r, as its
$n$"y (in #$ridun, Abraha", Ging 4$rod against *$sus, and oth$rs) . Although o his
original thr$$old charact$r as th$ ath$r, th$ king, and th$ p$rs$cutor, h$ r$tains only
th$ part o th$ royal p$rs$cutor or th$ tyrant, th$ $ntir$ plan o th$ "yth con'$ys th$
i"pr$ssion that nothing had b$$n chang$d//as i th$ d$signation >ath$r> had b$$n
si"ply r$plac$d by th$ t$r" >tyrant.> &his int$rpr$tation o th$ ath$r as a >tyrant,>
which is typical o th$ inantil$ id$ation, ( will b$ ound lat$r on to poss$ss th$ gr$at$st
i"portanc$ or th$ int$rpr$tation o c$rtain abnor"al const$llations o this co"pl$-.
&h$ prototyp$ o this id$ntiication o th$ king with th$ ath$r, which r$gularly r$curs
also in th$ dr$a"s o adults,
p. 8(
pr$su"ably is th$ origin o royalty ro" th$ patriarchat$ in th$ a"ily, which is still
att$st$d by th$ us$ o id$ntical words or king and ath$r, in th$ 1ndo/3$r"anic
languag$s (co"par$ th$ 3$r"an 9andes8ater, >ath$r o his country,> X king). 1 &h$
r$'$rsal o th$ a"ily ro"anc$ to actual conditions is al"ost $ntir$ly acco"plish$d in
this typ$ o "yth. &h$ lowly par$nts ar$ acknowl$dg$d with a rankn$ss which s$$"s to
b$ dir$ctly contradictory to th$ t$nd$ncy o th$ $ntir$ "yth.
5r$cis$ly this r$'$lation o th$ r$al conditions, which hith$rto had to b$ l$t to th$
int$rpr$tation, $nabl$s us to pro'$ th$ accuracy o th$ latt$r ro" th$ "at$rial its$l. &h$
biblical l$g$nd o 7os$s has b$$n s$l$ct$d as $sp$cially w$ll adapt$d to this purpos$.
,ri$ly su""ari<ing th$ outco"$ o th$ pr$'ious int$rpr$tation/"$chanis", to "ak$
"att$rs plain$r, w$ ind th$ two par$nt/coupl$s to b$ id$ntical, at$r th$ir splitting into
th$ p$rsonaliti$s o th$ ath$r and th$ tyrannical p$rs$cutor has b$$n conn$ct$d//th$
highborn par$nts ar$ th$ $cho, as it w$r$, o th$ $-agg$rat$d notions th$ child originally
harbor$d conc$rning his par$nts. &h$ 7os$s l$g$nd actually shows th$ par$nts o th$
h$ro di'$st$d o all pro"in$nt attribut$s? th$y ar$ si"pl$ p$opl$, d$'ot$dly attach$d to
th$ child, and incapabl$ o har"ing hi". 7$anwhil$, th$ ass$rtion o t$nd$r $$lings or
th$ child is a conir"ation, h$r$ as w$ll as $'$rywh$r$, o th$ bodily par$ntag$
(co"par$ th$ o'$rs$$r in th$ 3ilga"$sh l$g$nd, th$ chariot$$r in th$ story o Garna, th$
ish$r"an in th$ 5$rs$us "yth, $tc.) . &h$ a"icabl$ utili<ation o th$ $-posur$ "oti,
which occurs in this typ$ o "yth, is r$$rabl$ to such a r$lationship. &h$ child is
surr$nd$r$d in a bask$t to th$ wat$r, but not with th$ obB$ct o killing hi" (as, or
$-a"pl$, th$ hostil$ $-posur$ o O$dipus and "any oth$r h$ro$s), but or th$ purpos$ o
sa'ing hi" (co"par$ also Abraha"%s $arly history, pag$ 1C). &h$ dang$r/raught
warning to th$ $-alt$d ath$r b$co"$s a hop$ul proph$cy or th$ lowly ath$r//
co"par$, in th$ birth story o *$sus, th$ oracl$ or 4$rod and *os$ph%s dr$a")//$ntir$ly
p. 83
to th$ $-p$ctations plac$d by "ost par$nts in th$ car$$r o th$ir ospring.
R$taining ro" th$ original t$nd$ncy o, th$ ro"anc$ th$ act that 5haraoh%s daught$r
dr$w th$ child ro" th$ wat$r, i.$., ga'$ it birth, th$ outco"$ is th$ a"iliar th$"$
(grandath$r typ$) o th$ king whos$ daught$r is to b$ar a son, but who, on b$ing
warn$d by th$ ill/o"$n$d int$rpr$tation o a dr$a", r$sol'$s to kill his orthco"ing
grandson. &h$ hand"aid$n o his daught$r (who in th$ biblical story draws th$ bo-
ro" th$ wat$r at th$ b$h$st o th$ princ$ss) is charg$d by th$ king with th$ $-posur$ o
th$ n$wborn child in a bo-, in th$ wat$rs o th$ ri'$r 9il$, that it "ay p$rish (th$
$-posur$ "oti, ro" th$ 'i$wpoint o th$ highborn par$nts, h$r$ app$aring in its
original disastrous signiicanc$). &h$ bo- with th$ child is th$n ound by lowly p$opl$,
and th$ poor wo"an rais$s th$ child (as his w$t nurs$)? wh$n h$ is grown up, h$ is
r$cogni<$d by th$ princ$ss as h$r son. *ust as in th$ prototyp$, th$ antasy conclud$s
with th$ r$cognition by th$ highborn par$nts.
1 th$ 7os$s l$g$nd w$r$ plac$d b$or$ us in this "or$ original or", as w$ ha'$
r$construct$d it ro" th$ $-isting "at$rial, 1 th$ su" o this int$rpr$tation/"$chanis"
would b$ appro-i"at$ly what is told in th$ "yth as it is actually trans"itt$d//na"$ly,
that his tru$ "oth$r was not a princ$ss, but th$ poor wo"an who was introduc$d as his
nurs$, h$r husband b$ing his ath$r.
&his int$rpr$tation is o$r$d as th$ tradition, in th$ r$con'$rt$d "yth? and th$ act that
this tracing o th$ progr$ssi'$ "utation urnish$s th$ a"iliar typ$ o h$ro "yth, is th$
proo o th$ corr$ctn$ss o our int$rpr$tation.
1t has thus b$$n our good ortun$ to show th$ ull accuracy o our int$rpr$tati'$
t$chni.u$ through th$ "at$rial its$l, and it is now ti"$ to d$"onstrat$ th$ t$nability o
th$ g$n$ral 'i$wpoint upon which this $ntir$ t$chni.u$ is
p. 84
ound$d. 4ith$rto, th$ r$sults o our int$rpr$tation ha'$ cr$at$d th$ app$aranc$ that th$
$ntir$ "yth or"ation start$d ro" th$ h$ro hi"s$l, that is, ro" th$ youthul h$ro. At
th$ start w$ took this attitud$ in analogi<ing th$ h$ro o th$ "yth with th$ $go o th$
child. 9ow w$ ind ours$l'$s conront$d with th$ obligation to har"oni<$ th$s$
assu"ptions and conclusions with th$ oth$r conc$ptions o "yth or"ation, which th$y
s$$" to contradict dir$ctly.
&h$ "yths ar$ c$rtainly not construct$d by th$ h$ro, l$ast o all by th$ child h$ro, but
th$y ha'$ long b$$n known to b$ th$ product o a p$opl$ o adults. &h$ i"p$tus is
$'id$ntly suppli$d by th$ popular a"a<$"$nt at th$ apparition o th$ h$ro, whos$
$-traordinary li$ history th$ p$opl$ can only i"agin$ as ush$r$d in by a wond$rul
inancy. &his $-traordinary childhood o th$ h$ro, how$'$r, is construct$d by th$
indi'idual "yth/"ak$rs//to who" th$ ind$init$ id$a o th$ olk/"ind "ust b$
ulti"at$ly trac$d//ro" th$ consciousn$ss o th$ir own inancy. 1n in'$sting th$ h$ro
with th$ir own inantil$ history, th$y id$ntiy th$"s$l'$s with hi", as it w$r$, clai"ing
to ha'$ b$$n si"ilar h$ro$s in th$ir own p$rsonality. &h$ tru$ h$ro o th$ ro"anc$ is,
th$r$or$, th$ $go, which inds its$l in th$ h$ro, by r$'$rting to th$ ti"$ wh$n th$ $go
was its$l a h$ro, through its irst h$roic act, i.$., th$ r$'olt against th$ ath$r. &h$ $go
can only ind its own h$rois" in th$ days o inancy, and it is th$r$or$ oblig$d to in'$st
th$ h$ro with its own r$'olt, cr$diting hi" with th$ $atur$s which "ad$ th$ $go a h$ro.
&his obB$ct is achi$'$d with inantil$ "oti'$s and "at$rials, in r$'$rting to th$ inantil$
ro"anc$ and trans$rring it to th$ h$ro. 7yths ar$, th$r$or$, cr$at$d by adults, by
"$ans o r$trograd$ childhood antasi$s, 1 th$ h$ro b$ing cr$dit$d with th$ "yth/
"ak$r%s p$rsonal inantil$ history. 7$anwhil$, th$ t$nd$ncy o this $ntir$ proc$ss is th$
$-cus$ o th$ indi'idual units
p. 8:
o th$ p$opl$ or th$ir own inantil$ r$'olt against th$ ath$r.
,$sid$s th$ $-cus$ o th$ h$ro or his r$b$llion, th$ "yth th$r$or$ contains also th$
$-cus$ o th$ indi'idual or his r$'olt against th$ ath$r. &his r$'olt has burd$n$d hi"
sinc$ his childhood, as h$ has ail$d to b$co"$ a h$ro. 4$ is now $nabl$d to $-cus$
hi"s$l by $"phasi<ing that th$ ath$r has gi'$n hi" grounds or his hostility. &h$
a$ctionat$ $$ling or th$ ath$r is also "ani$st$d in th$ sa"$ iction, as has b$$n
shown abo'$. &h$s$ "yths ha'$ th$r$or$ sprung ro" two opposit$ "oti'$s, both o
which ar$ subordinat$ to th$ "oti'$ o 'indication o th$ indi'idual through th$ h$ro=
on th$ on$ hand th$ "oti'$ o a$ction and gratitud$ toward th$ par$nts? and on th$
oth$r hand, th$ "oti'$ o th$ r$'olt against th$ ath$r. 1t is not stat$d outright in th$s$
"yths, how$'$r, that th$ conlict with th$ ath$r aris$s ro" th$ s$-ual ri'alry or th$
"oth$r, but is appar$ntly sugg$st$d that this conlict dat$s back pri"arily to th$
conc$al"$nt o th$ s$-ual proc$ss$s (at childbirth), which in this way b$ca"$ an
$nig"a or th$ child. &his $nig"a inds its t$"porary and sy"bolical solution in th$
inantil$ s$-ual th$ory o th$ bask$t and th$ wat$r. 1
&h$ proound participation o th$ inc$st "oti in "yth or"ation is discuss$d in th$
author%s sp$cial in'$stigation o th$ Aoh$ngrin saga, which b$longs to th$ "yth o th$
birth o th$ h$ro. &h$ cyclic charact$r o th$ Aoh$ngrin saga is r$$rr$d by hi" to th$
fantasy of being one<s o#n son, as r$'$al$d by #r$ud. ( &his accounts or th$ id$ntity o
ath$r and son, in c$rtain "yths, and or th$ r$p$tition o th$ir car$$rs? it $-plains th$
act that th$ h$ro is so"$ti"$s not $-pos$d until h$ has r$ach$d "aturity, and also th$
inti"at$ conn$ction b$tw$$n birth and d$ath in th$ $-posur$ "oti. 3 *ung, who r$gards
th$ typical at$ o th$ h$ro as th$ portrayal o th$ hu"an libido and its typical
p. 86
'icissitud$s, has "ad$ this th$"$ th$ pi'ot o his int$rpr$tation, as th$ antasy o b$ing
born again, to which th$ inc$st "oti is subordinat$d. 9ot only th$ birth o th$ h$ro,
which tak$s plac$ und$r p$culiar sy"bolic circu"stanc$s, but also th$ "oti o th$ two
"oth$rs o th$ h$ro, ar$ $-plain$d by *ung through th$ birth o th$ h$ro taking plac$
und$r th$ "yst$rious c$r$"onials o a r$birth ro" th$ "oth$r consort. 1
4a'ing thus outlin$d th$ cont$nts o th$ birth "yth o th$ h$ro it still r$"ains or us to
point out c$rtain co"plications within th$ birth "yth its$l, which ha'$ b$$n $-plain$d
on th$ basis o its paranoid charact$r, as >splits> o th$ p$rsonality o th$ royal ath$r
and p$rs$cutor. 1n so"$ "yths, how$'$r, and $sp$cially in th$ airy tal$s that b$long to
this group, ( th$ "ultiplication o "ythical p$rsonag$s//and with th$", o cours$, th$
"ultiplication o "otis, or $'$n o $ntir$ stori$s//ar$ carri$d so ar that so"$ti"$s th$
original $atur$s ar$ altog$th$r o'$rgrown by th$s$ add$nda. &h$ "ultiplication is so
'ari$gat$d and? so $-ub$rantly d$'$lop$d that th$ "$chanis" o th$ analysis no long$r
do$s it Bustic$. 7or$o'$r, th$ n$w p$rsonaliti$s h$r$ do not show th$ sa"$
ind$p$nd$nc$, as it w$r$, as th$ n$w p$rsonaliti$s cr$at$d by splitting, but th$y rath$r
pr$s$nt th$ charact$ristics o a copy, a duplicat$, or a >doubl$,> which is th$ prop$r
"ythological t$r". An appar$ntly '$ry co"plicat$d $-a"pl$, na"$ly, 4$rodotusO
'$rsion o th$ +yrus saga, illustrat$s that th$r$ doubl$s ar$ not ins$rt$d pur$ly or
orna"$ntation, or to gi'$ a s$"blanc$ o historical '$racity, but that th$y ar$ insolubly
conn$ct$d with "yth or"ation and its t$nd$ncy. Also, in th$ +yrus l$g$nd, as in th$
oth$r "yths, a conrontation
p. 8C
occurs. &h$ royal grandath$r, Astyag$s, and his daught$r, with h$r husband, ar$
conront$d by th$ cattl$ h$rd$r and his wi$. A ch$ck$r$d gath$ring o oth$r
p$rsonaliti$s which "o'$ around th$", ar$ r$adily group$d at sight= ,$tw$$n th$
highborn par$nt/coupl$ and th$ir child stand th$ ad"inistrator 4arpagos with his wi$
and his son, and th$ nobl$ Art$"bar$s with his l$giti"at$ ospring. Our train$d s$ns$
or th$ p$culiariti$s o "yth structur$ r$cogni<$s at onc$ th$ doubl$s o th$ par$nts in
th$ int$r"$diat$ par$nt/coupl$s and all th$ participants ar$ s$$n to b$ id$ntical
p$rsonaliti$s o th$ par$nts and th$ir child? this int$rpr$tation b$ing sugg$st$d by c$rtain
$atur$s o th$ "yth its$l. 4arpagos r$c$i'$s th$ child ro" th$ king, to $-pos$ it? h$
th$r$or$ acts pr$cis$ly lik$ th$ royal ath$r and r$"ains tru$ to his ictitious pat$rnal
part in his r$luctanc$ to kill th$ child hi"s$l//b$caus$ it is r$lat$d to hi"//but h$
d$li'$rs it inst$ad to th$ h$rd$r 7ithradat$s, who is thus again id$ntii$d with 4arpagos.
&h$ nobl$ Art$"bar$s, whos$ son +yrus caus$s to b$ whipp$d, is also id$ntii$d with
4arpagos? or wh$n Art$"bar$s with his whipp$d boy stands b$or$ th$ king, to
d$"and r$tribution, 4arpagos at onc$ is lik$wis$ s$$n standing b$or$ th$ king, to
d$$nd hi"s$l, and h$ also is oblig$d to pr$s$nt his son to th$ king. &hus Art$"bar$s
hi"s$l plays an $pisodal part as th$ h$ro%s ath$r, and this is ully conir"$d by th$
+t$sian '$rsion, which t$lls us that th$ nobl$"an who adopt$d th$ h$rd$r%s son, +yrus,
as his own son, was na"$d Art$"bar$s.
2'$n "or$ distinct than th$ id$ntity o th$ di$r$nt ath$rs is that o th$ir childr$n,
which o cours$ s$r'$s to conir" th$ id$ntity o th$ ath$rs. 1n th$ irst plac$, and this
would s$$" to b$ conclusi'$, the chi!dren are a!! of the sa"e age//not only th$ son o
th$ princ$ss, and th$ child o th$ h$rd$r, who ar$ born at th$ sa"$ ti"$? but 4$rodotus
sp$cially $"phasi<$s that +yrus play$d th$ ga"$ o >Gings> (in which h$ caus$d th$
son o Art$"bar$s to b$ whipp$d) with boys o th$ sa"$ ag$ as +yrus. 4$ also points
out, p$rhaps int$ntionally, that th$ son of Har%agos, d$stin$d to b$co"$ th$ play"at$ o
+yrus, who" th$ king had r$cogni<$d, was lik$wis$ appar$ntly o th$ sa"$ ag$ as
p. 88
Dparagraph continu$sE +yrus. #urth$r"or$, th$ r$"ains o this boy ar$ plac$d b$or$ his ath$r,
4arpagos, in a bask$t? it was also a bask$t in which th$ n$wborn +yrus was to ha'$
b$$n $-pos$d, and this actually happ$n$d to his substitut$, th$ h$rd$r%s son, whos$
id$ntity with +yrus is ob'ious and tangibl$ in th$ '$rsion o *ustin gi'$n on pag$ 36. 1n
this r$port, +yrus is actually $-chang$d with th$ !i8ing child o th$ h$rd$rs? but this
parado-ical par$ntal $$ling is r$concil$d by th$ consciousn$ss that in r$ality nothing at
all has b$$n alt$r$d by this $-chang$. 1t app$ars "or$ int$lligibl$, o cours$, that th$
h$rd$r%s wi$ should wish to rais$ th$ li'ing child o th$ king, inst$ad o h$r own
sti!!born boy, as in th$ 4$rodotus '$rsion (pag$ 3))? but h$r$ th$ id$ntity o th$ boys is
again $'id$nt, or Bust as th$ h$rd$r%s son su$r$d d$ath inst$ad o +yrus in th$ past,
tw$l'$ y$ars lat$r th$ son o 4arpagos (also in a bask$t) is kill$d dir$ctly or +yrus,
who" 4arpagos had allow$d to li'$. 1
&h$ i"pr$ssion is th$r$by con'$y$d that all th$ "ultiplications o +yrus, at$r ha'ing
b$$n cr$at$d or a c$rtain purpos$, ar$ again r$"o'$d, as disturbing $l$"$nts, onc$ this
purpos$ has b$$n ulill$d. &his purpos$ is undoubt$dly th$ $-alting t$nd$ncy that is
inh$r$nt in th$ a"ily ro"anc$. &h$ h$ro, in th$ 'arious duplications o hi"s$l and his
par$nts, asc$nds th$ social scal$ ro" th$ h$rd$r 7ithradat$s, by way o th$ nobl$
Art$"bar$s (who is high in th$ king%s a'or), and o th$ irst ad"inistrator, 4arpagos
(who is p$rsonally r$lat$d to th$ king)//until h$ has hi"s$l b$co"$ a princ$? so his
car$$r is shown in th$ +t$sian '$rsion, wh$r$ +yrus ad'anc$s ro" th$ h$rd$r%s son to
th$ king%s ad"inistrator. ( 1n this way, h$ constantly
p. 89
r$"o'$s, as it w$r$, th$ last trac$s o his asc$nt, th$ low$r +yrus b$ing discard$d at$r
absol'ing th$ di$r$nt stag$s o his car$$r. 1
&his co"plicat$d "yth with its pro"iscuous array o p$rsonag$s is thus si"plii$d and
r$duc$d to thr$$ actors//th$ h$ro and his par$nts. 2ntir$ly si"ilar conditions pr$'ail in
r$gard to th$ >cast> o "any oth$r "yths. #or $-a"pl$, th$ duplication "ay conc$rn th$
daught$r, as in th$ 7os$s "yth, in which th$ princ$ss/"oth$r (in ord$r to $stablish th$
id$ntity o th$ two a"ili$s) ( app$ars a"ong th$ poor p$opl$ as th$ daught$r 7iria",
who is "$r$ly a split o th$ "oth$r, th$ latt$r app$aring di'id$d into th$ princ$ss and th$
poor wo"an. 1n cas$ th$ duplication conc$rns th$ ath$r, his doubl$s app$ar as a rul$ in
th$ part o r$lati'$s, "or$ particularly as his broth$rs, as or $-a"pl$ in th$ 4a"l$t
saga, in distinction ro" th$ or$ign p$rsonag$s cr$at$d by th$ analysis. 1n a si"ilar
way, th$ grandath$r, who is taking th$ plac$ o th$ ath$r, "ay also app$ar
co"pl$"$nt$d by a broth$r, who is th$ h$ro%s granduncl$, and as such his oppon$nt, as
in th$ "yths o Ro"ulus, 5$rs$us, and oth$rs. Oth$r duplications, in appar$ntly
p. 9)
co"plicat$d "ythological structur$s//as or $-a"pl$ in Gaikhosra', #$ridun, and
oth$rs//ar$ $asily r$cogni<$d wh$n $n'isag$d ro" this angl$.
&h$ duplication o th$ ath$rs (or th$ grandath$rs) by a broth$r "ay b$ continu$d in th$
n$-t g$n$ration, and conc$rn th$ h$ro hi"s$l, thus l$ading to th$ brother "yths, which
can only b$ hint$d at in conn$ction with th$ pr$s$nt th$"$. &h$ prototyp$s o th$ boy
(who in th$ +yrus saga 'anish into thin air at$r th$y ha'$ s$r'$d th$ir purpos$, th$
$-altation o th$ h$ro%s d$sc$nt), i th$y w$r$ to assu"$ a 'itality o th$ir own, would
co"$ to conront th$ h$ro as co"p$titors with $.ual rights, na"$ly, as his broth$rs. &h$
original s$.u$nc$ is probably b$tt$r pr$s$r'$d through th$ int$rpr$tation o th$ h$ro%s
strang$ doubl$s as shadowy broth$rs who, lik$ th$ twin broth$r, "ust di$ or th$ h$ro%s
sak$. 9ot only th$ ath$r (who is in th$ way o th$ "aturing son) is r$"o'$d, but also
th$ int$r$ring co"p$titor (th$ broth$r), in a na8'$ r$ali<ation o th$ childish antasi$s,
or th$ si"pl$ r$ason that th$ h$ro do$s not want a a"ily.
&h$ co"plications o th$ h$ro l$g$nds with oth$r "yth cycl$s includ$ (b$sid$s th$ "yth
o th$ hostil$ broth$rs, which has alr$ady b$$n dispos$d o) also th$ actual inc$st "yth,
such as or"s th$ nucl$us o th$ O$dipus saga. &h$ "oth$r, and h$r r$lation to th$ h$ro,
app$ar r$l$gat$d to th$ background in th$ "yth o th$ birth o th$ h$ro. ,ut th$r$ is
anoth$r conspicuous "oti= th$ lowly "oth$r is so ot$n r$pr$s$nt$d by an ani"al. &his
"oti o th$ h$lpul ani"als 1 b$longs in part to a s$ri$s o or$ign $l$"$nts, th$
$-planation o which would ar $-c$$d th$ scop$ o this $ssay. (
&h$ ani"al "oti "ay b$ itt$d into th$ s$.u$nc$ o
1p. 91
our int$rpr$tation, on th$ basis o th$ ollowing r$l$ctions. 7uch as th$ proB$ction onto
th$ ath$r Bustii$s th$ hostil$ attitud$ on th$ part o th$ son, so th$ low$ring o th$
"oth$r into an ani"al is lik$wis$ "$ant to 'indicat$ th$ ingratitud$ o th$ son who
d$ni$s h$r. As th$ p$rs$cuting king is d$tach$d ro" th$ ath$r, so th$ $-clusi'$ rWl$ o
w$t nurs$ assign$d to th$ "oth$r//in this substitution by an ani"al//go$s back to th$
s$paration o th$ "oth$r into th$ parts o th$ child/b$ar$r and th$ suckl$r. &his cl$a'ag$
is again subs$r'i$nt to th$ $-alting t$nd$ncy, in so ar as th$ childb$aring part is
r$s$r'$d or th$ highborn "oth$r, wh$r$as th$ lowly wo"an, who cannot b$ $radicat$d
ro" th$ $arly history, "ust cont$nt h$rs$l with th$ unction o nurs$. Ani"als ar$
$sp$cially appropriat$ substitut$s, b$caus$ th$ s$-ual proc$ss$s ar$ h$r$ plainly $'id$nt
also to th$ child, whil$ th$ conc$al"$nt o th$s$ proc$ss$s is pr$su"ably th$ root o th$
childish r$'olt against th$ par$nts. &h$ $-posur$ in th$ bo- and in th$ wat$r as$-uali<$s
th$ birth proc$ss, as it w$r$, in a childlik$ ashion? th$ childr$n ar$ ish$d out o th$
wat$r by th$ stork, who tak$s th$" to th$ par$nts in a bask$t. 1 &h$ ani"al abl$
i"pro'$s upon this id$a, by $"phasi<ing th$ si"ilarity b$tw$$n hu"an birth and ani"al
&his introduction o th$ "oti "ay possibly b$ int$rpr$t$d ro" th$ parodistic point o
'i$w i w$ assu"$ that th$ child acc$pts th$ story o th$ stork ro" his par$nts, $igning
ignoranc$, but adding sup$rciliously= 1 an ani"al
p. 9(
has brought "$, it "ay also ha'$ nurs$d "$. 1
0h$n all is said and don$, how$'$r, and wh$n th$ cl$a'ag$ is ollow$d back, th$
s$paration o th$ childb$ar$r ro" th$ suckl$r//which r$ally $nd$a'ors to r$"o'$ th$
bodily "oth$r $ntir$ly, by "$ans o h$r substitution through an ani"al or a strang$
nurs$//do$s not $-pr$ss anything b$yond th$ act= &h$ wo"an who has suckl$d "$ is
"y "oth$r. &his stat$"$nt is ound dir$ctly sy"boli<$d in th$ 7os$s l$g$nd, th$
r$trogr$ssi'$ charact$r o which w$ ha'$ alr$ady studi$d? or pr$cis$ly th$ wo"an who
is his own "oth$r is chos$n to b$ his nurs$ (si"ilarly also in th$ "yth o 4$rcul$s, and
th$ 2gyptian/5ho$nician Osiris/Adonis "yth//wh$r$ Osiris, $ncas$d in a ch$st, loats
down th$ ri'$r and is inally ound und$r th$ na"$ Adonis, by 1sis, who is install$d by
Uu$$n Astart$ as th$ nurs$ o h$r own son). (
Only a bri$ r$$r$nc$ can h$r$ b$ "ad$ to oth$r "otis which s$$" to b$ "or$ loos$ly
r$lat$d to th$ $ntir$ "yth. !uch th$"$s includ$ that o playing th$ ool, which is
sugg$st$d in ani"al abl$s as th$ uni'$rsal childish attitud$ toward grownups. &h$y
includ$, urth$r"or$, th$ physical d$$cts o c$rtain h$ro$s (Mal, O$dipus, 4$pha$stus),
which ar$ "$ant p$rhaps to s$r'$ or th$ 'indication o indi'idual i"p$r$ctions, in
such a way that th$ r$proach$s o th$ ath$r or possibl$ d$$cts or shortco"ings ar$
incorporat$d into th$ "yth, with th$ appropriat$ acc$ntuation//th$ h$ro b$ing $ndow$d
with th$ sa"$ w$akn$ss which burd$ns th$ s$l/r$sp$ct o th$ indi'idual.
&his $-planation o th$ psychological signiicanc$ o th$ "yth o th$ birth o th$ h$ro
would not b$ co"pl$t$ without $"phasi<ing its r$lations to c$rtain "$ntal dis$as$s.
2'$n r$ad$rs without psychiatric training//or th$s$ p$rhaps "or$ than any oth$rs//"ust
ha'$ b$$n struck with
p. 93
th$s$ r$lations. As a "att$r o act, th$ h$ro "yths ar$ $.ui'al$nt in "any $ss$ntial
$atur$s to th$ d$lusional id$as o c$rtain psychotic indi'iduals who su$r ro"
d$lusions o p$rs$cution and grand$ur//th$ so/call$d paranoiacs. &h$ir syst$" o
d$lusions is construct$d '$ry "uch lik$ th$ h$ro "yth, and th$r$or$ indicat$s th$ sa"$
psychog$nic th$"$s as th$ n$urotic a"ily ro"anc$, which is analy<abl$, wh$r$as th$
syst$" o d$lusions is inacc$ssibl$ $'$n or psychoanalytical approach$s. #or $-a"pl$,
th$ paranoiac is apt to clai" that th$ p$opl$ whos$ na"$ h$ b$ars ar$ not his r$al
par$nts, but that h$ is actually th$ son o a princ$ly p$rsonag$? h$ was to b$ r$"o'$d or
so"$ "yst$rious r$ason, and was th$r$or$ surr$nd$r$d to his >par$nts> as a ost$r child.
4is $n$"i$s, how$'$r, wish to "aintain th$ iction that h$ is o lowly d$sc$nt, in ord$r
to suppr$ss his l$giti"at$ clai"s to th$ crown or to $nor"ous rich$s. 1 +as$s o this kind
ot$n occupy ali$nists or tribunals. (
p. 94
&his inti"at$ r$lationship b$tw$$n th$ h$ro "yth and th$ d$lusional structur$ o
paranoiacs has alr$ady b$$n d$init$ly $stablish$d through th$ charact$ri<ation o th$
"yth as a paranoid structur$, which is h$r$ conir"$d by its cont$nts. &h$ r$"arkabl$
act that paranoiacs will rankly r$'$al th$ir $ntir$ ro"anc$ has c$as$d to b$ pu<<ling,
sinc$ th$ proound in'$stigations o #r$ud ha'$ shown that th$ cont$nts o hyst$rical
antasi$s, which can ot$n b$ "ad$ conscious through analysis, ar$ id$ntical up to th$
"inut$st d$tails with th$ co"plaints o p$rs$cut$d paranoiacs? "or$o'$r, th$ id$ntical
cont$nts ar$ also $ncount$r$d as a r$ality in th$ arrang$"$nts o p$r'$rts or th$
gratiication o th$ir d$sir$s. 1
&h$ $gotistical charact$r o th$ $ntir$ syst$" is distinctly r$'$al$d by th$ paranoiac, or
who" th$ $-altation o th$ par$nts, as brought about by hi", is "$r$ly th$ "$ans or his
own $-altation. As a rul$ th$ pi'ot or his $ntir$ syst$" is si"ply th$ cul"ination o th$
a"ily ro"anc$, in th$ apodictic stat$"$nt= 1 a" th$ $"p$ror (or god). R$asoning in th$
sy"bolis" o dr$a"s and "yths//which is also th$ sy"bolis" o all anci$s, including
th$ >"orbid> pow$r o i"agination//all h$ acco"plish$s th$r$by is to put hi"s$l in th$
plac$ o th$ ath$r, Bust as th$ h$ro t$r"inat$s his r$'olt against th$ ath$r. &his can b$
don$ in both instanc$s, b$caus$ th$ conlict with th$ ath$r//which dat$s back to th$
conc$al"$nt o th$ s$-ual proc$ss$s, as sugg$st$d by th$ lat$st disco'$ri$s//is nullii$d
at th$ instant wh$n th$ grown boy hi"s$l b$co"$s a ath$r. &h$ p$rsist$nc$ with which
th$ paranoiac puts hi"s$l in th$ ath$r%s plac$, i.$., b$co"$s a ath$r hi"s$l, app$ars
lik$ an illustration to th$ co""on answ$rs o littl$ boys to a scolding or a putting o o
th$ir in.uisiti'$ curiosity= Qou Bust wait until 1 a" a papa "ys$l, and 1%ll know all about
,$sid$s th$ paranoiac, his $.ually asocial count$rpart "ust also b$ $"phasi<$d. 1n th$
$-pr$ssion o th$ id$ntical
p. 9:
antasy cont$nts, th$ hyst$rical indi'idual, who has suppr$ss$d th$", is os$t by th$
p$r'$rt, who r$ali<$s th$"? and Bust so th$ dis$as$d and passi'$ paranoiac//who n$$ds
his d$lusion or th$ corr$ction o th$ actuality, which to hi" is intol$rabl$//is os$t by
th$ acti'$ cri"inal, who $nd$a'ors to chang$ th$ actuality according to his "ind. 1n this
sp$cial s$ns$, this typ$ is r$pr$s$nt$d by th$ anarchist. &h$ h$ro hi"s$l, as shown by
his d$tach"$nt ro" th$ par$nts, b$gins his car$$r in opposition to th$ old$r g$n$ration?
h$ is at onc$ a r$b$l, a r$no'ator, and a r$'olutionary. 4ow$'$r, $'$ry r$'olutionary is
originally a disob$di$nt son, a r$b$l against th$ ath$r. 1 (+o"par$ th$ sugg$stion o
#r$ud, in conn$ction with th$ int$rpr$tation o a >r$'olutionary dr$a".>) (
,ut wh$r$as th$ paranoiac, in conor"ity with his passi'$ charact$r, has to su$r
p$rs$cutions and wrongs which ulti"at$ly proc$$d ro" th$ ath$r//and which h$
$nd$a'ors to $scap$ by putting hi"s$l in th$ plac$ o th$ ath$r or th$ $"p$ror//th$
anarchist co"pli$s "or$ aithully with th$ h$roic charact$r, by pro"ptly hi"s$l
b$co"ing th$ p$rs$cutor o kings, and inally killing th$ king, pr$cis$ly lik$ th$ h$ro.
&h$ r$"arkabl$ si"ilarity b$tw$$n th$ car$$r o c$rtain anarchistic cri"inals and th$
a"ily ro"anc$ o h$ro and child has b$$n $ls$wh$r$ illustrat$d by th$ author, through
sp$cial instanc$s. 3 &h$ truly h$roic $l$"$nt th$n consists only in th$ r$al Bustic$ or $'$n
n$c$ssity o th$ act, which is th$r$or$ g$n$rally $ndors$d and ad"ir$d? 4 whil$ th$
"orbid trait, also in cri"inal
p. 96
cas$s, is th$ pathologic trans$r$nc$ o th$ hatr$d ro" th$ ath$r to th$ r$al king, or
s$'$ral kings, wh$n "or$ g$n$ral and still "or$ distort$d.
As th$ h$ro is co""$nd$d or th$ sa"$ d$$d, without asking or its psychic "oti'ation,
so th$ anarchist "ight clai" indulg$nc$ ro" th$ s$'$r$st p$nalti$s, or th$ r$ason that
h$ has kill$d an $ntir$ly di$r$nt p$rson ro" th$ on$ h$ r$ally int$nd$d to d$stroy, in
spit$ o an appar$ntly $-c$ll$nt (p$rhaps political) "oti'ation o his act. 1
#or th$ pr$s$nt l$t us stop at th$ narrow boundary lin$ wh$r$ th$ cont$nts o innoc$nt
inantil$ i"aginings, suppr$ss$d and unconscious n$urotic antasi$s, po$tical "yth
structur$s, and c$rtain or"s o "$ntal dis$as$ and cri"$ li$ clos$ tog$th$r, although ar
apart as to th$ir caus$s and dyna"ic orc$s. 0$ r$sist th$ t$"ptation to ollow on$ o
th$s$ di'$rg$nt paths that l$ad to altog$th$r di$r$nt r$al"s, but which ar$ as y$t
unbla<$d trails in th$ wild$rn$ss.

6:=1 &h$ possibility o urth$r sp$ciication o s$parat$ it$"s o this outlin$ will b$ s$$n
ro" th$ co"pilation gi'$n by A$ss"ann at th$ conclusion o his >&ie .yrossage in
)uro%e> (loc. cit.).
66=1 !$$ also 0undt, who int$rpr$ts th$ h$ro psychologically as a proB$ction o hu"an
d$sir$s and aspirations (op. cit., p. 48).
69=1 +o"par$ #r$ud= >4yst$rical #anci$s, and th$ir R$lation to ,is$-uality,> with
r$$r$nc$s to th$ lit$ratur$ on this subB$ct. &his contribution is contain$d in th$ s$cond
s$ri$s o -a""!ung ,!einer -chriften /ur 2eurosen!ehre (;i$nna and A$ip<ig, 19)9).
C1=1 #or th$ id$ali<ing o th$ par$nts by th$ childr$n, co"par$ 7a$d$r%s co""$nts
(Jahrbuch f4r Psychoana!yse, 1 (19)9), p. 1:(, and 3entra!b!att f4r Psychoana!yse, 1, p.
:1) on ;ar$ndonk%s $ssay, >9es idDa!s dAenfant.>
C1=( $nter%retation of &rea"s.
C3=1 +o"par$ th$ >birth dr$a"s> in #r$ud%s $nter%retation of &rea"s, also th$ $-a"pl$s
.uot$d by th$ author in &ie 9ohengrin -aga (;i$nna, 1911), pp. (C .
C3=( 1n airy tal$s, which ar$ adapt$d to inantil$ id$ation, and $sp$cially to th$ inantil$
s$-ual th$ori$s (co"par$ #r$ud in th$ H$c$"b$r, 19)8, nu"b$r o -e7ue!!e Prob!e"e),
th$ birth o "an is r$.u$ntly r$pr$s$nt$d as a liting o th$ child ro" a w$ll or a lak$
(&hi""$, op. cit. p. 1:C). &h$ story o >Ha"$ 4oll$%s 5ond> (3ri""= &eutsche -agen,
;ol. 1, p. C) r$lat$s that th$ n$wborn childr$n co"$ ro" h$r w$ll, wh$nc$ sh$ brings
th$" orth. &h$ sa"$ int$rpr$tation is appar$ntly $-pr$ss$d in c$rtain national rit$s? or
$-a"pl$, wh$n a +$lt had r$ason to doubt his pat$rnity, b$ plac$d th$ n$wborn child on
a larg$ shi$ld and put it adrit in th$ n$ar$st ri'$r. 1 th$ wa'$s carri$d it ashor$, it was
consid$r$d as l$giti"at$, but i th$ child drown$d, this was proo o th$ contrary, and
th$ "oth$r was also put to d$ath (s$$ #ran< 4$lbing= History of ;e"inine $nfide!ity).
Additional $thnological "at$rial ro" olklor$ has b$$n co"pil$d by th$ author in &ie
9ohengrin -aga, pp. () .
C3=3 &h$ >bo-> in c$rtain "yths is r$pr$s$nt$d by th$ ca8e, which also distinctly
sy"boli<$s th$ wo"b? asid$ ro" stat$"$nts in Abraha", 1on, and oth$rs, a not$worthy
cas$ is that o M$us, who is born in a ca'$ on 7ount 1da and nourish$d by th$ goat
A"alth$a, his "oth$r conc$aling hi" or $ar o h$r husband, th$ &itan +ronus.
According to 4o"$r%s $!iad (I;111, 396 .), 4$pha$stus is also cast into th$ wat$r by
his "oth$r, on account o his la"$n$ss, and r$"ains hidd$n or nin$ y$ars in a ca'$
surround$d by wat$r. ,y $-changing th$ r$'$rsal, th$ birth (th$ all into th$ wat$r) is
h$r$ plainly r$pr$s$nt$d as th$ t$r"ination o th$ nin$ "onths o th$ intra/ut$rin$ li$.
7or$ co""on than th$ ca'$ birth is th$ $-posur$ in a bo-, which is lik$wis$ told in th$
,abylonian 7arduk/&a""u< "yth, as w$ll as in th$ 2gyptian/5ho$nician Osiris/
Adonis "yth (co"par$ 0inckl$r= &ie We!tanschauung des a!ten Orients, )7 Oriente
9u7, ;ol. 1., p. 43? and *$r$"ias, &ie Baby!onisches . . . , p. 41). ,acchus, according to
5ausanius (111, (4), is also r$"o'$d ro" th$ p$rs$cution o th$ king through $-posur$
in a ch$st on th$ 9il$, and is sa'$d at th$ ag$ o thr$$ "onths by a king%s daught$r,
which is r$"arkably sugg$sti'$ o th$ 7os$s l$g$nd A si"ilar story is told o &$nn$s,
th$ son o +ycnus (!i$ck$= >Her"es . . .> loc. cit., p. 48) and o "any oth$rs.
&h$ occurr$nc$ o th$ sa"$ sy"bolic r$pr$s$ntation a"ong th$ aborigin$s p. C4 is
illustrat$d by th$ ollowing $-a"pl$s= !tuck$n (op. cit.) r$lat$s th$ 9$w M$aland tal$ o
th$ 5olyn$sian #ir$ (and !$$d) Robb$r, 7ani/tiki/tiki, who is $-pos$d dir$ctly at$r his
birth, his "oth$r throwing hi" into th$ s$a, wrapp$d in an apron (ch$st, bo-). A si"ilar
story is r$port$d by #rob$nius (op. cit., p. 3C9) ro" th$ ,$tsi"isaraka o 7adagascar,
wh$r$ th$ child is $-pos$d on th$ wat$r, is ound and rais$d by a rich, childl$ss wo"an,
but inally r$sol'$s to disco'$r his actual par$nts. According to a r$port o ,ab
(3eitschrift f4r )thno!ogie, 19)6, p. (81), th$ wi$ o th$ RaBa ,$surBay was pr$s$nt$d
with a child loating on a bubbl$ o wat$r/oa" (ro" !ingapor$).
C4=1 +o"par$ #r$ud= 1nt$rpr$tation o Hr$a"s.
C4=( Abraha" (op. cit. pp. ((/3) contains th$ analysis o a '$ry si"ilar although "or$
co"plicat$d birth dr$a", corr$sponding to th$ actual conditions= th$ dr$a"$r, a young
pr$gnant wo"an awaiting h$r d$li'$ry, not without $ar, dr$a"$d o th$ birth o h$r
son, and th$ wat$r app$ar$d dir$ctly as th$ a"niotic luid.
C4=3 &his antasy o an $nor"ous wat$r is $-tr$"$ly sugg$sti'$ o th$ larg$ and
wid$spr$ad group o th$ lood "yths, which actually s$$" to b$ no "or$ than th$
uni'$rsal $-pr$ssion o th$ $-posur$ "yth. &h$ h$ro is h$r$ r$pr$s$nt$d by hu"anity at
larg$. &h$ wrathul ath$r is th$ god? th$ d$struction and th$ r$scu$ o hu"anity ollow
$ach oth$r in i""$diat$ succ$ssion. 1n this parall$li<ation, it is o int$r$st to not$ that
th$ ark, or pitch$d hous$, in which 9oah loats upon th$ wat$r is d$signat$d in th$ Old
&$sta"$nt by th$ sa"$ word (tebah) as th$ r$c$ptacl$ in which th$ inant 7os$s is
$-pos$d (*$r$"ias= The O!d Testa"ent . . ., p. (:)). #or th$ "oti o th$ gr$at lood,
co"par$ *$r$"ias, p. ((6, and A$ss"ann, at th$ clos$ o his tr$atis$, >Hi$ Gyrossag$ .,>
loc. cit., wh$r$ th$ lood is d$scrib$d as a possibl$ digr$ssion o th$ $-posur$ in th$
wat$r. A transition instanc$ is illustrat$d by th$ lood saga told by ,ad$r, in his ,ad$n
olk l$g$nds= 0h$n th$ !unk$n ;all$y was inundat$d onc$ upon a ti"$ by a cloudburst,
a littl$ boy was s$$n loating upon th$ wat$rs in a cradl$, and was "iraculously sa'$d
by a cat (3usta' #ri$drich, op. cit., p. (6:).
&RA9!AA&OR!% 9O&2= &h$ author has $nd$a'or$d to $-plain th$ psychological
r$lations o th$ $-posur$ "yth, th$ lood l$g$nd, and th$ d$'ouring "yth in his articl$
on th$ >O'$rlying !y"bols in Hr$a" Awak$ning, and &h$ir R$curr$nc$ in 7ythical
1d$ation>//>&ie -y"bo!schichtung in Wec,trau" and ihre Wieder,ehr i" "ythischen
&en,en,> *ahrbuch Fr 5sychoanalys$, ; (191().
C:=1 $nter%retation of &rea"s. +o"par$ th$ sa"$ r$'$rsal o th$ "$anings in
0inckl$r%s int$rpr$tation o th$ $ty"ology o th$ na"$ o 7os$s, on pag$ 16, ootnot$
C:=( &h$ sa"$ conditions r$"ain in th$ or"ation o dr$a"s and in th$ transor"ation
o hyst$rical antasi$s into s$i<ur$s. !$$ p. (38 (and th$ annotation on that pag$) o
#r$ud%s Trau"deutung (th$ 3$r"an $dition o $nter%retation of &rea"s)? s$$ also his
>'!!ge"eines 4ber den hysterischen 'nfa!!>(>3$n$ral R$"arks on 4yst$rical !$i<ur$s>)
in -a""!ung ,!einer -chriften . , (d s$ri$s, pp. 146 .
C:=3 According to a point$d r$"ark o *ung%s, this r$'$rsal in its urth$r "ythical
subli"ation p$r"its th$ appro-i"ation o th$ h$ro%s li$ to th$ solar cycl$. +arl 3. *ung=
>Wand!ungen und -y"bo!e der 9ibido,> Jahrbuch f4r Psychoana!yse, ; (191(), p. (:3.
C6=1 &h$ s$cond it$" o th$ sch$dul$ h$r$ $nt$rs into consid$ration= th$ 'oluntary
contin$nc$ or prolong$d s$paration o th$ par$nts, which naturally induc$s th$
"iraculous conc$ption and 'irgin birth o th$ "oth$r. &h$ abortion antasi$s, which ar$
$sp$cially distinct in th$ Moroast$r l$g$nd, also b$long und$r this h$ading.
C6=( &h$ co"parison o birth with a shipwr$ck, by th$ Ro"an po$t Aucr$tius, s$$"s to
b$ in p$r$ct har"ony with this sy"bolis"= >,$hold th$ inant= Aik$ a shipwr$ck$d
sailor, cast ashor$ by th$ ury o th$ billows, th$ poor child li$s nak$d on th$ ground,
b$r$t o all "$ans or $-ist$nc$, at$r 9atur$ has dragg$d hi" in pain ro" th$ "oth$r%s
wo"b. 0ith plainti'$ wailing h$ ill$th th$ plac$ o his birth, and h$ is right, or "any
$'ils await hi" in li$> (&e 2atura 1eru", ;, (((/C). !i"ilarly, th$ irst '$rsion o
!chill$r%s 1obbers, in sp$aking o 9atur$, says= >!h$ $ndow$d us with th$ spirit o
in'$ntion, wh$n sh$ $-pos$d us nak$d and h$lpl$ss on th$ shor$ o th$ gr$at Oc$an, th$
0orld. A$t hi" swi" who "ay, and l$t th$ clu"sy p$rishP>
CC=1 +o"par$ th$ r$pr$s$ntation o this r$lation and its psychic cons$.u$nc$s, in
#r$ud%s $nter%retation of &rea"s.
C8=1 !o"$ "yths con'$y th$ i"pr$ssion that th$ lo'$ r$lation with th$ "oth$r had b$$n
r$"o'$d, as b$ing too obB$ctionabl$ to th$ consciousn$ss o c$rtain p$riods or p$opl$s.
&rac$s o this suppr$ssion ar$ still $'id$nt in a co"parison o di$r$nt "yths or
di$r$nt '$rsions o th$ sa"$ "yth. #or $-a"pl$, in th$ '$rsion o 4$rodotus, +yrus is
a son o th$ daught$r o Astyag$s? but according to th$ r$port o +t$sias, h$ "ak$s th$
daught$r o Astyag$s, who" h$ con.u$rs, his wi$, and kills h$r husband (who in th$
r$nd$ring o 4$rodotus is his ath$r). !$$ 4Fsing, op. cit. Also a co"parison o th$ saga
o Harab with th$ '$ry si"ilar l$g$nd o !t. 3r$gory s$r'$s to show that in th$ Harab
story th$ inc$st with th$ "oth$r which oth$rwis$ pr$c$d$s th$ r$cognition o th$ son is
si"ply o"itt$d? h$r$, on th$ contrary, th$ r$cognition pr$'$nts th$ inc$st. &his
att$nuation "ay b$ studi$d in th$ nasc$nt stat$, as it w$r$, in th$ "yth o &$l$phus,
wh$r$ th$ h$ro is "arri$d to his "oth$r but r$cogni<$s h$r b$or$ th$ consu""ation o
th$ inc$st. &h$ airy/tal$/lik$ s$tting o th$ &ristan l$g$nd, which "ak$s 1sold$ draw th$
littl$ &ristan ro" th$ wat$r (i.$., gi'$ hi" birth), th$r$by sugg$sts th$ unda"$ntal
inc$st th$"$, which is lik$wis$ "ani$st$d in th$ adult$ry with th$ wi$ o th$ uncl$.
&RA9!AA&OR!% 9O&2= &h$ r$ad$r is r$$rr$d to $n/est"oti8, in which th$ inc$st
th$"$, which is h$r$ "$r$ly "$ntion$d, is discuss$d in d$tail, picking up th$ "any
thr$ads which l$ad to this th$"$, but which ha'$ b$$n dropp$d at th$ pr$s$nt ti"$.
C9=1 &h$ "$chanis" o this d$$ns$ is discuss$d in #r$ud%s >4a"l$t Analysis,> in his
$nter%retation of &rea"s. 2rn$st *on$s has also discuss$d this in an articl$ (1911) in th$
'"erican Journa! of Psycho!ogy.
8)=1 1 r$gard to urth$r "$anings o th$ grandath$r, s$$ #r$ud%s >Analysis o a 5hobia
in a #i'$/Q$ar/Old ,oy,> Jahrbuch f4r Psychoana!yse, 1 (19)9)? also th$ contributions
o *on$s, Abraha", and #$r$nc<i in th$ 7arch, 1913, issu$ o $nternationa!e 3eitschrift
f4r (rt/!iche Psychoana!yse.
8)=( !$$ +hapt$r -i, $n/est"oti8.
8)=3 H$tail$d lit$rary r$$r$nc$s conc$rning th$ wid$ distribution o this story ar$ ound
in R. GKhl$r= .!einer -chriften, ;ol. 11, p. 3:C.
81=1 A si"ilar id$ntiication o th$ ath$r with 3od (>4$a'$nly #ath$r,> $tc.) occurs,
according to #r$ud, with th$ sa"$ r$gularity in th$ antasi$s o nor"al and pathological
psychic acti'ity as th$ id$ntiication o th$ $"p$ror with th$ ath$r. 1t is also not$worthy
in this conn$ction that al"ost all p$opl$s d$ri'$ th$ir origin ro" th$ir god (Abraha",
op. cit.).
81=( An a"using $-a"pl$ o unconscious hu"or in childr$n r$c$ntly app$ar$d in th$
daily pr$ss= A politician had $-plain$d to his littl$ son that a tyrant is a "an who orc$s
oth$rs to do what h$ co""ands, without h$$ding th$ir wish$s in th$ "att$r. >0$ll,> said
th$ child, >th$n you and 7a"a ar$ also tyrantsP>
8(=1 !$$ 7a- 7Fll$r, op. cit., pp. () . +onc$rning th$ 'arious psychological
conting$nci$s o this s$tting, co"par$ pp. 83 . o $n/est"oti8.
83=1 +o"par$ 2duard 7$y$r= >&ie Mosessagen and die 9e#iten,> in -it/ungsberichte
der ,+nig!ich %reussischen ',ade"ie der Wissenschaften, III1 (19):), p. 64)=
>5r$su"ably 7os$s was originally th$ son o th$ tyrant%s daught$r (who is now his
ost$r "oth$r), and probably o di'in$ origin.> &h$ subs$.u$nt $laboration into th$
pr$s$nt or" is probably r$$rabl$ to national "oti'$s.
84=1 &his id$a, which is d$ri'$d ro" th$ knowl$dg$ o th$ n$urotic antasy and
sy"pto" construction, was appli$d by 5ro$ssor #r$ud to th$ int$rpr$tation o th$
ro"antic and "ythical work o po$tic i"agination, in a l$ctur$ $ntitl$d >H$r Hicht$r and
das 5hantasi$r$n> (>5o$ts and 1"aginings>), r$print$d in -a""!ung ,!einer
-chriften . . ., (d s$ri$s.
8:=1 5$r $thno/psychologic parall$ls and oth$r inantil$ s$-ual th$ori$s which throw
so"$ light upon th$ suppl$"$ntary "yth o th$ h$ro%s procr$ation, co"par$ th$ author%s
tr$atis$ in 3entra!b!att f4r Psychoana!yse, 11 (1911), pp. 39(/4(:.
8:=( Rank= &ie 9ohengrin -aga.
8:=3 +onc$rning th$ wat$r as th$ >wat$r o d$ath,> co"par$ $sp$cially ibid., +hapt$r i'.
86=1 Aoc. cit., p. 3:6.
86=( &h$ airy tal$s, which ha'$ b$$n l$t out o consid$ration in th$ cont$-t, pr$cis$ly
on account o th$s$ co"plications, includ$ $sp$cially= >&h$ H$'il with th$ &hr$$
3old$n 4airs> (3ri"", 9o. (9), and th$ '$ry si"ilar >!aga o 2"p$ror 4$nry 111>
(3ri"", &eutsche -agen, ;ol. 11, p. 1CC)? >0at$r/5$t$r,> with nu"$rous 'ariations
(3ri"", ;ol. 111, p. 1)3)? >#und$'og$l,> 9o. :1? >&h$ &hr$$ ,irdi$s> (9o. 96)? >&h$
Ging o th$ 3old$n 7ountain> (9o. 9(), with its parall$ls? as w$ll as so"$ or$ign airy
tal$s, which ar$ .uot$d by ,au$r, at th$ $nd o his articl$ (loc. cit.). +o"par$ also, in
4ahn= 5ree, and '!banese ;airy Ta!es (A$ip<ig, 1864), th$ r$'i$w o th$ $-posur$
stori$s and "yths, $sp$cially 9o. () and 9o. 69.
88=1 A conn$ction is h$r$ suppli$d with th$ th$"$ o th$ twins, in which w$ s$$" to
r$cogni<$ th$ two boys born at th$ sa"$ ti"$//on$ o which di$s or th$ sak$ o th$
oth$r, b$ it dir$ctly at$r birth, or lat$r//and whos$ par$nts app$ar di'id$d in our "yths
into two or "or$ par$nt/coupl$s. +onc$rning th$ probabl$ signiicanc$ o this shadowy
twin broth$r as th$ at$rbirth, co"par$ th$ author%s discussion in his $n/est"oti8 (pp.
4:9 ).
88=( &h$ $arly history o !igurd, as it is r$lat$d in th$ ;Klsungasaga (co"par$
Rass"ann, op. cit., ;ol. 1, p. 99), clos$ly r$s$"bl$s th$ +t$sian '$rsion o th$ +yrus
saga, gi'ing us th$ tradition o anoth$r h$ro%s wond$rul car$$r, tog$th$r with its rational
r$arrang$"$nt. #or particulars, s$$ ,au$r, loc. cit., p. ::4. Also th$ biblical history o
*os$ph (2-odus 3C/:))//with th$ $-posur$, th$ ani"al sacriic$, th$ dr$a"s, th$ sk$tchy
br$thr$n, and th$ abulous car$$r o this h$ro//s$$"s to b$long to this typ$ o "yth.
89=1 1n ord$r to a'oid "isund$rstandings, it app$ars n$c$ssary to $"phasi<$ at this
point th$ historical nucl$us o c$rtain h$ro "yths. +yrus, as is shown by th$ inscriptions
which ha'$ b$$n disco'$r$d (co"par$ Hunck$r, op. cit., p. (89? and ,au$r, loc. cit., p.
498) was d$sc$nd$d ro" an old h$r$ditary royal hous$. 1t could not b$ th$ obB$ct o th$
"yth to $l$'at$ th$ d$sc$nt o +yrus, nor "ust th$ abo'$ int$rpr$tation b$ r$gard$d as
an att$"pt to $stablish a lowly d$sc$nt. !i"ilar conditions pr$'ail in th$ cas$ o !argon,
whos$ royal ath$r is also known (co"par$ *$r$"ias= The O!d Testa"ent . . . , p. 41)
n.). 9$'$rth$l$ss a historian writ$s about !argon as ollows (Rngnad= >&ie 'nf(nge der
-taatenbi!dung in Baby!onien,> &eutsche 1undschau, *uly 19):)= >4$ was $'id$ntly o
nobl$ d$sc$nt, or no such saga could ha'$ b$$n wo'$n about his birth and his youth.> 1t
would b$ a gross $rror to consid$r our int$rpr$tation as an argu"$nt in this s$ns$.
Again, th$ appar$nt contradiction which "ight b$ h$ld up against our $-planation,
und$r anoth$r "od$ o int$rpr$tation, b$co"$s th$ proo o its corr$ctn$ss, through th$
r$l$ction that it is not th$ h$ro but th$ a'$rag$ "an who "ak$s th$ "yth and wish$s to
'indicat$ hi"s$l in it. &h$ p$opl$ i"agin$ th$ h$ro in this "ann$r, in'$sting hi" with
th$ir own inantil$ antasi$s, irr$sp$cti'$ o th$ir actual co"patibility or inco"patibility
with historical acts. &his also s$r'$s to $-plain th$ trans$r$nc$ o th$ typical "otis, b$
it to s$'$ral g$n$rations o th$ sa"$ h$ro/a"ily, or b$ it to historical p$rsonaliti$s in
g$n$ral (conc$rning +a$sar, Augustus and oth$rs, co"par$ Rs$n$r, 1hein. Mus., A;, p.
89=( &his id$ntiication o th$ a"ili$s is carri$d through to th$ "inut$st d$tail in c$rtain
"yths, as or $-a"pl$ in th$ O$dipus "yth, wh$r$ on$ royal coupl$ is os$t by anoth$r,
and wh$r$ $'$n th$ h$rds"an who r$c$i'$s th$ inant or $-posur$ has his $-act
count$rpart in th$ h$rds"an to who" h$ $ntrusts th$ r$scu$ o th$ boy.
9)=1 +o"par$ 3ub$rnatis= 3oo!ogica! Mytho!ogy (Aondon, 18C()? and 4art"ann= &ie
Tiere in der indoger"anischen Mytho!ogie (A$ip<ig, 18C4). +onc$rning th$ signiicanc$
o ani"als in $-posur$ "yths, s$$ also th$ contributions by ,au$r (loc. cit., pp. :C4 .)?
3old<ih$r (op. cit., p. (C4)? and Ai$br$cht= 3ur *o!,s,unde, 1o"u!us and die We!fen
(4$ilbronn, 18C9).
9)=( +o"par$ #r$ud%s articl$ on th$ inantil$ r$curr$nc$ o tot$"is", in $"ago, ;ol. 11
(1913). +onc$rning th$ tot$"istic oundation o th$ Ro"an sh$/wol, s$$ *on$s%s
writings on night"ar$s (E!%trau"e). &h$ woodp$ck$r o th$ Ro"ulus saga was
discuss$d by *ung (loc. cit., pp. 38( .).
91=1 &h$ stork is known also in "ythology as th$ bring$r o childr$n. !i$ck$
(9iebesgeschichten des Hi""e!s, p. (6) points out th$ swan as th$ play$r o this part in
c$rtain r$gions and countri$s. &h$ r$scu$ and urth$r prot$ction o th$ h$ro by a bird is
not unco""on? co"par$ 3ilga"$sh, Mal, and +ycnus (who is $-pos$d by his "oth$r
n$ar th$ s$a and is nourish$d by a swan, whil$ his son &$nn$s loats in a ch$st upon th$
wat$r). &h$ int$rpr$tation o th$ l$ading "oti o th$ Aoh$ngrin saga also $nt$rs into
pr$s$nt consid$ration. 1ts "ost i"portant "otis b$long to this "ythical cycl$=
Aoh$ngrin loats in a ski upon th$ wat$r, and is brought ashor$ by a swan. 9o on$ "ay
ask wh$nc$ h$ has co"$? th$ s$-ual "yst$ry o th$ origin o "an "ust not b$ r$'$al$d,
but it is r$plac$d by th$ sugg$stion o th$ stork abl$? th$ childr$n ar$ ish$d ro" th$
wat$r by th$ swan and ar$ tak$n to th$ par$nts in a bo-. +orr$sponding to th$
prohibition o all in.uiri$s in th$ Aoh$ngrin saga, w$ ind in oth$r "yths (or $-a"pl$,
th$ O$dipus "yth), a co""and to in8estigate, or a riddl$ that "ust b$ sol'$d. #or th$
psychological signiicanc$ o th$ stork abl$, co"par$ #r$ud= $nfanti!e -e7ua! Theories.
+onc$rning th$ h$ro "yth, s$$ also th$ author%s &ie 9ohengrin -aga.
9(=1 +o"par$ #r$ud= >Analysis o a 5hobia in a #i'$/Q$ar/Old ,oy,> loc. cit.
9(=( Rs$n$r (-toff des griechischen )%os, p, :3) says that th$ contro'$rsy b$tw$$n th$
$arli$r and th$ lat$r 3r$$k sagas conc$rning th$ "oth$r o a di'inity is usually
r$concil$d by th$ or"ula that th$ "oth$r o th$ g$n$ral 3r$$k saga is r$cogni<$d as
such, whil$ th$ "oth$r o th$ local tradition is low$r$d to th$ rank o a nurs$. &h$ro
"ay th$r$or$ b$ unh$sitatingly r$gard$d as th$ "oth$r, not "$r$ly th$ nurs$, o th$ god
93=1 Abraha", loc. cit., p. 4)? Riklin, op. cit., p. C4.
93=( ,ri$ "$ntion is "ad$ o a cas$ conc$rning a #rau 'on 4$r'ay, b$caus$ o a $w
subtl$ psychological co""$nts upon th$ sa"$ by A. ,$rg$r (;eui!!eton der 2eue ;reie
Presse, 9o'. 6, 19)4), which in part touch upon our int$rpr$tation o th$ h$ro "yth.
,$rg$r writ$s as ollows= >1 a" con'inc$d that sh$ s$riously b$li$'$s h$rs$l to b$ th$
ill$giti"at$ daught$r o an aristocratic Russian lady. &h$ d$sir$ to b$long through birth
to "or$ distinguish$d and brilliant circl$s than h$r own surroundings probably dat$s
back to h$r $arly y$ars? and h$r wish to b$ a princ$ss ga'$ ris$ to th$ d$lusion that sh$
was not th$ daught$r o h$r par$nts, but th$ child o a nobl$wo"$n who had conc$al$d
h$r ill$giti"at$ ospring ro" th$ world by l$tting h$r grow up as th$ daught$r o a
sl$ight/o/hand "an. 4a'ing onc$ b$co"$ $ntangl$d in th$s$ anci$s, it was natural or
h$r to int$rpr$t any harsh word that o$nd$d h$r, or any accid$ntal a"biguous r$"ark
that sh$ happ$n$d to h$ar, but $sp$cially h$r r$luctanc$ to b$ th$ daught$r o this
coupl$, as a conir"ation o h$r ro"antic d$lusion. !h$ th$r$or$ "ad$ it th$ task o h$r
li$ to r$gain th$ social position o which sh$ $lt h$rs$l to ha'$ b$$n d$raud$d. 4$r
biography "ani$sts th$ str$nuous insist$nc$ upon this id$a, with a tragic outco"$.>
&h$ $"al$ typ$ o th$ a"ily ro"anc$, as it conronts us in this cas$ ro" th$ asocial
sid$, has also b$$n trans"itt$d as a h$ro "yth in isolat$d instanc$s. &h$ story go$s o
th$ lat$r Uu$$n !$"ira"is (in Hiodorus, 11, 4) that h$r "oth$r, th$ godd$ss H$rc$to,
b$ing asha"$d o h$r, $-pos$d th$ child in a barr$n and rocky land, wh$r$ sh$ was $d
by do'$s and ound by sh$ph$rds, who ga'$ th$ inant to th$ o'$rs$$r o th$ royal
locks, th$ childl$ss !i"nas, who rais$d h$r as his own daught$r. 4$ na"$d h$r
!$"ira"is, which "$ant >do'$> in th$ anci$nt !yrian languag$. 4$r urth$r car$$r and
autocratic rul$rship, thanks to h$r "asculin$ $n$rgy, is a "att$r o >history.>
Oth$r $-posur$ "yths ar$ told o Atalanta, +yb$l$, and ANrop$ (s$$ RKsch$r, op. cit.).
94=1 #r$ud= Three 0ontributions to the Theory of -e7? also Psycho%atho!ogie des
'!tags!ebens? and Hysterische Phantasien and ihre Be/iehung /ur Bise7ua!it(t.
9:=1 &his is $sp$cially $'id$nt in th$ "yths o th$ 3r$$k gods, wh$r$ th$ son (+ronus,
M$us) "ust irst r$"o'$ th$ ath$r, b$or$ h$ can $nt$r upon his rul$rship. &h$ or" o
th$ r$"o'al, na"$ly through castration//ob'iously th$ strong$st $-pr$ssion o th$ r$'olt
against th$ ath$r//is at th$ sa"$ ti"$ th$ proo o its s$-ual pro'$nanc$. +onc$rning
th$ r$'$ng$ charact$r o this castration, as w$ll as th$ inantil$ signiicanc$ o th$ $ntir$
co"pl$-, co"par$ #r$ud= >1nantil$ !$-ual &h$ori$s,> and >Analysis o a 5hobia in a
#i'$/Q$ar/Old ,oy (loc. cit.).
9:=( #r$ud= Trau"deutung (3$r"an $dition o $nter%retation of &rea"s), (d $dition, p.
9:=3 >Be!ege /ur Bettungs%hantasie,> 3entra!b!att f4r Psychoana!yse, 1 (1911), p. 331?
also >&ie 1o!!e des ;a"i!ienro"ans in der Psycho!ogie des 'ttent(ters,> $nternationa!e
3eitschrift f4r (rt/!iche Psychoana!yse, 1 (191,3).
9:=4 +o"par$ th$ contrast b$tw$$n &$ll and 5arricida, in !chill$r%s Wi!he!" Te!!, which
is discuss$d in d$tail in th$ author%s $n/est"oti8.
96=1 +o"par$ in this conn$ction th$ unsucc$ssul ho"icidal att$"pt o &atBana
A$onti$w, and its subtl$ psychological illu"ination, in 0itt$ls= &ie se7ue!!e 2ot
(;i$nna and A$ip<ig, 19)9).