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9A.

1. What is Avogadro’s number, and what is its physical significance?
2. How many atoms are found in 600.g of iron?
3. Give one benefit and one disadvantage of using structural formulas.
4. What is the difference between an empirical formula and molecular formula?
5. Give the structured, molecular, and empirical formulas of hydrogen peroxide.
6. How many moles of atoms are in 1.00 lb (454 g) of lead?
7. Find the molar mass of vitamin A (C
20
H
30
O).
8. DDT, an insecticide banned in the United States, has the formula C
14
H
9
Cl
5
. Find its percent
composition.
9. Find the molecular formula for acetone (molar mass 58.0g/mol), used to make nail polish and
other industrial products. Its composition is 62.0%carbon, 10.4% hydrogen, and 27.6% oxygen.

9B
 1. The reaction that occurs when iron rusts is shown below.4
4Fe (s) + 3O
2
(g)  2Fe
2
O
3
(s)

a. How many moles of rust can be produced from3.2 moles of iron metal?
b. How many moles of oxygen will be consumed in this process?
c. What mall of iron metal is needed to form 100.0 g of rust?
d. How many molecules of oxygen will be needed to react with 50.0 g iron metal?

 2. In regard to the reaction introduced in Question 1:

a. If 200.0G of Fe react fully with O
2
, what is the theoretical yield of Fe
2
O
3
?
b. If the actual yield is 252.7 g, what is the percent yield?


 DS 3. If about 47 thousand metric tons of sulfuric acid is industrially produced every year in the
United States, how many moles are produced? (I T =1000 kg)
 DS 4. Write the net reaction for the production of sulfuric acid.
 DS 5. About 60% of the sulfuric acid produced worldwide is used to produce phosphoric acid of
fertilizers. That reaction is :

Ca
2
F(PO
4
)
3
+ 5H
2
SO
4
+ 10H
2
O  5CaSO
4
X 2H
2
O + HF + 3H
3
PO
4
If about 16,000 metric tons of phosphoric acid is produced every year in the united states, how
many metric tons of sulfuric acid are required?
 DS 6. Can you think of a way to reduce emissions from the contract process or to lower the cost
of sulfuric acid production?
 DS 7. Since sulfuric acid is toxic and polluting, should Christians oppose its creation and use?
Why or why not? In answering this question, consider the benefits of the products in which it is
used. Consider also the benefits of not using the chemicals.

1.Describe the relationship between Avogadro’s number and a mole of a substance.
2. When determining a compound’s empirical formula, if your calculated mole amounts are not equal to
whole numbers, what must you do?
3. What term describes the calculations used to relate the amounts of reactants and products in a
chemical reactions?
4. Explain why excess reactants often remain in a chemical reaction.
5. Give at least two reasons why the actual yield of a chemical reaction is typically less than the
calculated theoretical yield.
6. The molar mass of an element is obtained by taking its atomic mass from the periodic table and
changing the unit from atomic mass units to grams per liter.
7. A compound’s empirical formula is in some cases the same as its molecular formula.
8. The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation show the mole ratio of the substances in the
reaction.
9. Give the molar mass for H, Sc, As, I, and U. Give your answers with four significant digits and correct
units.
10. How many atoms are in the following?
a. 12.01 g of C
b. 16.00 g of O
c. 1.008 g of H
11. How many moles
a. of Fe are in 37.0 g of Fe?
b. of Kr are in 4.58 x 10
20
Kr atoms?
c. of NaIO
3
are in 3.25 x 10
26
formula units of NaIO
3
?
12. Calculate the molar mass of the following compounds:
a. N
2
O
3

b. Mg
3
N
2
c. AgNO
3
13. How many
a. Fe atoms are in 0.256 mol of Fe?
b. Kr atoms are in 3.87 g of Kr?
c. AlCl
3
formula units are in 6.17 mol of AlCl
3
?
d. NaIO
3
formula units are in 8.58 g of NaIO
3
?
14. What is the mass in grams of
a. 6.58 mol Fe?
b. 8.58 x 10
28
atoms Kr?
c. 1.05 mol AlCl
3
?
d. 3.17 x 10
18
formula units NaIO
3
?
15.

16. What mass of vitamin E contains 0.500 g of C, given that vitamin E is 80.8% C by mass?

17.

18.

19. Aspirin is the common name for acetyl salicylic acid. If 100 g of aspirin contains 60.00 g C, 4.480 g H,
and 35.53 g O, what is its empirical formula?
20. Lidocaine is a widely used local anesthetic. A laboratory analysis of lidocaine reveals that a 5.000 g
sample of lidocaine contains 3.588 g C, 0.473 g H, 0.598g N, and 0.342 g O.
A) What is the percent composition of lidocaine?
B) What is the empirical formula of lidocaine?
21. Chlorine was the first of the halogens to be isolated. C. W. Scheele carried out of the following
reaction in 1774:
4NaCl (aq) + 2H
2
SO
4
(aq) + mNo
2
(s)  2Na
2
SO
4
(aq) + MnCl
2
(aq) +2H
2
O (l) +Cl
2
(g).
a) If you start with1.00 g NaCl and an excess of the other reactants, how many grams of Cl
2
will be
produced?
b) If you start with 1.0 g H
2
SO
4
and an excess of the other reactants, how many grams of Cl
2
will be
produced?
c) If you start with 1.0 g MnO
2
and an excess of the other reactants, how many grams of Cl
2
will be
produced?
d) How many grams of NaCl must react to produce 1.00 g Cl
2
?
e) How many grams of H
2
SO
4
must react to produce 1.00 g of Cl
2
?
f) How many grams of MnO
2
must react to produce1.00 g of Cl
2
?
g) How many grams of Na
2
SO
4
will be produced along with 1.00 g of Cl
2
?
h) How many grams ofMnCl
2
will be produced along with 1.00 g of Cl
2
?
i) How many grams of H
2
O will be produced along with 1.00 Cl
2
?
j) Show that the law of mass conservation is upheld in the production of 1.00 g Cl
2
.

22. Hematite (Fe
2
O
3
) is converted to molten iron in a blast furnace and is then poured into molds. The
balanced equation is
Fe
2
O
3
(s) + 3CO (g)  2Fe (l) +3CO
2
(g)
a. How many moles of Fe
2
O
3
must react to produce 262 mol of Fe?
b. How many moles of CO
2
are produced by the reaction of 64.0 mol of CO?
c. How many moles of Fe
2
O
3
must react to produce 760 kg of Fe?
d. How many grams of CO
2
will be produced when 40.0 mol of CO react?
e. What mass (in kg) of Fe is produced when 299 kg of Fe
2
O
3
react?


23. Bleach is an aqueous solution of sodium Hypochlorite. A bleach solution may be prepared when
chlorine gas is bubbled to aqueous sodium hydroxide to the