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Pilani Campus

Quality Control Assurance

and Reliability

Nitin Kotkunde

Lecturer

Department of Mechanical Engineering

BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Lecture 18: REVIEW SESSION

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

OC Curve

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Three SQC Categories

Statistical quality control (SQC): the term used to describe the set of

statistical tools used by quality professionals; SQC encompasses

three broad categories of:

1. Statistical process control (SPC)

2. Descriptive statistics include the mean, standard deviation, and

range

Involve inspecting the output from a process

Quality characteristics are measured and charted

Helps identify in-process variations

3. Acceptance sampling used to randomly inspect a batch of goods to

determine acceptance/rejection

Does not help to catch in-process problems

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Control chart for variables:

x bar-R, x bar-s charts, non-random patterns,

process capability estimation

Control chart for Attributes: P chart, C Chart

Control Charts

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Control chart for variables

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Sampling and population

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

The dean at East Florida University, Nancy Beals, is concerned

about the undergraduate statistics training of new MBA students.

In a sampling of 100 applicants for next years MBA class, she

asked each student to supply his or her final grade in the course

in statistics taken as a sophomore or junior. To translate from

letter grades to a numeric score, the dean used the following

system:

5. A 4. B 3. C 2. D 1. F

The responses to this query of the 100 potential students are

summarized in the table below. Also shown is the probability

for each possible grade outcome.

Question 1

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

a) (i).Calculate probability for each possible grade

outcome (using the relative frequency approach)

(ii).Calculate the expected grade value E(x)

b) Compare and contrast the philosophies of Deming,

Crosby, and Juran.

c) What are the advantages of using quality function

deployment (QFD)? Explain the steps of QFD

process

Grade letter

outcome

Score variable Number of students

responding

A 5 10

B 4 20

C 3 30

D 2 30

F 1 10

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

(i)

(ii)

Solution 1(a)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution 1(b)

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Definition of

Quality

-It is conformance to

requirements , not as

goodness

-It is managements job to

set the requirements and

communicate to employees.

Meeting and

exceeding the

customers need

and expectations

and then

continuing to

improve.

-Quality mission of the

company is fitness for use

as perceived by customers.

-The mission of individual

departments are to work

according to specifications

designed to achieve fitness for

use.

Degree of

Senior

management

involvement

-Quality improvement starts

from the top.

-Senior management is 100

percent responsible for the

problems with Quality and

their continuance.

-Quality is made

in the board room.

Majority of Quality problems

are the fault of poor

management rather than poor

workmanship.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Performance standard /

Goal setting

-Performance standard must be zero

defect, not thats close enough.

-Encourage individuals to establish

improvement goals for themselves

and their groups.

Eliminate

management by

numbers , numerical

goals. Substitute

leadership.

General approach

The system for causing Quality is

prevention , not appraisal.

(The secret of prevention is to look

at the process and identify

opportunities for error)

Statistical process

control (SPC) /

Quality Control (QC)

The concept of control is one

of holding the status quo :

keeping a planned process in

its planned state so that it

remains able to meet the

operating goals.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Improve

ment

basis

-Quality improvement is

built on getting everyone

to do it right the first

time (DIRFT)

-Quality improvement is

a process ,not a program

, and it takes a long time

for it to become a

normal part of the scene.

-Put everyone in the company to

work to accomplish the

transformation. The

transformation is every bodys

job.

- Repeated use of PDSA cycle.

-Quality improvement is not

fire fighting ,or removing a

sporadic spike. More than that

quality improvement raises

quality performance to

imprecedented or break

through levels.

-All quality improvement takes

place project by project.

Team

work

Management must break down

barriers between departments.

Each department must see other

department as internal customer ,

when this is practiced the

barriers begin to fall.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Single sourcing of

supply

There should be a

single supplier for

any one item , on a

long term relationship

of loyalty and trust

Cost of quality

- Measurement of

quality is the price of

non-conformance, not

indexes.

- Price of non-

conformance is by

counting every thing

that is spent if

everything was not

done right the first

time.

- Companies should

look at the total cost

of product or service

provided by others,

and not just the

purchase price.

Accepting the lowest

bid does not

guarantee the lowest

total cost.

- Cost Of Poor Quality

(COPQ) is the sum of all

costs that would disappear

if there were no quality

problems.

- Quality improvement

does not come free.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Training

-Orientation to the concepts and

procedures of quality

-Direct skill improvement

-Continual quality data

communications.

-Training should be given on the

job.

-Everyone should be trained in

basic statistical methods.

- Training boosts morale

because it provides workers with

a greater sense of security and

value and a lower stress level.

Quality

awareness

Share with employees the

measurement of what

nonconformity is costing to the

company.

Management must eliminate

slogans , exhortations and

targets asking for zero defects

and new levels of productivity

from the work force.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

CROSBY DEMING JURAN

Recognition

Individual recognition for

those who meet their goals

or perform outstanding acts.

Abolish the annual merit or rating

system. Instead leader should

learn who is in need of individual

help , whose work processes show

extra good performance. Improve

the system and shrink the

difference between the people

that belong to the system.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring

this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In

today's industrial society, where the growing distance between

producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer

(end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and

service functions.

QFD is:

Understanding Customer Requirements

Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology

Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value

Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction

Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game

Solution 1(c)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

As a quality system that implements elements of

Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and

Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of

comprehensive development process for:

Understanding 'true' customer needs from the

customer's perspective

What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's

perspective

Understanding how customers or end users become

interested, choose, and are satisfied

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer

Deciding what features to include

Determining what level of performance to deliver

Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with

design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and

service functions

Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the

front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire

design system

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

QFD is a comprehensive quality system that

systematically links the needs of the customer with various

business functions and organizational processes, such as

marketing, design, quality, production, manufacturing, sales,

etc., aligning the entire company toward achieving a common

goal.

It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken

needs, identifying positive quality and business opportunities,

and translating these into actions and designs by using

transparent analytic and prioritization methods, empowering

organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a

level of unanticipated excitement that generates value.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible

products and non-tangible services, including

manufactured goods, service industry, software products,

IT projects, business process development, government,

healthcare, environmental initiatives, and many other

applications.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

(a) Holden Construction Co. builds primarily three-and four-

unit apartment buildings (called triplexes and

quadraplexes) for investors and it is believed that the total

construction time in days follows a normal distribution. The

mean time to construct a triplex is 100 days, and the

standard deviation is 20 days. If the firm finishes this triplex

in 75 days or less, it will be awarded a bonus payment of

$5,000. What is the probability that Holden will receive the

bonus?

Question - 2

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

(b) In 12 samples of size n = 7, the average value of the

sample means is x double bar = 6.860 cm for the

dimension of interest, and the mean of the ranges of the

samples is R bar= 0.027 cm. Determine (a) lower and

upper control limits for the x bar chart and (b) lower and

upper control limits for the R chart. (c) What is your best

estimate of the standard deviation of the process?

(c) The upper and lower control limits for a p chart are: LCL

= 0 and UCL = 0.20. Determine the minimum possible

sample size n that is compatible with this control chart.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution - 2(a)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

(a) x chart: x = 6.860 cm = CL

LCL = x - A2 R = 6.860 - 0.419(0.027) = 6.8487 cm

UCL = x + A2 R = 6.860 + 0.419(0.027) = 6.8713 cm

(b) R chart: R = 0.027 = CL

LCL = D3 R = 0.076(0.027) = 0.0205 cm

UCL = D4 R = 1.924(0.027) = 0.0519 cm

(c) The x chart is based on 3 x/ n

Therefore, A2 R = 3 x/ n

x= A2 R n /3 = 0.419(0.027) 7 /3 = 0.00998 cm

Solution - 2 (b)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

p = 0.5(UCL + LCL) = 0.5(.20 + 0) = 0.10

LCL = p - 3 p(1 p) / n = 0

Therefore, p = 3 p(1 p) / n

0.10 = 3 0.10( 0.90 ) / n

(0.10)

2

= 0.01 = 3

2

(0.10)(0.90)/n = 0.81/n

n = 0.81/0.01 = 81

Solution - 2 (c)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

a) Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship

between the time to failure distribution, the reliability

function, and the hazard rate. Describe the reliability

evaluation of series and parallel system.

b) Four components A,B, C and D are placed in parallel to

make a subassembly in a circuit board. The reliabilities of

A, B, C and D are 0.93, 0.88, 0.95, and 0.92, mean time to

failure of 3000h. Find the reliability of the subassembly for

2500h of operation. What is the mean time to failure of the

subassembly? If it is desired that the subassembly has a

mean time to failure of 6600h, what would have to

be the mean time to failure of the components?

Question - 3

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

c) A standby system has a basic unit with four standby

components. The time to failure of each component

has an exponential distribution with a failure rate of 0.008 per

hour. For a 400h operation period, find the reliability of the

standby system. What is mean time to failure? Suppose all

five components are operating simultaneously in parallel.

What would be the system reliability be in that situation?

What would be the mean time to failure?

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Explanation about failure rate function, r(t) = f(t)R(t),

Reliability of Series system

A series system is a configuration such that, if any one of

the system components fails, the entire system fails.

Conceptually, a series system is one that is as weak as its

weakest link. A graphical description of a series system is shown

in Figure.

R

S

= R

1

R

2

... R

n

(if the component reliabilities differ,

or)

R

S

= [R

i

]n (if all i = 1, ... , n components are identical)

Solution 3(a)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Reliability of parallel system

parallel system is a configuration such that, as long as not

all of the system components fail, the entire system works.

Conceptually, in a parallel configuration the total system

reliability is higher than the reliability of any single system

component. A graphical description of a parallel system of "n"

components is shown in Figure.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution 3(b)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Solution 3(c)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

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