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A Med|ca| erspecnve on

C|| and Gas Deve|opment

Manseld 1x
CcLober 29, 2014

Anne C. LpsLeln Mu, lAC
Lubbock 1x 8oard of PealLh

PealLh 8lsks
of Cll and Cas uevelopmenL
1. 1ox|c A|r Lm|ss|ons:
2. numan nea|th Impacts
Assoc|ated w|th A|r
3. k|sk of Groundwater
4. 1he recaunonary
r|nc|p|e and ub||c

lmage credlL: Zach Long/Lubbockonllne (Semlnole)
1oxlc Alr Lmlsslons: 8enzene
A h|gh|y tox|c carc|nogen that occurs
natura||y |n o|| and gas
VCC-vo|an|e organ|c compound
Long-Lerm healLh eecLs
Leukemla- a Croup 1 Carclnogen"
Llfe-LhreaLenlng anemla
lmmune sysLem suppresslon
osslble feLal abnormallues
Plgh levels of exposure
Coma, selzures, lrregular hearL
rhyLhms, uld ln Lhe lungs, deaLh
Chlldren and developlng feLuses are more
vulnerable Lo all Loxlc alr emlsslons

A1Su8 AugusL 2007,,
CuC Lmergency SafeLy and PealLh uaLabase
aulson, 1esumony before Pouse Subcommluee leb 2014

NICSn Study of C|| & Gas
Worker VCC Lxposure
August 2014

Measured worker exposure Lo vCCs
aL 6 compleuon slLes ln Colorado &
13 of 17 benzene samples exceeded
Lhe recommended 8 hr exposure
llmlLs for workers gauglng owback
or producuon Lanks
8enzene exposures were varlable,
unpredlcLable, and someumes very
200 ppm close Lo open Lank
haLches- several readlngs
8ecommended 13 mln exposure
llmlL: 1 ppm
Conc|us|ons: 8enzene |eve|s
reached concentranons that
potenna||y pose hea|th r|sks for
Lssweln eL al, ! #$ %&&'()*#+), )+- .+/01#+23+4),
56703+3, 88:10, 01 Aug 2014

A owback Lechnlclan gauglng a
owback Lank Lhrough a haLch on Lop
of Lhe Lank
1CLC 8arneu Shale SLudy 2009
94 monlLorlng slLes surveyed 2009
llyover, Casllndl8 cameras, vCC monlLors
Alr samples collecLed aL 73 slLes
8enzene was deLecLed above Lhe long Lerm healLh based
comparlson value (> 1.4 ppb) aL 21 monlLorlng slLes ln 12
dlerenL areas
2 slLes requlred lmmedlaLe acuon for value > 180 ppb
1 compressor sLauon:1100 ppb
1 gas well: 13,000 ppb (3 feeL from Lhe well)
8oLh repalred, came lnLo compllance

1CLC lnLeromce Memo !an 27, 2010, PealLh LecLs 8evlew of 8arneu Shale lormauon Area
MonlLorlng ro[ecLs" and Sadller & Poneycuu, 1CLC 8arneu Shale updaLe" 2010

vCC emlsslons capLured on lnfrared
camera by 1CLC 2009
Peavy vCC emlsslons capLured by lnfrared
camera aL Aruba faclllLy ln Lhe 8arneu Shale
ScreenshoL of a 1CLC vldeo posLed by u. Pasemyer, CenLer for ubllc lnLegrlLy, May 28 2014

Alr 1oxln ConcenLrauons uurlng Well
Compleuon ln Careld CounLy CC
(Mckenzle eL al, 9&03+&3 #$ 4:3 ;#4), .+/01#+23+4, 22 March 2012)
8enzene LLhylbenzene 1oluene m/p- xylene
naLural Cas uevelopmenL
Area > 1/2 mlle away
Well Compleuon samples
130-300 from well pad
cenLer durlng
unconLrolled owback
Flyover Air Monitoring in Colorado

! Airborne measurements of air pollutants 12 flights
in May 2012
! Correlated with atmospheric data

! Results: Benzene emissions were between 7 and 9
times higher than estimated by State of Colorado

Petron et al, American Geophysical Union, May 2014
Puman PealLh lmpacLs
AssoclaLed wlLh C & C Alr Lmlsslons
PealLh lmpacL AssessmenL from Lhe
Colorado School of ubllc PealLh 2012
Measured hazardous alr polluLanLs aL dlerenL dlsLances from
C&C wells
near: 300 feeL and less from a well
lar: > x mlle from a well
lound elevaLed levels of hazardous alr polluLanLs
near wells : 8enzene, 1oluene, LLhyl benzene, xylene (81Lx)
CalculaLed Lhe rlsk of lllness under 2 dlerenL scenarlos:
Subchronlc: shorL Lerm , hlgh lnLenslLy- well compleuons
Chronlc: long-Lerm , lower lnLenslLy- well producuon

Mckenzle eL al, 9&03+&3 #$ 4:3 ;#4), .+/01#+23+4 22 March, 2012

non-cancer Pazard lndexes by durauon of
exposure and dlsLance from Source
AdgaLe , nauonal Academy of PealLh Workshop, 2012
Pazard lndexes by healLh end polnL: near wells,
20 monLh exposure scenarlo
(AdgaLe 2012, nauonal Academles of PealLh, PealLh lmpacL AssessmenL of Shale Cas LxLracuon:
Workshop Summary)
8lrLh CuLcomes and MaLernal 8esldenual roxlmlLy Lo
naLural Cas uevelopmenL ln 8ural Colorado
1he daLa: 1996 - 2009
A|| blrLh records ln rural Colorado (8ural slLes chosen Lo avold
alr polluuon from clues)
A|| hosplLal and cllnlc records of blrLh defecLs
8ecords of locauon and year bullL for a|| gas wells ln rural
1oLal 124,842 blrLhs
8esearchers analyzed level of maLernal exposure Lo gas wells:
how far away and how many gas wells aL Lhe ume of blrLh
3 groups: low, medlum, and hlgh exposure
8eference group: no gas wells wlLhln 10 mlles

Mckenzle eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3=> 28 !anuary 2014

8lrLh CuLcomes and MaLernal 8esldenual roxlmlLy Lo
naLural Cas uevelopmenL ln 8ural Colorado
Mckenzle eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3=> 28 !anuary 2014

number of bables born wlLh
CongenlLal PearL ulsease
Compared Lo 0 wells w/ln 10
10 lncreased rlsk for 1-3 wells/
mlle , low exposure (281 blrLhs)
20 lncreased rlsk for 4-124
wells/ mlle, medlum exposure (300
30 lncreased rlsk for > 123
wells/ mlle, hlgh exposure (333 blrLhs)

SLausucal slgnlcance p< 0.001
Ad[usLed for muluple facLors

8ablnowlLz eL al (?ale), .+/01#+23+4),
53),4: <31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014
Sub[ects: 8andomly chosen,
180 households/ 494
lndlvlduals wlLh a prlvaLe
waLer well ln WashlngLon
CounLy A
Lxposure: 624 acuve
naLural gas wells ln
WashlngLon CounLy ln 2012
Study: Survey regardlng
healLh sympLoms

lmage credlL: 8. Mark Schmerllng (WashlngLon

8ablnowlLz eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4:
<31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014
8ablnowlLz eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014

Compared Lo people llvlng > 2
km from Lhe nearesL gas well,
eople llvlng < 1 km away had
a greaLer lncldence of:
upper resplraLory
sympLoms (39 vs 18)
Skln sympLoms (13 vs 3)
Average number of
reporLed sympLoms (3.3 vs
8esulLs sLausucally slgnlcanL
even aer ad[usLmenL for
muluple facLors
lmage from arr lamlly, Llsa arr's daughLer, Lmma
(publlshed by Cnn) 1x
Conrmed Cancer ClusLer
ln 8arneu Shale: llower Mound 1x

8reasL Cancer
369 cases, expecLed number
303 (2002-2011)
99 condence lnLerval
sLausucally slgnlcanL
osslble cause of breasL

1exas ueparLmenL of SLaLe PealLh Servlces, !uly
30, 2014.
lnsuLuLe of Medlclne 2011, 8reasL Cancer and
Lhe LnvlronmenL"
lmage credlL: nauonal Cancer lnsuLuLe
rlvaLe urlnklng WaLer Wells and 8lsks
due Lo CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon
13 mllllon Amerlcans rely on
prlvaLe drlnklng waLer wells
LhaL use groundwaLer
urlnklng conLamlnaLed
groundwaLer can cause
human lllness
LA regulauons LhaL proLecL
Lhe publlc waLer supply do
noL apply Lo prlvaLe wells
WaLer quallLy Lesung ls aL
Lhe owner's dlscreuon
CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from Cll
and Cas Acuvlues ln ennsylvanla
8eporLed by Lhe ennsylvanla
uepL. of LnvlronmenLal
roLecuon, AugusL 28, 2014
243 cases where uL
deLermlned LhaL a prlvaLe
waLer supply was lmpacLed
by oll and gas acuvlues"
2008 - 2014
1.2 of Lhe LoLal number
of wells

Pess, A LnvlronmenLal ulgesL Aug 29, 2014
uL, 8eglonal ueLermlnauon Leuers, Aug 29 20l4
lmage credlL: A hoLo/8alph Wllson

CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from Cll
and Cas uevelopmenL ln Texas

8eporLed by Lhe 8allroad
Commlsslon of 1exas
S32 LoLal cases ln 2013
72 new cases ln 2013
8enzene, oLher 81Lx,
Pydrocarbons, crude
oll, and oLher Loxlns

1exas CroundwaLer roLecuon Commluee,
!olnL CroundwaLer MonlLorlng and
ConLamlnauon 8eporL 2013," Aprll 2014

CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from
Surface Spllls ln Colorado
77 spllls of oll or produced
waLer reporLed ln 1 year
(!uly 2010-!uly 2011) LhaL
conLamlnaLed groundwaLer
8enzene exceeded
maxlmum conLamlnanL
levels ln groundwaLer - 90
16 of Lhe spllls had noL
been remedlaLed as of May
Average splll: 1000 gallons

Cross eL al, !#'1+), #$ 4:3 ?01 @ A)=43B)431
C)+)7323+4> 20 March 2013, lmage credlL

Caslng and Cemenung
lallures ln ennsylvanla

41,000 oll and gas wells
Aer 2009, mosL were unconvenuonal
uaLa source: sLaLe lnspecuon reporLs
Cverall sLrucLural fallure raLe = 1.9
unconvenuonal wells ln drllllng boom
area fallure raLe = 9.18
Lach addluonal lnspecuon prlor Lo 2009
lncreased Lhe chances of ndlng a
sLrucLural fallure by 17.7

lngraea eL al, nAS May 30, 2014

Craphlc by Al Cranberg/roubllca
1ox|c Lects of
Arsen|c |n
Dr|nk|ng Water
Arsenlc : a ma[or publlc healLh concern
accordlng Lo Lhe World PealLh
Colorless and LasLeless: may be
undeLecLed ln drlnklng well waLer for
many years
Long Lerm exposure eecLs
Cancer of Lhe skln, bladder, lungs, and
posslbly of Lhe kldney, llver, and
prosLaLe. Croup 1 Carclnogen"
ulabeLes, kldney dlsease, hlgh blood
pressure, hearL auacks and sLroke
8lood cell, llver, and nerve endlng
Skln Lhlckenlng and rashes
ln pregnanL women: sponLaneous
aboruon, sullblrLh
WPC, Lxposure Lo Arsenlc: a Ma[or ublc PealLh Concern" 2010

lmage credlL: woodleywonderorks/
Arsenlc ln rlvaLe WaLer Wells
ln Lhe 8arneu Shale, 1exas
100 prlvaLe waLer wells sampled
91 from acuve area
( 1 or more gas wells
wlLhln a 3 km radlus)
4 from non-acuve area
(no gas wells wlLhln a 14
km radlus)
3 from reference slLe ouLslde
Lhe 8arneu Shale
(no gas wells wlLhln a 60
km radlus)
Compared wlLh hlsLorlcal daLa
from 330 prlvaLe wells from Lhe
same area 1989-1999, before gas
lonLenoL eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 9&03+&3 )+-
;3&:+#,#76 23 !uly 2013

of WaLer Wells wlLh Arsenlc/ Selenlum Levels
CreaLer Lhan Maxlmum ConLamlnanL LlmlLs
lonLenoL eL al, !D .+/01#+ 9&0D ;3&:+#,#76, !uly 31, 2013
Arsenlc Selenlum
1he recauuonary rlnclple
When an acuvlLy ralses LhreaLs of harm Lo Lhe
envlronmenL or human healLh, precauuonary
measures should be Laken even lf some cause and
eecL relauonshlps are noL fully esLabllshed
Lndorsed by Lhe uS CovernmenL *
Lndorsed by Lhe Amerlcan ubllc PealLh Assoclauon as a
cornersLone of prevenuve publlc heaLh pollcy and

1998 Wlngspread SLaLemenL on Lhe recauuonary rlnclple
*ln slgnlng Lhe 8lo ueclarauon on LnvlronmenL and uevelopmenL ln 1992
**Amerlcan !ournal of ubllc PealLh 91(3), March 2001, pl. 493