ZULFIQAR ALI MIRANI

An Introduction to CNS/ATM

Info: neoindus@gmail.com

CONTENTS
Introduction FANS (Future Air Navigation System) CNS/ATM – Concept Approval FANS-II Benefits of FANS Transition to FANS Technology Involved Application of IT in CNS/ATM Benefits of CNS/ATM Air Traffic Management Goals Elements of ATM Air Space Management Flight Operations Air Traffic Services Air Traffic Flow Management Communication Categories Key Features Air-ground communications Data Link: Definition and main objectives Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Benefits of CPDLC Radio Links VDL HFDL Mode-S Communication Link ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) Navigation GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) GPS (US), GLONASS (Russia), GLONASS / GPS Comparison Augmentation Systems LAAS/GBAS

SBAS WAAS EGNOS (Europe)
MSAS

ABAS GNSS-II (The next generation GNSS) Galileo (Europe) Geo-coordinate standard WGS84? RNP (Required Navigation Performance) Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance ADS-Broadcast (ADS-B) ADS-Contract (ADS-C) Traffic Information Service – Broadcast Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS). Airborne Systems Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) Flight Management Computer System (FMCS) Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR) ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System) TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

BRIEF HISTORY & INTRODUCTION
FANS (Future Air Navigation System) Recognizing the increasing limitation of the then (traditional) air navigation system and the need for improvement into it, ICAO established, in 1983, the Special Committee on FANS with the task of studying, identifying and assessing new concepts and new technology; and making recommendations for the coordinated evolutionary development of air navigation. FANS comprised of 22 members and 10 observers from ICAO member states and international organizations. FANS committee first met in 1984 and planned to complete the task in five years. FANS Special Committee concluded that the shortcomings into the then air navigation system were due to three factors: i) The propagation limitations of the line-of-sight systems and/or accuracy and reliability limitations imposed by the variability of propagation characteristics of other systems;

ii) The difficulty, caused by variety of reasons, of implementing CNS systems and of operating them in a consistent manner in large parts of the world; and iii) The limitations of voice communication and the lack of digital air-ground data interchange systems to support modern automated systems in the air and on the ground. FANS committee submitted its report in May 1988 and suggested comprehensive Communication, Navigation and Surveillance system for Air Traffic Management based on utilizing latest technologies. CNS/ATM – Concept Approval CNS/ATM concept was endorsed by 10th Air Navigation Conference in 1991, in Montreal, Canada and by 29th Session of ICAO Assembly in 1992. FANS concept of CNS/ATM system involves three major functions as envisaged from its name; Communication, Navigation and Surveillance. FANS concept of CNS/ATM is a mix of the best use of satellite technology and the line-ofsight systems to achieve the desired goal of organized air traffic management. According to FANS plan Pilot-Controller Communication will be mainly through exchange of data. Voice link (as being used in conventional ATC and Communication Operations) will also be used. Medium and techniques may, however, be different for which standards were to be worked out considering the performance of the latest technologies. Data links are to play key role in future ATM systems for their peculiar advantages over the voice link. Data links will not replace at all the present voice links but provide additional means of air-ground

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and ground-to-ground communication to support the modern automated airborne and ground operations. For Navigation, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) will replace most of the present ground based Air Navigation systems such as NDB and VOR, though multi-DMEs may continue to function independently or to support GNSS functions. Surveillance of areas over the oceans and long range routes for inter-continental traffic will be made with the help of GNSS. Whereas SSR Mode-S and GNSS could both be used independently or simultaneously for en-route surveillance as a primary and alternate source of surveillance information. FANS-II Following the CNS/ATM concept FANS-II Special Committee was established to develop international standards for air navigation and air traffic management. The tasks of FANS-II were i) To identify and make recommendations for acceptable institutional arrangements, including funding, ownership and management issues for the global future air navigation system;

ii) To develop a global coordinated plan, with appropriate guidelines for transition including the necessary recommendations to ensure the progressive and orderly implementation of the ICAO global future air navigation system in a timely and cost beneficial manner; iii) To monitor the nature and direction of research and development programmes, trials and demonstrations in CNS and ATM so as to ensure their coordinated integration and harmonization; iv) To develop policy guidelines for the evolution of ATM to maximize the efficient use of airport and airspace capacity; and v) To prepare, as required, the necessary documentation to support the expected ICAO Air Navigation Conference in 1991. Accordingly various groups of ICAO experts were formed to produce standards and recommended practices. Benefits of CNS/ATM CNS/ATM will: Improve communications performance; Improve navigation performance; Provide visual situational awareness for the controller; Provide real-time conformance monitoring; Reduce human input errors; Reduced Separation Between Aircraft; Provide more efficient route changes;

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Have no altitude loss when crossing tracks; and Have more direct routings. There are significant benefits to be gained from implementation of CNS/ATM. Improvement in CNS facilities will result in improved data exchange between airline operators, aircraft and air traffic service providers (ATSPs). Other benefits include global navigation and nonprecision approach capabilities through GNSS, extended surveillance with the help of Automatic Dependence Surveillance (ADS) method and advanced ground based processing. The new system offers improved four-dimensional navigation accuracy. Air traffic service providers will benefit from improved conflict detection and resolution, automated generation and transmission of conflict-free clearances and efficient adaptation to changing traffic patterns. ATSPs will be enabled, by the new system, to accommodate an aircraft’s preferred flight profile. An additional benefit is a level of standardization that will facilitate connectivity between air traffic control systems. This connectivity will in turn permit access to air traffic servicesrelated information (e.g weather) not previously available. Transition to CNS/ATM In transition to CNS/ATM major elements of change are • • • from ground-based to satellite based systems; from limited coverage to global coverage; and from analog to digital (data) communication.

Transition to the new system will be one of the largest undertaking ever carried out by the aviation community. The transition will primarily affect how Civil Aviation Administrations will provide air traffic services. There will be a great change in the pilot-controller interaction. Though automation of ATC systems will improve performance and reduce workload, increase efficiency, remove non-essential tasks and enhance job satisfaction for ATCOs, it must be carefully tackled. Automation is required to desist from display of too much information for the controller/pilot or provision of too many options to them that could waste their time in assessing all computer generated possibilities. Automation in ATC require great confidence of controller who must trust the data that is presented. With greater level of automation, the more the controller relies on the system. The data links and data processing systems, therefore, must be fail-safe and accurate. Massive failure will shake the confidence of controller on the automated systems. Aviation experts regard more congestion at and around airports and more delays as alternative to FANS. This is supported by the fact that predicted air travel will be more than double in 2005 as of the travel of year 1991. It is estimated that by 2005 approximately 33,000 aircraft will be in commercial use and approximately 10 per cent of this total will be employed in long range operations. The Boeing Company estimates that by the year 2015, the number of departures worldwide will jump from 15 million/day to over 30 million per day. The number of large transport category airplanes in service will leap from 12,600 to 26,000. World aviation community, CNS/ATM 3/34

therefore, had no other alternative but to prepare for the “new order”. These were the circumstances for introduction of FANS plans. Technology Involved Key technologies involved in CNS/ATM are: i) Satellite Communication, Navigation and Surveillance; and ii) Data Communication Air-Ground Communication will either be through HF or VHF radio voice link. Data link will also be established using any of the technologies such as: • • • • communication satellite (SATCOM); VHF Data Links (VDL); HF Data Link; and Mode-S Radar.

Ground-to-Ground communication may use VHF, HF, FM and other radio and telephone circuits beside Data Communication technologies such as X.25 packet switching circuits, TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). End-to-End Transmission medium again may be different provided it fulfils the communication requirements. This is the area where one encounters the fastest technological developments as compared to other CNS/ATM components. Optical Fibers and Satellite Communication mediums are replacing the microwave and conventional land lines. Data communication link between two ground ATS points may therefore be using these technologies as a back bone to telecommunication service provided by a PTSN (Public Telecom Service Network). There is variety of communication services and technologies which may be used in various Air Traffic Service (ATS) components. Tower control, for example, is to use multiple radio as well as ground communication services for coordination with aircrafts, adjacent airports, ATS centers, Comm Ops, Airport Operations, Met Services, and Airline Operators etc. Same is the case with other ATS and Communication Operation positions. All communication facilities (Voice as well as Data) are essentially to be integrated into a single system. Use of Integrated Voice and Data systems will be common in ATM components. The various types of communication facilities in use of all elements of ATM form a network named as Aeronautical Telecommunication Network abbreviated as ATN. The ATN is the interconnection of different sub-networks, or an inter-network. These different networks can be X.25 wide area ground networks, Ethernet local area networks, but also air-to-ground satellite link (AMSS Data-3), VHF digital link (VDL) or Mode-S. As for Satellite Navigation Technologies are concerned United States and Russia have already developed GPS (Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) respectively to provide navigational services through out the globe. European States are developing their own navigation satellite to cover the areas of Europe, Africa and Middle East. Independence Surveillance (through Primary Surveillance Radar) may be continued in Terminal Areas. En-route surveillance will use either Cooperative Independence

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Surveillance systems (SSR Mode-S) or Automatic Dependence Surveillance (ADS) technologies. Beside above various ATC systems have been developed which collect the Surveillance information (data) via either of the above stated means and Fight data via ATN or various resources, process the information and represent it into variety of forms (on variety of displays and monitors) by using latest technologies as per user convenience and demand. An ATC system may comprise of a single system or network of multiple ATS centers interconnected to share and exchange surveillance and Flight data and other useful information. In cockpit number of equipments and systems are provided to confirm CNS/ATM requirements. Such equipments include CDTI (Cockpit Display of Traffic Information), FMCS (Flight Management Computer System), ADS-B (Automatic Dependence SurveillanceBroadcast) etc. Application of IT in CNS/ATM: Most of the above stated CNS systems/equipment employ computer and microprocessors (or Central Processing Systems) to perform their core and/or supportive functions. They use different software packages according to nature of application and operating systems as confirmed by the machines. They use different IT based communication techniques for information exchange. For example ATC systems use computer equipments with specialized application software and operating systems (such as LINUX) to process surveillance and flight information collected via Radar, Satellite, VDL, ground-to-ground data networks. The processed information is then dispatched to controller working positions using servers through high speed LAN (Local Area Network). Computers are thus involved right from the front-end processing (where information from external sources is received) upto the end-user (that is controller working position) at various stages. Broadcasting of radar information to other ATC systems uses Network Information Servers. Surveillance systems such as SSR Mode-S also perform information processing through high speed computing machines which is then routed to ATC systems via Network Information Servers. Navigation systems are also no exception as for the use of computers is concerned. High speed processing and representation of information in Airborne Systems such as FDMS, CDTI, ADS-B, Transponders is only possible due to the fast data processing machines. Integrated Voice/Data systems essentially use microprocessor as the central processing unit to multiplex and distribute voice and data to various end-users. Use of computers in Data Communication Networks as the servers is very common due to demand of high speed beside other factors.

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Information Technology deals matters concerned with computer science and technology, design, development, installation and implementation of information systems and applications. IT will, therefore, be the back bone of the future CNS/ATM system. IT is involved in all the three components of CNS/ATM; that is Communication, Navigation and Surveillance. It is IT that makes the future ATC systems and Voice/Data communication networks work efficiently at enormously high speed. Other advantages of IT based CNS/ATM systems include Reliability, Flexibility, Multi facility Integration, Expanded Operation, User convenience, Security (of information).

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AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
The term Air Traffic Management (ATM) covers all the functions of airspace management (including both strategic and tactical airspace management), air traffic services and air traffic flow management. The concepts, which are being developed for the CNS/ATM system, will see the control resources more concentrated on the management of active air traffic. Goals Some of the important goals of the future ATM system are to: Offer users maximum flexibility and efficiency in airspace utilization, taking into account their operational and economic needs; Provide the flexibility to cater for different levels of aircraft equipage, and allow sharing of airspace by different categories of users; Allow for the implementation of ATM at varying levels of sophistication, to provide services tailored to the needs of particular regions; Provide for transitions across airspace boundaries to be transparent to airspace users ; and Ensure that present levels of safety are maintained or improved upon, both in the final mature ATM system, and during the transition period. The achievement of these goals will require co-operation between ATS, pilots and airline operational control, and the sharing of real-time information between them. It is important that, in the development of automated support for ATM functions, the human is kept in the decision making process. Elements of ATM The envisaged ATM system consists of the following sub-elements: Air Space Management (ASM) Flight Operations (ATM related aspects) Air Traffic Services (ATS) Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) Air Space Management ASM is recognized as dynamic sharing of airspace by civil and military users. The global ATM system will not be limited only to tactical aspects of airspace use. Its main scope will be towards a strategic planning function of airspace infrastructure and flexibility of airspace use. Strategic ASM consists two elements: i) The determination , for any given airspace, of the ATM requirements for communication, navigation and surveillance; and

ii) Infrastructure planning CNS/ATM 7/34

Flight Operations The ATM-related aspects of flight operations are an integral part of ATM in CNS/ATM systems. Enhanced functional integration of ATM-related aspects of flight operations and other elements of ATM will be a key factor in the implementation of CNS/ATM systems. For example, automated systems on ground will assist the controller with conflict detection and resolution based on information derived from aircraft flight management system and, at some points, will negotiate ATC clearances with these airborne systems. Additionally, other information that is now transmitted by voice will increasingly be carried out using automatic transmission of data. The airborne part of ATM comprises three areas: i) ATM-related functional capabilities of aircraft systems;

ii) Pilot procedures; and iii) Integration of ATM-related aspects of flight operations into the ATM process. The accuracy of the flight plan data used for the ground ATC system will be improved by incorporating data calculated in the flight management computer system (FMCS) for the three or four-dimensional flight profiles. The calculation and maintenance of the flight profiles will be shared between FMCSs and ground ATC systems through the use of interactive automated aids. FMCS should have the following capabilities: To calculate the flight profile for intended flight, based on the flight plan delivered by the airline; To adhere to the flight profile as accepted from the ground ATC system as far as it is within the aircraft flight performance capability; and To automatically notify the ground ATC system as soon as deviations from the agreed flight profile exceed the agreed limits. Air Traffic Services ATS is the prime element of ATM. ATS itself is composed of several sub-elements. These are i) the alerting services;

ii) flight information service (FIS); and iii) Air Traffic Control. The main objectives of ATC services are to prevent collisions between aircrafts and between aircraft and obstructions on the maneuvering area and to expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic. The objective of FIS is to provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.

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The objective of the alerting service is to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid and assist such organizations as required. Air Traffic Flow Management The objective of ATFM is to ensure an optimum flow of air traffic. An ATFM therefore should reduce delays to aircraft both in flight and on the ground and prevent system overload. ATFM assists ATC in meeting its objectives and achieving the most efficient utilization of available airspace and airport capacity. ATFM is to ensure that safety is not compromised by the development of unacceptable levels of traffic congestion and traffic is managed efficiently without unnecessary flow of restrictions being applied. ATM consists of a ground part and an air part, where both are needed to ensure a safe and efficient movement of aircraft during all phases of operation.

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COMMUNICATION
The communication element of CNS/ATM system provides for the exchange of aeronautical data and messages between aeronautical users and/or automated systems. Communication systems are used in support of navigation and surveillance functions. Categories There are basically two categories of aeronautical communications. i) Safety-related communications, requiring high integrity and rapid response such as Communications carried out among ATS units, between ATS and an aircraft for ATC, flight information and alerting etc; and Aeronautical Operational Control (AOC) communication carried out by aircraft operators for matters related to safety, regularity and efficiency of flights. i) Non-safety related communications such as Aeronautical administrative communications carried out by aeronautical personnel and/or organizations on administrative and private matters; and Aeronautical passenger communications. Key Features Some of the key features of the new system are: Most routine communications are to be done by data interchange; Voice communication is mainly used in non-routine and emergency situations; and There is emphasis on global connectivity and operation. Air-ground communications It is envisaged that most of the routine communications in the en-route phase of flight will be via data interchange. The user selects a particular message from a pre-constructed set of messages using a screen menu, adds some specific parameters (or free text) and then sends it. Some data transfers take place between automated airborne and ground systems without the need for manual intervention. Such communication arrangement between controller and pilot is named as Controller-Pilot Digital Link Communication abbreviated as CPDLC. Data Link: Definition and main objectives Data link is a generic term for a communications technique, which enables the exchange of digitized information between end-users (sources and/or consumers of information). Data

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link has many different forms ( for example; Air-Ground, Air-Air, Ground-Ground ), protocols, applications ( addressable, broadcast ), and utilizes a number of communications media ( such asVHF, HF, Satellite, Mode S ). i) The main objectives of data link are to:

ii) Provide an alternative means of communication; iii) Automate as much as possible communications tasks; iv) Reduce both the controller and pilot workload; v) Increase ATM efficiency, capacity, and safety; vi) Provide additional information exchanges by utilizing airborne and ground automated systems capabilities; and vii) Provide surveillance in areas that are unsuitable for radar coverage Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Operationally, the demand for communications often exceeds the usable frequency capacity in areas of high air traffic density. The current infrastructure allows only one controller per sector to interact explicitly with only one aircraft at a time, which limits the delivery of clearances and advisories. Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC), which is part of the Aeronautical Data Link system, will provide an additional digital communications channel to supplement the voice frequencies. Multiple controllers will have the capability to send Data Link messages from any given sector to any or all Data Link equipped aircraft in that sector, and transmissions will take place simultaneously over multiple media. This represents both a vast improvement over the current system capabilities and a different operational environment. Procedures on the flight deck and in the control room will have to be adapted to this new environment. CPDLC allows pilots and controllers to exchange electronic messages, via a data link. A defined set of (pre-formatted) message elements (ref. PANS-ATM, Appendix 5) is used, that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current ATC procedures. CPDLC messages may consist of between one and five elements. A ‘free text’ capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. In such cases a list of pre- formatted free text messages shall be established by the appropriate ATS authority. Benefits of CPDLC Potential benefits of air-ground data communication are i) ii) iii) iv) Efficient linkage between ground and airborne systems Improved handling and transfer of data Reduced channel congestion Reduced com errors

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v) vi) vii) ix) x)

Inter-operable com media Reduced workload Reduction in radio telephony workload for both pilot and controller reduced controller stress/memory burden reduced controller communication time

viii) Reduction in re-transmission caused by misunderstood messages.

Radio Links Radio links used for communication with aircraft in flight are of extreme importance to the safety, regularity and economy of flights. As such, the necessary technical and institutional arrangements must be in place to i) Ensure the availability of a sufficient radio frequency spectrum for aeronautical services, noting present and foreseen levels of traffic;

ii) Prevent RF interference into radio frequencies, bands, services and users of aeronautical radio systems; and iii) Allow the provision of communication services by commercial service providers. Transmission of air-ground messages is carried out over one of the following radio links: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service (AMSS) – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM VHF (analog) – traditional communication link HF (analog) - traditional communication link VHF digital link (VDL) – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM SSR Mode-S data link – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM HF data link – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM

AMSS, VDL, SSR Mode S and HF data links use different data transmission techniques but as same individual networks, they all use the same network access protocol in accordance with ISO OSI reference model. This provides for their interconnection to other ground-based networks so that the aircraft end of any of these data links can be connected to any ground based system by adopting common interface services and protocols also based on ISO OSI reference model. VHF digital link (VDL) The VHF digital link (VDL) is a constituent mobile sub-network of the aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN), operating in the aeronautical mobile VHF frequency band. In addition, the VDL may provide non-ATN functions, such as, for instance, digitized

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voice. The very high frequency (VHF) digital link (VDL) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) apply to aeronautical VHF digital communications systems operating within the aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN). The characteristics and specifications of VDL are provided in ICAO annexure 10 Vol-III (Part-I). So far four modes of VDL have been developed, comparison of which is given below.

Comparison of VHF Data Link options Candidate Systems VDL Mode 2 VDL Mode 3 VDL Mode 4 (CSMA) (TDMA) (STDMA) All technologies are proposed as global standards by ICAO. Yes, can be used No Air-to-Air No, ground master anywhere capability, ground stations required so (see Note 1). infrastructure it does not cover required remote areas. All (see Note 1). TDMA systems need a common time base (see Note 1). No, unpredictable Yes Yes delay (see Note 5) Integrity achieved through proper Implementation. Yes Yes Yes. No, rapid and Potentially not robust Yes (see Note 2) catastrophic failure due to the selected characteristic under modulation scheme very high traffic (D8PSK) loads (see Note 5) (see Note 3) Yes, data from many No, voice and data No, contention users is efficiently are integrated access; wastes together, but D8PSK multiplexed. GFSK available spectrum has good CCI values modulation wastes (CCI values ~26-27 (~10dB) available spectrum dB) (CCI values ~26-27 (see Notes 5 and 4) dB) (See note 5). Four 25 kHz channels Not likely; depends Not likely; depends plus one or two for on availability of availability of AOC sufficient for spectrum spectrum fully redundant (see Note 6) (see Note 6) surveillance of 2020 traffic volumes; capacity is approx. 15 times greater than

Required Capability Global Standard Operation from block to block

High availability High integrity Low cost Robust with graceful degradation Maximise spectrum efficiency

Capacity for 2020 traffic and beyond

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Flexibility to support new procedures Support for easy transition

VDL Mode 2 not suitable for ADS-B and ATM applications (see Note 5) Not likely, assumes availability of spectrum

Flexibility may be limited (see Note 7) Potential transition problems- analogue to digital (see Note 7)

VDL's Mode 2 & 3 (see Note 6) Yes

Yes.

It is assumed that only VDL Mode 4 appears to meet all the broad requirements defined (so far) in various operational forums. VDL Mode 4 also has several advantages over the other data links as listed below: i) VDL Mode 4 can provide a CDTI and ASAS including air-air data link in remote areas. VDL Mode 3 cannot because it requires master ground stations to operate.

ii) VDL Mode 4 supports all types of data link applications, including time-critical ones. VDL Mode 2 does not support air-air communications and cannot support timecritical applications except in very low-density areas. iii) VDL Modes 2 and 3 have much lower capacity and require more bandwidth than VDL Mode 4. iv) VDL Mode 2 has poor degradation characteristics, suffering very rapid failure on overload. VDL Mode 4 exhibits graceful degradation through functions such as slaving on time from other stations, re-use of the timeslots of distant users, etc. v) VDL Mode 4 has an incremental growth capacity through the local addition of 25 kHz channels for gradual increase of capacity, new services and functions. This is made available through a Directory of Services, which also enables autotune functions. All VDL Mode 4 units can exploit this additional capacity. vi) VDL Mode 4 offers very high spectrum efficiency and an ADS-B capability with long range, redundancy and robustness. vii) Only VDL mode 4 offers the possibility of seamless transition. Standards for VDL Mode4 were passed on 12th of March 2001 by ICAO, the International Civil Aviation Organisation. The Council of ICAO unanimously decided to include the proposed SARPs, Standard and Recommended Practicies in Annex 10. It will be published in November 2001 and at the same time supporting documentation will be officially available.

Background

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HF DATA LINK SYSTEM HFDL is capable of providing a level of performance suitable for the ATN environment. The HFDL service allows aircraft that are equipped with an HFDL control function (HCF) and HF data radios, or equipped with HCFs, an intermediate HF data unit, and compatible HF voice radios, to send and receive packet data via a network of HFDL ground stations. The ability to exchange packet data via VHF data link and SATCOM networks will, of course, continue to exist. It is suggested that a sub-network of 15 or 16 HFDL ground stations can extend air-ground communications coverage beyond the coverage of VHF data link sub-networks on a worldwide basis and provide an alternate or/backup to SATCOM on routes over the Atlantic, North and South Poles, South America, Africa, the Pacific, and Asia. The actual number of ground stations needed is dependent upon several factors including system availability and capacity desired by the users and ground station operators. HFDL can provide very significant improvements over current HF Voice Communications in terms of system availability, system capacity, ease of use, and information integrity. Role of HFDL in CNS/ATM As the aeronautical industry progresses with the implementation of data links both on the ground and airborne sides, a need emerges for HFDL. A networked-based HFDL system satisfies future air traffic service (ATS) and aeronautical operational control (AOC) communication requirements in oceanic areas in a cost efficient and reliable manner. Furthermore, HFDL can provide data link service over other land areas where no current data link service (i.e., VHF) is currently available. In this case, HFDL provides a data link service where numerous VHF data link stations may be impractical due to cost or other factors. Additionally, HFDL may result in a reduction in the growth of requirements for HF voice services, as many current voice service requirements are accommodated via HFDL. HFDL fulfills several key roles such as it i) provides aircraft that are not SATCOM-equipped with a long-range, cost-effective data link; ii) serves as a data link for polar regions where SATCOM performance degrades and iii) acts in combination with SATCOM as very high performance system capable of meeting future ATN availability requirements. HFDL is seen as a tool enabling communications, navigation, and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) to be extended to new regions and to aircraft previously not able to afford a long-range data link. The HFDL system shall consist of one or more ground and aircraft station sub-systems, which implement the HFDL protocol. The HFDL system shall also include a ground management sub- system. The HFDL aircraft station sub-system and the HFDL ground station sub-system shall include the following functions: CNS/ATM 15/34

i) HF transmission and reception; ii) data modulation and demodulation; and iii) HFDL protocol implementation and frequency selection. High Frequency (HF) was developed as a low cost alternative to satellite for wide area coverage (5000 miles/site), and first went operational in 1998 to support AOC. It is currently providing complete coverage over the northern polar region, but with a message transit time of about 80 seconds is slower than satellite. HF is included in the ICAO SARPs annexure 10 vol-III (Part-I). Mode-S data Link Mode S is a type of secondary radar that can be used to exchange longer and more varied data. Mode S transmissions between the station and the transponder use highly sophisticated 56 or 112 bit formats called frames that fall into 3 main categories: 56-bit surveillance formats, 112 bit communication formats with a 56-bit data field, which are in fact " extended " surveillance formats (Uplink COMM-A's and Downlink COMM-B's) and 112 bits communication formats with an 80-bit data (uplink COMM-D's downlink COMM-D's). There are two types of Mode S data link, one called "specific" and the other one "interoperable". To simplify, we can say that in the first case, the station and the transponder more or less know what type of information is contained in the frame data field, whereas in the second, they are completely unaware of it. The interoperable data link was designed to allow ground-to-aircraft exchanges using Mode S as a packet switching data transmission network. The messages (packets) transmitted are then cut into pieces and distributed around the data fields in the frames, which are sent from the station to the transponder (or vice-versa) where the data fields are extracted and reconstituted a little further on at the exit from the Mode S " world ", for routing to the addressee. On the opposite, the specific data link is more closely linked to the Mode S system itself. In particular there is a highly optimized "aircraft data collection" protocol using the COMM-B frames. It is based on the following principle : in the transponder, there is a series of 256 buffers of 56 bits each, in which information concerning the flight and aircraft status are stored and permanently refreshed. Each buffer, identified by an order number, contains data of a precise nature formatted according to a predetermined code. The principle is thus to consider the transponder as a multiple mailbox in which the aircraft system places its flight data (without knowing whether or not anyone will pick them up) whereas on the other side, the ground station reads the data completely asynchronously. This process is thus optimized from a "time" point of view as it avoids having to initiate a communication connection with the aircraft system possessing this information Networking Interface:

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Mode S "basic" selective surveillance only requires the use of Mode S ground sensors and airborne Mode S transponders, but interoperable services need complementary equipment on both sides, called respectively Ground and Airborne Data Link Processors, which constitute the interfaces of the Mode S sub-network. The interoperable services will enable the integration of Mode S sub-networks in the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (A.T.N.). ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) The communication service, which allows ground, air-ground and avionics data subnetworks to inter-operate for the specified aeronautical applications, is Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN). All the above mentioned data links are ATN-compatible and therefore constitute ATN sub-networks. In ATN environment, sub-networks are connected to other sub-networks through ATN routers, which select the best route for transmission of each data message. As such, the choice of the air-ground data link is often transparent to the end-user.

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NAVIGATION
Navigation systems are the basis for an aircraft's ability to get from one place to another and know where it is and what course to follow. It's more than just maps. The closest thing today's automobiles come to an aviation navigation system is the "navigation center" some automobiles come with. These computers establish an automobile's position via satellite and place the position on a moving map. Intelligence programmed into the system allows the driver to navigate to destination by executing instructions provided by the system. Historically, aircraft navigated by means of a set of ground-based stations called beacons, each broadcasting on its own frequencies. Aircraft systems could tune into the frequencies of two of these beacons and fly between them (from one beacon to the next). Knowing where the aircraft is between two of these beacons, allows the aircraft to know where it is in a global sense. Since the 1980s, aircraft systems have evolved towards the use of satellite navigation. Navigation satellites or Global Navigation Satellite System as named by ICAO SARPs are alternative to NDB, VOR and ILS provided they meet the required standard. The satellites systems developed so far in this regard are said to have been successful as replacement to traditional en-route navigation aids like NDB and VOR. Accuracy, reliability and other parameters of the new satellites systems are being improved by using various techniques, some of which are stated below, to meet the required specifications for use as landing aids in place of ILS. GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) The major technological change in navigation will be the progressive adoption of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). These systems will provide for worldwide positional coverage, and will eventually be used for non-precision and precision approaches, in addition to en-route navigation. Currently, GNSS requires augmentation systems to monitor signal reliability and enhance accuracy to make them suitable for civilian use. These augmentation systems are currently being developed. The GNSS will consist of a number of elements. These will include i) the navigation satellites; and ii) the ground-based monitoring stations. The above elements, together with communication satellites, will form an Augmentation System. Ground-based differential stations with a datalink will be used at specific locations to augment the system locally. The aircraft will select which elements of the system are to be used depending on the operations to be undertaken. Navigation satellite is being used today for en-route navigation, but it also assists in landing an aircraft only in good weather conditions, so called non-precision approaches and landings. For landings in poor weather conditions, so called precision approach navigation and landing, the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) or, in certain locations, Microwave Landing System (MLS) will be in use for some time. Eventually, however, navigation satellite systems will be used even in adverse weather conditions.

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It is expressed that GNSS will provide a high integrity, highly accurate navigation service, suitable for navigation, at least for en-route applications. Benefits of GNSS Benefits of GNSS are i) Improved four dimentional navigational accuracy

ii) High integrity, high accuracy, world wide navigation service iii) Cost savings as compared to ground based navigation aids iv) Improved air transport services using non-precision approaches and precision landing operations Global Navigation Satellites Systems: GPS The Global Positioning System [GPS] was developed by the United States Department of Defense for position fix coordination of the inertial navigation systems [INS] on board military aircraft and cruise missiles, and has since become freely available - as a valuable supplementary navigation aid - to civilian aircraft of all types and all nations - with the compliments of U.S. Department of Defense. GPS or the NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging [NAVSTAR] system consists of a minimum 24 satellites [ of which usually three are operating spares] orbiting Earth at an altitude of 20,000 km with each unit taking about 12 hours to complete one orbit. The NAVSTAR orbits are arranged in six planes with 3 to 4 satellites in each plane. This configuration ensures that a minimum of four satellites would be in view from most locations on Earth at any time. NAVSTARs continuously transmit information on very low power at two UHF L band frequencies, a coarse acquisition ranging code [the C/A code] on 1575.42 MHz and an encrypted precise positioning service code [the P code] on 1227.6 MHz. The C/A code is freely available to all while the additional P code is only available to authorised users. The C/A code is designed to provide a position fixing accuracy within 300 metres 99% of the time and within 100 metres 95% of the time but probably better than 30 metre accuracy is achievable most of the time. At present GPS is far more accurate than NDB/ADF or VOR and certainly more accurate than necessary for VFR flight, as being said. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is working on two GPS-based systems that could enable this sort of antihijacking capability: the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) that will enable aircraft to reach the so-called Category 1 decision point in an approach to an airport, and the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) that would enable aircraft to reach the ground in zero visibility, known as a Category 3B landing.

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Although both systems still await final certification, testing, and installation at U.S. airports, commercial airliners and military aircraft have already demonstrated fully automatic instrument approach and landing under Category 3B conditions. GLONASS Glonass is a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. Glonass provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. GLONASS / GPS Comparison GLONASS Nominal # of s/v Launch vehicle # of spacecrafts / launch Launch site # of orbital planes Orbital inclination Orbit altitude Period of revolution Ephemeris representation Datum Time reference Almanac Length Duration Content 24 Proton K/DM-2 3 (occasionally 2) Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakstan 3 64.8° 19,130 km 11h15m40s position, velocity and acceleration in earth-centered, earth-fixed coords. PZ-90 UTC (Russia) 152 bits 12m30s day of validity channel number eccentricity inclination equator time validity of almanac equatorial longitude period of revolution argument of perigee 24 Delta 2-7925 1 Cape Canaveral, USA 6 55° 20,180 km 11h58m00s Kepler parameters WGS-84 UTC(NO) 120 bits 2m30s week of validity S/C identifier eccentricity inclination almanac time health right ascension RA rate of change sq. root of semimajor axis argument of perigee GPS

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luni-solar term time offset Signalling Carrier frequency # of code elements Code rate L1 L2 C/A P C/A P Rate Navigation message Modulation Total length FDMA 1602.0 - 1614.94 MHz (*) 7/9 L1 ML 511 5110000 0.511 Mbit/s 5.11 Mbit/s 50 bit/s BPSK Manchester 2m30s

mean anomaly time offset frequency offset CDMA 1575.42 MHz 60/77 L1 GOLD 1023 2.35·1014 1.023 Mbit/s 10.23 Mbit/s -21.6 dB 50 bit/s BPSK NRZ 12m30s

Type of PRN code

Crosscorrelation interference -48 dB

Subframe 30s 6s length (*) Is planned be shifted, first to 1602.0 - 1609.31 Mhz (finished by 2005) and then to 1598.06 - 1605.38 MHz beyond 2005. Augmentation Systems There are three types of augmentation systems as mentioned below. i) Ground based augmentation systems ii) Satellite based augmentation systems iii) Aircraft based augmentation systems Ground based augmentation systems: LAAS/GBAS Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is the ICAO definition ground based augmentation for Satellite Navigation; whereas Ground Based Augmentation System or GBAS is the European application of LAAS. It was estimated that LAAS could be operational by December 2003 including CAT 1 approaches. This schedule has now been delayed for another year. Satellite Based Augmentation Systems or SBAS: Satellite Based Augmentation System or SBAS is a generic term for GPS and GLONASS which use geostationary satellites to broadcast information to users over a large

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geographical service. A number of such systems are being developed to fulfill requirement of various countries and regions. Some of such systems are listed below. i) WAAS ii) EGNOS iii) MSAS WAAS In order to improve the accuracy and integrity of the Global Positioning System (GPS), to enable it to be used for precision approach and landing operations, the United States is developing a system called the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). WAAS consists of two basic elements. The first is a network of differential ground-stations that receive the GPS signals and calculate differential correction signals. 35 ground stations are required to cover the USA. These differential corrections are then transmitted to the second element of the system, which are WAAS transponders on a number of Inmarsat geostationary communications satellites. The differential signals are then transmitted from the communication satellites to the aircraft. In addition, the communication satellites also transmit integrity information about the performance of the GPS satellites and a signal similar to a GPS satellite. This GPS type signal is used for navigation and gives the appearance of an additional GPS satellite being present. This situation highlights the importance of the GNSS receiver in the aircraft being able to detect faulty satellites and discard them from the position calculation. The FAA claim that GPS receivers have always detected the failure of a GPS satellite and that an undetected failure has never occurred. The use of WAAS considerably enhances this situation, as it provides a means to independently detect faulty satellite signals and pass this integrity information back to aircraft receivers. The FAA commissioned the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) at 12:01AM on July 10, 2003. EGNOS EGNOS is Europe’s GNSS-1 which involves signal relay transponders carried on geostationary satellites, and a network of ground stations. Together they are to provide a regional augmentation service for GPS and GLONASS signals over Europe and cover all the countries belonging to the European region. This augmentation is called an “overlay”, and the European programme is known as the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, or EGNOS. MSAS Japan is implementing the Multi Satellite-based Augmentation System (MSAS – Japanese Definition) that will provide correction to GPS only. Aircraft-Based Augmentation System or ABAS:

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Aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS-ICAO definition) augments and/or integrates the information obtained from the GNSS elements with other information available on board the aircraft. The aim is to enhance the overall performance of the GPS equipment on board in terms of integrity, continuity, availability and accuracy. GNSS-II (The next generation GNSS) Civilian navigation overlay systems are the first step. Not only Europe proposes to advance the civilian use of satellite navigation, moving from the current GPS and GLONASS systems to a next-generation system that meets the needs of the most demanding civil users, as claimed by the developers. Development work on a so-called non-military GNSS has started in Europe, with operational hardware already in orbit. Research has already started in Europe on developing technologies for a second generation of satellite navigation systems, which includes satellites, user and ground equipment, the performance of which would meet civilian user requirements. This new technology would ,for example, lead to a sufficiently accurate, redundant and independent system for use as the sole means of positioning, timing and navigation, including the most demanding applications. Such a future system is known as GNSS-2 or the Second Generation Global Navigation Satellite System. The studies will examine a variety of operational scenarios that could meet, at the very least, existing civilian operational requirements. Aviation users, for example, are looking for GNSS-2 to be accurate and reliable enough to allow its use as a sole means of navigation for the Category 3B precision approach – which allows landings in conditions of almost zero visibility. Galileo An all-European satellite navigation constellation took a step closer at the start of May 1999 when government ministers of ESA countries gave a financial commitment to setting up Galileo, a second-generation global navigation satellite system (GNSS-2). Galileo will be a global navigation satellite system under civil control. It will consist of 21 or more satellites, depending on the level of international co-operation, the associated ground infrastructure and regional / local augmentations. GalileoSat is the complementary development initiative of the ESA for the space and the associated ground control segments. Galileo will be used in all modes of transportation for navigation, traffic and fleet management, tracking, surveillance and emergency systems. As such, Galileo will be a key element of the future inter-mode traffic management system. Moreover it has many nontransport applications. The system will involve a space segment of around at least 21 medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, plus three geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites and will cost Euro 2.2 – 2.95 billion to develop. (There are system proposals for up to 40 MEO satellites). Taking the current planning, Galileo will be fully operable in 2008 at the latest, with the start of signal transmission in 2005. CNS/ATM 23/34

Galileo and GPS will be interoperable and compatible. International Partners will be involved actively in the Galileo programme. Geo-coordinate standard In February 1994 the ICAO Council adopted Amendment 35 to Annex 11 (Air Traffic Services) and Amendment 28 to Annex 15 (Aeronautical Information Services) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation which mandated the use of WGS 84 as the common geodetic reference system for civil aviation with an applicability from 1 January 1998. In March 1997 the ICAO Council adopted Amendment 29 to Annex 15 (Aeronautical Information Services) to the convention on International Civil Aviation, which mandated the use of the vertical component of WGS 84 with selective applicability from 5 November 1998. What is WGS84? The World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) is the geodetic reference system used by GPS. WGS84 was developed for the United States Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), now called NIMA (National Imagery and Mapping and Agency). The origin of the WGS84 framework is also the earth’s centre of mass. WGS 84 provides the basic reference frame (coordinate system), geometric figure for the earth (ellipsoid), earth gravitational model, and means to relate positions on various geodetic datums and systems for various operations and applications. It should be noted that all GPS receivers compute and store coordinates in terms of WGS84, then transform to other datums when information is displayed. Many GPS users may have noted that although the local datum is selected for display, WGS84 values are downloaded via their data cable to a computer. WGS84 is also the default datum for many GIS software packages with data either being stored in or transformed via WGS84. RNP (Required Navigation Performance) ICAO has endorsed the concept of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), in which a specific navigation performance is defined, but no specific navigation equipment is required. For en-route purposes currently four RNP "Types" have been defined (RNP1, RNP4/5, RNP12.6/10, RNP20), where the type number indicates the containment value in miles. RNP conceived by FANS committee defines navigation performance accuracy required for operation within a defined airspace. Under this concept aircraft will be certified or approved as meeting a certain RNP type. There will no longer be a requirement for the carriage of specified navigation equipment; nor will the navigation equipment used to achieve the performance criteria necessarily be the

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same for all aircraft. Air traffic service providers will designate certain routes or airspace as specific RNP routes or airspace. This will indicate to the users that State approval is required for the operator to flight plan and fly within the designated route or airspace.

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SURVEILLANCE
Surveillance systems are set up for the air traffic control system to know where the aircraft is and where it is heading. Position information from the surveillance system supports many different ATC functions. Aircraft positions are displayed for the controller as he or she watches over the traffic to ensure that aircraft do not violate separation criteria. A number of techniques are available to obtain surveillance data such as: i) Independent Surveillance (IS), provided by primary radar (PR);

ii) Co-operative Independent Surveillance (CIS), provided by secondary surveillance radar (SSR) in its monopulse (M-SSR) and Mode S forms; iii) Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) Primary Surveillance Radar, traditionaly used for Terminal or Approach Control, provides range and bearing information of the targets to Air Traffic Control centre. Secondary Surveillance Radar (Mode A/C), mainly used for En-route or Area Control, provides identification and altitude information of an aircraft (equipped with SSR transponder) to Air Traffic Control centre. The both systems jointly provide Four Dimension information to ATC. CNS/ATM surveillance provides for an accurate and automated surveillance system by overcoming technical limitations of the former systems. Surveillance uses SSR Mode-S (Secondary Surveillance Radar Mode-S), VHF data-link or satellite link to send surveillance information. A major information source is ADS (Automatic Dependent Surveillance), which allows implementation of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Automatic Dependent Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance is a surveillance technique, which may be used in conjunction with other surveillance techniques for delivering air derived information to users. ADS-Broadcast (ADS-B) The Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) Surveillance application allows the transmission of on board data to air or ground based Users via a data link (e.g. Mode S or VHF) using a broadcast Mode. The aircraft originating the broadcast has no knowledge of which systems are receiving the broadcast. Any air- or ground-based User may choose to receive and process this information . Surveillance Data which will be transmitted by ADS-B includes the airframe identification, position, time, Figure-Of-Merit and emitter category. The addition of other potential Data (such as the ground vector, air vector, short term intent, rate of turn and aircraft type) and the use of an event driven transmission is possible in the future. It allows an aircraft to intermittently broadcast position data without having any knowledge of what ATS Unit, if any is receiving the data. ADS-B will allow for rapid update rates with

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minimum data latency and may in some cases be used in lieu of conventional ground based independent surveillance systems. ADS-Contract (ADS-C) ICAO defines ADS-C (or ADS-A) as a surveillance application in which an aircraft automatically transmits data derived from on-board systems, via a data link (e.g. satellite or VHF). The transmission of ADS data will be based on a contract between a ground system and an aircraft. Various contracts are foreseen including demand, periodic and event driven. Surveillance data which can be provided using ADS-C include the basic ADS message (e.g. aircraft position, time, figure-of-merit and aircraft identification) and optional ADS information (e.g. ground vector, air vector, projected profile, meteorological information, short term intent and extended projected profile). It allows an aircraft to send position data addressed to a specific ATS Unit at specified intervals, or on the occurrence of a specific event, at the request of the ATS Unit. ADS-A is not intended to supplant radar but rather to be used in those areas where procedural separation is applied. It will replace manual position reporting in those areas. Key benefits of enhanced surveillance systems are: Enhanced flight safety Imp[roved surveillance of air traffic in non-radar areas Possible reduction of separation minima in non-radar airspace Reduced delays The accommodation of user preferred flight profiles Increased ATC capacity Efficient and economic aircraft operation Traffic Information Service - Broadcast TIS-B (Traffic Information Service - Broadcast) is a surveillance technique that provides surveillance information from the ground to suitably equipped air or ground-based mobiles or Objects of Interest (mobile: an aircraft in the air or on the ground, or a surface vehicle equipped to receive TIS-B) TIS-B Objects Of Interest (OoI´s) are the physical objects for which any TIS-B user may require information, principally the aircraft and airport vehicles. The broadcast traffic information (Tracks data for the Objects Of Interest) is derived from one or more ground surveillance sources. The related ground system originating the broadcast has no knowledge of which systems are receiving the broadcast. TIS-B is a supplement to ADS-B for Airborne Surveillance Applications (ASA) that: can provide equipped users with the ability to receive the information of traffic that cannot adequately be obtained directly via ADS-B. For example mobiles that are not ADS-B equipped or the mobiles that are equipped on incompatible data links; and CNS/ATM 27/34

can also deliver equipped users with state information on all traffic (Full Picture) The following are the major functional components involved by TIS-B system. i) the ground acquisition functions of the surveillance data from the various sources (radars, multilateration, Airport Surface Detection Equipment [ASDE] and ADS-B) involved in the detection of the TIS-B Objects Of Interest,

ii) the Surveillance Data Processing & Distribution (SDPD) that will generate the corresponding tracks, iii) the TIS-B management and distribution function including the selection of the appropriate role (Gap Filler/Full Picture), tracks and data items required and the distribution (up-link) to the suitably equipped mobiles, iv) the mobile acquisition function of the TIS-B data. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS). ACAS is designed to work both autonomously and independently of the aircraft navigation equipment and ground systems used for the provision of air traffic services. Through antennas, ACAS interrogates the ICAO standard compliant transponders of all aircraft in the vicinity. Based upon the replies received, the system tracks the slant range, altitude (when it is included in the reply message) and bearing of surrounding traffic. The main feature of ACAS is that it functions according to time criteria and not distance. From several successive replies, ACAS calculates a time to reach the CPA (Closest Point of Approach) with the intruder, by dividing the range by the closure rate. This time value is the main parameter for issuing alerts and the type of alert depends on its value. If the aircraft transmit their altitude, ACAS also computes the time to reach co-altitude. ACAS can issue two types of alert: i) Traffic Advisories (TAs), which aim at helping the pilot in the visual search for the intruder aircraft, and by alerting him to be ready for a potential resolution advisory;

ii) Resolution Advisories (RAs), which are avoidance manoeuvres recommended to the pilot. When the intruder aircraft is also fitted with an ACAS system, both ACAS’ co-ordinate their RAs through the Mode S data link, in order to select complementary resolution senses. ACAS was officially recognized by ICAO on 11 November 1993. Its descriptive definition appears in Annex 2; its use is regulated in PANS-OPS and PANS-RAC. In November 1995, the Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPs) for ACAS II were approved, and they appear in Annex 10. Types of ACAS

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i)

ACAS I provides TAs (no international implementation is planned at the ICAO level);

ii) ACAS II provides TAs, and RAs in the vertical plane; and iii) ACAS III provides TAs, and RAs in both the vertical and horizontal planes. As far as the equipment is concerned, only TCAS complies with ICAO ACAS standards, TCAS I for the ACAS I standards and TCAS II for the ACAS II SARPs. No ACAS III equipment currently exists, and none is likely to appear in the near future, because of technical and operational difficulties, as being said by the experts. Benefits The implementation of ACAS II will improve flight safety, by providing a significant reduction in the risk of mid-air, or near mid-air, collision by at least a factor 3. It can provide operational safety benefits, particularly in the following circumstances: i) ii) iii) iv) Flight crew/Controller error Airspace management constraints FR/VFR traffic mix Technical on-board or ATC system failures

Required Total System Performance The CNS/ATM based system is intended to be viewed as the total sum of individual components such as airspace, flight operations, and the facilities and services provided. The concepts of Required Communications Performance (RCP) and Required Surveillance Performance (RSP) are being developed and are intended to form, along with RNP, the basis of Required Total System Performance (RTSP). This may ultimately result in quantitative measures being available for all elements of total system performance

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AIRBORNE SYSTEMS

Aircraft must be equipped for several functions to support implementation of CNS/ATM. These are Airline Operational Control (AOC) datalink, Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS), Air Traffic Control (ATC) datalink, Global Positioning System (GPS) integration, Required Navigational Performance (RNP), and Required Time of Arrival (RTA). Airline Operational Control Datalink The AOC link gives airline data systems the ability to transmit new routes, position reports, and updated winds through the datalink network. Automatic Dependant Surveillance The ADS function reports the current flight position via satellite or VHF datalink to the air traffic controller or to the airline. This improves the surveillance of en-route aircraft. Air Traffic Control (ATC) Datalink This function replaces the tactical communication between the flight crew and air traffic controller, allowing the flight crew to request deviations to, or replacements of, the filed flight plan. The air traffic controller also has the ability to directly request tactical changes to the aircraft flight plan. Global Positioning System Receiver This improvement provides a more accurate position for en-route operations and some approach operations. The navigation system must demonstrate that it can meet the required navigational performance criteria. Required Navigational Performance RNP criteria address accuracy, integrity and availability as set forth in CNS/ATM. The actual navigation performance is constantly monitored; if it exceeds the required navigational performance, the flight crew is alerted so that they can compensate for a situation in which they have less accurate information than the route requires. Required Time of Arrival This gives the flight crew the ability to assign a time constraint to a waypoint, allowing the aircraft to cross a latitude or longitude at a specified time. The cruise speed is automatically adjusted to achieve that time, plus or minus 30 seconds. If the RTA is not possible, the flight crew is notified with a visual alert. Beside above number of traditional communication and surveillance equipment such as SSR transponder are also to be carried out on board. But following are some major systems that will revolutionize the working of a pilot in command.

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Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) CDTI will provide the position (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and heading data for nearby aircraft. These data are displayed in the cockpit to augment the "see and avoid" concept. This data link capability can be achieved by using either an ground-based CDTI or an air-toair CDTI. The benefit of using ground-based CDTI is that VFR aircraft can be displayed. The air-to-air application is independent from the ground system and, thereby, avoids problems with ground system availability and capacity. The CDTI functionality is planned to be demonstrated through two prototype implementations: helicopters servicing oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX ) and monitoring of aircraft in secure airspace during the Atlanta Olympics. FMCS ( Flight Management Computer System ) The Flight Management Computer System (FMCS), in conjunction with other interfacing equipment in the aircraft, forms an integrated, full-flight regime control and information system which provides automatic navigation, guidance, map display, and in-flight performance optimization. It reduces cockpit workload by eliminating many routine tasks and computations normally performed by the flight crew. The system operates continuously at all times if properly initialized. It can be coupled to the autopilot, flight director, and autothrottle to provide guidance through integrated commands for controlling roll, pitch and engine thrust and provides course guidance for RNP/RNAV operations. The major functions of the integrated FMCS are: Storage of navigation, aerodynamic, and engine data with provisions for routine updating of the navigation data base on a 28 day cycle Provisions for centralized data entry for alignment of the inertial reference units Means for entry, storage and in-flight modification of a complete flight plan from the departure gate to the destination runway via company routes, SIS's STAR's airways, and named or pilot-defined waypoints Means for entry of performance optimization and reference data including gross weight, winds aloft, ISA temperature deviation, fuel reserves ,cost index, and computations of the optimum vertical profile utilizing this data plus the entered route Transmission of data to generate a map of the route on the Horizontal Situation Indicator, including relative positions of pertinent points such as navaids, airports, runways, etc. Calculation of the aircraft's position and transmission of this information for display on the moving map and Control Display Unit (CDU) Capability to select VOR/DME stations which can yield a more accurate estimate of airplane position then the inertial reference sensors and tune the receivers accordingly Capability to blend GPS and DGPS positions which will yield the most accurate estimate of airplane position

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Capability to transmit pitch, roll, and thrust commands to the autopilot, autothrottle, and flight director to fly an optimum vertical flight profile for climb, cruise, decent and approach while simultaneously following the lateral portion of the flight plan Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR) The MMR is installed in-place of the current individual ILS/VOR/MLS radios in the aircraft's avionics bay. The MMR provides aircraft operators with a modular upgrade path to advanced navigation technology including GPS LAAS/WAAS. Currently there are over 7,000 MMR's on order or delivered for air transport aircraft. Collision Avoidance Systems: ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System), which is an ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) standard, is intended to improve safety by acting as a last resort tool for preventing collisions or near collisions. By utilising SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar) technology, the system operates independently of ground-based aids and ATC. ICAO recommends the carriage of ACAS II all over the world (ICAO, 1997a). Currently the TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) equipment is the only available implementation of an ACAS. The existing TCAS II version 6.04A does not comply fully with ACAS II SARPs (Standards And Recommended Practices). However, the MOPS (Minimum Operational Performance Standards) for the forthcoming version, TCAS II version 7.0, will be ACAS II SARPs compliant.

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CONCLUSION
In nutshell CNS/ATM involve the following main standards/systems. Communication Voice/Data links, Aeronautical Mobile Satellite system, Mode-S Secondary Radar, Aeronautical Telecommunication Network. Navigation Area Navigation/Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Microwave Landing System. Surveillance Automatic Dependance Surveillance (ADS), Secondary Surveillance Radar Mode A/C and Mode S.

FANS IS NO MORE A FUTURE AIR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books and Publications Global Plan for CNS/ATM. National CNS/ATM Plan. Manual of ATS data link Applications by ICAO. Manual of SSR systems by ICAO. ICAO Document 9705 Global Air Traffic Safety Plan of ICAO Aeronautical Telecommunications: Annexure 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Air Traffic Services: Annexure 11 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Aeronautical Information Services: Annexure 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Datalink Manual Manual on the implementation of HFDL A Guide to GNSS in Europe WGS 84 Implementation Manual by EUROCONTROL and IFEN Augmentation of GPS/LAAS with GLONASS by P. Misra, M. Patt and B. Burke (MIT: Lincoln Lab) Websites: • • • • • • • • • http://www.icao.int http://www.eurocontrol.int http://gps.faa.gov/index.htm http://www.airforce.forces.ca/ http://www.gpsworld.com http://www.navsource.com http://www.ainonline.com/index.html http://www.lba.de/english/trchnical/technical.htm

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