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BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus
Quality Control Assurance
and Reliability
Nitin Kotkunde
Department of Mechanical Engineering
BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus


BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus
OC Curve
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Three SQC Categories
Statistical quality control (SQC): the term used to describe the set of
statistical tools used by quality professionals; SQC encompasses
three broad categories of:
1. Statistical process control (SPC)
2. Descriptive statistics include the mean, standard deviation, and
Involve inspecting the output from a process
Quality characteristics are measured and charted
Helps identify in-process variations
3. Acceptance sampling used to randomly inspect a batch of goods to
determine acceptance/rejection
Does not help to catch in-process problems

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Control chart for variables:
x bar-R, x bar-s charts, non-random patterns,
process capability estimation

Control chart for Attributes: P chart, C Chart

Control Charts
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Control chart for variables
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Sampling and population
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The dean at East Florida University, Nancy Beals, is concerned
about the undergraduate statistics training of new MBA students.
In a sampling of 100 applicants for next years MBA class, she
asked each student to supply his or her final grade in the course
in statistics taken as a sophomore or junior. To translate from
letter grades to a numeric score, the dean used the following
5. A 4. B 3. C 2. D 1. F
The responses to this query of the 100 potential students are
summarized in the table below. Also shown is the probability
for each possible grade outcome.

Question 1
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a) (i).Calculate probability for each possible grade
outcome (using the relative frequency approach)
(ii).Calculate the expected grade value E(x)
b) Compare and contrast the philosophies of Deming,
Crosby, and Juran.
c) What are the advantages of using quality function
deployment (QFD)? Explain the steps of QFD

Grade letter
Score variable Number of students
A 5 10
B 4 20
C 3 30
D 2 30
F 1 10
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Solution 1(a)
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Solution 1(b)
Definition of

-It is conformance to
requirements , not as

-It is managements job to
set the requirements and
communicate to employees.
Meeting and
exceeding the
customers need
and expectations
and then
continuing to
-Quality mission of the
company is fitness for use
as perceived by customers.
-The mission of individual
departments are to work
according to specifications
designed to achieve fitness for
Degree of
-Quality improvement starts
from the top.
-Senior management is 100
percent responsible for the
problems with Quality and
their continuance.
-Quality is made
in the board room.
Majority of Quality problems
are the fault of poor
management rather than poor
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Performance standard /
Goal setting
-Performance standard must be zero
defect, not thats close enough.
-Encourage individuals to establish
improvement goals for themselves
and their groups.
management by
numbers , numerical
goals. Substitute

General approach

The system for causing Quality is
prevention , not appraisal.
(The secret of prevention is to look
at the process and identify
opportunities for error)

Statistical process
control (SPC) /
Quality Control (QC)

The concept of control is one
of holding the status quo :
keeping a planned process in
its planned state so that it
remains able to meet the
operating goals.
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-Quality improvement is
built on getting everyone
to do it right the first
time (DIRFT)

-Quality improvement is
a process ,not a program
, and it takes a long time
for it to become a
normal part of the scene.

-Put everyone in the company to
work to accomplish the
transformation. The
transformation is every bodys

- Repeated use of PDSA cycle.
-Quality improvement is not
fire fighting ,or removing a
sporadic spike. More than that
quality improvement raises
quality performance to
imprecedented or break
through levels.

-All quality improvement takes
place project by project.

Management must break down
barriers between departments.
Each department must see other
department as internal customer ,
when this is practiced the
barriers begin to fall.

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Single sourcing of

There should be a
single supplier for
any one item , on a
long term relationship
of loyalty and trust

Cost of quality

- Measurement of
quality is the price of
non-conformance, not
- Price of non-
conformance is by
counting every thing
that is spent if
everything was not
done right the first
- Companies should
look at the total cost
of product or service
provided by others,
and not just the
purchase price.
Accepting the lowest
bid does not
guarantee the lowest
total cost.
- Cost Of Poor Quality
(COPQ) is the sum of all
costs that would disappear
if there were no quality

- Quality improvement
does not come free.
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-Orientation to the concepts and
procedures of quality
-Direct skill improvement
-Continual quality data

-Training should be given on the
-Everyone should be trained in
basic statistical methods.
- Training boosts morale
because it provides workers with
a greater sense of security and
value and a lower stress level.

Share with employees the
measurement of what
nonconformity is costing to the
Management must eliminate
slogans , exhortations and
targets asking for zero defects
and new levels of productivity
from the work force.

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Individual recognition for
those who meet their goals
or perform outstanding acts.

Abolish the annual merit or rating
system. Instead leader should
learn who is in need of individual
help , whose work processes show
extra good performance. Improve
the system and shrink the
difference between the people
that belong to the system.

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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring
this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In
today's industrial society, where the growing distance between
producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer
(end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and
service functions.

QFD is:
Understanding Customer Requirements
Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology
Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value
Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction
Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game

Solution 1(c)
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As a quality system that implements elements of
Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and
Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of
comprehensive development process for:

Understanding 'true' customer needs from the
customer's perspective
What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's
Understanding how customers or end users become
interested, choose, and are satisfied

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Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer
Deciding what features to include
Determining what level of performance to deliver
Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with
design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and
service functions
Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the
front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire
design system

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QFD is a comprehensive quality system that
systematically links the needs of the customer with various
business functions and organizational processes, such as
marketing, design, quality, production, manufacturing, sales,
etc., aligning the entire company toward achieving a common
It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken
needs, identifying positive quality and business opportunities,
and translating these into actions and designs by using
transparent analytic and prioritization methods, empowering
organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a
level of unanticipated excitement that generates value.

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The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible
products and non-tangible services, including
manufactured goods, service industry, software products,
IT projects, business process development, government,
healthcare, environmental initiatives, and many other

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(a) Holden Construction Co. builds primarily three-and four-
unit apartment buildings (called triplexes and
quadraplexes) for investors and it is believed that the total
construction time in days follows a normal distribution. The
mean time to construct a triplex is 100 days, and the
standard deviation is 20 days. If the firm finishes this triplex
in 75 days or less, it will be awarded a bonus payment of
$5,000. What is the probability that Holden will receive the
Question - 2
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(b) In 12 samples of size n = 7, the average value of the
sample means is x double bar = 6.860 cm for the
dimension of interest, and the mean of the ranges of the
samples is R bar= 0.027 cm. Determine (a) lower and
upper control limits for the x bar chart and (b) lower and
upper control limits for the R chart. (c) What is your best
estimate of the standard deviation of the process?

(c) The upper and lower control limits for a p chart are: LCL
= 0 and UCL = 0.20. Determine the minimum possible
sample size n that is compatible with this control chart.

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Solution - 2(a)
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(a) x chart: x = 6.860 cm = CL
LCL = x - A2 R = 6.860 - 0.419(0.027) = 6.8487 cm
UCL = x + A2 R = 6.860 + 0.419(0.027) = 6.8713 cm
(b) R chart: R = 0.027 = CL
LCL = D3 R = 0.076(0.027) = 0.0205 cm
UCL = D4 R = 1.924(0.027) = 0.0519 cm
(c) The x chart is based on 3 x/ n
Therefore, A2 R = 3 x/ n
x= A2 R n /3 = 0.419(0.027) 7 /3 = 0.00998 cm
Solution - 2 (b)
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p = 0.5(UCL + LCL) = 0.5(.20 + 0) = 0.10
LCL = p - 3 p(1 p) / n = 0
Therefore, p = 3 p(1 p) / n
0.10 = 3 0.10( 0.90 ) / n
= 0.01 = 3
(0.10)(0.90)/n = 0.81/n
n = 0.81/0.01 = 81

Solution - 2 (c)
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a) Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship
between the time to failure distribution, the reliability
function, and the hazard rate. Describe the reliability
evaluation of series and parallel system.
b) Four components A,B, C and D are placed in parallel to
make a subassembly in a circuit board. The reliabilities of
A, B, C and D are 0.93, 0.88, 0.95, and 0.92, mean time to
failure of 3000h. Find the reliability of the subassembly for
2500h of operation. What is the mean time to failure of the
subassembly? If it is desired that the subassembly has a
mean time to failure of 6600h, what would have to
be the mean time to failure of the components?
Question - 3
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c) A standby system has a basic unit with four standby
components. The time to failure of each component
has an exponential distribution with a failure rate of 0.008 per
hour. For a 400h operation period, find the reliability of the
standby system. What is mean time to failure? Suppose all
five components are operating simultaneously in parallel.
What would be the system reliability be in that situation?
What would be the mean time to failure?
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Explanation about failure rate function, r(t) = f(t)R(t),

Reliability of Series system
A series system is a configuration such that, if any one of
the system components fails, the entire system fails.
Conceptually, a series system is one that is as weak as its
weakest link. A graphical description of a series system is shown
in Figure.

= R
... R
(if the component reliabilities differ,
= [R
]n (if all i = 1, ... , n components are identical)
Solution 3(a)
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Reliability of parallel system
parallel system is a configuration such that, as long as not
all of the system components fail, the entire system works.
Conceptually, in a parallel configuration the total system
reliability is higher than the reliability of any single system
component. A graphical description of a parallel system of "n"
components is shown in Figure.

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Solution 3(b)
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Solution 3(c)
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BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus