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Ship Production

Lecture 10 – Shipyard Processes

Shipyard Processes:

• Ship Drawing offices & Loftwork


• Plate & section preparation & machining
• Welding & cutting
• Subassembly
• Prefabrication
• Launching
• Outfit
• Corrosion control & paint systems

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Plate & Section Preparation :
Steel plates & sections shot-blasted to remove
rust & millscale, primed with temporary protective
paint.

Plate & Section Preparation – Shot Blasting :

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Plate Section Preparation :
Steel plates straightened using roll machines
(mangles).

Plate & Section Preparation :


Plate handling may be performed by:
• Overhead electric cranes
• Electric powered trolleys – collacator unit
running on rails
• Transporter lowloader
• Conveyor systems and integrated units

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Plate & Section Preparation - Handling:

Plate & Section Preparation - Handling:

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Plate & Section Machining:
Number of methods for forming plates into
required shapes.
Information derived from CAD/CAM systems
• Profile cutting machine
• Planing machines
• Drilling machines
• Guillotines
• Presses
• Plate rolls
• Heat line bending

Plate & Section Machining - Profilers:


Employed when plate is required to be cut into
two or more plates or complicated shapes. Usually
flame or plasma-arc.

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Plate & Section Machining - Profilers:

Plate & Section Machining - Profilers:

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Plate & Section Machining - Planing:
Some plates only require trimming and edge
preparation – carried out using planing machine.
• Flame or plasma-arc
• Mechanical

Plate & Section Machining - Planing:

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Plate & Section Machining - Planing:

Plate & Section Machining - Presses:


Hydraulically
powered press to
cold work steel
press.
Capable of:
Bending,
straightening,
flanging, dishing,
swaging.

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Plate & Section
Machining
Presses:

Plate & Section Machining - Presses:

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Plate & Section Machining – Plate Rolls:

Heavy duty bending rolls used for rolling shell


plates.

Plate & Section Machining – Plate Rolls:

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Plate & Section Machining – Plate Rolls:

Plate & Section Machining – Plate Rolls:

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Plate & Section Machining
‘Heat-Line Bending’:
Heat applied to
plate using flame.
Then immediately
cooled.
Plate bends.
More time
consuming than
rolls but plate will
hold shape more
accurately.

Plate & Section Machining


‘Heat-Line Bending’:

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Plate & Section Machining
Frame Bending:
Cold bend by application of horizontal ram whilst
frame held by gripping levers

Plate & Section Machining


Frame Bending:

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Welding & Cutting:

To be discussed in detail next week…

Subassembly:

Many large modern shipyards use panel lines for the


production of stiffened panels.

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Subassembly :

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Subassembly :

Prefabrication:
During WWII
mass production
techniques
adopted in
shipbuilding.
3d units
fabricated using
2d components

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Prefabrication:

Prefabrication:

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Block Assembly:

Block Assembly:

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Block Assembly:

Block Assembly:

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Block Assembly:

Block Assembly:

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Block Assembly:

Block Assembly:

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Launching:

To be discussed in detail in a fortnight…

Outfit:

• Pipework
• Ventilation
• Linings/insulation
• Public Spaces
• Cabins

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Outfit - Piping:

Outfit – Ventilation:

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Outfit - Insulation:

Outfit – Public Spaces:

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Outfit - Cabins:

Corrosion - Nature & Forms :

Atmospheric corrosion – serious rusting may occur


where the relative humidity is greater than 70%
• Corrosion due to immersion – when in service
bottom region is completely immersed, ideal
conditions for electro-chemical corrosion.
• Electro-chemical – flow of electricity from one
metallic region to another through electrolytic
solution, e.g. salt water.
• Galvanic – due to coupling of dissimilar metals to
form a corrosion cell, e.g. steel hull & bronze
propeller.

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Corrosion - Nature & Forms :
Noble (protected)
Platinum, Gold
Silver
Titanium
Stainless steels, passive
Nickel
Bronze
Copper
Nickel
Brass
Lead, Tin
Stainless steels, active
Steel
Aluminium
Zinc
Magnesium
Ignoble (corroding)

Corrosion Control :

• Sacrificial anode – metals attached to hull which


are more anodic (less noble) than steel when
immersed in salt water, e.g. zinc plates.
• Impressed current systems – voltage difference
maintained between hull and fitted anodes. May
use noble metals as anodes to reduce deterioration.

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Paints:

• Anti-foul paints – self polishing anti-foul paints


can last up to 5 years. Now Tributylen Compound
(TBT) free due to International Maritime
Organisation (IMO) requirements.
• Paint coating to prevent corrosion.

What differences would be


visible when constructing a
composite vessel?

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Composite Vessel:

• Mould construction
• Materials storage & resin shelf life
• Safety & quality considerations
• Laminating sequences
• Curing times
• Crane requirements

Composite Vessel:

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Composite Vessel:

Composite Vessel:

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Composite Vessel:

Composite Vessel:

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Composite Vessel:

Composite Vessel:

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Aluminium Vessel:

• Welding/cutting techniques
• Labour intensive
• Painting requirements
• Crane requirements

Aluminium Vessel:

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Further reading:
Eyres, D., Ship Construction, 5th Edition, Butterworth-Heinmann, Oxford, UK, 2001.
Taylor, D., Merchant Ship Construction, 4th Edition, Institute of Marine Engineers, London,
UK, 1998.
Taggart, R., Ship Design and Construction, SNAME, New Jersey, USA, 1980.
Storch, R., Hammon, C., Bunch H., and Moore R., Ship Production, 2 nd Edition, SNAME
New Jersey, USA, 1995.
Lamb, T., Ship Design and Construction I & II, SNAME, New Jersey, USA, 2003.
Lewis, E., Ed. Principles of Naval Architecture: Volume I - Stability and Strength, SNAME,
New Jersey, USA, 1988.
Shenoi, R. & Wellicome, J. (Ed.) Composite Materials in Marine Structures. Volume 1
Fundamental Aspects. Volume 2 Practical Considerations, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, 1993.

Recap/Reflect

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