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A Med|ca| Þerspecnve on

C|| and Gas Deve|opment
Mansñeld 1x
CcLober 29, 2014

Anne C. LpsLeln Mu, lACÞ
Lubbock 1x 8oard of PealLh

PealLh 8lsks
of Cll and Cas uevelopmenL
1. 1ox|c A|r Lm|ss|ons:
2. numan nea|th Impacts
Assoc|ated w|th A|r
3. k|sk of Groundwater
4. 1he Þrecaunonary
Þr|nc|p|e and Þub||c

lmage credlL: Zach Long/Lubbockonllne (Semlnole)
1oxlc Alr Lmlsslons: 8enzene
A h|gh|y tox|c carc|nogen that occurs
natura||y |n o|| and gas
• VCC-vo|an|e organ|c compound
Long-Lerm healLh eñecLs
• Leukemla- a ºCroup 1 Carclnogen"
• Llfe-LhreaLenlng anemla
• lmmune sysLem suppresslon
• Þosslble feLal abnormallues
Plgh levels of exposure
• Coma, selzures, lrregular hearL
rhyLhms, ßuld ln Lhe lungs, deaLh
Chlldren and developlng feLuses are more
vulnerable Lo all Loxlc alr emlsslons

A1Su8 AugusL 2007,ñles/Lp3.pdf,
CuC Lmergency SafeLy and PealLh uaLabase
Þaulson, 1esumony before Pouse Subcommluee leb 2014

NICSn Study of C|| & Gas
Worker VCC Lxposure
August 2014

• Measured worker exposure Lo vCCs
aL 6 compleuon slLes ln Colorado &
• 13 of 17 benzene samples exceeded
Lhe recommended 8 hr exposure
llmlLs for workers gauglng ßowback
or producuon Lanks
• 8enzene exposures were varlable,
unpredlcLable, and someumes very
– 200 ppm close Lo open Lank
haLches- several readlngs
– 8ecommended 13 mln exposure
llmlL: 1 ppm
• Conc|us|ons: 8enzene |eve|s
reached concentranons that
potenna||y pose hea|th r|sks for
Lssweln eL al, ! #$ %&&'()*#+), )+- .+/01#+23+4),
56703+3, 88:10, 01 Aug 2014

A ßowback Lechnlclan gauglng a
ßowback Lank Lhrough a haLch on Lop
of Lhe Lank
1CLC 8arneu Shale SLudy 2009
• 94 monlLorlng slLes surveyed 2009
– llyover, Casllndl8 cameras, vCC monlLors
• Alr samples collecLed aL 73 slLes
• 8enzene was deLecLed above Lhe long Lerm healLh based
comparlson value (> 1.4 ppb) aL 21 monlLorlng slLes ln 12
dlñerenL areas
• 2 slLes requlred lmmedlaLe acuon for value > 180 ppb
– 1 compressor sLauon:1100 ppb
– 1 gas well: 13,000 ppb (3 feeL from Lhe well)
– 8oLh repalred, came lnLo compllance

1CLC lnLeromce Memo !an 27, 2010, ºPealLh LñecLs 8evlew of 8arneu Shale lormauon Area
MonlLorlng Þro[ecLs" and Sadller & Poneycuu, º1CLC 8arneu Shale updaLe" 2010

vCC emlsslons capLured on lnfrared
camera by 1CLC 2009
Peavy vCC emlsslons capLured by lnfrared
camera aL Aruba faclllLy ln Lhe 8arneu Shale
ScreenshoL of a 1CLC vldeo posLed by u. Pasemyer, CenLer for Þubllc lnLegrlLy, May 28 2014

Alr 1oxln ConcenLrauons uurlng Well
Compleuon ln Carñeld CounLy CC
(Mckenzle eL al, 9&03+&3 #$ 4:3 ;#4), .+/01#+23+4, 22 March 2012)
8enzene LLhylbenzene 1oluene m/p- xylene
naLural Cas uevelopmenL
Area > 1/2 mlle away
Well Compleuon samples
130-300 û from well pad
cenLer durlng
unconLrolled ßowback
Flyover Air Monitoring in Colorado

! Airborne measurements of air pollutants – 12 flights
in May 2012
! Correlated with atmospheric data

! Results: Benzene emissions were between 7 and 9
times higher than estimated by State of Colorado

Petron et al, American Geophysical Union, May 2014
Puman PealLh lmpacLs
AssoclaLed wlLh C & C Alr Lmlsslons
PealLh lmpacL AssessmenL from Lhe
Colorado School of Þubllc PealLh 2012
Measured hazardous alr polluLanLs aL dlñerenL dlsLances from
C&C wells
near: 300 feeL and less from a well
lar: > x mlle from a well
lound elevaLed levels of hazardous alr polluLanLs
near wells : 8enzene, 1oluene, LLhyl benzene, xylene (81Lx)
CalculaLed Lhe rlsk of lllness under 2 dlñerenL scenarlos:
Subchronlc: shorL Lerm , hlgh lnLenslLy- well compleuons
Chronlc: long-Lerm , lower lnLenslLy- well producuon

Mckenzle eL al, 9&03+&3 #$ 4:3 ;#4), .+/01#+23+4 22 March, 2012

non-cancer Pazard lndexes by durauon of
exposure and dlsLance from Source
AdgaLe , nauonal Academy of PealLh Workshop, 2012
Pazard lndexes by healLh end polnL: near wells,
20 monLh exposure scenarlo
(AdgaLe 2012, nauonal Academles of PealLh, PealLh lmpacL AssessmenL of Shale Cas LxLracuon:
Workshop Summary)
8lrLh CuLcomes and MaLernal 8esldenual ÞroxlmlLy Lo
naLural Cas uevelopmenL ln 8ural Colorado
1he daLa: 1996 - 2009
• A|| blrLh records ln rural Colorado (8ural slLes chosen Lo avold
alr polluuon from clues)
• A|| hosplLal and cllnlc records of blrLh defecLs
• 8ecords of locauon and year bullL for a|| gas wells ln rural
1oLal 124,842 blrLhs
• 8esearchers analyzed level of maLernal exposure Lo gas wells:
how far away and how many gas wells aL Lhe ume of blrLh
• 3 groups: low, medlum, and hlgh exposure
• 8eference group: no gas wells wlLhln 10 mlles

Mckenzle eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3=> 28 !anuary 2014

8lrLh CuLcomes and MaLernal 8esldenual ÞroxlmlLy Lo
naLural Cas uevelopmenL ln 8ural Colorado
Mckenzle eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3=> 28 !anuary 2014

number of bables born wlLh
CongenlLal PearL ulsease
Compared Lo 0 wells w/ln 10
10° lncreased rlsk for 1-3 wells/
mlle , low exposure (281 blrLhs)
20° lncreased rlsk for 4-124
wells/ mlle, medlum exposure (300
30° lncreased rlsk for > 123
wells/ mlle, hlgh exposure (333 blrLhs)

SLausucal slgnlñcance p< 0.001
Ad[usLed for muluple facLors

8ablnowlLz eL al (?ale), .+/01#+23+4),
53),4: <31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014
• Sub[ects: 8andomly chosen,
180 households/ 494
lndlvlduals wlLh a prlvaLe
waLer well ln WashlngLon
CounLy ÞA
• Lxposure: 624 acuve
naLural gas wells ln
WashlngLon CounLy ln 2012
• Study: Survey regardlng
healLh sympLoms

lmage credlL: 8. Mark Schmerllng (WashlngLon

8ablnowlLz eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4:
<31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014
8ablnowlLz eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 53),4: <31=(3&*/3= SepL 2014

Compared Lo people llvlng > 2
km from Lhe nearesL gas well,
Þeople llvlng < 1 km away had
a greaLer lncldence of:
• upper resplraLory
sympLoms (39° vs 18°)
• Skln sympLoms (13° vs 3°)
• Average number of
reporLed sympLoms (3.3 vs
8esulLs sLausucally slgnlñcanL
even aûer ad[usLmenL for
muluple facLors
lmage from Þarr lamlly, Llsa Þarr's daughLer, Lmma
(publlshed by Cnn) 1x
Conñrmed Cancer ClusLer
ln 8arneu Shale: llower Mound 1x

• 8reasL Cancer
– 369 cases, expecLed number
303 (2002-2011)
– 99° conñdence lnLerval
sLausucally slgnlñcanL
• 8enzene
– Þosslble cause of breasL

1exas ueparLmenL of SLaLe PealLh Servlces, !uly
30, 2014.
lnsuLuLe of Medlclne 2011, º8reasL Cancer and
Lhe LnvlronmenL"
lmage credlL: nauonal Cancer lnsuLuLe
ÞrlvaLe urlnklng WaLer Wells and 8lsks
due Lo CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon
• 13 mllllon Amerlcans rely on
prlvaLe drlnklng waLer wells
LhaL use groundwaLer
• urlnklng conLamlnaLed
groundwaLer can cause
human lllness
• LÞA regulauons LhaL proLecL
Lhe publlc waLer supply do
noL apply Lo prlvaLe wells
• WaLer quallLy Lesung ls aL
Lhe owner's dlscreuon
CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from Cll
and Cas Acuvlues ln Þennsylvanla
8eporLed by Lhe Þennsylvanla
uepL. of LnvlronmenLal
ÞroLecuon, AugusL 28, 2014
• 243 cases where ºuLÞ
deLermlned LhaL a prlvaLe
waLer supply was lmpacLed
by oll and gas acuvlues"
2008 - 2014
• 1.2 ° of Lhe LoLal number
of wells

Pess, ÞA LnvlronmenLal ulgesL Aug 29, 2014
uLÞ, 8eglonal ueLermlnauon Leuers, Aug 29 20l4
lmage credlL: AÞ ÞhoLo/8alph Wllson

CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from Cll
and Cas uevelopmenL ln Texas

8eporLed by Lhe 8allroad
Commlsslon of 1exas
• S32 LoLal cases ln 2013
• 72 new cases ln 2013
– 8enzene, oLher 81Lx,
Pydrocarbons, crude
oll, and oLher Loxlns

1exas CroundwaLer ÞroLecuon Commluee,
º!olnL CroundwaLer MonlLorlng and
ConLamlnauon 8eporL 2013," Aprll 2014

CroundwaLer ConLamlnauon from
Surface Spllls ln Colorado
• 77 spllls of oll or produced
waLer reporLed ln 1 year
(!uly 2010-!uly 2011) LhaL
conLamlnaLed groundwaLer
• 8enzene exceeded
maxlmum conLamlnanL
levels ln groundwaLer - 90°
• 16° of Lhe spllls had noL
been remedlaLed as of May
• Average splll: 1000 gallons

Cross eL al, !#'1+), #$ 4:3 ?01 @ A)=43B)431
C)+)7323+4> 20 March 2013, lmage credlL

Caslng and Cemenung
lallures ln Þennsylvanla

• 41,000 oll and gas wells
– Aûer 2009, mosL were unconvenuonal
• uaLa source: sLaLe lnspecuon reporLs
• 8esulLs
– Cverall sLrucLural fallure raLe = 1.9°
– unconvenuonal wells ln drllllng boom
area fallure raLe = 9.18°
– Lach addluonal lnspecuon prlor Lo 2009
lncreased Lhe chances of ñndlng a
sLrucLural fallure by 17.7°

lngrañea eL al, ÞnAS May 30, 2014

Craphlc by Al Cranberg/ÞroÞubllca
1ox|c Lñects of
Arsen|c |n
Dr|nk|ng Water
• Arsenlc : a ma[or publlc healLh concern
accordlng Lo Lhe World PealLh
• Colorless and LasLeless: may be
undeLecLed ln drlnklng well waLer for
many years
• Long Lerm exposure eñecLs
– Cancer of Lhe skln, bladder, lungs, and
posslbly of Lhe kldney, llver, and
prosLaLe. ºCroup 1 Carclnogen"
– ulabeLes, kldney dlsease, hlgh blood
pressure, hearL auacks and sLroke
– 8lood cell, llver, and nerve endlng
– Skln Lhlckenlng and rashes
– ln pregnanL women: sponLaneous
aboruon, sullblrLh
WPC, ºLxposure Lo Arsenlc: a Ma[or Þublc PealLh Concern" 2010

lmage credlL: woodleywonderorks/
Arsenlc ln ÞrlvaLe WaLer Wells
ln Lhe 8arneu Shale, 1exas
• 100 prlvaLe waLer wells sampled
– 91 from acuve area
• ( 1 or more gas wells
wlLhln a 3 km radlus)
– 4 from non-acuve area
• (no gas wells wlLhln a 14
km radlus)
– 3 from reference slLe ouLslde
Lhe 8arneu Shale
• (no gas wells wlLhln a 60
km radlus)
• Compared wlLh hlsLorlcal daLa
from 330 prlvaLe wells from Lhe
same area 1989-1999, before gas
lonLenoL eL al, .+/01#+23+4), 9&03+&3 )+-
;3&:+#,#76 23 !uly 2013

° of WaLer Wells wlLh Arsenlc/ Selenlum Levels
CreaLer Lhan Maxlmum ConLamlnanL LlmlLs
lonLenoL eL al, !D .+/01#+ 9&0D ;3&:+#,#76, !uly 31, 2013
Arsenlc Selenlum
1he Þrecauuonary Þrlnclple
• ºWhen an acuvlLy ralses LhreaLs of harm Lo Lhe
envlronmenL or human healLh, precauuonary
measures should be Laken even lf some cause and
eñecL relauonshlps are noL fully esLabllshed
– Lndorsed by Lhe uS CovernmenL *
– Lndorsed by Lhe Amerlcan Þubllc PealLh Assoclauon as a
ºcornersLone of prevenuve publlc heaLh pollcy and

1998 Wlngspread SLaLemenL on Lhe Þrecauuonary Þrlnclple
*ln slgnlng Lhe 8lo ueclarauon on LnvlronmenL and uevelopmenL ln 1992
**Amerlcan !ournal of Þubllc PealLh 91(3), March 2001, pl. 493