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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES

CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics

GEAS

GEAS

ENGINEERING

MECHANICS

EngineeringMechanics is a branch of the physical sciences that is concerned

with the state of rest or motion of bodies subjected to the action of forces.

STATICS is concerned with the equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or in

motion with constant velocity.

DYNAMICS deals with the accelerated motion of the body.

KINEMATICS is a branch of dynamics, which treats only the geometric aspect of

the motion, while KINETICS is the analysis of the forces causing the motion.

STATICS

I. THE STATIC FORCE SYSTEM

Concurrent Forces are forces whose lines of action all pass through a

common point.

Coplanar Forces are forces lying in one plane.

Equilibrium is defined as the condition in which the resultant of all

forces acting on a body is zero.

Torque (or moment) about an axis, due to a force, is a measure of the

effectiveness of the force in producing rotation about

that axis.

Weight of an object is the force with which gravity pulls

downward upon it.

Center of gravity of an object is the point at which the entire weight of

the object is concentrated.

ENGINEERING

MECHANICS

STATICS DYNAMICS

KINETICS KINEMATICS

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II. RESULTANT OF TWO OR MORE COPLANAR, CONCURRENT FORCES

O Parallelogram Method: (for two coplanar, concurrent forces)

Cosine Law:

2 2 2

1 2 1 2

R F F 2FF cos = +

Sine Law:

2

F R

sin sin

=

O For more than 2 forces: (Use the Component Method)

( ) ( )

2 2

x y

y 1

x

R F F

F

tan

F

= +

=

III. FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

+ TYPES OF EQUILIBRIUM

Static equilibrium is the condition of a body at rest and remains at rest

under the action of concurrent forces.

Translational equilibrium is the condition of a body in motion with

constant velocity.

+ THE TWO CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM

First or the Force Condition

The vector sum of all forces acting on the body must be zero..

x y

F 0 F 0 = =

Second or the Torque Condition

The sum of all the torques acting on the body must be zero

0 =

2

F

1

F

R

1

F

2

F

3

F

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GEAS

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CABLES

I. PARABOLIC CABLES

Taking summation of moment at A:

( )

L

H d

2 4

=

=

Thus,

Where:

T = tension at the support

H = tension at the lowest point

d = sag

= weight per unit length

L = span or distance between supports

2

Tension at the lowest point :

L

H

8d

=

2

2

Tension at the support :

L

T H

2

= +

2 4

3

Approximate lenght of cable :

8d 32d

S L

L 5L

= +

d

L

L/ 2 L/ 2

(N/ m)

T

T

H

W

L/ 2

L/ 2

(N/ m)

T

T

L/ 4 L/ 4

W

H

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II. CATENARY

(For Symmetrical & Unsymmetrical Supports)

Where:

T = tension at the support

H = tension at the lowest point

= weight per unit length

y = height of the support

= c minimum clearance from the ground

1 2

S & S are half lengths of the cable

L = span or distance between supports

d

L

x x

2

T

1

T

H

S S

2

y

1

y

c

1

1 1

Tension at the support T :

T y =

2

2 2

Tension at the support T :

T y =

( )

1

2

2

1 1

Tension at the support T :

T H S = +

( ) ( )

2

2 2

2 2

Tension at the support T :

T H S = +

1 1

1

Distance Between supports :

S y

x cln

c

+

=

2 2

2

Distance Between supports :

S y

x cln

c

+

=

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

1 1

Relationship among S, y &c :

S y c =

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2 2

Relationship among S, y &c :

S y c =

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FRICTION

O FRICTION ON BLOCK

F N

F

tan

N

=

= =

O MAXIMUM ANGLE OF INCLINE WITHOUT CAUSING THE BODY TO SLIDE DOWN:

1

tan

= =

Where, in O & O :

F frictional force

N normal force

P the applied force

R total surface reaction

coefficient of friction

angle of friction

angle of the incline

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

O BELT FRICTION

1 1

2 2

T T

e ln

T T

= =

Where:

= the coefficient of friction

= angle of contact in radians

1

T = tension in the tight side

2

T = tension in the slack side

N

W

P

f

F N =

N

W

1

T

2

T

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o

V

f

V

s

DYNAMICS

I. RECTILINEAR MOTION - (Motion in a Straight Line)

+ Uniform Motion - (constant speed / zero acceleration)

s vt =

Where:

s = distance

v = uniform speed or velocity

t = time

+ Uniformly Accelerated Motion - (velocity increases uniformly)

Equations of Motion:

2

o

1

s v t at

2

=

f o

v v at =

2 2

f o

v v 2as =

Where:

s = distance traveled or displacement

o

v = original velocity ; (

o

v 0, if from rest = )

f

v = final velocity ;

f

(v 0,if to stop) =

a = acceleration (

2 2

m/ s or ft / s )

t = time, (seconds)

v v

o f

v v v = =

s

o

v

f

v

s

Use ( ) + if :

f o

(v v ) >

Use ( ) if :

f o

(v v ) <

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II. FREE-FALLING BODY - (Motion Under gravity)

Important Equations:

2

o

1

h v t gt

2

=

f o

v v gt =

2 2

f o

v v 2gh =

Where:

h = height

o

v = original velocity

f

v = final velocity

g = acceleration due to gravity

2 2 2

m ft cm

9.81 32.2 981

s s s

= = =

t = time

> Note:

Use ( ) + for g going down Use ( ) for g going up

Maximum Height Attained by a Body if projected straight upward:

( )

2

o

max

v

h

2g

=

Time taken to reach the highest point if projected vertically upward:

o

v

t

g

=

O Time taken to reach the ground if dropped from a height h:

2h

t

g

= ; ( )

o

v 0 =

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Time of flight in going to the maximum height and falling back to the point

where it was projected:

o

2v

T

g

=

III. PROJECTILE MOTION

For problems involving projectile motion, resolve the initial velocity (

o

v )

into two perpendicular components as follows:

Horizontal velocity :

ox o

v v cos =

Vertical velocity :

oy o

v v sin =

Then, apply formulas for kinematics in one dimension.

AT ANY TIME, t:

Horizontal motion: (

x

a 0 = )

( )

ox o

d v t v cos t = =

Vertical motion: (

y

2

m

a g 9.81

s

= = )

( )

2 2

oy o

1 1

h v gt v sin t gt

2 2

= =

x

v

y

v

oy

v

ox

v

o

v

v

R

Point of

impact

Projectile @

max

h

max

h

d

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TIME TAKEN TO REACH THE HIGEST POINT, t:

o

v sin

t

g

=

TIME OF FLIGHT, T:

The time of flight is the time taken by the projectile to return to the

original horizontal level.

o

2v sin

T 2t

g

= =

RANGE, R:

Range is the distance covered in the horizontal direction in the total

time of its flight.

( )

2

o

o

v sin2

R v cos T

g

= =

AT MAXIMUM HEIGHT,

max

h : (

y

v 0 = )

At the highest point, the vertical velocity of the projectile is zero (as

in the case of a body thrown vertically upwards), its velocity is only

in the horizontal direction.

( )

2

o

max

v sin

h

2g

=

VELOCITY AT ANY POINT, V:

The velocity of a projectile at any point of its path is given by the

resultant of its vertical and horizontal velocities at that point.

( ) ( )

2

2

x y

v v v = +

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+ GENERAL EQUATION OF PROJECTILE

( )

2

2

o

gd

h dtan

2 v cos

=

> Note:

Use (+), if the point of impact is above the point of release.

Use (-), if the point of impact is below the point of release.

CASE I - Point of Impact is Above the Point of Release

CASE 2 - Point of Impact is Below the Point of Release

y

y

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IV. ROTARY MOTION

- Important Notation:

= angular displacement, radians

= angular velocity, rad/s

= angular acceleration

t = time

E Uniform Angular Motion:

t =

E Uniformly Accelerated Angular Motion:

2

o

1

t t

2

=

f o

t =

( ) ( )

2 2

f o

2 =

E Relationship Between Angular and Tangential Quantities:

s r

v r

a r

=

=

=

Provided, , , and are in radians.

v

r r

s

r

r

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REF P

a

f

V. NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION

First Law: The Law of Inertia

Newtons first law of motion states that if the body is at rest, it will remain

at rest, if it is in motion, it will remain in motion with constant speed in a

straight line unless there is a net force acting upon it.

net

F 0 =

Second Law: The Law of Acceleration

If a net force F acting on the body of mass m is not zero, the body

accelerates in the direction of the force. The acceleration a is

proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the

body.

F

a or F ma

m

= =

Third Law: The Law of Action and Reaction

To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction.

E DAlemberts Principle: (Jean le Rond dAlemberts)

The resultant of the external forces applied to a body (rigid or non-rigid)

and reversed effective force (REF) is equal to zero.

Equations:

W

REF P f 0 or REF a ma

g

= = =

Where:

m mass W weight a acceleration = = =

>Note:

Reversed Effective Force (REF) is always opposite in the direction of

acceleration.

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Before Impact

1

m

2

m

2

v

1

v

After Impact

'

2

v

'

1

v

1

m

2

m

VI. IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

O Impulse

Impulse is the product of force and the time it acts.

I Ft =

O Momentum

Momentum is the product of the mass and the velocity of the body.

P mv =

O Impulse - Momentum Theorem

Impulse is equal to the change in momentum.

2 1

Ft mv mv =

O The Law of Conservation of Momentum

When two bodies of masses m

1

and m

2

collide, the total momentum

before impact is equal to the total momentum after impact.

Equation:

before impact after impact

' '

1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

P P

m v m v m v m v

=

+ = +

v

m

F

t

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O Types of Collision

Collision refers to the mutual action of the molecules, atoms, and

etc., whenever they encounter one another.

1. Elastic collision is a collision which conserves kinetic energy

2. Inelastic collision is a collision which does not conserve

energy.

3. Perfectly inelastic collision is the collision which the object

sticks together afterward. In such collisions the KE loss is

maximum.

O Coefficient of Restitution, e:

' '

2 1

1 2

v v Relative velocity of recession

e

Relative velocity of approach v v

= =

Where:

e 0 = for perfectly inelastic collision

e 1 = for perfectly elastic collision

O Special Cases:

If a ball is dropped from a height h

o

upon a floor and rebounds to a

height of h

r

, the coefficient of restitution between the ball and

the floor is:

r

o

h

e

h

=

Where:

r

h = height of rebound

o

h = original height

If a ball is thrown at an angle

1

with the normal to a smooth surface

and rebounds at an angle

2

:

1

2

tan

e

tan

o

h

r

h

1

2

N

o

r

m

a

l

l

i

n

e

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VII. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

O Centripetal Force

2

2

C

mv

F mr

r

= =

O Centripetal acceleration

2

2

C

v

a r

r

= =

> Note:

Centripetal force must be directed toward the center of the circular

path.

O The Conical Pendulum

2 2

max

CF r v

tan

W g gr

Tension in the cord:

W

T

cos

Period, t :

h

t 2

g

for t : L h

= = =

=

=

=

Where:

CF = centrifugal reaction

T = tension of the cord

r = radius of the circular path

h = height

L length of the cord =

r

h

T

C

F

W

CF

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VIII. BANKING OF CURVES

O Ideal Angle of Banking

2

1

v

tan

gr

=

O For maximum velocity, v of the car without skidding

( )

2

v

tan

gr

+ =

Where:

= angle of banking

= angle of friction

r = radius of the curve

v velocity =

For Horizontal Rotating Flat form:

2 2

r v

tan

g gr

= = =

Also:

v r g =

Where:

= angle of friction

r = radius

v = velocity

g = acceleration due to gravity

CF

C

F

r

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IX. ROTATION OF RIGID BODIES

2

r

r

T r t

2 2

T

t

The Kinetic Energy of Rotation :

1

KE I

2

KE Kinetic energy of rotation

I moment of inertia

angular velocity, (rad/ s)

Total Kinetic Energy :

KE KE KE

1 1

KE I mv

2 2

KE Kinetic energy of translation

where:

Where:

=

=

=

=

= +

= +

=

X. NEWTONS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

1 2

2

mm

F G

R

=

Where:

G = Gravitational constant

11 2 2

G 6.67 10 N m / kg

=

m mass =

R = center-to-center distance between two masses

R

M1

M2

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TEST - 3

1. A collision in which the total Kinetic energy after collision is less than

before collision is called

A. off center collision

B. inelastic collision

C. straight line collision

D. elastic collision

2. Whenever a net force acts on a body, it produces acceleration in the

direction of the resultant force, an acceleration that is directly

proportional to the mass of the body. This theory is popularly known as

A. Newtons Second Law of Motion

B. Newtons First Law of Motion

C. Hookes Law of Equilibrium

D. Faradays Law of Forces

3. To maximize the horizontal range of the projectile, which of the following

applies?

A. Maximize velocity

B. Maximize the angle elevation and velocity

C. Maximize the angle of elevation

D. The tangent function of the angle of trajectory must be equal to one

4. The moment of inertia of a plane figure, ____.

A. increases as distance of the axis moves farther from the centroid

B. is maximum at the centroidal axis

C. is zero at the centroidal axis

D. decreases as the distance of the axis moves farther from the

centroid

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5. A measure of a resistance of the body it offers to any change in its

angular velocity, determined by its mass and distribution of its mass

about the axis rotation is known as ________.

A. moment of inertia

B. friction

C. torsion

D. angular acceleration

6. Momentum is the product of mass and ______.

A. acceleration

B. velocity

C. force

D. time

7. Centrifugal force is __________ .

A. directly proportional to the radius of the curvature

B. directly proportional to the square of the tangential velocity

C. inversely proportional to the square of the tangential velocity

D. directly proportional to the square of the weight of the object

8. According to this law, The force between two charges varies directly as

the magnitude of each charge and inversely as the square of the

distance between them.

A. Law of Universal Gravitation

B. Coulombs Law

C. Newtons Law

D. Inverse Square Law

9. When the total kinetic energy of a system is the same as before and after

collision of two bodies, it is called

A. Plastic collision

B. Inelastic collision

C. Elastic collision

D. Static collision

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10. In a polar coordinate system, the length of the ray segment from a fixed

origin is known as ______.

A. amplitude

B. radius vector

C. hypotenuse

D. minimum point

11. Momentum is a property related to the objects ______.

A. motion and mass

B. mass and acceleration

C. motion and weight

D. weight and velocity

12. The study of motion without reference to the force that causes the motion

is known as ______.

A. statics

B. dynamics

C. kinetics

D. kinematics

13. Varignons theorem is used to determine ______.

A. location of centroid

B. moment of inertia

C. mass moment of inertia

D. moment of area

14. The periodic oscillations either up or down or back and fourth motion in

the straight line is known as_______.

A. transverse harmonic motion

B. resonance

C. rotational harmonic motion

D. translational harmonic motion

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15. A freely falling body is a body in rectilinear motion and with

constant_____.

A. velocity

B. speed

C. deceleration

D. acceleration

16. When the total kinetic energy of the system is the same as before and

after the collision of two bodies, it is called

A. Static collision

B. Elastic collision

C. Inelastic collision

D. Plastic collision

17. What is the charge in the gravitational attraction between an orbiting

object and the earth if the distance between them is doubled?

A. no change

C. one half

B. double

D. one fourth

18. With reference to the thermodynamic diagram of temperature entropy

(TS), what is represented by the area under the diagram?

A. work done

B. enthalpy

C. temperature difference

D. heat transferred

19. What is the standard acceleration due to gravitational force?

A. 32 ft/sec/sec

B. 980 ft/sec/sec

C. 32 m/sec/sec

D. 98 ft/sec/sec

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20. Which of the following collisions is an elastic collision?

A. Two bodies move towards each other, collide and then move away

from each other. There is a rise in temperature

B. Two bodies collide and the sound of collision is heard by a blind

man

C. Two steel balls collide such that their kinetic energy is conserved

D. A man jumps on to a moving cart

21. A mass is revolving in a circle which is in the plane of paper. The

direction of centripetal acceleration is along the radius:

A. away from the center radius

B. toward the center

C. at right angle to angular velocity

D. none of the above

22. When a mass is rotating in a plane about a fixed point, its angular

momentum is directed along:

A. the radius

C. a line at an angle of 45o to the plane of the rotation

B. the tangent to orbit

D. the axis of rotation

23. A solid iron sphere A rolls down an inclined plane, while an identical

hollow sphere B slides down the plane in a frictionless manner. At the

bottom of the inclined plane, the total kinetic energy of sphere A is:

A. less than that of B

C. more than that of B

B. equal to that of B

D. sometime more and sometimes less

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24. Which of the following has the highest moment of inertia when each of

them has the same mass and the same radius?

A. A hollow sphere about one of its diameters.

B. A solid sphere about one of its diameters.

C. A disc about its central axis perpendicular to the plane of the disc

D. All of the above have the same moment of inertia

25. When a planet moves around the sun,

A. the angular momentum remains conserved

B. the angular speed remains constant

C. the linear velocity remains constant

D. the linear momentum remains constant

26. What keeps an earth satellite moving on its orbit?

A. Gravitational attraction between satellite and earth

B. Ejection gases from the exhaust of the satellite

C. burning of fuel

D. Gravitational attraction of sun

27. The value of universal gravitational constant G depends upon:

A. nature of material of two bodies

B. heat content of two bodies

C. acceleration of two bodies

D. None of these

28. If the mass of an object could be doubled, then its inertia would be

A. halved

B. doubled

C. unchanged

D. quadrupled

29. It shows the forces acting on an isolated object.

A. force diagram

B. schematic diagram

C. free body diagram

D. force polygon

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30. A wagon is uniformly accelerating from rest. The net force acting on the

wagon is

A. zero

B. increasing

C. constant

D. decreasing

31. If the mass of an object were doubled, its acceleration due to gravity

would be

A. doubled also

B. unchanged

C. halved

D. fivefold

32. Which of the following is not a vector quantity?

A. force

B. energy

C. weight

D. velocity

33. Which of the following is not a scalar quantity?

A. time

B. work

C. temperature

D. displacement

34. The resultant of two concurrent forces is minimum when the angle

between them is

A. 0 degree

B. 90 degrees

C. 45 degrees

D. 180 degrees

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35. As the angle between two concurrent forces decreases from 180

o

, their

resultant

A. decreases

B. increases

C. unchanged

D. cannot be determined

36. The maximum number of components that a single force may be

resolved into is

A. one

B. two

C. three

D. four

37. The momentum of an object is the product of its

A. mass and displacement

B. mass and velocity

C. force and displacement

D. force and time

38. If the direction of an objects momentum is west, the direction of the

velocity of the object is

A. east

B. west

C. north

D. south

39. The direction of an objects momentum is always the same as the

direction of the objects

A. inertia

B. mass

C. weight

D. velocity

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40. The moment of inertia of a triangle with respect to the base how many

time its moment of inertia with respect to its centroidal axis

A. 1/2

B. 3

C. 1/4

D. 5

41. When to objects collide, which of the following is always true?

A. the velocity of each object does not change

B. there is no change in the displacement of each object

C. there is no net change in the kinetic energy of each object

D. there is no net change in the total momentum of the objects

42. The study of motion with reference to the force that causes the motion is

A. ballistics

B. kinematics

C. kinetics

D. dynamics

43. What is the moment of inertia of a circle of radius r?

A. r

4

/4

B. r

4

/12

C. r

4

/15

D. r

4

/16

44. The moment of inertia of a rectangle with respect to the base is how

many times its moment of inertia with respect to the centroidal axis?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

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45. The moment of inertia of a triangle with respect to its base b is

A. b

2

h

2

/12

B. bh

3

/6

C. bh

3

/12

D. bh

3

/3

46. The moment of inertia of a circle with respect to its tangent is how many

times its moment of inertia with respect to its centroidal axis?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

47. Moment of inertia is also called

A. Moment of mass

B. Moment of center

C. second moment of area

D. moment of volume

48. One newton is equivalent to

A. kg-m/s

B. kg m/m/s

C. kg m/s/s

D. m/s

2

per kilogram

49. These are forces whose lines of action all pass through a common point.

A. collinear forces

B. couple

C. coplanar forces

D. concurrent forces

50. The radial distance from the axis to the point of application of the force is

called

A. radius vector

B. lever arm

C. normal

D. displacement

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1. A mango falls from a branch 5 meters above the ground. With what

speed in meters per second does it strike the ground? g=10m/s

2

Solution:

From:

( ) ( )

2 2

f o

v v 2gh = +

Where:

o

v 0 (free fall) =

Substitute:

( ) ( )

f

f

v 2gh 2 10 5

v 10 m/ s

= =

=

2. An automobile accelerates at a constant rate of 15mi/hr to 45 mi/hr in 15

seconds while traveling in a straight line. What is the average

acceleration?

Solution:

From:

f o

v v

a

t

=

Where:

f

o

mi 5280 ft 1hr

v 45 66 ft / s

hr mi 3600s

mi 5280 ft 1hr

v 15 22 ft / s

hr mi 3600s

= =

= =

Then,

2

66 22

a 2.93 ft / s

15

= =

Solved Problems

In Mechanics

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3. A 50-kilogram block of wood rests on the top of the smooth plane whose

length is 3m and whose altitude is 0.8 m. How long will it take for the

block to slide to the bottom of the plane when released?

Solution:

Given:

o

v 0

m 50 kg

s 3 m

h 0.8 m

=

=

=

=

Solving for the acceleration of the box:

Take summation of forces along the incline equal to zero:

2

mgsin ma

a gsin

0.8

a 9.81

3

a 2.62 m/ s

=

=

=

=

Solving for time, t:

( )

2

o

2

1

s v t at

2

1

3 0 2.62 t

2

t 1.51 sec.

= +

= +

=

mgsin

N

3 m

0.8 m

W

o

v 0 (from rest) =

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4. A baseball is thrown from a horizontal plane following a parabolic path

with an initial velocity of 100m/s at an angle of 30 above the horizontal.

How far from the throwing point will the ball attain its original level?

Solution:

Given:

o

v 100 m/ s

30

=

=

From:

( )

( ) ( )

2

o

2

v sin2

R

g

100 sin 2 30

R

9.81

R 883 m

=

=

=

5. A block weighing 500 KN rests on a ramp inclined at 25 degrees with the

horizontal. The force tending to move the block down the ramp is

Solution:

Given:

W 500 kN

25

=

=

Let:

F = the force along the incline that tends

to move the block down the ramp

Then,

F Wsin

F 500sin25

F 211 kN

=

=

=

W

25

F Wsin =

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6. How far does an automobile move while its speed increases uniformly

from 15 kph to 45 kph in 20 sec?

Solution:

o

f

15km 1000m 1hr

v 4.17 m/ s

hr km 3600s

45km 1000m 1hr

v 12.5 m/ s

hr km 3600s

= =

= =

From:

( )

f o

v v

S vt t

2

4.17 12.5

S 20

2

S 166.7 m

+

= =

+

=

=

7. A rotating wheel has a radius of 2 feet and 6 inches. A point on the rim of

the wheel moves 30 feet in 2 seconds. Find the angular velocity of the

wheel.

Solution:

Solving for the tangential velocity:

v s t = tangential velocity

30

v 15 ft / s

2

= =

From:

v r

15 2.5

6 rad/ s

=

=

=

o

v 15 kph =

S

f

v 45 kph =

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( )

1 2

m m +

c

v

Before Impact

1

m

2

m

2

v

1

v

After Impact

8. A 16 gm mass is moving at 30 cm/sec., while a 4gm mass is moving in

an opposite direction at 50 cm/sec. They collide head on and stick

together. Their velocity after collision is

Solution:

Let:

c

v = combined velocity after collision

From the Law of Conservation of Momentum:

Momentum Before Impact = Momentum After Impact

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 2 2 1 2 c

c

c

m v m v m m v

16 0.30 4 0.50 16 4 v

v 0.14 m/ s

+ = +

+ = +

=

9. A ball is dropped from a building 100 m high. If the mass of the ball is 10

gm, after what time will the ball strike the earth?

Solution:

( ) ( )

2

o

2

1

h v t gt

2

1

100 0 t 9.81 t

2

t 4.52 sec.

= +

= +

=

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10. Determine the angle of super elevation for a 200 m highway curve so

that there will be no side thrust at a speed of 90 kph.

Solution:

From:

2

v

tan banking angle fromula

gr

=

Substitute given and solve for :

[ ]( )

2

90km 1000m 1hr

hr km 3600s

tan

9.81 m/ s 200m

17.67

=

=

11. A 50,000 N car traveling with a speed of 150 km/hr rounds a curve

whose radius is 150 m. Find the centrifugal force.

Solution:

2

mv

CF

r

=

Where:

km 1000m 1hr

v 150

hr 1km 3600s

v 41.67 m/ s

=

=

Thus, solving for F

C

:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2

50,000 41.67

CF

9.81 150

CF 59 kN

=

=

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12. A 40 gm rifle with a speed of 300 m/s is fired into a ballistic pendulum of

mass 5 kg suspended from a chord 1 m long. Compute the vertical

height through which the pendulum rises.

Solution:

Let:

b

m = mass of the bullet ;

B

m = mass of the block

c

v = combined velocity of the block

and the bullet

c b B

m m m

combined mass of the block

and the bullet

= +

=

Using the Law of Conservation of Momentum:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

b b B B c c

c

c

m v m v m v

0.04 300 5 0 0.4 5 v

v 2.38 m/ s

+ =

+ = +

=

From the law of conservation of energy:

( )

( ) ( )

( )

bottom top

2

c c c

2 2

c

KE PE

1

m v m gh

2

v 2.38

h

2g 2 9.81

h 0.2887 m or 28.87 cm

=

=

= =

=

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13. A projectile is thrown with a speed of 100 ft/sec in a direction 30

o

above

the horizontal. Determine the highest point to which it rises.

Solution:

At maximum height,

fy

v 0 = :

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

fy oy max

2

2

oy o

max

2

max

max

v v 2gh

v v sin

h

2g 2g

100sin30

h

2(32.2)

h 38.81m

=

= =

=

=

14. A missile is fired with a speed of 100 fps in a direction 30 degrees above

the horizontal. Determine the maximum height to which it rises?

Solution:

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2

2

o

max

2 2

max

max

v sin

h

2g

100 sin30

h

2 32.2

h 38.8

39 ft.

=

=

=

15. A golf ball weighs 1.6 ounces. If its velocity immediately after being

driven is 225 fps, what was the impulse of the blow in slug-feet/sec?

Solution:

1lb

W 1.6oz 0.1lb

16oz

= =

From:

( )

( )

f o

Impulse change in momentum

I m v v

0.1

I 225 0

32

I 0.703 slugs ft / s

=

=

=

=

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16. A car accelerates from rest and reached a speed of 90 kph in 30

seconds. What is the acceleration in meter per second per second?

Solution:

o

f

f

v 0 (from rest)

1000m 1hr

v 90kph

km 3600s

v 25 m/ s

=

=

=

From:

f o

v v at =

Substitute and solve for a:

2

25 0 a(30)

a 0.833 m/ s

=

=

17. A stone is thrown vertically upward at the rate of 20 m/s. It will return to

the ground after how many seconds?

Solution:

From:

f o

o

v v gt

v 20

t

g 9.81

t 2.04 sec.

=

= =

=

Total time of flight:

( )

T 2t

2 2.04

4.08 sec.

=

=

=

o

v 20 m/ s =

f

v 0 (@maximum height) =

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18. A car accelerates uniformly from standstill to 80 mi/hr in 5 seconds. What

is its acceleration?

Solution:

o

f

f

v 0 (from rest)

5280ft 1hr

v 80mph

mi 3600s

v 117.33 ft / s

=

=

=

From:

f o

v v at =

Substitute and solve for a:

2

117.33 0 a(5)

a 23.47 ft / s

=

=

19. A DC-9 jet with a takeoff mass of 120 tons has two engines producing

average force of 80,000 N during takeoff. Determine the planes

acceleration down the runway if the takeoff time is 10 seconds.

Solution:

Formula:

F

a

m

=

Substitute:

( )

2

2 80,000

a

120,000

a 1.33 m/ s

=

=

20. What is the acceleration of a point on a rim of a flywheel 0.8 m in

diameter turning at the rate of 1400 rad/min?

Solution:

2

v

a

r

=

But:

v r =

Substitute to equation O :

( )

( )

2 2

2 2

r rad 1min

a r 0.4 1400 217.77 m/ s

r min 60s

= = = =

> Note:

1 ton 1000kg =

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21. A bullet is fired vertically upward with a mass of 3 grams. If it reaches an

altitude of 100 m, what is its initial velocity?

Solution:

From:

( ) ( )

2 2

f o

v v 2gh =

Note:

Use + , for going up

Use - , for going down

Substitute values: @ maximum height,

f

v 0 =

( )

2

o

o

0 v 2(9.81)100

v 44.29 m/ s

=

=

22. A flywheel of radius 14 inches is rotating at the rate of 1000 rpm. How

fast does a point on the rim travel in ft/sec?

Solution:

Converting to common units:

2 rad 1min

1000rpm

rev 60s

104.72 rad/ s

=

=

Also,

1ft

r 14in 1.167 ft

12in

= =

Solving for v:

( )

v r

v 1.167ft 104.72rad/ s

v 122.2 ft / s

=

=

=

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23. A ball was thrown upward with an initial velocity of 50ft/s. How high does

it go?

Solution:

From:

( ) ( )

2 2

f o

v v 2gh =

Where:

f

v 0; at maximum height =

Substitute:

( ) ( )

2

0 50 2 32 h

h 39 ft

=

=

24. A projectile is fired upward with muzzle velocity of 200 m/sec at an angle

of 30 degrees with the level ground. With what velocity will it hit the

ground in m/sec?

Solution:

Solving for the time of flight to reach

max

h :

o

v sin

t

g

200sin30

t

9.81

t 10.19 sec

=

=

=

Considering free - fall from

max

h :

fy oy oy

fy

fy

v v gt ;(v 0)

v 9.81(10.19)

v 100

= =

=

=

Solving for

fx

v :

fx o

fx

fx

v v cos

v 200cos30

v 173.2

=

=

=

Thus,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2

2 2 2

fy fx

v v v 100 173.2

v 200 m/ s

= + = +

=

max

h

o

v

f

v 0 =

fx

v

fy

v

f

v

30

t t

2t

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25. A 40 kg block rests at the top of an inclined smooth plane whose length

is 4 m and whose height is 0.5 m. How long will it take for the block to

slide to the bottom of the plane when released?

Solution:

Given:

o

v 0

m 40 kg

s 4 m

h 0.5 m

=

=

=

=

Solving for the acceleration of the box:

net

2

F ma

mgsin ma

a gsin

0.5

a 9.81

4

a 1.23 m/ s

=

=

=

=

=

Solving for time, t:

( )

2

o

2

1

s v t at

2

1

4 0 1.23 t

2

t 2.55 sec

= +

= +

=

mgsin

N

4 m

0.5 m

W

o

v 0 (from rest) =

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26. A block weighing 500 kN rests on a ramp inclined at 39 degrees with the

horizontal. What is the force that tends to move the block down the

ramp?

Solution:

Given:

W 500 kN

39

=

=

Let:

F = the force along the incline that tends

to move the block down the ramp

Then,

F Wsin

F 500sin39

F 314.6 kN

=

=

=

27. A golf ball after being struck by a golf club at ground level, departs at an

angle of 45 deg with the horizontal fairway with a velocity of 100 fps.

How far (in yards) will the ball lands from the point of departure?

Solution:

Formula:

( )

2

o

2

v sin2

R

g

100 sin90

R

32.2

1yd

R 310.6ft

3ft

R 103.5 yd

=

=

=

=

W

25

F Wsin =

45 =

R

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28. An absentminded driver traveling at 75 mph suddenly sees a checkpoint

ahead blocking the roadway. The driver applies the brakes following a

0.75 second delay. After the brakes are applied, the car decelerates at

4.2 m/sec

2

. Determine the stopping distance.

Solution:

1.609km 1000m 1hr

v 75mph

mi km 3600sec

v 33.52 m/ s

=

=

Solving for

1

s : (distance travelled by the car at constant speed )

1

1

1

s vt

s 33.52(.75)

s 25.14 m

=

=

=

Solving for

2

s : distance travelled with constant deceleration)

( ) ( )

( )

( )

2 2

f o 2

2

2

2

v v 2as

33.52

s

2 4.2

s 133.76

=

=

Thus, the total distance travelled is:

1 2

S s s

25.14 133.76

158.9 m

= +

= +

=

1

s

2

s

v 75 mph = v 75 mph = v 0 =

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29. A compact disk 125 mm in diameter is rotating at 50 rpm. If it takes 10

complete revolutions before slowing to a stop, how fast is it decelerating?

Solution:

Given:

2 rad 1min

d 125 mm ; 50 rpm 5.236 rad/ s

rev 60s

2 rad

10 rev 62.83 rad

rev

= = =

= =

From:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2 2

f o

2 2

f o

2

2

=

=

Substitute values:

( )

( )

2

2

0 5.236

0.22 rad/ s

2 62.83

= =

30. A man driving a car at 45 mph suddenly saw a stalled vehicle on the

road 100 ft ahead. What constant deceleration is required to stop the car

10 ft before the stalled vehicle? (Answer in ft per sec per sec).

Solution:

5280ft 1hr

v 45mph

1mi 3600s

v 66 ft / s

=

=

From:

( )

( )

2 2

f o

2 2

f o

2

2

v v 2as

v v

a

2s

0 66

a

2 90

a 24.20 ft / s

=

=

=

o

v 66 ft / s =

a

f

v 0 (stop) =

90 10

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31. A wheel revolving at 300 rpm decelerates at 5 rad/sec^2. How long

before the wheel stops?

Solution:

o

o

2 rad 1min

300rpm

rev 60s

31.42 rad/ s

=

=

From:

f o

f

t

0 31.42

t

5

t 6.28 sec

=

= =

=

32. An automobile tire is 30 inches in diameter. How fast in rpm does the

wheel turn on the axle when the automobile maintains a speed of 50

mph?

Solution:

Given:

1ft

d 30 in 2.5 ft

12in

5280ft 1hr

v 50 mph 73.33 ft / s

mi 3600s

= =

= =

From:

v r

v 73.33

2.5

r

2

1rev 60s

58.664 rad/ s

2 rad min

560.2 rpm

=

= =

=

=

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154

GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES

CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS

GEAS

GEAS

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33. A grenade is fired from a launcher with a velocity of 50 m/s at an angle of

30 degrees with the horizontal. Determine the maximum height that it

could reach in meters.

Solution:

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2

2

o

max

2 2

max

max

v sin

h formula for maximum height

2g

50 sin30

h

2 9.81

h 31.85 m

=

=

=

34. A 5g bullet is fired from a 5 kg gun with a speed of 400 m/sec. What is

the speed of recoil of the gun?

Solution:

Given:

b b

g r

m 5g 0.005kg v 400m/ s

m 5kg v ?

= = =

= =

From the law of conservation of momentum:

Total momentum before = Total momentum after

Before explosion, the velocity of the gun and the bullet is zero, thus the

total momentum before explosion is zero.

b b g r

b b

r

g

r

0 m v m v

m v 0.005(400)

v

m 5

v 0.40 m/ s

= +

= =

=

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