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Power Grid Station

Introduction
1.1 Grid Station

Fig 1.1 Overview of Power Grid Kishenpur
Grid is a technical term used for inter connections of power received from more than one place. It is the
network of main power lines for transmission of electricity.
In context of POWERGRID all regional/national grids are functionally divided into 7 regions i.e. NRTS-I, NRTS-II,
WRTS-I, WRTS-II, SRTS-I, SRTS-II and NERTS. Kishenpur falls under NRTS-II
Grid station is the important part of power system. They serve as a source of energy supply for the local areas
of distribution in which these are located. Their main functions are to receive energy transmitted at high
voltage from generating stations, reduce the voltage to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide
facilities for switching. Some substation are simply switching where different connections between various
transmission lines are made, others are converting substations which convert AC into DC or vice-versa or
convert frequency from higher to lower or vice-versa, substation have some additional functions.
They provide points where safety devices may be installed to disconnect equipment or circuit in the event of
fault. Voltage on the outgoing feeder can be regulated at the substation. A substation is convenient place for
installing synchronous condensers at the end of the transmission line for purpose of improving power factor
and make measurements to check the operation of the various part of the power system .
Thus grid stations may be defined as the assembly of apparatus, which transfer energy to another; e.g. from
AC to DC or to the voltages from 66KV, 110KV, or 220KV. However 500KV will used for the national grid system
in future. The consumer do not use such high voltage and so they must be transformed to low voltage levels by
means of substations, thus a substation may be called as link between the generating stations and consumer.
1.2 Substation
A sub-station may be defined as assembly of apparatus which transforms the characteristics of electrical
energy from one form to another , say from example from AC to DC or from one voltage to another.
They provide safety points where safety devices may be installed to disconnect equipment or circuits in the
event of faults. Voltage one outgoing distribution feeder can be regulated at sub-station. A sub-station
generally has two major components i.e. switchyard and control room.
The 400/200 KV Kishenpur substation comprise of following :-
Two switchyards of 220 and 400 KV
1. Two control rooms each for 220 and 400 KV for metering/protection/control purposes.

Power Grid Station
2. Workshop for repair and maintenance.
1.3 Switch Yard
A switch yard is used for locating various equipments and instruments and protective devices such as
transformers, circuit breakers, current transformers, potential transformers, lightning arrestors and wave traps
etc.
If the substation is near a load center it will have LT distribution and sub transmission equipments and if load
center is far away from switchyard it will have transformers, CB, and other HT control equipments.
1.4 Design of Grid Station
When a station is to be designed, the following procedure should be adapted:-
1. Prepare a single line diagram of main electrical connections showing bus bar arrangements, circuit
breaker and transformers.
2. Decide the layout of the switchgear keeping views capacity of substations, methods of control and
number of feeders, reliability, safety, flexibility, space needed and
construction.
3. The layout should be such that it should be possible to isolate any section during fault, without
affecting the service of the healthy section.
4. It should be possible to have an easy and safe access for maintenance and inspection for different
equipments.
5. An arrangement should be made to extinguish fire.
6. The earth conductor should of sufficient cross-sectional area to carry the fault current in severe
conditions.
7. A proper and sufficient automotive electrical protective gear should be used. Power cables should be
separate from control cable.
8. Allow reasonable amount of expansions for substation.
1.5 Location of Grid Station
The following points should be taken mainly into consideration in choosing the location of grid station:-
1. Location stations as close to the load center as possible.
2. Locate stations at such points that all the perspective loads may be conveniently reached without
under voltage regulation.
3. Allow access to the incoming transmission line and outgoing distribution line.
4. Choose the site where municipal restriction of property laws should permit the type of building
necessary for substation.
5. Keep load on substations with in such limits that an undue large area or number of consumers will not
be affected in case the station shut down occurs.
The location of station should be indoor, outdoor, and underground or pole mounted. The last two are for
small size of distribution stations and the rural electrification may be considered only in large crowded cities,
with space limitations. The indoor type of station, which is common used, all the equipments. In case of
outdoor types of station, which is common used, all the equipments are arranged outdoors and should
withstand weather conditions. The advantage of outdoor type is that they do not need any buildings. In case of
outdoor the cost of transformers and switchgear equipments is less than that indoor type.
In case of stations at the generating stations, to step up generation voltage to transmission voltage, they are
located in the outstation yard. So in the transmission stations also control and protective equipments are
located inside the buildings near the station yard.
1.6 Our Objectives for Doing Industrial Training in Power Grid
1. To see the role of electronics and instrumentation in Power Grid.
2. To analyze the control of the equipments used in Power Grid.
3. To analyze measurement of the current, voltages by using instruments.
4. To monitor the minute happenings i.e faults produced and detected by using instruments.
1.7 Technical Parameters of Kishenpur Substation
Total transformation capacity : 630 MVA
No. of transmission lines : 400KV 08 no.
: 220KV12 no.
No of existing bays (400kv) : 18 no.
No of existing bays (220kv) : 18 no.
No of 105 MVA,400/220/33kv ICT : 07 no(including 01 spare)
Bus bar scheme : 400KV one and half circuit breaker
: 220KV double main & transfer bus

Power Grid Station
1.8 Major Equipments at Kishenpur
1.8.1 Transformer
Rating : 400/220 KV , 105 MVA, single phase
Cooling : ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
Quantity : 7 no.
Make : BHEL
1.8.2 Circuit Breaker
Rating : 400 KV
Operation : Pneumatic Close And Open
Quantity : 18 no
Make : ABB
Rating : 220 KV, SF6
Cooling : pneumatic close and open
Quantity : 4no.
Make : ABB
1.8.3 Current Transformer
Rating : 400 KV, 220 KV, SINGLE PHASE
Make : TELK, AREVA, BHEL
1.8.4 Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Rating : 400 KV, 220 KV, SINGLE PHASE
Make : ABB/AREVA, CGL,WSI
1.8.5 Lightning Arrester
Make : WSI
: ELPRO
: OBLUM
: ALSTOM
Rating : : 220/400KV
Quantity : 17no.
: 13no.
: 6no.
: 6no.








Power Grid Station
CHAPTER 2
ROLE OF INSTRUMENTATION IN POWER GRID
2.1 Instrumentation
Instrumentation for power process industry is mainly defined as the art and science of measurements and
control.
Instruments are the devices that measures and regulates process conditions such as pressure, temperature,
level, flow rate, and composition of the process streams. Many types of instruments are used in industries as
like thermocouples, thermistors, pyrometers (temperature), elastic pressure transducers, piezoelectric
transducers (for pressure measurement) , analysers, mass spectrometers (composition).
2.1.1 Significance of instrumentation
Since conditions of noise, temperature, and speed are very swear in industries and human senses of listening,
seeing and hearing are not up to that level. So for proper working and maintain process conditions using
sensors, instruments are used.
Critical Components for Smart Grid Ready Instrumentation:
There are stand-alone traditional instruments used in Power Grid such as power-quality meters, transient
recorders, and phasor measurement units are robust, standards-based, and embedded but are designed to
perform one or more specific/fixed tasks defined by the vendor (i.e. the user generally cannot extend or
customize them). In addition, special technologies and costly components must be developed to build these
instruments, making them very expensive and slow to adapt. On the other side, the rapid adoption of the PC
in the last 30 years catalyzed a revolution in instrumentation for test, measurement, and automation.
Computers are powerful, open-source, I/O expandable, and programmable, but not robust and not embedded
enough for field deployment.
2.2 Use of Electronics and Instrumentation in Power Grid
Instrumentation is the art and science of measurement and control of process variables with in a production or
manufacturing area or in a process plant.
To control over a particular area in any department, field and in other aspects, there is need of instruments.
The instrument require use of semiconductor devices to monitor a particular area in every respective fields.
Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate circuit breakers, relays, current
and voltage transformers etc. in power grid station. These devices control a desired output variable provide
remote or automated control capabilities. These are often reffered to as Final Control Elements.
Example
A Transmitter is a device that produces an output signals in the form of electrical current signal by using other
parameters like voltage, frequency etc. This signal can be used for informational purposes or it can be sent
remotely by remote terminal unit system, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control
other devices and processes in the system.
In a Power Grid, there is a use of current transformer, voltage transformer, current transducer, voltage
transducer, remote terminal unit, synchronization socket, microprocessors, line reactor with nuclear ground
reactor, synchronization trolley etc.
The use of electronics and instrumentation in a grid station is.
1. To minimize the use of bunch of wires which create problems during installation.
2. To amplify the electrical signals.
3. To minimize the effects of friction.
4. To use electrical output easily , transmitted and processed for measurement.
5. To detect faults.
6. To record or store the results and display with the help of read out devices.
7. To control current and voltage by using current and voltage transformers.
8. To convert non electrical signals into electrical signals with help of current and voltage transducers.
9. The attenuation can be easily done with these static device.

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.1 Control Panel in 400 KV
This figure is named as CONTROL PANEL which shows the whole control has done by this panel. This consists of
circuit breaker, isolator, ground, current transformers, Voltage transformers in symbolic form. All these
components are earthened fully as shown by its symbol in figure. It can be operated with the help of Remote
Terminal Unit.
So this is the brief description of Instruments using in Power Grid and can be explained in next chapters.
2.3 Internal Circuitry of Control Panel
This Control Panel consists of Current Transducer, Voltage Transducer, Analyzers, Relays, Microprocessor
based alarm panels, Pressure transducer, Ohmmeter, Event Data Logger, Timer, Inductors, etc.
2.3.1 Current Transducer

Fig 2.2 Current Transducer
Transducers convert electrical energy into other forms of energy, as in the case of audio loudspeakers, or from
other forms of energy into electrical signals, such as with pressure transducers. The term current transducers,
however, is usually used to describe devices that convert alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC)
electrical current signals into analog instrumentation signals used in industrial control systems. Here they
would convert the measured AC or DC current value, perhaps the power supply to a breaker, into either a 4-20
milliamp (mA) DC analog process value.
There were also hundreds of pneumatically actuated control valves which had to receive their output
instructions from the control computer, which sent these signals as 4-20 mA DC analog current signals. This
required a current to pneumatic conversion. The industry soon termed these I to P or I/P transducers, with I
denoting the current input and P signifying the pneumatic output.
Working principle of Current Transducer

Power Grid Station
For a given current flow, a proportional magnetic field is produced around the current carrying conductor.
Current sensors measure this field using one of two technologies. For DC currents, we use "Hall Effect" while
for AC currents, we use "Inductive" technology.
The Hall Effect sensor has a core, Hall Effect device and signal conditioning circuitry. The current conductor
passes through a magnetically permeable core that concentrates the conductor's magnetic field. The Hall
Effect device is mounted in the core at a right angle to the concentrated magnetic field. A constant current in
one plane excites the Hall device. When the energized Hall device is exposed to a magnetic field from the core,
it produces a potential difference (voltage) that can be measured and amplified into process level signals such
as 4-20mA or a contact closure.


Fig 2.3 Working Principle of Current Transducer
The Inductive sensor has a wire-wound core and a signal conditioner. The current conductor passes through
the core that magnifies the conductor's magnetic field. AC current constantly changes potential from positive
to negative and back again, generally at the rate of 50 or 60 Hz. The expanding and collapsing magnetic field
induces current in the windings. This secondary current is converted to a voltage and conditioned to output
process-level signals such as 4-20mA or contact closures.
Features
1. Stability and High Accuracy Output
2. External Span & Zero adjustment
3. Low Internal consumption
4. Compact size
5. Multiple Output
2.3.2 Voltage Transducer
A voltage transducer is an element of electrical circuitry that both measures and monitors the levels of current
and voltage dispersed and dispensed through the circuit, depending on whether the current is AC or DC. If the
power supplied to the circuit is alternating current, or AC, the voltage transducer will monitor and measure the
current more readily than the voltage, while voltage transducers work mainly in conjunction with DC power
sources. The measurement capabilities of different voltage transducers differ widely due to the many ranges
of their usage, from computer circuitry to large transformer circuits.


Power Grid Station
Fig 2.4 Voltage Transducer
Features
1. AC Voltage Transducer measures AC Voltage and converts it to an industry standard output signal
which is directly proportional to the measured input.
2. These transducers provide an output which is load independent and isolated from the input. The
output can be connected to Controllers, Data-Loggers, PLC's, Analog / Digital Indicators, Recorders for
display, analysis or control.
Working principle of voltage transducers
Hall Effect Sensors are devices which are activated by an external magnetic field. We know that a magnetic
field has two important characteristics flux density, (B) and polarity (North and South Poles). The output signal
from a Hall effect sensor is the function of magnetic field density around the device. When the magnetic flux
density around the sensor exceeds a certain preset threshold, the sensor detects it and generates an output
voltage called the HallVoltage, V
H
.
Hall Effect Sensors consist basically of a thin piece of rectangular p-type semiconductor material such as
gallium arsenide (GaAs), Indium antimonide (InSb) or indium arsenide (InAs) passing a continuous current
through itself. When the device is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic flux lines exert a force on the
semiconductor material which deflects the charge carriers, electrons and holes, to either side of the
semiconductor slab. This movement of charge carriers is a result of the magnetic force they experience passing
through the semiconductor material. As these electrons and holes move side wards, a potential difference is
produced between the two sides of the semiconductor material by the build-up of these charge carriers. Then
the movement of electrons through the semiconductor material is affected by the presence of an external
magnetic field which is at right angles to it and this effect is greater in a flat rectangular shaped material.

Fig 2.5 Working Principle of Voltage Transducer
2.3.3 Relays
A protective relay is an electromechanical apparatus, often with more than one coil, designed to calculate
operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trip circuit breakers when a fault is detected. Unlike switching
type relays with fixed and usually ill-defined operating voltage thresholds and operating times, protective
relays have well-established, selectable, time/current (or other operating parameter) operating characteristics.
Protection relays may use arrays of induction disks, shaded-pole magnets, operating and restraint coils,
solenoid-type operators, telephone-relay contacts, and phase-shifting networks. Protection relays respond to
such conditions as over-current, over-voltage, reverse power flow, over- and under- frequency. Distance relays
trip for faults up to a certain distance away from a substation but not beyond that point.

Fig 2.6 Protective Relay

Power Grid Station
Operation principles
Electromechanical protective relays operate by either magnetic attraction, or magnetic induction.
"Armature"-type relays have a pivoted lever supported on a hinge or knife-edge pivot, which carries a moving
contact. These relays may work on either alternating or direct current, but for alternating current, a shading
coil on the pole is used to maintain contact force throughout the alternating current cycle. Because the air gap
between the fixed coil and the moving armature becomes much smaller when the relay has operated, the
current required to maintain the relay closed is much smaller than the current to first operate it. The
"returning ratio" or "differential" is the measure of how much the current must be reduced to reset the relay.
A variant application of the attraction principle is the plunger-type or solenoid operator. A reed relay is
another example of the attraction principle.
"Moving coil" meters use a loop of wire turns in a stationary magnet, similar to a galvanometer but with a
contact lever instead of a pointer. These can be made with very high sensitivity. Another type of moving coil
suspends the coil from two conductive ligaments, allowing very long travel of the coil.
Example
1. Induction disc overcurrent relay
These electromagnetic relays use the induction principle discovered by Galileo Ferraris in the late 19th
century. The magnetic system in induction disc overcurrent relays is designed to detect overcurrents in a
power system and operate with a pre-determined time delay when certain overcurrent limits have been
reached. In order to operate, the magnetic system in the relays produces torque that acts on a metal disc to
make contact, according to the following basic current/torque equation:

Where
is a constant and are the two fluxes is the phase angle between the fluxes
The relay's primary winding is supplied from the power systems current transformer via a plug bridge, which is
called the plug setting multiplier (psm). Usually seven equally spaced tappings or operating bands determine
the relays sensitivity. The primary winding is located on the upper electromagnet. The secondary winding has
connections on the upper electromagnet that are energised from the primary winding and connected to the
lower electromagnet. Once the upper and lower electromagnets are energised they produce eddy currents
that are induced onto the metal disc and flow through the flux paths. This relationship of eddy currents and
fluxes creates torque proportional to the input current of the primary winding, due to the two flux paths being
out of phase by 90.
Providing the relay is free from dirt, the metal disc and the spindle with its contact will reach the fixed contact,
thus sending a signal to trip and isolate the circuit, within its designed time and current specifications. Drop off
current of the relay is much lower than its operating value, and once reached the relay will be reset in a
reverse motion by the pressure of the control spring governed by the braking magnet.
2. Static Relays
Application of electronic amplifiers to protective relays was described as early as 1928, using vacuum
tube amplifiers. Devices using electron tubes were studied but never applied as commercial products, because
of the limitations of vacuum tube amplifiers. A relatively large standby current is required to maintain the tube
filament temperature; inconvenient high voltages are required for the circuits, and vacuum tube amplifiers
had difficulty with incorrect operation due to noise disturbances.
Static relays with no or few moving parts became practical with the introduction of the transistor. Static relays
offer the advantage of higher sensitivity than purely electromechanical relays, because power to operate
output contacts is derived from a separate supply, not from the signal circuits. Static relays eliminated or
reduced contact bounce, and could provide fast operation, long life and low maintenance.
3. Digital Relays
The functions of electromechanical protection systems are now being replaced by microprocessor-based
digital protective relays, sometimes called "numeric relays".

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.7 Digital Protection Relay
These convert voltage and currents to digital form and process the resulting measurements using a
microprocessor. The digital relay can emulate functions of many discrete electromechanical relays in one
device, simplifying protection design and maintenance. Each digital relay can run self-test routines to confirm
its readiness and alarm if a fault is detected. Numeric relays can also provide functions such as
communications (SCADA) interface, monitoring of contact inputs, metering, waveform analysis, and other
useful features. Digital relays can, for example, store two sets of protection parameters, which allow the
behavior of the relay to be changed during maintenance of attached equipment. Digital relays also can provide
protection strategies impossible to synthesize with electromechanical relays, and offer benefits in self-testing
and communication to supervisory control systems.
4. Numerical Relays
The distinction between digital and numerical relay rests on points of fine technical detail, and is rarely found
in areas other than Protection. They can be viewed as natural developments of digital relays as a result of
advances in technology. Typically, they use a specialized digital signal processor(DSP) as the computational
hardware, together with the associated software tools. The input analogue signals are converted into a digital
representation and processed according to the appropriate mathematical algorithm. Processing is carried out
using a specialized microprocessor that is optimized for signal processing applications, known as a digital signal
processor or DSP for short. Digital processing of signals in real time requires a very high power microprocessor.
Functions
Overcurrent relay
An "overcurrent relay" is a type of protective relay which operates when the load current exceeds a preset
value. The ANSI device number is 50 for an instantaneous overcurrent (IOC) and 51 for a time over current
(TOC). In a typical application the overcurrent relay is connected to a current transformer and calibrated to
operate at or above a specific current level. When the relay operates, one or more contacts will operate and
energize to trip (open) a circuit breaker.
Distance relay
The most common form of protection on high voltage transmission systems is distance relay protection. Power
lines have set impedance per kilometer and using this value and comparing voltage and current the distance to
a fault can be determined. The ANSI (American National Standard Institute) standard device number for a
distance relay is 21.It is also called as the impedance relay as it calculates the line fault with the use of the
impedance per meter of the transmission line.
2.3.4 Event Data Logger
Event data logger applications do not monitor a continuously changing variable, like temperature, pressure
and flow. They only detect when something happened, how long it happened, or how many times it
happened. This is the domain of the event data logger, where discrete (on/off) signals are monitored for
changes in state in various ways, and those changes are logged along with the date and time of occurrence.

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.8 Event Data Logger
For Example :- is an electric or water meter with a pulsed output. An event logger with counting capability can
be used to log total KW H of energy or water volume consumed versus time of day.
In Power Grid, Event Data Logger counts the number of times, the circuit breaker trips.
Event Data Logger programmable capture modes to detect events (when the events happen), states (how long
between events) and counts (how many events). An internal real time clock provides time and date stamping
for each captured quantity, and storage is accomplished to a removable SD-style memory card. The features
eight input channels split between four high voltage and four low voltage types. The high voltage channels may
be connected to any 300V or 230 VAC rms source and feature input-to-output and channel-to-channel
isolation of 500 VDC or 250 V peak AC. The four low voltage inputs are internally pulled-up and may be used
to detect activity from switch closures, TTL-level signals, or DC levels up to 30 Volts.
A USB interface is provided to allow the Event Data Logger to be configured for measurements. The unit can be
powered by an AC adaptor or an internal rechargeable battery. Three status LEDs are provided: USB interface
detected, sampling, and battery charging.
Specifications
Eight measurement channels
Isolated high voltage inputs connect to any 300V or 230 VAC rms source
Four low voltage inputs to detect activity from switch closures, TTL-level signals, or DC levels (up to 30
Volts)
Records to removable, SD-style memory in csv (comma-separated value) file format
Four measurement modes
Built-in USB interface
2.3.5 Pressure Transducer
Pressure transducer is a device which converts pressure into an electrical energy. It works with the help of
pressure sensor.

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.9 Pressure Transducer
Example: The pressure due to SF
6
in circuit breaker is converted to an electrical signal by using Pressure
transducer.
Pressure sensor: A pressure sensor measures pressure, typically of gases or liquids. Pressure is an expression
of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. A
pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. For
the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical.
Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications.
There is also a category of pressure sensors that are designed to measure in a dynamic mode for capturing
very high speed changes in pressure. Example applications for this type of sensor would be in the measuring of
combustion pressure in an engine cylinder or in a gas turbine. These sensors are commonly manufactured out
of piezoelectric materials such as quartz.
2.3.6 Inductor
An inductor, also called a coil or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component which resists changes
in electric current passing through it. It consists of a conductor such as a wire, usually wound into a coil. When
a current flows through it, energy is stored temporarily in a magnetic fieldin the coil. When the current flowing
through an inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces a voltage in the conductor, according
toFaradays law of electromagnetic induction, which opposes the change in current that created it.

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.10 Inductor in control Panel
An inductor is characterized by its inductance, the ratio of the voltage to the rate of change of current, which
has units of henries (H). Many inductors have a magnetic core made of iron or ferrite inside the coil, which
serves to increase the magnetic field and thus the inductance. Along with capacitorsand resistors, inductors
are one of the three passive linear circuit elements that make up electric circuits. Inductors are widely used
in alternating current (AC) electronic equipment, particularly in radio equipment. They are used to block the
flow of AC current while allowing DC to pass; inductors designed for this purpose are called chokes. They are
also used in electronic filters to separate signals of different frequencies, and in combination with capacitors to
make tuned circuits, used to tune radio and TV receivers.
2.4 Insulators
The insulator used in connection with overhead systems employing bar conductors are composed almost
invariably of glazed porcelain, although some moulded materials are used for low voltage, and glass material
are also used. The insulator serves two purposes. The most usually material for manufacture of insulators is
porcelain.
The porcelain should be ivory white, sound free, free from defects and thoroughly vitrified so that the glaze is
not dependent upon insulation.. Toughened glass is also sometime used for insulators but its use is limited to
about 33KV. The design of the insulator is such that the stress due to contraction and expansion in a pair of
insulator does not cause any defect.

Fig 2.11 Insulators
2.4.1 PIN Type Insulator
As the name suggests the pin- type insulator is attached to steel bolt or pin, which is secured to a cross arm on
the transmission pole. The insulator and its pin, or other support, should be sufficiently strong mechanically to
withstand the resultant force due to the combined effects of wind pressure and weight of span. The pin type
insulators are normally used up to 33KV. It is not desirable to use them beyond 50KV as a cost of such
insulators then increase much faster than the voltage.

Power Grid Station

Fig 2.12 Pin type insulator
2.4.2 Suspension Type Insulator
For high voltage rating these insulators are used. Suspension insulators being free to swing, the clearance
required between the power conductor and the supporting structures are more as compared to pin type
insulators. Each insulator is design for 11KV and hence for any operating voltage a string of insulators can be
used.

Fig 2.13 General suspension type insulator
Several important advantages follow from this system
1. Each insulator is designed for a comparatively low working voltage, usually about 11,000 volts, and the
insulation for any required line voltage can be obtained by using a string of a suitable number of such
insulators.
2. In the event of a failure of an insulator, one unit- instead of the whole string- has to be replaced.
















Fig 2.14 Suspension type insulator in 400/220 KV substation Kishenpur
2.5 Isolating Switches
In substation, it is often desired to disconnect part of the system of the general maintenance and repairs. The
isolating switch or isolator accomplishes this. It may be defined as a device used to open or close a circuit
either when negligible current is interrupted or when no significant change in the voltage across the terminals
of each pole of the isolator will result from the operation. An isolator is essentially a knife switch and is
designed to open the circuit under no load. In other words, isolators switches are operated only when the

Power Grid Station
lines in which they are connected carry low current. Isolators are not fitted control device andfunction only for
instantaneous changes of switching circuits arrangements and for providing a visible break in a circuit, so as to
make certain operation that can be performed on an isolated section without running a risk. Isolators are
handled manually as well as automatically.

Fig 2.15 Isolating Switches in 400/220 KV substation Kishenpur

Fig 2.16 Isolating Switches
CHAPTER 3
INSTRUMENTS IN SWITCH YARD
3.1 Instrument Transformers
The lines I substation operate at high voltage and carry current of 1000 of amperes. The measuring
instruments and protective devices are designed for low voltages (for generally 110 volts) and currents (about
5 A) .Therefore, they not work satisfactory if mounted directly on the lines this difficulty is overcomes by
installing instrument transformers on the power lines. The function of this instrument transformers is to
transfer voltage or current in the power lines to values which are convenient for the operation of measuring
instrument and relays. There are two types of instrument transformers viz;
1. Current transformer
2. Capacitor Voltage transformer
3.2 Current Transformers
C.T is essentially a transformer which steps down current to a known ratio. The primary winding of this
transformer consists of one or more turns of thick wire connected in series with the line. The secondary

Power Grid Station
consists of large number of turns of fine wire and provides for the measuring instruments & relays a current
which is a constant fraction of the current in the line. Suppose current transformer rated at 100/5 A is
connected in the line to measure current in primary the current in primary the current in the line 100 A, then
secondary of C.T will be 5A. Similarly, if current in the line is 50 A, then secondary of C.T will have current of
2.3A .

Fig. 3.1 Current Transformer
Thus C.T under consideration will step down the line current by a factor of 20. There are two different types of
Current Transformer :
1. Live Tank Current Transformer
2. Dead Tank Current Transformer
As we know in Transformers, there are primary and secondary windings. When the current flows directly from
primary to primary winding without the help of the secondary winding , is called as LIVE CURRENT
TRANSFORMER.

Fig 3.2 Live Tank current transformer
When the current flows from primary to secondary winding through lower portion as shown in figure is called
as DEAD CURRENT TRANSFORMER. It can be pulled out with the help of hooks which are on front and back
side of current transformer.

Power Grid Station

Fig 3.3 Dead Tank current transformer
Following are the advantages of Live Tank over dead Tank :
1. The Primary conductor is short than (in live tank CT) than the Dead tank CT which gives better
Rigidity and gives high short circuit current withstanding capability and reliability.
2. Primary winding is uniformly distributed around Core.Hence CT is truly low reactance type, which
has inherent better transient performance.
3. Due to shorter length and the tank being live the major insulation is not over the high current
carrying primary, which is the main source of heat (as in the case of Dead tank type design.) the
insulation does not get heated up while dissipating the heat generated. This facilitates much
superior thermal stability of insulation and longer life.
3.3 Potential Transformer
It is essentially a step down transformer & step downs the voltage to known ratio. The primary of this
transformer consists of large number of turns of fine wire connected across the line instrument relays a
voltage a known fraction of the line voltage. Suppose a potential transformer rated at 66kv/ 110v is connected
to a power line .If line voltage is 66kV, then the voltage across secondary will be 110 kV.

Fig 3.4 Potential Transformer
3.4 Metering & Indicating Instruments
There are several metering & indicating (e.g. ammeter, voltmeter, energy meter etc) installed in a substation
to maintain watch over the circuit quantities. The instrument transformer are invariably used with them for
satisfactory operation.

Power Grid Station

Fig 3.5 Metering & Indicating Instruments
3.5 Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT), are used for voltage metering and protection in high voltage network
systems. They transform the high voltage into low voltage adequate to be processed in measuring and
protection instruments secondary equipment, such as relays and recorders).

Fig 3.6 Capacitve Voltage Transformer

A Voltage Transformer (VT) isolates the measuring instruments from the high voltage of the monitored circuit.
VTs are commonly used for metering and protection in the electrical power industry.

Fig 3.7 Internal Circuitory of CVT

Power Grid Station
A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is
a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal,
for measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts:
two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the
line frequency, and a transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or
protective relay.
Main applications of CVTs are:
1. Voltage Measuring: They accurately transform transmission voltages down to useable levels for
revenue metering, protection and control purposes
2. Insulation: They guarantee the insulation between HV network and LV circuits ensuring safety
condition to control room operators
3. HF Transmissions: They can be used for Power Line Carrier (PLC) coupling
Mechanical Features
1. All external components are made by aluminium
2. High earthquake strength capability
3. Suitable for ambient temperature -60 to +70 C
3.6 Lightening Arresters
It is protective device which conducts the high voltage surges on the power system to the ground. Surge
voltages are abnormal voltage that may cause break down of insulation of electrical equipments. These
voltages may result from switching disturbance in the electrical installation circuit or from lightning stroke. In
400/220 KV substation Kishenpur Grid Station valve type arrester is used. It consists of two assemblies are
Series spark gaps and non-linear resistor discs.
These both are connected in series under normal conditions; the normal system voltage is insufficient to cause
the breakdown of air gap assembly. On the occurrence of over voltage, the breakdown of series spark gap take
place and the surge current is conducted to earth via the non-linear resistor. They provide effective protection.

Fig 3.8 Lightening Arresters
3.7 Corona Ring
A corona ring, also called an anti-corona ring, is a toroid of conductive material, usually metal, which is
attached to a terminal of high voltage equipment. The role of the corona ring is to distribute the electric field
gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona threshold, preventing corona discharge. Corona
rings are used on very high voltage power transmission insulators and switchgear, and on scientific research
apparatus that generates high voltages. A very similar related device, the grading ring is used around
insulators.

Power Grid Station

Fig 3.9 Corona Ring
Discharge Phenomenon:
Corona discharge is a process by which a current flows from an electrode with a high potential into a neutral
fluid, usually air, by ionizing that fluid so as to create a region of plasma around the electrode. The ions
generated eventually pass charge to nearby areas of lower potential, or recombine to form neutral gas
molecules.
When the potential gradient (electric field) is large enough at a point in the fluid, the fluid at that point ionizes
and it becomes conductive. If a charged object has a sharp point, the electric field strength around that point
will be much higher than elsewhere. Air near the electrode can become ionized (partially conductive), while
regions more distant do not. When the air near the point becomes conductive, it has the effect of increasing
the apparent size of the conductor. Since the new conductive region is less sharp, the ionization may not
extend past this local region. Outside this region of ionization and conductivity, the charged particles slowly
find their way to an oppositely charged object and are neutralized.
Applications of corona discharge
Corona discharge has a number of commercial and industrial applications.
1. Drag reduction over a flat surface
2. Removal of unwanted electric charges from the surface of aircraft in flight and thus avoiding the
detrimental effect of uncontrolled electrical discharge pulses on the performance of avionic systems
3. Manufacture of ozone
4. Sanitization of pool water
5. Scrubbing particles from air in air-conditioning systems (see electrostatic precipitator)
6. Removal of unwanted volatile organics, such as chemical pesticides, solvents, or chemical weapons
agents, from the atmosphere
7. Surface treatment for tissue culture (polystyrene)
8. Ionization of a gaseous sample for subsequent analysis in a mass spectrometer or an ion mobility
spectrometer















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Power Grid Station
CHAPTER 4
CIRCUIT BREAKER AND THEIR TESTING
4.1 Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker is equipment which can be open or close a circuit under a normal as well as fault condition. It
is so desired that it can be operated manually or by remote control under normal condition and automatically
under fault condition. For the latter operation a relay is used in the circuit breaker. A circuit breaker essentially
consists of fixed and moving contacts, called electrodes.
Under normal operating condition, these contacts remain closed and will not open automatically until and
unless the system becomes faulty. The contacts can be opened manually or by remote control whenever
desired. When a fault occurs on any part of the system, the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energized and
moving contacts are pulled apart by some mechanism, thus opening the circuit. The basic construction of any
circuit breaker requires the separation of the contacts by any insulating fluid, which serves two functions:-
1. It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when the circuit breaker opens.
2. It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contact to earth. Many
insulating fluids are used for arc extinction and the fluid chosen depend upon the rating and type of
the circuit breaker.
The insulating fluids commonly used are:-
1. Air at atmospheric pressure
2. Compressed air
3. Ultra high vacuum
4. Oil which produces hydrogen for arc extinction
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
Table I Specifications
Voltage 420 KV
Normal Current 2000 A
Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage 1425 KV
Switching Impulse withstand Voltage 1050 KV
Short time withstand current and duration 40 KA and 1 Second
Line Charging Breaking Current 600A
Auxillary Circuit Supply Voltage 240 V
ac
Air Pressure 31.5 Bar
Frequency 50Hz
Mass 5600 Kg
Gas Pressure SF
6
7.0 Bar
Closing and Opening devices Supply Voltage 220 V
dc
4.2 Types of Circuit Breaker
4.2.1 Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker (MOCB)
One of the important developments in the design of oil circuit breaker has been to reduce the amount of oil
needed. The other advantages are reduction in tank size, reduction in total weight and reduction in cost. It
used minimum amount of oil and is only used for arc extinguishing.
The current conducting parts are insulated by porcelain or organic insulated material. Low oil circuit breaker
employees solid materials for insulation purpose and use a small quantity of oil which is just sufficient for arc
extinguishing .By using suitable arc control devices, the arc extinguishing can be further facilitated in low
circuit breaker venting.











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Fig 4.1 Minimum Oil CB
4.2.2 Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF6)

Fig 4.2 SF
6
Circuit Breaker
In such circuit breaker sulphur hexafluoride gas is used as arc quenching medium. The SF
6
is electronegative
gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high
pressure flow of SF
6
gas and an arc is struck between them. The conducting free electrons in arc are rapidly
captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of conduction electrons in the arc
quickly builds up enough insulating strength. The SF
6
circuit breaker has been found to be very effective for
high power and high voltage services. SF
6
has excellent insulating strength because of its affinity for electrons
i.e. whenever a free electrons collides with the neutral gas molecules to form negative ion, the electron is
absorbed by the neutral gas molecules may occur in two ways:
SF
6
+ e -> SF
6
-
SF
6
+ e -> SF
5
-
+ F
The negative ions formed are relatively heavier as compared to free electrons and therefore under a given
electric field the ions do not attain sufficient energy to lead cumulative ionization in the gas.
SF
6
circuit breaker type having
Table II SF6 Circuit Breaker
Rated Voltage 245 KV
Frequecy 50 Hz
Duration of Short Circuit Current 3 Sec
Normal Current 2500 A

Working
In closed position of the breaker, the contacts remain surrounded by SF
6
gas at a pressure of about 6kg/sq.cm.
When the breaker operates, the moving contact is pulled apart and arc is structure between the contacts. The
movement of the moving contacts is synchronized with the opening of the valve, which permits SF
6
gas at
14kg/sq.cm pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber. The high pressure flow of SF
6
rapidly
absorbs the electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions, which are ineffective as charge carriers.
Thus, medium between the contacts quickly built up high dielectric strength and cause the extinction of the
arc. After the breaker operation, the valve is closed by the action of a set of springs.

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Fig 4.3 Sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker.
4.2.3 Vacuum Circuit Breaker
In such breakers vacuum (degree of vacuum being from 10
-7
to 10
-5
torr) is used as arc quenching medium.
Since vacuum offers the high insulating strength, it has superior quenching properties than any other medium
e.g. when contacts of the breaker are opened in vacuum , the interruption occurs at first current zero with
dielectric strength between the contacts building at a rate of thousands of times higher than that obtained
with other circuit breaker . Thus a vacuum arc is different from the general class of low & high pressure arc. In
the vacuum arc the neutral atoms, ions and electrons do not come from the medium in which the arc is drawn
but they are obtained from the electrodes themselves by evaporating its surface material, because of the large
mean free path for the electrons, the dielectric strength of the vacuum is a 1000 times more than when the
gas is used as the interrupting medium.

Fig 4.4 Vacuum Circuit Breaker:
4.3 Circuit Breaker Testing & Timing
The most carefully set protection is pointless unless the circuit breaker operating times are established. Even
the most carefully planed discrimination can fail due to the poor operation of circuit breakers. Our experience
shows that many older circuit breakers far exceed their stated opening times and in extreme cases we have
found circuit breakers operating in excess of twice the stated opening times.

Power Grid Station

Fig 4.5 CT-3500 Circuit Breaker Analyzer.
The CT-3500 S2 is Vanguards second generation, stand-alone, digital, microprocessor-controlled, circuit-
breaker timer. It measures the elapsed time from the instant a breaker coil is energized to the instant of
opening or closing of a circuit-breakers dry contacts. In addition to timing a breakers contact response
time, the CT-3500 S2 can also time relays or other switching functions that use an initiating trigger voltage
(24-300 Volts DC or AC). The timer-triggering voltage starts three independent electronic timers. Each timer
is individually stopped by its respective dry-contact closing or opening. The CT-3500 can fully analyze the
timing of all circuit breaker operations (Open, Close, Open Close, and Close Open). Timing results are
displayed in milli-seconds and cycles on the units back-lit LCD screen and can be printed on the built-in 2.5-
inch wide thermal printer. It detects main and insertion resistor contacts on same input.
Features
1. USB computer interface
2. U Flash drive interface
3. Store 128 test records internally
4. Initiate Breaker Operation
5. Built-in 2.5" wide Thermal Printer
6. Rugged "QWERTY" style membrane keypad

To confirm the opening and closing times of electrically operated circuit breakers we use the VanguardCT-3500
Circuit Breaker Analyzer.
The CT-3500 is a second generation, stand-alone, digital, microprocessor-controlled, circuit breaker timer. It
measures elapsed time from the instant a breaker coil is powered to the instant of opening or closing of the
circuit-breaker's dry contacts. The CT-3500 not only times the breaker's contact response time, but it can also
time relays or other switching functions that use an initiating-trigger voltage (24-300 Volts dc or ac).
4.3.1 ABB (Asea Brown Boveri) TS3 Trip Test Set
The ABB TS3 Trip Test Set is a test device which performs functionality tests on ABB SACE Low Voltage
Electronic Trip units. Tests have to be realized with the circuit breaker out of service, in a safety condition with
the trip unit removed. The device is operated with microprocessor digital technology and it utilizes the on
board LCD Screen and Membrane Keyboard. This device allows full diagnostics of the circuit breakers that it
connects to including Auto protection testing, Alarm test, Timing tests, operation parameters and settings. This
device also allow us to look at the operation of the breaker ie. Number of operations/trips etc. In addition the
company uses a number of manufacture specific test units for testing the various functions of modern circuit
breakers.

Power Grid Station

Fig 4.6 ABB TS3 TR
IP TEST SET
Description
A Type B USB connector for connection to PC
B Main connector for ABB SACE test cable
C Output On LED Test ongoing
D Start / Stop test pushbutton (immediate test stop)
E Backlit LCD graphic display
F Funtion keys (corresponding to the active SoftKey, in the display views)
G Alfa-numeric keyboard for parameters introduction
H Power supply plug
I Power supply switch with Power On light
L Fuse holder with power voltage selector (115V / 230V 50-60Hz AC)
M Knob for parameters selection/movement and for adjustment of supplied current during test
N ESC key for back command to the previous menu, and DEL to cancel entered data
O Cursor movement keys
P ENTER key to confirm data enter
ESC : press ESC to exit the parameter changing phase, aborting the change and go back to previous menu.
DEL : press DEL to cancel the inserted parameters in alphabetic mode.
START/STOP : press START/STOP to start or stop immediately an ongoing test.
F1 F2 F3 F4 : press F1 F2 F3 F4 function keys to enter in soft key menus.
4.3.2 Low Current Micro Ohm Meter

Power Grid Station

Fig 4.7. Low Current Micro Ohm Meter
The measurement of the main contact resistance of circuit breakers gives reliable information on the condition
of a such devices particularly after clearing a major fault . The measurement of contact resistance at
commissioning stage for fingerprinting purposes gives valuable information for monitoring the device during
service. To carry out these measurements we use highly accurate micro-ohm meters.
4.3.3 High Current Micro Ohm Meter
The lightweight, versatile MOM2 is safe and easy to use. It features DualGround testing for circuit breakers,
allowing both sides of a circuit breaker to be earthed while testing and eliminating potential hazards from
induced voltages. Its rugged design makes it optimal for work in the field. Designed to operate from
rechargeable batteries that give over 2,000 measurements per charge, this high current micro-ohmmeter can
be used to carry out a full day's testing in locations where no power supply is available. The instrument can
store up to 190 test values and transfer test data to a PC via Bluetooth. The Bluetooth feature can also be
used with a supplied wireless headset to provide an audible pass/fail signal against user-adjustable limits
during testing.

Fig 4.8 High Current Micro Ohm Meter
The MOM2 uses ultra-capacitor technology to generate high output current and to achieve its unique
combination of size, weight and performance. Voltage and current in the test circuit are monitored
throughout the discharge process while displaying an average value of resistance on the instrument.
The MOM2 can measure resistance from 1 micro-ohm to 1 ohm. A large LCD screen on the instrument shows
results as well as incorporates an analog arc to show the start of charge by the ultra-capacitor.

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Depending on the resistance of the test circuits, a guaranteed minimum test current of 100 A can be achieved
for three seconds, with higher currents up to 240 A for shorter periods. Circuit breaker tests performed with
the MOM2 conform fully to IEC and IEEE standards.
The MOM2 comes standard with a robust transport case that includes two 4-foot test cables that are fitted
with Kelvin probes. The unit also includes a sturdy rubber holster, a charger, a Bluetooth kit incorporating a
headset and dongle for computers that lack built-in Bluetooth capabilities as well as a copy of the MOM2 Win
software package used for convenient processing and archiving of results.
Table III Circuit Breaker Test Timing
Contact Time 114.7 Sec
Frequency 50 Hz
Tripping Time 20 m sec
Closing Time 120 m sec
Short Circuit Breaker Test 50 m sec (app)












Power Grid Station
CHAPTER 5
COMPONENTS OF REACTOR
5.1 Line Reactor
A line reactor is an electronics component consisting of one or more inductor elements generally wired in
series with a power source and an electrical load. The line reactor will oppose rapid changes in current. The
device serves to attenuate spikes of current and to limit peak currents. The most common type is designed
for three-phase electric power, in which three isolated inductors are each wired in series with one of the three
line phases. Line reactors are generally installed in motor driven equipment to limit starting current, and may
be used to protect Variable-frequency drives and motors.

Fig 5.1 Line Reactor
A Line Reactor consists of windings, cooling tubes, oil tankers and conservators. It is a 63 MVR.A
3-phase Line Reactor is a set of three (3) coils (also known as windings, chokes or inductors) in one assembly. It
is a series device, which means it is connected in the supply line such that all line current flows through the
reactor, as shown below:

Power Grid Station

Fig 5.2 Coil representing Line Reactor.
Line Reactors are current-limiting devices and oppose rapid changes in current because of their impedance.
They hold down any spikes of current and limit any peak currents. This resistance to change is measured in
ohms as the Line Reactor's AC impedance (XL) and is calculated as follows:
X
L
= 2fL.
Function
1. Protect your sensitive equipment from harmful line disturbances with Power House line Reactors.
2. Line Reactors helps to prevent equipment failure and downtime, and can add years to the life of
your equipment.
Benefits
1. Protection of motors from damaging voltage drop.
2. Reduction of motor current surge and power line spike current
3. Improvement in true power factor capacitor input drives.
4. Cooler, quicker operation.
5. Elimination of nuisance tripping of drives or circuit breakers.
6. Reduction of harmonic distortion.
7. Longer life of Motor and state components.
Features
1. Gapped iron core inductor-designed for optimum performance while providing harmonics
compensation.
2. Precision wound copper coils for maximum protection form short circuiting.
3. Heavy duty terminal block.
4. Amps rating 2 to 100 Amps.
5. Can be used with 240, 415, and 550 Volt system.
5.2 Neutral Ground Reactor
Neutral Grounding Reactors are single phase reactors generally connected between ground and neutral of
transformers, generators. Neutral Grounding Reactors are used in order to limit maximum fault current to a
value which will not damage the equipment in the power system, yet allow sufficient flow of fault current to
operate protective relays to clear the fault.

Power Grid Station

Fig 5.3 Neutral Ground Reactor
Neutral Ground Reactor contains two relays:
1. Buchholz Relay
2. Pressure Release Valve Relay
5.2.1 Buchholz Relay
Buchholz Relay is an oil container housed the connecting pipe from main tank to conservator tank. It has
mainly two elements. The upper element consists of a float. The float is attached to a hinge in such a way that
it can move up and down depending upon the oil level in the Buchholz Relay Container. One mercury switch is
fixed on the float. The alignment of mercury switch hence depends upon the position of the float. The lower
element consists of a baffle plate and mercury switch. This plate is fitted on a hinge just in front of the inlet
(main tank side) of Buchholz Relay in such a way that when oil enters in the relay from that inlet in high
pressure the alignment of the baffle plate along with the mercury switch attached to it, will change. In addition
to these main elements a Buchholz Relay has gas release pockets on top. The float is attached to a hinge in
such a way that it can move up and down depending upon the oil level in the Buchholz Relay Container. One
mercury switch is fixed on the float.
The electrical leads from both mercury switches are taken out through a molded terminal
block.

Fig 5.4 Buchholz Relay
Internal Structure of Buchholz Relay
Buchholz Relay Principles: The Buchholz Relay working principle of is very simple. Buchholz Relay function is
based on very simple mechanical phenomenon. It is mechanically actuated. Whenever there will be a minor
internal fault in the transformer such as an insulation faults between turns, break down of core of transformer,

Power Grid Station
core heating, the transformer insulating oil will be decomposed in different hydrocarbon gases, CO
2
and CO.
The gases produced due to decomposition of transformer insulating oil will accumulate in the upper part the
Buchholz Container which causes fall of oil level in it. Fall of oil level means lowering the position of float and
thereby tilting the mercury switch. The contacts of this mercury switch are closed and an alarm circuit
energized. Sometime due to oil leakage on the main tank air bubbles may be accumulated in the upper part
the Buchholz Container which may also cause fall of oil level in it and alarm circuit will be energized. By
collecting the accumulated gases from the gas release pockets on the top of the relay and by analyzing them
one can predict the type of fault in the transformer.

Fig 5.5 Internal Structure of Buchholz Relay
5.2.2 Pressure Relief Device
Pressure relief valve is a safety element of the reactor that employs to prevent heavy damages of the tank in
the case of sudden rise of the internal pressure. These valve have been designed in order to remove the excess
pressure in a very short time as soon as the pressure in the tank rises above predetermined safe limit, the
valve operates and allow the pressure to drip instantaneously, it avoids damage to transformer body.

Fig 5.6 Pressure Relief Device
Operating principle
The PRVs port is sealed with ring and sealing cap, kept sealed by stainless steel rod & stainless steel spring.
The sealing cap is exposed to tank pressure, whenever same pressure rises due to any reason, the same
pressure acts on the sealing cap from inside. When pressure rises above predetermined safe limit, the sealing
cap gets lifted from its seat. This lifting is instantaneous and allows vapors, gases or liquid to come out of tank.
The sealing cap regains its position as soon as pressure in the tank drop below the set limit.

Power Grid Station

Fig 5.7 Pressure Release Valve
Pressure release valve relay is used to
1. Sense the pressure
2. Release out extra pressure inside the reactor
3. Circuit breaker gets tripped when pressure is released.
Features
1. Air core
2. Dry type
3. Side by side, delta or vertical arrangement depending on space availability
4. Outdoor and indoor
5. Enclosures are available on demand
6. Elevated support stands are available
7. Suitable corona rings are provided with reactors over 170 kV in order to eliminate visible corona
8. Aluminium or copper winding
9. RAL 7035 or other colours
10. - 40 C / + 55 C ambient temperature range
11. F class (155 C) protection degree or customer specific design
12. Taps are available
13. Fibre glass resin spacers are used in order to provide ease of cooling
14. AN (air-natural) cooling method
Area of Usage
1. Reducing single phase earth fault currents which occur in M.V. electrical networks to prevent
damages on transformers and generators
2. Reducing temporary over voltages occurred by braking instantaneous fault current
3. Providing long-life for switchgear
4. Reducing step voltages to a harmless level for personnel
Advantages
1. Perfect mechanical strength to withstand high short-circuit forces
2. Limited temperature rise enables longer lifetime
3. Special surface protection against UV and pollution Class IV areas
4. Maintenance-free design
Standard
EN 60076-6 or depending on customer requirements.
Support Stands
Aluminum, hot dip galvanized steel or concrete support stands are designed for specific applications.
For Neutral Ground Reactor, there is a coolant which acts as conservator which has following

Power Grid Station

Specifications
Table IV Pressure Release Valve

Type of cooling ONAN
Rated Power 63 MVAR
Rated Voltage 420 KV
Rated Current 87A
Frequency 50
Phase 3
Connection Symbols Y (DELTA) Network
Impedance 2800
Temperature Oil 50C

5.2.3 Temperature Indicators
The oil temperature is measured by a dial type thermometer. The bulb of the thermometer is mounted in the
oil and the dial is mounted outside the tank. However, oil temperature is not a reliable measure of the winding
temperature especially under sudden overloads which cause the winding temperature to raise more than the
oil temperature. Therefore it is desirable to use an indicator which will show the actual temperature of hot
spot in the winding.

Fig 5.8 Dial Type Thermometer (Temperature Indicators)
Winding temperature indicator is a thermometer with a bulb. The thermometer is immersed in oil and the
bulb is heated which carry a current proportional to the winding current.
Liquid or liquid or gas based thermometers also operate on the principle of expansion and contraction. As the
liquid expands or contracts in response to the temperature changes, the resulting pressure moves the needle
on the scale. Mercury, alcohol and ether are among the liquid choices available. There are two indicators:
winding temperature indicator and oil temperature indicator. When fault occurs, the temperature winding
indicator gives the alarm at 90 C and at 100 C, it gets tripped off itself.
5.2.4 Conservator
The function of conservator
Conservator is nothing but an oil reservoir. It is partially filled with oil, so whenever the oil rushes from the
main tank then the additional oil pushes out the stored air from the conservator. After that, when the reactor
gets cooled, then the oil is quenched and accomodate its normal position. So, the vaccum space is filled up by

Power Grid Station
the atmospheric air. A filtering device, called breather is attached with the conservator to ensure that only dry
and clean air can enter into the reactor. So, a conservator ensures the safety operation of a reactor. High
temperature of oil also leads to generate sludge, which occurs in the presence of air. If somehow the reactor is
subjected to a major fault, then the temperature rise becomes quite high and this causes vaporization of a part
of the oil. This oil vapour forms an explosive mixture with air and can ignite and cause huge damage. So, to
prevent the contact of oil and moisture-enriched air, conservator and breather assembly is used.

Fig 5.9 Conservator
5.2.5 Breather
Both transformer oil and celluloses paper are highly hygroscopic .Paper being more hygroscopic than mineral
oil .The moisture, if not excluded from oil surface in conservator, this will find its way finally into paper
insulation and causes reduction insulation strength of transformer to minimize this the conservator is allowed
to breath only through silica gel column, which absorb the moisture in air before it enters the conservator air
surface.

Fig 5.10 Breather

Power Grid Station

Fig 5.11 Internal structure of Breather




Power Grid Station
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
It is itself a feeling of gratitude to have visited one of the chief Electrical installation of the Jammu. Though the
period of one month was not that much to have explored such a wonderful sight.
We are sure that the technical knowledge which we have gained at Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
(400/220 KV SUBSTATION KISHENPUR UDHAMPUR) would help in future.
Still we are pleased to have learnt a lot about the work culture and the ethics of the Grid Station.
We are fully satisfied and have known the role of Electronics and Instrumentation in Power Grid.





Power Grid Station
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1.] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power-station
[2.] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substation
[3.] www.thesubstation.org.au/
[4.] www.substationblacksburg.com/
[5.] www.substationii.com/
[6.] Power systems by V.K Mehta
[7.] Power systems by J.B Gupta
[8.] www.galco.com/comp(prod)relay.htm
[9.] En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital-protective relay.








Power Grid Station
Power Grid Corporation of India Company Profile
Power Grid, a Navratna Public Sector Enterprise, is one of the largest transmission utilities in the world. Power
Grid wheels about 45% of total power generation in the country on its network. Power Grid has its span in
India with about 71,500 circuit km of transmission network and 120 nos of EHVAC & HVDC sub-stations with a
total transmission capacity of 79,500MVA. Power Grid has also diversified into telecom business and
established a telecom network of more than 20,000 km across the country. Power Grid has constantly
maintained the transmission availability over 99% which is at pal with the international utilities.
The mission of the corporation is establishment and operation of regional and national power grids to facilitate
transfer of electric power within and across the regions with reliability, security and economy on sound
commercial principles.
Kishenpur Sub-Station: An Overview
Kishenpur sub-station is situated on the banks of river Tawi, about 65 km from Jammu & 25 km from
Udhampur.
In 1985 , with the approval of Dulhasti hydroelectric power project, the land of this village was
selected and acquired by NHPC for construction of one of the largest grid stations of the country.
In 1991, the construction & ownership of substation passed to Power grid& today this village is an
important landmark in the power map of India. It occupies nearly of 112 acre of the total 136 acres
out of which 24 acres are reserved for colony and non
=
residential buildings.
400/220 KV Kishenpur sub-station has two control each of 220 KV& 400 KV and two switch yards each
for 220 & 400 KV.
The 400 KV switch yard consists of two banks of ICTs 42 lightning arrestors.
The 220 KV side consists of 18 circuit breakers , 48 current transformers,42 CVTs, 43 lightning
arrestors.
Kishenpur sub-station receives power from generating stations like Dulhasti, Baglihar, Salal, Uri.
Kishenpur sub-station has a manpower of about 67 including 16 executives,11 junior engineers and 43
workmen.
As we have understood from the overview that Kishenpur sub-station not only bears historical aspect
but also has established many milestones in the field of power transmission.







Power Grid Station
Abbrevations
ABB ASEA BROWN BOVERI
BR BUCHOLZ RELAY
CB CIRCUIT BREAKER
CR CORONA RING
CT CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CTD CURRENT TRANSDUCER
CVT CAPACITIVE TRANSFORMER
CTT CIRCUIT BREAKER TESTING AND
TIMING
DR DIGITAL RELAY
EDL EVENT DATA LOGGER
LA LIGHTENING ARRESTER
LR LINE REACTOR
MOCB MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREKER
NGR NEUTRAL GROUND REACTOR
NR NUMERIC RELAY
PRV PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE
PT PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
PTI PIN TYPE INSULATOR
SR STATIC RELAY
STI SUSPENSION TYPE INSULATOR
VTD VOLTAGE TRANSDUCER