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Citation: Journal of Applied Physics 51, 50 (1980); doi: 10.1063/1.327353

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.327353

View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/51/1?ver=pdfcov

Published by the AIP Publishing

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The effects of focusing in the three-frequency parametric upconverter

Shekhar Guha and Joel Falk

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261

(Received 22 January 1979; accepted for publication 11 May 1979)

This paper extends the theory of parametric upconversion to describe the mixing of two focused

optical beams with unequal confocal parameters. The results of this paper have greatest

applicability when focusing of one input beam is limited by physical constraints, e.g., damage.

The effects of phase matching, walk-off, and diffraction are treated herein. The analysis shows

that if the beams have fixed confocal parameters b

l

and b

2

, optimum mixing generally occurs with

b

2

=1=b

l

If both confocal parameters can be arbitrarily chosen, maximum efficiency occurs with

b

l

= b

2

= (crystal length)/2.84 in the absence of Poynting vector walk-off, and with b

l

=l=b

2

in the

presence of walk-off. For weak focusing upconversion efficiency is written in a closed form which

shows explicitly the effect of walk-off.

PACS numbers: 42.65.Bp, 42.60.He

I. INTRODUCTION

Optical parametric upconversion has received wide at-

tention as a means to sensitive ir detection. I Upconversion

mixes a strong laser pump of radian frequency WI with a

weak ir idler W

2

to produce a signal output of W3 = WI + W

2

.

The power generated at the sum frequency depends on the

input power and on focusing of both the pump and idler

electric fields.

In spite of the large amount of literature available on

upconversion, the choice of optimum beam sizes in the up-

converter remains uncertain. The basic question is this:

What should be the relative sizes of the pump and idler

beams? Should the beam spot size of the infrared wave be

chosen equal to the pump-beam size or does optimum focus-

ing dictate that the ir and the visible beams have equal confo-

cal parameters? The latter assumption implies that the visi-

ble pump laser be focused to an area / A.

z

times the ir

input. The resolution of this problem is of particular impor-

tance if practical considerations limit the minimum beam

size of either pump or ir beam. For example, in many upcon-

verter systems the pump-beam size must be kept large in

order to avoid crystal damage.

2

In these upconverters is it

beneficial to focus the ir more tightly than the pump?

It may be argued that simple physical intuition dictates

that equal beam sizes provide optimum focusing since that

configuration provides maximum overlap of the two beams.

On the other hand, there are two pieces of evidence that lead

one to believe that the choice of equal beam sizes is not

optimum.

(1) A quasiplane-wave analysis

3

of the upconverter pre-

dicts an efficiency proportional to + where WOI

and W

02

are the 1 Ie pump and idler Gaussian beam sizes. We

note that for a particular choice of W

OI

' conversion efficiency

is not maximized at W

02

= W

OI

but increases monotonically

as W

02

decreases.

(2) A second piece of evidence supporting the conjec-

ture that equal beam sizes do not represent optimum focus-

ing comes from the literature on optimum focusing for other

nonlinear optical processes. Boyd and Kleinman' justify the

fact that for resonant parametric downconversion and para-

metric oscillation optimum focusing is achieved with equal

confocal parameters and not with equal beam sizes. Experi-

mental investigations of frequency mixing have sometimes

implicitly assumed the validity of the equal confocal param-

eter assumption.

l

The analysis of focusing in any nonlinear optical pro-

cess is essentially the finding of a solution to the Maxwell

wave equation driven by a nonlinear polarization. For the

upconverSIOn process,

v2E _ n

2

a

2

E = 41T p(t) , (1)

c

2

at 2 c

2

at 2

where P and E are the polarization and electrical field at the

signal frequency. The polarization is produced by a mixing

of pump and idler fields. The size of these input beams as well

as the phase synchronism between signal polarization and

electric field determine the efficiency of the interaction.

We have employed two approaches to solving Eq. (1)

for arbitrary input beam sizes. The first approach involves

finding a Green's function for the upconversion system. A

Green's function G (r,r') describes the electric field produced

at point r due to an impulse of radiation at point r'. Once a

Green's function is found the signal wavelength electric field

due to an arbitrary polarization may be written

E(r) = f P(r')G(r,r')dr'. (2)

This approach has been used by Kleinman, Ashkin, and

Boyd to analyze focusing in second-harmonic generation

(SHG).'

The second technique analyzes the problem in the

Fourier or spatial frequency space. The three-dimensional

Fourier transform [P (K)] of the driving polarization [P (r)] is

calculated. The electric field, E (K), produced by each spatial

frequency is found and the total electric field is written

E(r) = fE(K)d3K.

(3)

Bjorkholm as well as Kleinman have used this Fourier ap-

proach to treat SHG.'7

Both approaches to the calculation of the signal electric

50 J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), January 1980 0021-8979/80/010050-11 $01.1 0 1980 American Institute of Physics 50

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field give identical results for E (r). The Green's function

method of analysis for upconversion is treated in the main

portion of this paper. The Fourier technique is discussed in

the Appendix.

The power Pproduced by the electric field can be found

from the relation:

(4)

(n is refractive index, the integration extends over the entire

cross section). It is the behavior of this expression as a func-

tion of phase mismatch and focusing that forms the principal

results of this paper.

II. GREEN'S FUNCTION ANALYSIS

We consider type-I three-frequency upconversion in a

noncentrosymmetric crystal. The pump (lUI) and idler (lUz)

electric fields are ordinary waves and the signal (lU

2

) is ex-

traordinary. The two input beams have TEMoo modes. The

upconversion medium is a crystal oflength I and second-

order nonlinearity d. We include the effects of double refrac-

tion and phase mismatch in the crystal. Absorption at all

wavelengths is neglected. The field of the pump or idler beam

of power focused to a waist W

Oj

at the center of the crystal

is given by'

where

7

j

= 2(z and IEoj 12 = 16P

j

2 (6)

] nj CW

Oj

h

j

is the confocal parameter of the Gaussian beam and is

related to its spot size wO

j

by the relation h

j

= . The

refractive index at Wj is nj and k

j

= nj lU

j

/ C The pump and

the idler fields are designated by subscripts 1 and 2 in each of

their parameters. The nonlinear polarization they give rise to

is

(7)

We consider only one component of the nonlinear po-

larization and omit the vector notation.

This polarization drives the signal field E3 which satis-

fies the inhomogeneous wave equation

2 J2E3 47r a

2

\7E3 - --- = --P

NL

(8)

c

2

at

2

C

Z

at

2

The time dependence of P

NL

is given by exp - i(lU

l

+ lUz)t,

i.e., exp( - ilU

3

t). We cast this equation in an integral form,

i.e.,

lU

Z

J E

3

(x,y,z,t) = 7 PNL(x',y',z',t')G(r,t;r't')d

3

r'dt'. (9)

For a homogeneous isotropic medium the disturbance pro-

duced by a source point r' at time t ' proceeds as

I r' - r'l ( ') 0

--'---'- - t - t = ,

c/n

3

(10)

51 J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

and the time-dependent Green's function is given by8

,,8[ir-r'I(c/n

3

)-I-(t-t')] (11)

G(r,t;r ,t ) = .

Ir - r'l

This gives

where the time dependence exp( - lU

J

t) has been sup-

pressed. For an anisotropic medium the disturbance pro-

duced by the source at r' does not propagate as a spherically

symmetric function as in Eq. (10). If the anisotropy is small,

the wave surface at any instant is R = constant where

R2=XZ+y2+Z2, (13)

X = x - pz - (x' - pz'),

Y=y-y', (14)

Z=z-z',

and where p is the Poynting-vector walk-off angle.

6

For a

medium of small anisotropy we may, therefore, replace

I r - r' I by R and obtain

(15)

where

(16)

and where r' = (x' ,y' ,z') denotes a source point inside the

crystal. The assumption that P

NL

is approximately a plane

wave is implicit here so that inside the crystal the energy flow

is along thep line (Fig. I). Let us denote the coordinates at

the exit surface of the crystal by x" ,y", and I. If the medium

beyond the exit surface is air (n = 1) and if we assume nor-

mal incidence upon the interface, the field in air just outside

the exit surface (at z = 1+ ) is

2n

E3(X",y",l + ) = --3-

E3

(x",y",l_).

n) + 1

(17)

x 'y 'z'

( z - z')

p

R = constant

(X_Xl)

FIG. I. Energy flow in the upconvener. Source points are indicated by

(x',y,z'). Observation points are (x,y,z). The wave surface is given by

R = canst. The Poynting vector at the signal wavelength is along the p line.

S. Guha and J. Falk 51

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Outside the crystal P NL = 0 and the wave equation becomes

2 1 a2E3

\J E3 - -;- -- = 0, (18)

c- at 2

the solution to which is

E ( )

- W3 f f exp(i

w

3/3 Ic)

1 x,y,z - --

- 21Tic /3

XE

3

(x",y",1 + )dx" dy", (19)

where

/3

2

= (X_X")2+ (y_y")2+ (Z_/)2. (20)

Using Eqs. (14)-(17) this becomes

2rriw3 f 1

El (x,y,z) = -- P

NL

(r')Ge(r,r') d -,',

cn)

(21)

where

2n3

-----

n3 + 1

X f f dx" dy" G (r',r") /3 Ic)

(22)

denotes the external Green's function.

The approximations used to compute G

e

are (following

Ref. 6) as follows:

(1) P

NL

(r') is nearly a plane wave, so that its divergence

angle is small and only paraxial rays need be considered: If

R " is the value of R evaluated at x" ,y",1, we may write

" , 1 (x" _X')2+ (y" _y')2

R + - (23)

2 (/- z')

(2) Outside the crystal we consider the far field, i.e., z

very large, so that

I (X-X")2+ (y_y")2

/3c:::::(z -I) + - . (24)

2 (z -I)

Replacing R " and /3 in the denominators by their leading

terms and using

f

OC exp( - iax) exp( - ibx

2

) dx = lI2 exp( ia

2

) , (25)

- oc lb 4b

we obtain

G (r,r')= n3

w

3 exp{(iw3 Ic)[n3(l-z')+z-/]}

e n,+12rric l-z'+n3(z-/)

[(

iW3n3) {[x-x'-p(/-z')P+ (y_y')2}]

Xexp -- .

2c 1 - z' + n

1

(z - I)

(26)

This external Green's function G

e

is identical to that in

Ref. 6 [Eq. (3.45)]. It is only in the form of P

NL

that upcon-

version differs from SHG.

For upconversion P

NL

is given by

P (

') _ dEoJE02

NL r -

(1 + i7';)(1 + i7';)

(

X,2 + '2)

Xexp[i(k

l

+ k

2

)z'] exp - e'y B(z') ,

(27)

where

52 J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

(28)

= (z' -

b

2

2'

III

-=-+-,

C' e;

(29)

e; = w61 (1 + i7';),

(30)

e; = W62 (1 + i7';),

B (z') = 1 for z' < I,

= 0 for z' > I. (31)

Equations (26) and (27) can be substituted into Eq. (21), and

the integrations over x' andy' can be evaluated, yielding the

field outside the crystal

E

3

(x,y,z)

= A2 i'dz'

o z - Z3

exp[(iw

3

n

1

Id '){[x - p(l- z')] 2 + y2}]

X - d' , (32)

where

Lik = kl + kl - k3 ,

d' = 2c[l-z' + n

3

(z -I)] + iw

3

n

3

C', (33)

2n 3 rrcw61 W62 k J k2

A2 = ----- dEol E02 exp(ii) ,

n, + 1 c

2

i(k

l

+k2)

W3

dJ= -(n31+z-/),

c

lib,

Z3 = - +--

- 2 2

= + +b

2

k

J ).

2 2 kJ + k2

(34)

(35)

(36)

The field at position (x,y,z) outside the crystal is a function of

x, y, and z. We square E3 and integrate over the whole x-y

plane to obtain the output power,

where

(40)

where

S. Guha and J_ Falk 52

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and

I

SI= -,

hI

I

S2= -,

h

2

SIS2(1 + k)

S) = S2 + kSI '

SI + kS2

S4= ---

1 + k

SI + kS2

a=

(1 + k)SISz'

(ZI - ZD(Z2 - Z3*)

/= --------------

(zl- A I)(Z2- A f)+C

I

(41)

(42)

(43)

Evaluation ofEq. (37) shows that P3 is independent of x,y,z.

Thez independence mathematically follows from a cancella-

tion ofthe variable z during the x,y integration and is expect-

ed since (outside the crystal) the total power flow through

any z = const surface must be the same. The far-field ap-

proximation [Eq. (24)] is consequently unnecessary. If we do

not desire an explicit expression for E (x,y,z), we need not

propagate the field from the output surface of the crystal.

Our expression for P

3

reduces to that obtained by Boyd and

Kleinman

4

and Bjorkholm7 for SHG when we set kl = k2

and b I = h

2

The variation of signal power P

3

with focusing

is implicit in the function h =!I Is

4

This function is analo-

gous to the function h developed to describe focusing effects

in SHG.

4

III. COMPUTER RESULTS

The dependence of P

3

on ilk, B, k, SI' and Sz is con-

tained in the function h [Eq. (39)]. For a given experimental

situation the choice of A I , A

2

, and the upconversion crystal

andB=!pB/(k

l

+k2)]I12. The val-

ues of S I = 1/ k I and S 2 = II kl are determined by

the focusing of the input lasers. Mismatch ilkl is adjusted by

controlling the nonlinear crystal's temperature or angular

orientation.

We have numerically evaluated the expression for h,

performing the integrations specified in Eq. (40) on a digital

computer. For given values of SI' S2' k, and B, ilk is varied

to maximize h (and hence signal power P3)' The maximum

value of h is denoted by

(44)

If k = 1 and SI = S2 our upconversion analysis becomes a

treatment of SHG and the numerical evaluation of Eq. (37)

53 J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

reduces to the focusing results of Boyd and Kleinman (Ref.

4, Fig. 2). For a general experimental situation (B and k fixed

and S I generally not equal to S 2) we can consider S I a param-

eter and compute the value of h

m

as a function of S2' Figures

2-9 show the variation of h

m

with focusing for various values

of SI' S2' and k. We note that the absolute maximum value

of h

m

occurs at B = 0, k = 1, and Sl = S2 = 2.84. This point

occurs with (ilkl)m = 3.25.

If both SI and Sl can be arbitrarily chosen the maxi-

mum value of h m can be determined for given values of k and

B. This value of h

m

is denoted by

h

mm

= h [(ilkl)m,Slm,S2m,k,B] .

Figure 10 shows the values of S I and S 2 that maximize h m In

the absence of Poynting vector walk-off(B = 0) or if

AI = A2 (k = 1), the conversion efficiency is maximized

with Sim = S2m' For all other values of Band k the maxi-

mum efficiency occurs with Sim =!=-S2m'

Figure 11 shows the value of h

mm

as a function of walk

off (B ) and k. For k = 1 these results are identical to those

given by Boyd and Kleinman. Boyd and Kleinman have

shown that if S I = S 2 the analytical description of upconver-

sion reduces to a mathematical treatment of second-har-

monic generation. In the SHG case they determine the value

of Sm = SI = S2 that maximizes second-harmonic output.

They suggest that upconversion efficiency is maximized by

this choice of focusing parameter for both the signal and the

idler!

The present analysis shows that the choice of

SI = S2 = Sm maximizes upconversion efficiency only if

k = 1 or B = O. The first case corresponds to second-har-

monic generation and the second is upconversion in the ab-

sence of walk-off. Figure 10 shows that in the presence of

walk-offupconversion efficiency is maximized with

Slm*"S2m'

The qualitative behavior of these curves may be viewed

1.0,--------------------,

0.1

k :: 1.0

'I:: 0.01

8::0

2

4

8

0.00 I '----'-_....I..-..LJL..L._..L----.l.---.l.-LL---"""--.-L-...l-I:::O

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 2. The function h

m

(proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. 51 = O.o!. k = 1.0.

S. Guha and J. Falk 53

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1.0

k =

1.0

, = 0.1

I

8=0

0.1 2

4

hrn

8

16

O. 00 I

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 3. The function h

m

(proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. SI = 0. \, k = I.

as a competition among three effects; the enhancement of

nonlinear polarization due to focusing, the reduction due to

walk off, and phase matching. As the idler (liJ

2

) or pump (liJ I )

is more strongly focused, i.e., as 52 or 51 increases:

(I) The signal polarization increases due to the increase

in idler and pump electric fields (P NL = dE I E

2

). This leads

to an increase in the signal electric field.

(2) The signal electric field decreases because small

idler or pump beams imply a large angular spread in the

signal polarization. The upconversion process is limited by

10 ,----------=::::===::::----"1

0.1

k = 1.0

'I = 1.0

8=0

2

4

0.00\ L-----l._---'----'---'-'_--L_-L...-'-.J......I..._-'-_..L..--L-L.J

001 0.1 10 10.0

FIG. 4. The function h

m

(proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. S I = 1.0, k = I.

54 J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

10

k = 1.0

8=0

'I = 10.0

2

0.1

4

hrn

8

16

o. a a I "'---lL_...L.--L..l.--'-----'L....----'-......L...L.L_--'-------'--'-..L.I

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FI G. 5. The function h m (proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. SI = 10, k = I.

phase mismatch in its ability to use all angular components

of the signal polarization.

(3) The signal beam size decreases and limits on the

upconversion efficiency are imposed by the Poynting vector

walk-off at the signal wavelength. This walk-off effectively

limits the crystal length useful for upconversion.

We first consider the competition among these effects in

the absence ofwalk-6ff. For a given 51' (large or small) the

conversion efficiency h

m

increases with 52 until 52 is near

unity. This increase of h

m

is a consequence of the increased

10 ,-----------------

0.1

k = 4.0

= 0.01

8=0

2

4

8

16

a 00 I L---'-_-'---'-LL_-'------'----'L..L..L----'._--'----'--.LJ

0.01 0.1 1.0 100

FI G. 6. The function h m (proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. 5, = 0.0\, k = 4.

S. Guha and J. Falk 54

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l.0

k = 4.0

= 0.1

B=O

2

4

O.t

8

h

m

16

a .001 L--..L_--L-...L.l.....l.-__

001 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 7. The function h", (proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. 5r = 0.1, k = 4.

pump and idler field strength and hence signal polarization.

As t 2 is increased to about unity the role of phase matching

becomes important. When S2 = 1, the idler spreads to (2)112

times its waist size by the time it reaches the crystal's surface.

For S2 I upconversion efficiency drops because the upcon-

version process cannot phase match the extreme rays of the

idler beam. The precise peak of the upconversion efficiency

occurs when the gain in nonlinear polarization is just bal-

anced by the loss due to ineffective phase matching. Figures

2-9 show that the peak efficiency always occurs with S 2 of

order unity.

We consider the value of S2 necessary to maximize con-

1.0,-------------=-"""':---.

k = 4.0 8 = 0

= 1.0

0.1

o 00 I '--''-'-_--'---'-.L..L_--'--_'--"-I.....L-_'-----'---'-....L-'

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 8. The function h

m

(proportional to signal power) as a function ofidler

focusing. 5, = 1.0, k = 4.

55 J. AppL Phys., Vol. 51. No. 1. January 1980

1.0

k =

4.0 B:O

= 100

0.1

2

4

h

m

8

16

0.01

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 9. The function h", (proportional to signal power) as a function of idler

focusing. s! = 10. k =. 4.

version efficiency h",. Figures 2-9 show that the optimum

value of t2 increases as SJ increases toward unity. This fact

has a simple physical interpretation. A small value of S \ im-

plies that the pump acts essentially as a plane wave, i.e., as a

nearly collinear light source. A high value (> 1) of S 1 implies

a pump rich in off-angle radiation. (We have seen that the

peak value of h

m

always occurs withs

2

near unity, i.e., where

the idler beam is rich in divergent rays.)

lfboth S 1 and 52 are large (but less than an off-

angle idler ray can combine with an off-angle pump ray for

near-perfect phasematching. However, if 5 J is small, few off-

angle rays are available. Hence, if S 1 is large the phase

matching of a greater proportion of a diverging pump beam

is possible than if 51 is small. Consequently, the value of S2

that produces a maximum of h

m

increases with 51 until SI is

approximately unity. If S 1 and S2 are both much greater than

unity, the angular spreads of both beams are very large and

only a small proportion of the signal polarization can be

phase matched.

3.0r-------

w

"

c

o

E

;"J 1.0

o 10 2.0 3.0

B

4.0

k=20

10

5

5

10

20

5.0 60

FIG. 10. The values of 51m and 52", as a function of Band k.

S. Guha and J. Falk 55

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1.2

E 08

1

E I

: 1

04l

k=20

L

10

o 10 20 3.0 40 5.0 60

B

In the presence of walk -off CB :f 0) the qualitative expla-

nation given above becomes slightly more complicated. Here

again the competition between increased nonlinear polariza-

tion due to focusing and decreased efficiency due to phase

mismatch occurs. However, the peaks of the individual

curves shown in Figs. 2-9 are also greatly influenced by the

finite useful crystal length determined by walk-off. In most

cases, walk-off rather than phase-matching limits the value

of 52 that maximizes efficiency (h

m

). From Figs. 2-9 we see

that the values of 52 required to maximize efficiency de-

crease with increasing walk-off (B), and are always less than

those useful without walk-off. The fact that phase matching

does not limit the useful maximum values of 51 or 52 can be

seen from Figs. 15-20 which show the rather minimal effect

that wide deviations fromJk = 0 have upon the efficiency of

the upconversion process when walk-off is large.

Figures 12-14 show the computation of h

m

for three

upconverters that have been previously experimentally in-

10.0

k = 6.6

, = 0.72

I

1.0

8=0

h

m

0.01

0.1 1.0 10.0 100

FIG. 12. Focusing in a LiNb0

3

-argon laser upconverter. This upconverter

can be phased matched without walk off. The pump confocal parameter b is

6.94 cm, / = 5 cm, 5, = 0.72. This corresponds to a pump-beam size of 50

j.lm. (Ref. 13) The quasiplane wave solution for these values is shown for

comparison (Ref. 3) A, = 0.SI45j.lm, A, = 3.39 pm.

56 J. AppL Phys., Vol. 51. NO.1. January 1980

10.0.------------------.

1.0

k = 17.7

, = 0.3

I

o. I _ _L_ _ __'_ _ _'__...l.._L_ _ __L_ _ __'__.L_.L_J

0.1 1.0

100

FIG. 13. Focusing in a AsGaS, upconverter (Ref. 2). The pump focusing

parameter 5, = 0.3, B = 0, A, = 0.598 pm, A, = 10.6 pm.

vestigated. 2, 11.13 Note that in general the maximum value of

h

m

occurs neither when 51 = 52 nor when W

OI

= W

02

(52 = kS1)' In the 90 phase-matched upconverter treated

in Fig. 12 the results of a quasi plane wave analysis

3

are

shown for comparison.

The variation of h with phase mismatch 11k! can be

computed from Eq. (40). Figures 15-20 show this variation

for strongly and weakly focused upconverters with and with-

out walk-off. In the absence of walk-off (B = 0), and with

weak focusing <51,S2<1), these curves follow a

1.0

k = 4.8

, = 0.01

I

B = 22.3

0.1

h

m

0.01

O. 00 I

0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0

FIG. 14. Focusing in a lithium iodate, ruby-laser upconverter (Ref. II). The

pump focusing parameter is;-, = 0.0 I. Phase matching without walk off is

impossible (B = 22.3, / = 5 em). A, = 0.6943j.lm, A, = 3.39j.lm.

S. Guha and J. Falk 56

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I

12

!

r

NO "t

-c I

T

I

/

I,

J

o

___ --'--- __ ._

-32.0 - 16.0 0.0 160 32.0

6k

FIG. 15. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = 0. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. 5. = om 51 = 0.01 B = 0,2,4,8. Figures 15 and 16

<5. = 52) are valid for any value of k (Ref. 4).

OBOf-

f\

i I "

0.60

L

I I

L:. I I \1

Q40- ! \

l

-32.0 - 16.0 0.0 16.0 32.0

6kR

FIG. 16. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = 0. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. 5. = 1.0 52 = LO B = 0,2,4,8. Figures 15 and 16

<5. = 52) are valid for any value of k (Ref. 4).

24r

r-

I

16L

N

0

-c

O.B

01

0.0

6kP

16.0

-------'--

32.0

FIG. 17. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = O. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. k = 1.0 51 = om 52 = 1.0 B = 0,2,4,8.

57 J. AppL Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

1.2

32.0

FIG. 18. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = O. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. k = LO 5. = 0.01 5, = 10 B = 0,2,4,8.

i

I

O.OB

Ie '

I

\\

006

-c

OOT

002r

o Ooc.

II

\

,J \\\<"

.. ===-

-320 - 16.0 0.0 16.0

6k2

FIG. 19. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = O. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. k = 10 51 = om 51 = LO B = 0,2,4,8.

I

4 Bl

:-

I

3.2

N

0

-c

1.6

\.

.. -

O -

-320 -160 00 160 32.0

6k

FIG. 20. The effect of phase matching on upconversion. The curve with

highest peak h corresponds to B = O. The curve with lowest peak h corre-

sponds to B = 8. k = 10 51 = 0.01 52 = 10 B = 0,2,4,8.

S. Guha and J. Falk 57

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1.0

Cl.

E

E 0.5

Cl

o

__

o 2 4 6 8 10 12

P

FIG. 21. The function I,opl>m"m'(P) [Eq. (54)]. The function, valid for loose

focusing, describes the decrease in conversion efficiency due to walk-off.

p=2B(kff, +ff,)/(l+k).

[(sin!Llkl )/(!Llkl)] 2 variation. For very strong focusing (51

or t 2 ? I 0) and/or in the presence of walk -off (B=I=O) the

upconverter's tolerance for phase mismatch (Llkl) is much

greater than with t1 and t2 small and B = 0. In the case of

strong focusing this increase comes about because of the

availability of off-angle polarization rays that can be phase

matched although Llkl, the collinear phase mismatch, is far

from zero. When walk-off is large the substantial Llkl toler-

ance is due to the fact that only a small portion of the crystal

length (the aperture length, la) contributes in a coherent way

to the build up of the signal's electric field. The phase mis-

match developed over this length does limit the interaction.

However, since implies a large Llkl tolerance

as illustrated in Figs. 15-20.

The large Llkl tolerance for B O has important impli-

cations for the operation of upconverters. The upconverter's

angular as well as its spectral acceptance is determined by

this quantity. The large upconversion bandwidths reported

by Gurski for the Lil0

3

upconverter are at least in part due

to this large Llkl tolerance caused by walk-off. 12

We note that Figs. IS and 16 are independent of k. This

is consistent with Ref. 4 where Boyd and Kleinman show

that if tl = t2 then h is independent of k.

A. Limiting case: weak focusing with double refraction

It is well known that for loose focusing in the absence of

double refraction, upconversion efficiency varies as

l!(w61 + W62 ).3 However, heretofore no similar expression

has been derived for similar focusing in the presence of dou-

ble refraction.

We consider the quasi plane wave case, i.e., both beams

very large (51 ,t2 small) but we do not neglect double refrac-

tion. The starting point for our analysis is the integral equa-

tions for the signal electric field, Eqs. (19), (24), and (27). We

consider both input fields to behave as collimated Gaussian

beams, i.e.,

58 J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

so that

(45)

Then,

E, = A I exp(i )2CC1T (' exp(iLlkz') dz

Jo d'

X exp[ ){[X - p(1 - Z/)]2 + y2}] , (46)

where

liJ

3

dE

01

E

02

2n3

c

2

n3 + I

(47)

Equation (46) can be further simplified by noting that in the

far field (z>/), d'c:=2cn

3

z - CliJcn3C is independent ofz'.

This gives

P3 = J J I E3 12 dx dy

where

[= t t dz, dZ

2

exp[iLlkl(z, -Z2)]

Jo Jo

X [ - p2(ZI - Z2)2] ,

p= pi

V2w,

and W, is the signal beam waist defined by

I I I

-2 =-2-+-2-'

W, W

OI

W

02

For no walk off, p goes to zero and [becomes

sin2QLlkl)

(1kl)2

When walk-off is present

(1T)II2{

[= -- exp( - q2)[(p + iq) erf(p + iq)

2p2

(49)

(50)

(51)

+ (p - iq) erf(p - iq) - 2q erf(q)] + _1_ (52)

(1T)I12

X [exp( - p2 - iLlkl) + exp( - p2 + iLlkl) - 2]} ,

where q = Llkl /2p.

We have noted earlier that for loose focusing the opti-

mum value of Llkl is close to zero. Making use of this fact

here we obtain

[(optimum) (P) = [(1T)1I2p erfp + exp( - p2) - 1] .

p2

(53)

This is identical to the function G (t,O) defined in Ref. 4 [Eq.

(2.40)]. For nonzero walk-off the conversion efficiency is

reduced by this factor. The variation of [(optimum) (p) withp

is shown in Fig. 21.

Figure 21 can be used to define an aperture length la due

to double refraction. If we allow upconversion efficiency to

be reduced 50% by walk-off this means [ (p) = 0.5. This oc-

S. Guha and J. Falk 58

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164.125.41.50 On: Sun, 02 Nov 2014 10:55:39

curs at p = 2.7S which gives

fa = 3.89w/ p.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank Y.C. See for many helpful discus-

sions of this work and for aid in the computer analysis. The

work reported in this paper was supported by NASA God-

dard Space Flight Center.

APPENDIX: CALCULATION OF SIGNAL ELECTRIC

FIELD BY FOURIER ANALYSIS

In the main body of this paper we used a Green's func-

tion analysis to derive an expression [Eq. (32)] for the upcon-

verter's signal field as a function of several parameters.

The field produced by the nonlinear polarization can

also be found by an alternative method. The polarization

P (r) is broken up into its Fourier components

P(K)= -1-fp(r)eXp(-K.r)d3r. (AI)

(2Jr)3

Each Fourier component radiates into an electric field.

Kleinman

6

has studied this problem in connection with sec-

ond-harmonic generation. He shows that the electric field

produced at upconverted frequency by each of these plane

waves is given by

(A2)

where

g(x) = f exp( - xp) dp, (A3)

and the mismatch .JK is a function of K and is

K2 +K2

.JK=K

z

-(kl +k2 -.Jk)+pKx + x y. (A4)

2(k

l

+ k

2

)

The total electric field produced is then obtained by integrat-

ing over all K

E

3

(x,y,z) = f E

K

(r)d

3

K.

(AS)

PK , the Fourier amplitude distribution of the nonlinear

polarization, is found directly from Eq. (A I) and (27), if in

(27) we drop the slab function B (z') following the argument

in Ref. 6.

JrdEol E02 kl k2

P K = ----:.--=-

(2Jr)

3

(k

l

+ k

2

)

Xexp[iaz

3

+b(b

31

+b

32

)]Jo(2s)

for K

z

< Kc , (A6)

P K = 0 otherwise,

where

59

a = kl + k2 - K

z

,

K2 +K2

b = x y

2(k

l

+ k

2

) ,

b

3

- b

l

b ----

31 - 2 '

J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, No.1. January 1980

(A7)

(A8)

Substituting Eqs. (A6) and (A2) into Eq. (AS) we find the

electric field inside the crystal to be

Ek)=B' f dp

Xexp[ip(k

1

+ k2 - .JK)z]I

K

/

K

/

Ko

' (A9)

where

B

' = /z 2JrUJ3 rdEo1Eo2

---------exp[i(k

1

+ k2)Z3] '

n,c (2Jr)3 (k

1

+ k

2

)

(AW)

(All)

and I K ., I K ,., and I

K

, are integrals over K

x

' Ky' and K

z

,

respectively. These integrals are

I K , = ( . . (K;+K;) dKz

Jk, + k, - K,.> -'--"--,-"-

2(k, + k,)

xexp{ - iK

z

[Z3 - z(l - p)]}J

o

(2s), (AI3)

The integrals can be evaluated to yield

a(kl + k

2

) - DK}

a

where

a b

31

b

32

D = ----.:-- + -----

2(k

l

+ k

2

) 2(k

1

+ k2)a '

a= -i[Z3 -z(1-p)],

Hence,

E3(r)

(A 14)

(AIS)

(AI6)

(AI8)

=B'Jr t dp exp[a(k1 +k2)] exp[ip(k

1

+k2 -.Jk)z]

Jo a

S. Guha and J. Falk 59

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164.125.41.50 On: Sun, 02 Nov 2014 10:55:39

(x _ ppZ)2 + y2

Xexp- (AI9)

4c

where

(A20)

We are interested in the electric field at the output surface on

the crystal, z = l. If we perform the substitutionp = 1 - z'/l

we can easily show

a = - i(z, - z')

(A21)

where C' is given by

C' 2 + 2 (A22)

wol(l +ir;) w

02

(1 +ir;)

Ifwe assume kl + k2 ~ k , and note Eq. (33), then

. 2e(l - z') - iW3 n3 C'

4c = I -------=--=---

and we obtain

id'

(A23)

4B 'W3 n31T

E3(r) = l exp[i(k

l

+k2)(l-z3)]exp(-iJ.kl)J

(A24)

60 J. AppL Phys., Vol. 51, No.1, January 1980

J = i'dZ' exp(iJ. ~ )

o Z, -z

exp [(iw

3

n3 /d '){[x - p(/ - Z')]2 + y2}]

X - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - ~ ~

d'

(A25)

Equation (A24) calculated by a Fourier analysis is the

electric field at the output surface of the upconversion crys-

tal. This expression is identical to that [Eq. (32)] derived

from a Green's function approach.

'D.k Kleinman and G.D. Boyd. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 546 (1969).

'w. Jantz and P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 99 (1977).

'G.D. Boyd and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. 146, 187 (1966).

4G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).

'G.D. Boyd, Thomas J. Bridges, and E. Gardner Burkhardt, IEEE J.

Quantum Electron. QE-4, 515 (1968).

"D.A. Kleinman, A. Ashkin, and G.D. Boyd, Phys. Rev. 145, 338 (1966) .

'J.E. Bjorkholm, Phys. Rev. 142, 126 (1966).

'J.D. Jackson Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., (Wiley, New York, 1975,

p.224.

"M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles o/Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford,

1965).

"'M.M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, K.W. Ogilvie, Appl. Opt. 15,961 (1976).

liT. Gurski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 273 (1973).

"T.R. Gurski, H.W. Epps, and S.P. Maran, Appl. Opt. 17, 1238 (1978).

"J. Falk and Y.c. See, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 100 (1978).

S. Guha and J. Falk 60

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164.125.41.50 On: Sun, 02 Nov 2014 10:55:39

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