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Young Kim, UCCOM c/o 2013

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Surgery Preoperative Care

Goldmans index: cardiac risk factors in surgery
JVD (#1), recent MI (#2), PVCs and arrhythmias, age
>70, emergency surgery, aortic stenosis
JVD: indicates CHF, #1 CV risk factor overall, give
-blockers, Ca2+-channel blockers, digitalis, and
diuretics if possible before surgery
MI: previous MI increases risk of post-op MI, so
consult cards and order a stress test

Previous coronary angioplasty: high risk (33%) of

coronary restenosis, so stress test is indicated; if
angioplasty is recent, delay surgery for several

Delirium in liver failure: possible causes include

CNS abnormality, electrolyte imbalance, GI
bleeding, sepsis, or bacterial peritonitis; evaluate
for mental status change, and tap the ascites

Angina: indicates coronary artery disease, evaluate

for possible coronary revascularization

Ascitic leakage: high risk of bacterial peritonitis;

manage by sending fluid to lab, giving IV
antibiotics, and urgent hernia repair

AFib: give anticoagulation and -blockers, and

cardiovert them to normal sinus rhythm
Carotid bruit: indicates carotid stenosis; indicated
for CEA if high grade (>70%) stenosis

MI within 30 days: very high risk, delay surgery

Family Hx of MI: get a concentrated cardiac FHx,
EKG, and exercise stress test to assess risk factors
cholesterol: increased risk of coronary artery
disease, but do not postpone surgery

Previous stroke: order a carotid duplex study, in

order to assess the carotid arteries

Hemorrhoids: suspect portal HTN in pt with

cirrhosis + hemorrhoids, high risk of hemorrhage
Malnutrition: indicated by recent weight loss (#1) or
albumin <3.0 (#2); give 7-10 days of pre-op nutritional
support ideally

Gangrenous toe: peripheral revascularization is

more urgent than a full cardiac work-up

Dysuria: get urinalysis and urine culture; if positive

for UTI, delay surgery until resolved

Premature ventricular contractions: at risk of
arrhythmia due to ventricular dysfunction,
indicated for stress test and echo
Ejection fraction: SV/EDV; normal EF >67%, an
EF<35% increases risk of operative MI
Diabetes: should be NPO 8 hours before surgery,
administer IVF with D5, check glucose morning of
surgery; if glucose >250 2/3 of insulin, if glucose
<250 1/2 of insulin
Hyperglycemia: ideal glucose is 100-250,
delay surgery until glucose is under control
Diabetic coma: absolute contraindication to
surgery; give IVF, correct acidosis and glucose
hct: important to determine underlying cause of
anemia, consider possible colorectal cancer

Smoking: up to 6 risk for post-op complications due

to compromised ventilation, must quit smoking for 2
months before surgery
COPD: give bronchodilators and try to improve
pulmonary status as much as possible
Severe COPD: very high risk for acute pulmonary
failure with surgery; teach patient about
incentive spirometry, give bronchodilators, and
mobilize post-op to prevent atelectasis
Green sputum: give oral antibiotics, and schedule
surgery after Tx is complete

Chronic renal failure: delay surgery until pt is stable,

dialysis started, and any other problems resolved
CRF K+ measurement: needs to be obtained
immediately before surgery, since CRF can result
in rapid electrolyte imbalances
CRF operative bleeding: renal failure causes
platelet dysfunction secondary to uremia;
give desmopressin or FFP, but not platelets
CRF operative hypotension: many possible
causes, consider glucocorticoid (aldosterone)
deficiency in a pt who has taken steroids before
Kidney transplant pt: require perioperative steroids

Bloody sputum: indicates active infection or lung

cancer; requires a full work-up including CXR, CT
scan, and bronchoscopy

Post-op hyperkalemia: check EKG for peaked T

waves, Tx C BIG K DIe calcium gluconate, bicarbinsulin-glucose, kayexalate, and dialysis

hct: either hypovolemia or polycythemia; if
hypovolemic delay until hydrated, if polycythemic
important to determine underlying cause

Acute cholecystitis: presents as fever, RUQ pain,

WBC>15; get U/S IVF, abx, lap chole w/in 72 hours

Obesity: higher risk of HTN, cardiovascular disease,

post-op atelectasis, type 2 diabetes, DVTs; require
DVT prophylaxis and aggressive post-op pulmonary
care for preventing atelectasis

Childs classification: stratifies risk of surgery in pts

with liver failure; measures 3 labs (albumin, bilirubin,
PT) and 3 clinical findings (encephalopathy, ascites,

HTN: diastolic BP >110 is high risk of CV complications,

-blockers reduce overall risk


Childs group A: 0-5% mortality

Childs group B: 10-15% mortality

Atherosclerosis: can present as acute coronary

syndome or peripheral vascular disease, always
evaluate pts cardiac risk factors
CV evaluation: EKG (and compare to old EKG),
persantine thallium stress test, dobutamine echo

Childs group C: >25% mortality; not good surgical

candidates until Childs status is improved
Alcohol use: delay surgery until pt has undergone
withdrawal, since post-op withdrawal syndrome has
a high risk of morbidity/mortality

LBBB: indicates underlying ischemic heart disease

RBBB: indicates significant pulmonary disease, but
can be normal in up to 10% of pts
Previous CABG: decreases cardiac risk if performed 6
months to 5 years before surgery, effect on cardiac
risk unclear if >5 years

Liver failure: make sure the pt is in a compensated

state, abstain from alcohol for 6-12 weeks, control
ascites, normalize nutrition status and coagulation
Pressure necrosis on hernia: high risk of rupture
with a high mortality rate, requires urgent repair

Mitral stenosis: elevated LA pressure can lead to

cor pulmonale (PH+RVH); management includes
cards consult, prophyactic abx for endocarditis, can
go to surgery if stable
Mitral stenosis CHF: high risk of mortality;
requires extensive cardiac work-up, EKG, echo,
and operative monitoring of cardiac status
Aortic stenosis: Sx triad of angina, dyspnea, syncope,
and high possibility of sudden death; requires
cardiac work-up and operative monitoring
Endocarditis prophylaxis: recommended for GI
procedures, GU procedures, and HEENT procedures
Cardiomyopathy: high risk of arrhythmias, CHF,
heart failure, and sudden death; manage with cards
consult and full cardiac work-up
Bowel prep: decreases fecal mass and bacterial
content in the colon prevents colon surgery

Surgery Preoperative Care

complications; put pt on clears day before surgery,

NPO at midnight, and give a cathartic agent
GoLYTELY: an isotonic formula that causes no
change in electrolyte or water balance; fluid
remains in colon and causes a volume washout
Fleets Phospho-Soda: a sugar-rich, hypertonic
formula that works by drawing fluid into the GI
tract; risks include dehydration, metabolic
acidosis (loss of bicarb); avoid in diabetics
Magnesium citrate: an osmotic agent that draws
fluid into GI tract (mag is poorly absorbed); risks
include dehydration and hypermagnesemia; avoid
in renal failure
Anesthesia of choice: multiple factors involved, so
its best to consult an anesthesiologist
Local anesthesia: systemic effects, pain
Spinal anesthesia: pulmonary complications,
control over cardiac or vascular mechanisms
General anesthesia: physiologic control,
pulmonary complications, HR/BP
Aspirin use: stop aspirin use 7-10 days prior to
surgery, will affect platelet aggregation
NSAIDs use: stop NSAIDs 2 days prior, will affect
platelet aggregation
Cellulitis: active infections are associated with
higher risk of post-op wound infections; delay
surgery until infection is resolved

Surgery Postoperative Care

Post-op fluid management: replace blood lost
during surgery + provide maintenance IVF + make up
for fluid loss in drains/NG tubes/fistulas
Surgical blood loss: replace in a 3:1 ratio with IVF
(e.g. replace 500mL blood loss with 1.5L NS or LR)
Maintenance IVF: administer D5NS+KCl,
using the 100/50/20 rule for daily fluid
requirements, or 4/2/1 rule for hourly fluids
Drains/NG tubes/fistulas: fluid loss should be
replaced milliliter for milliliter with regard to
specific electrolyte content
Third space: fluid sequestered into ISF due to
inflammation or injury, mobilized 3-5 days after
recovery requires decrease in IVF rate
Malignant hyperthermia: T>104 following
anesthesia w/ high risk of myoglobinuria; Tx
dantrolene, 100% O2, and cooling blankets
Bacteremia: T>104 and chills within 1 hour of an
invasive procedure; get blood Cx 3 and start
empiric abx
Aspiration: complication of awake intubations;
leads to sudden death, chemical pneumonitis, or
secondary pneumonia

toilet and incentive spirometry (can develop into

pneumonia on POD #3 if left untreated)

volume depletion (slow) or altered MS (rapid); give

D5NS to correct imbalance

UTI: Dx urinalysis and urine Cx, Tx abx

Hyponatremia: due to SIADH or isotonic fluid loss w/

free water resorption, presents as coma and
convusions; Tx water restriction and LR/NS

Urosepsis: UTI + septic shock; presents as cloudy

urine, fever, hypotension, and mental status;
Dx urinalysis and urine Cx, Tx empiric abx + IVF
DVT: Dx doppler studies, Tx heparin
Wound infection: Dx examine wound site for
erythema and fluctuance; if cellulitis abx only,
if abscess drain pus and BID dressing changes
IV infection: Tx remove catheter and
inflammation should resolve, all IV sites should be
rotated every 4 days for prevention
Suppurative phlebitis: infected thrombus at site
of venipuncture; Tx remove catheter and surgical
excision of infected vein to the first non-infected
branch, leave wound open, and give IV abx
GI fistula: causes leakage of GI contents from wound
site; Tx NPO, TPN, and protect abdominal wall until
body can heal itself
Non-healing fistula: factors that prevent healing
are FRIEND foreign body, radiation, infection,
epithelialization, neoplasm, distal obstruction
Fistula peritonitis: requires surgical exploration
Fistula abscess: requires percutaneous drainage

Aspiration management: prevent via NPO and

antacids before intubating, Tx BAL and bronchodilators (steroids are useless)
Tension PTX: complication of intubation in weak or
traumatized lungs, presents as difficulty to bag,
progressive hypotension and JVD; Tx emergent
needle decompression + chest tube

Post-op chest pain: consider MI or massive PE

MI: presents as chest pain +/- other classic signs;
Dx CK-MB or troponin I, treat the complications
Massive PE: presents as chest pain, hypoxia, and
prominent JVD; Dx V-Q scan, Tx heparin IVC
filter if PE recur while anticoagulated

Normal urine output: at least 0.5-1 mL/kg/hr
Post-op urine retention: presents as a need to
void, but inability to do so; Tx straight cath at 6
shours post-op and Foley after 2nd straight cath

ARDS: presents as hypoxia due to septic shock, Tx

intubation w/ high PEEP and permissive hypercarbia,
then look for source of sepsis
Delirium tremens: presents as hallucinations in an
alcoholic POD #2-3, prevention is key and Tx is
controversial (benzodiazepines if choice is given)

UOP = 0: most likely a kinked or plugged Foley

UOP < 0.5: either fluid deficit (bleeding out) or
acute renal failure; give a bolus of 500mL IVF and
if UOP responds, then its due to fluid deficit
Post-op hematuria: consider bladder overdistention,
cancer, infection, kidney stones, trauma, prostatitis,
and cyclophosphamide; get urology consult
Post-op fever: consider the five Ws wind
(atelectasis POD #1), water (UTI POD #3), walking
(DVT POD #5), wound infection (POD #7+), wonder
drug (drug-induced fever)
Atelectasis: partial lung collapse, Dx bilateral
inspiratory crackles, prevent with pulmonary

Hypokalemia: due to diarrhea or vomiting, give K+ at

a rate of <10 mEq/hr

Hepatic encephalopathy: presents as coma in a liver

failure pt s/p TIPS due to NH4+ toxicity
Wound dehiscence: presents as salmon-colored fluid
soaking dressings s/p open laparatomy POD #5;
stabilize wound site, surgical closure at a later date
Evisceration: dehiscence + intestines spilling out;
keep pt in bed and cover bowel w/ sterile dressings,
emergency surgical closure necessary
Hypernatremia: every 3 Na+ over 140 indicates 1L
water loss (e.g. Na+ 146 = 2L water loss), presents as

Hyperkalemia: due to renal failure, aldosterone

blockers, or release from dead tissue (crush injury,
ischemic bowel, etc.); Tx C BIG K DIe calcium
gluconate, bicarb-insulin-glucose, kayexalate, and
Metabolic acidosis: pH<7.4 + HCO3<24, Tx correct
underlying problem (e.g. fluid resuscitation)
Metabolic alkalosis: pH>7.4 + HCO3>24, Tx KCl
Respiratory acidosis: pH<7.4 + CO2>40 due to
hypoventilation, Tx mechanical ventilation
Respiratory alkalosis: pH>7.4 + CO2<40 due to
hyperventilation caused by pain, fever, sepsis or
early ARDS; Tx correct underlying problem

Surgery Wound Healing

Primary intention: close approximation of wound
edges via sutures or staples
Primary intention timing: epithelialized by POD
#2, max collagen in 5-7 days, avoid weight-lifting
for 4-6 weeks, complete healing by 6 months
(only 60-80% of original strength)
Secondary intention: contamined wounds left open
to prevent abscess formation; granulation tissue
forms first, then contraction via myofibroblasts,
then finally a delayed epithelialization
Third intention: wound initially left open, then
delayed primary closure afterwards
Secondary/tertiary intention timing: much more
delayed than healing by primary intention
Healing growth factors: PDGF, TGF-, FGF, EGF
Suture knot: hard, knot-like structure below wound
site; absorbable sutures will resolve with time, nonabsorbable sutures can be taken out under lido/epi
Stitch abscess: infected suture that intermittently
drains pus, should be taken out under lido/epi
Incisional hernia: presents as bulging at wound site
with increased abd pressure (e.g. coughing), needs
to be repaired surgically
Red/sensitive scar: assuming no wound infection, it
could be completely normal; observe for 6 months
before considering surgical revision
Hypertrophic scar: raised scar within site of incision;
observe until scar is stable, then steroids + excision
Keloid: raised scar that extends beyond site of
incision; will grow back if excised
Wound infection: red and tender area on incision
site; Tx drainage and BID wet-to-dry dressing
changes, no antibiotics unless cellulitis is spreading
Post-infection management: observation is slow
and can result in contractions; other options
include skin grafting (must have <105 bacteria per
gram of tissue) or healing by third intention
Wound types: clean, clean-contaminated,
contaminated, infected
Clean wounds: no entry into GI, GU, or
respiratory tracts; <1% infection rate, Tx primary
Clean-contamined wounds: enters GI, GU, or
respiratory tract in a controlled manner;
<10% infection rate, Tx primary closure
Contaminated wounds: major wound
contamination (e.g. bowel spillage or stab
wounds); Tx secondary closure

Prophylactic abx: recommended for any cleancontaminated or contaminated procedures,

insertion of prosthetic material, immunosuppression,
or poor blood supply; give single dose 1 hour pre-op
and single dose post-op

Surgery Cardiothoracic Surgery



Coin lesion: solitary pulmonary nodule on CXR;

DDx primary lung cancer, granuloma (TB or fungal),
hamartoma, metastatic cancers

Pleural effusion: fluid build-up in pleural space,

cancer in older pt until proven otherwise; DDx CHF,
bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, empyema,
pneumonia, TB effusions

Coin lesion management: first thing is always to

get an older CXR for comparison studies if
suspicious, sputum cytology and CT scan

Pleural effusion management: get thoracentesis

and culture pleural fluid, and a pleural biopsy

Off-bypass coronary surgery: grafting of ITA or GSV

to coronary arteries without bypass in order to avoid
complications of bypass (e.g. general inflammatory
response); reserved for high-risk pts
Dilated cardiomyopathy: dilation of myocardium
causes systolic dysfunction leading to progressive
dyspnea and fatigue, often preceded by viral URI
DCM Px: 1/3 recover, 1/3 stay the same, 1/3 die

Benign coin lesions: calcification = granuloma,

bulls-eye shape, popcorn shape = hamartoma,
air-crescent sign = aspergilloma, Southwest
region = coccidioidomycosis, Ohio river valley =
Indeterminate coin lesions: resection indicated
Malignant coin lesions: spiculations or 20+ packyear smoking = primary lung cancer, multiple
lesions = metastatic cancer; resection indicated
Lung cancer management: first thing is always CXR
if suspicious, sputum cytology and CT scan if
still suspicious, bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy
w/ biopsy (tissue is the issue)
NSCLC staging: stage I is local, stage II involves hilar
LN, stage III involves distal LN, stage IV is metastatic
NSCLC Tx: stage I/II first get spirometry and
V/Q scans to see if pt is a surgical candidate,
then do pneumonectomy or sleeve lobectomy;
stage III/IV chemotherapy and radiation
Surgery contraindications: FEV1 <800mL,
mediastinal LN involvement, distal metastases
SCLC staging: limited stage involves ipsilateral lung
only, extensive stage involves contralateral lung
SCLC Tx: chemotherapy and radiation
Pancoast tumor: superior sulcus tumor at the apex
of the lung; presents as Horner syndrome ipsilateral
ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis, flushing due to loss of
sympathetic tone (invades superior cervical ganglia)

Spontaneous PTX: rupture of apical blebs in healthy

young people causes sudden chest pain and dyspnea;
Tx thoracostomy on water-seal drainage
Recurrent/persistent PTX: indicated for thorascopic
excision of blebs, and pleurodesis (either scraping or
talc application) causing pleural adhesions
Bilateral PTX: dangerous situation, indicated for
pleurodesis to prevent future recurrences
Empyema: collection of pus within pleural cavity;
presents with cough, fever, chest pain, and pleural
effusion on CT scan; MCC is Staph aureus
Empyema Tx: initiate appropriate antibiotics,
insert chest tube, evacuate pus collection, then
re-expand the lung
Unstable angina: progressive ischemia of
myocardium resulting in increasing angina at rest
and an ischemic EKG pattern
Unstable angina management: cardiac catheter
and evaluate for potential revascularization, Tx
bypass or angioplasty
Ejection fraction: SV/EDV; normal EF is 67%, EF <50%
is abnormal, EF <35% is high-risk for operative MI
Coronary artery disease: blockage of coronary
arteries, high risk of sudden death due to ventricular
arrhythmias; Tx bypass or angioplasty

Bronchial adenoma: tumors that arise from within

bronchi and cause obstruction; MC lung cancer in a
nonsmoker under 30 y/o, Sx hemoptysis and
atelectasis, Dx CT scan and bronchoscopy (beware
of possibility of bleeding)

Heart transplant: remove donor heart and isolate in

hypothermic cardioplegia solution, remove recipient
heart on bypass, suture donor heart in recipient;
MCC of death are infection due to immunosuppression, and accelerated coronary artery
Constrictive pericarditis: presents as dyspnea,
hepatomegaly, and ascites due to diastolic failure;
Dx cardiac cath shows square root sign, Tx
surgical correction
Valvular disease management: first detected on
auscultation get an echocardiogram
Valve replacement: mechanical valves (durable
but require anticoagulation) and porcine valves
(nonthrombogenic but will deteriorate over time)
Aortic stenosis: angina, dyspnea, syncope, and high
risk of sudden death; Dx harsh mid-systolic murmur,
MCC is congenital bicuspid aortic valve with
dystrophic calcification, Tx valve replacement when
Aortic regurgitation: presents as loud, blowing
diastolic murmur and bounding pulses; if chronic
valve replacement when symptomatic, if acute
emergent valve replacement and long-term abx

Left main disease: blockage of only LCA, worst Px

Three-vessel disease: blockage of LAD/RCA/LCX

Pancoast tumor Tx: two stages irradiation for 6

weeks to shrink tumor, then surgical resection

DCM Tx: -blockers will improve heart function,

but heart transplant is indicated (requires
chronic immunosuppression)

Mitral stenosis: presents as dyspnea and fatigue,

caused by rheumatic fever, results in cor pulmonale
(RVH+PH) and AFib; Tx valve repair or replacement

Coronary artery bypass: open via median

sternotomy, isolate internal thoracic artery (best
choice) or greater saphenous vein, put on bypass
and stop the heart, sew grafts to arteries, restart the
heart and close up

Mitral regurgitation: presents as dyspnea and

fatigue, caused by MVP, Dx high-pitched holosystolic
murmur; Tx annuloplasty (preferred) or valve

CABG mortality: 3% overall, greater in high-risk

pts but they benefit the most from the surgery

Mitral prolapse: eccentric closure of mitral leaflets;

common in women, precedes severe disease in men

Bronchial adenoma Tx: lobectomy is curative

Mesothelioma: cancer arising from pleural
mesothelium, shipyards and asbestos exposure are
risk factors, Dx CT scan shows thick pleural walls
Mesothelioma Px: not responsive to medical
therapy, most pts have <1 year to live w/o surgery
Mesothelioma Tx: extrapleural pneumonectomy
is curative, but high rate of morbidity/mortality

Coronary angioplasty: insertion of stent to prolong

patency of clogged coronary arteries, 33% rate of
restenosis in 1 year
Cardioplegia solution: solution used to stop heart
mid-diastole to protect it from ischemia and provide
a motionless field; often used with hypothermia to
prolong time of safe ischemia (up to 2.5 hours)

Anterior mediastinal mass: thymomas, lymphomas,
teratomas, other metastatic germ cell neoplasms
Thymoma: often presents with progressive
muscle weakness secondary to myasthenia gravis,
Tx surgical removal via median sternotomy
Lymphoma: Tx radiation and chemotherapy

Surgery Cardiothoracic Surgery

Teratoma: contains hair and teeth, Tx surgical

removal via median sternotomy
Middle mediastinal mass: lymphomas, bronchogenic
cysts, pericardial cysts
Bronchogenic cysts: develop from foregut
remnants, Tx surgical removal via thoracotomy
Pericardial cysts: typical water bottle appearance,
Tx surgical removal via thoracotomy
Posterior mediastinal mass: neurogenic tumors
(MCC is neurilemoma)
Neurilemoma: dumbbell-shaped tumor found
adjacent to vertebral bodies, develops from
nerves and nerve sheathes, Tx surgical removal
via thoracotomy

Surgery Vascular Surgery

Atherosclerosis: systemic disease that has multiple
manifestations (stroke, TIA, CAD, MI, mesenteric
ischemia, AAA, PVD); presence of any one of these
should raise suspicion for the others
Stroke: a neurologic deficit that doesnt resolve
within 24 hours, Tx t-PA only within 3 hours
Stroke management: carotid duplex study,
observation for improvement; CEA is not
indicated until pt has stabilized
Transient ischemic attack: brief neurologic deficit
that fully resolves within 24 hours; due to thromboembolus from internal carotid arteries

Ankle-brachial index: ratio of BP in arm vs. leg;

ABI >1.0 is normal, ischemic ABI is 0.6-0.8
(claudication) or 0.3-0.5 (rest pain)
Doppler tracing: normally triphasic due to systolic
flow elastic recoil diastolic flow; ischemic
signal is either biphasic (mild) or monophasic (severe)
Claudication: exercise-induced ischemia that causes
reversible calf pain, MCC is an atherosclerotic SFA
Claudication management: if mild not
indicated for surgery, so exercise and lifestyle
changes are recommended; if severe get
Doppler tracing, then arteriogram to localize
Claudication Px: 1/3 improve on a non-op exercise
program, 1/3 stay the same, 1/3 get worse

TIA management: physical exam (check carotid

bruids, neuro, cardiovascular) + carotid duplex;
Tx aspirin or carotid endarterectomy

Aortoiliac stenosis: presents as triad of claudication

+ absent femoral pulse + impotence

TIA amaurosis fugax: emboli from carotid

travels to retina causing transient blindness;
Dx fundoscopic exam reveals Hollenhorst plaque,
a bright shiny spot in a retinal artery

Aortoiliac stenosis Tx: depends on case;

bilateral loss of femoral pulse aortofemoral
bypass graft, single segment iliac stenosis
angioplasty, high risk pt lifestyle changes

TIA aphasia: emboli from left carotid travels to

speech center located in left hemisphere

Severe claudication: presents as claudication + rest

pain or foot ulcers, common in diabetics; get a
vascular work-up and arteriogram to determine level
of occlusion, and assess general medical status

CEA: indicated for >70% carotid stenosis with either

neurologic sx or asymptomatic bruits; complications
include 1-3% risk of perioperative stroke, or injury to
facial, vagus, or hypoglossal nerves
Post-CEA management: start aspirin, encourage
lifestyle modifications (e.g. diet and exercise, quit
smoking) since patient is still high-risk for MI
Asymptomatic carotid bruit: get a carotid duplex
study, indicated for CEA if >70% stenosis
Subclavian steal syndrome: presents as nothing at
rest, but arm claudication and CNS sx with arm
activity due to subclavian artery atherosclerosis; Dx
arteriogram, Tx bypass surgery
Arterial embolus: presents as the 6 Ps pain, pallor,
parasthesias, poikilothermia, pulselessness, paralysis;
clot source is usually Afib or recent MI
Embolus Tx: requires urgent revascularization
within 6 hours; give heparin and go to OR for
balloon catheter embolectomy +/- fasciotomy
Embolus post-op: start warfarin for anticoagulation, then get CT scan or aortography to
search for source of emboli
Compartment syndrome: revascularization of
acutely ischemic limb results in ischemia-reperfusion
injury, causing muscle edema within fascial compartment and the 6 Ps
Compartment syndrome Tx: fasciotomy

AAA: presents as painless pulsatile abdominal mass;

management is getting ultrasound and CT scan, then
elective graft repair if aorta is >5 cm
AAA repair post-op: major fluid shifts (third-space
loss on POD#1/2, third-space mobilization on
POD#3), cardiac problems due to aortic clamping,
and impotence due to damage of hypogastric
circulation or autonomic nerves around IMA
Ruptured AAA: presents as pulsatile mass, back and
abdominal pain, and hypotension; if unstable OR,
if stable get CT scan or ultrasound, then OR
Ruptured AAA repair: clamp aorta at level of
diaphragm to stop bleeding, then proceed with
repair; 80% risk of death by bleeding out in the OR
AAA repair bloody diarrhea: indicates ischemic
colitis due to interrupted IMA; Dx sigmoidoscopy,
Tx bowel rest if limited to mucosa, colectomy and
colostomy if full-thickness involvement
AAA repair delayed fever: indicates vascular
graft infection via S. aureus or S. epidermidis;
Dx CT scan, Tx graft removal, debridement, and
IV antibiotics
AAA repair UGI bleed: indicates aortoduodenal
fistula, usually a small bleed followed 1-2 days
later by massive bleeding; Dx CT scan, Tx graft
removal and GI repair

SFA stenosis Tx: reverse GSV to SFA graft

Iliac stenosis Tx: surgical revascularization or
balloon dilation
SFA + iliac stenosis Tx: both of the above, either
at the same time or sequentially (iliac first)
SFA + popliteal stenosis Tx: femoropopliteal
bypass to the best artery continuous with the
foot, failure likely in distal and severe disease
Multiple obstructions Tx: reconstruction may not
be possible, limb amputation indicated
Bypass pre-op: 10% risk of MI, arrhythmias, or heart
failure; requires evaluation of cardiac status (get
dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy to rule out CAD)
Pre-op reveals <30% ejection fraction: high risk of
post-op heart failure
Pre-op reveals CAD: cancel or delay surgery,
perform a less invasive procedure, pre-op CABG
or PTCA, or intensive intraoperative monitoring

Mesenteric ischemia: presents as postprandial abd

pain, weight loss, and multiple abd bruits due to
atherosclerosis of celiac trunk or SMA
Mesenteric ischemia management: Dx
mesenteric angiogram, Tx revascularization;
follow-up with aspirin and evaluation for other
atherosclerotic diseases
Aortic dissection: presents as acute onset tearing
chest/back pain due to severe HTN (200/140), CXR
shows widened mediastinum
Aortic dissection management: Dx MRI, spiral CT,
transesophageal echo, or arteriography; if
ascending aorta go to OR for surgical repair, if
descending aorta -blockers
Deep venous thrombosis: presents as acute onset
dull leg pain, unilateral swelling, and Homans sign
DVT risk factors: Virchows triad stasis,
endothelial damage, and hypercoagulability

Pre-op reveals recent MI: delay surgery for 3 mo

Bypass post-op: daily duplex studies to check for
graft stenosis, give aspirin, educate on lipid control
and foot care; MCC death is CAD
Trash foot: post-op embolization of atherosclerotic
debris following bypass results in cyanotic toe;
Tx heparinization of clot and long-term aspirin use

DVT management: Dx duplex ultrasound, Tx

therapeutic heparin or LMWH, followed by longterm warfarin therapy (follow INR)
Post-thrombotic syndrome: occurs in 10% of DVT pts,
presents as severe leg edema and ulceration around
ankle area due to chronic venous HTN

Surgery Vascular Surgery

Post-thrombotic syndrome management:

prevention via chronic use of support hose, heal
ulcers if theyve already developed
DVT prophylaxis: indicated if pt is at risk for DVT;
includes leg compression devices and subcutaneous
low-dose heparin
DVT prophylaxis for hip fx: fondaparinux and leg
compression devices
Pulmonary embolus: presents as acute onset chest
pain, dyspnea, and hyperventilation (PCO2), due to
DVT embolization into lung wedge-shaped area of
lung infarction, S1Q3T3 on EKG
PE management: get EKG to rule out MI, ABGs
(shows PCO2), CXR, and pulse oximeter;
mismatch on a V/Q scan is diagnostic, Tx identical
to DVT Tx
Recurrent PE: due to failure of heparin therapy;
indicated for IVC interruption with a metal filter
Anticoagulation: therapeutic/high-dose heparin or
LMWH for Tx DVT/PE, low-dose for prophylaxis;
IVC filters when anticoagulation fails or is contraindicated
Anticoagulation HIT: rare heparin side-effects
include thrombocytopenia and paradoxical
arterial clots, d/c heparin immediately
Anticoagulation skin necroses: rare side-effect
of warfarin therapy, start warfarin along with
heparin to prevent this from happening
Anticoagulation UGI bleed: life-threatening
condition that requires immediate d/c, give pt a
metal filter instead for PE prophylaxis
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: presents as acute onset
leg edema with pain and cyanosis due to venous
outflow obstruction, high risk of nerve damage and
venous gangrene
PCD management: elevate leg and immediate
anticoagulation, then order duplex ultrasound
and pelvic CT scan to confirm the Dx
Temporal arteritis: presents as severe, unilateral
headache, visual changes, and nodularity of
temporal artery; give high-dose steroids right away
to prevent blindness

Surgery Upper GI Surgery

Dysphagia: management includes barium swallow
and esophagoscopy w/ biopsy; DDx achalasia,
Zenker diverticulum, esophageal cancers, strictures
Esophageal cancer: SCC in upper 2/3 due to cigs and
EtOH, adenocarcinoma in lower 1/3 due to Barretts,
Sx progressive dysphagia and weight loss
EC management: esophagoscopy and biopsy,
then staging via endoscopic ultrasound and CT
scan, then specific Tx
EC staging: stage I invades submucosa only, stage
II invades muscularis +/- LN, stage III invades
adventitia + adjacent structures, stage IV is
EC prevalence: adeno MC in US, SCC elsewhere
EC Tx: upper 1/3 chemo and radiation only;
middle 1/3 chemo and radiation to shrink the
tumor, then esophagectomy; lower 1/3
esophagectomy and proximal gastrectomy; never
operate on stage IV cancer
Advanced esophageal cancer: Sx severe dysphagia
and chronic cough (due to aspiration from TE fistula),
management is palliative care b/c surgery wont help

Pain PMHx: gallstones or alcoholism = acute

pancreatitis (order amylase/lipase levels), NSAIDs
or steroid use = PUD
Esophageal varices: present as UGIB due to portal
HTN, often alongside coagulopathy (liver failure)
EV management: band the bleeding varices,
correct any coagulopathy, IV octreotide to lower
portal pressure if bleeding continues, repeat
endoscopic banding if bleeding continues,
TIPS or gastric balloon tamponade
EV follow-up: -blockers to lessen chance of
rebleeding; good liver function elective TIPS,
bad liver function liver transplant
Mallory-Weiss syndrome: presents as UGIB due to
retching lacerating the lower esophagus, bleeding
usually stops spontaneously
Boerhaave syndrome: presents as epigastric pain
and fever due to retching perforating the esophagus;
Dx contrast swallow, Tx emergent surgical repair
Instrumental perforation: presents as retrosternal
pain, fever, and pneumomediastinum s/p upper GI
endoscopy; Dx contrast swallow, Tx surgical repair
GERD: presents as heartburn, regurgitation,
waterbrash (sour taste), dysphagia, cough

Zenker diverticulum: pulsion diverticulum that
develops at upper esophagus due to abnormal
coordination of cricopharyngeal constriction;
Sx dysphagia, regurgitation, and bad breath
Zenker management: Dx barium swallow, Tx
cricopharyngeus myotomy
Traction diverticulum: diverticulum at middle
esophagus due to LN traction, indicates cancer
Esophageal motility disorders: achalasia (only one
treated surgically), nutcracker esophagus, spasms,
hypertensive LES
Achalasia: hypertonic and non-relaxing LES w/
poorly relaxing esophagus, Sx dysphagia of
liquids > solids
Achalasia management: Dx birds beak on barium
swallow and LES pressure on manometry, Tx
Heller myotomy
Nutcracker esophagus: painful swallowing due to
high amplitude action potentials, Tx nifedipine
Diffuse esophageal spasms: uncoordinated 3
peristalsis, Tx medically
Hypertensive LES: high LES pressure at baseline
but relaxes with swallow, Tx medically
Acute epigastric pain: DDx acute pancreatitis, GERD,
PUD (gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcers), cholelithiasis,

GERD Tx: PPIs if it persists after six weeks, do

EGD w/ biopsy to see whats going on
Normal EGD: PPIs or elective lap Nissen
Esophagitis: multiple, nonulcerating erosions in
stomach; mild to moderate esophagitis PPIs
for 8-12 weeks, severe esophagitis lap Nissen,
uncontrollable bleeding esophagitis subtotal
Barrett esophagus: intestinal metaplasia of
esophageal epithelium; no dysplasia Tx PPIs or
lap Nissen; low-grade dysplasia Tx lap Nissen +
annual surveillance; high-grade dysplasia Tx
Lap Nissen fundoplication: wraps fundus of stomach
around LES to keep it in abdominal cavity (must
check for intact esophageal peristalsis first); contraindicated in morbidly obese (gastric bypass instead)
Hiatal hernia: hernia from abdominal cavity, through
diaphragm, into chest cavity
Type 1 hiatal hernia: sliding hernia, risk of reflux
esophagitis, Tx PPIs
Type 2 hiatal hernia: paraesophageal hernia, risk
of incarceration/strangulation, Tx surgical repair
Type 3 hiatal hernia: presence of both types 1+2,
Tx surgical repair
Peptic ulcer disease: gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers

PUD surgery indications: intractability,

perforation, obstruction, bleeding
Duodenal ulcers: caused by acid secretion; most
commonly in 1st part of duodenum, DU in 2nd-4th part
indicates Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma)
DU types: posterior ulcers bleed due to gastroduodenal artery, anterior ulcers perforate
DU Tx: triple therapy if ulcer persists, surgery
is indicated (HSV > TV+P >> TV+A), also get serum
gastrin levels to rule out Z-E syndrome
Perforated DU: CXR shows free air under
diaphragm; use omentum to patch the ulcer
(Graham patch), then stop acid w/ PPIs or HSV
Perforated DU sepsis: complete Graham patch
as soon as possible, give PPIs and IV abx, then
monitor in ICU and plan surgery for a later date
Bleeding DU: due to posterior ulceration into
GDA; Tx oversew the ulcer, then stop acid w/ PPIs
Gastric ulcers: caused by mucosal protection; type I
lesser curvature at incisure, type II duodenum
and stomach, type III pylorus, type IV GE junction
GU Tx: PPIs if ulcer persists after six weeks, do
endoscopy and multiple marginal biopsies for
possibility of gastric cancer; if ulcer persists after
18 weeks, surgery is indicated
GU surgery: wedge resection or distal
gastrectomy (due to possibility of cancer), TV+P
for types II and III due to acid production
Bleeding GU: Tx excision rather than oversewing
Gastric cancers: lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, GIST
(e.g. sarcomas and lipomas)
Gastric adenocarcinoma: often spreads to left
supraclavicular (Virchows) node and ovaries;
Tx proximal total gastrectomy, if distal
distal gastrectomy w/ anastomosis; take out D1
LN at lesser curvature
Linitis plastica: infiltrating carcinoma with desmoplastic reaction causing stomach to look fixed
and rigid; Tx total gastrectomy w/ splenectomy
Gastric lymphoma: first determine cancer stage
(CT scan, LN biopsy, and bone marrow Bx);
Tx partial thickness radiation, full thickness
surgical resection
GIST: any soft tissue tumor of stomach; Tx wedge
resection w/ 1 cm negative margins (no LN)
Gastric varices: present as UGIB due to portal HTN,
Tx uncontrollable bleeding w/ TIPS or splenectomy
instead of banding

Surgery Pancreatic/Hepatic Surgery



Biliary disease progression: cholelithiasis biliary

colic acute cholecystitis; choledocholithiasis
ascending cholangitis or gallstone pancreatitis

Jaundice: elevated bilirubin and yellowing of skin;

three types hemolytic, obstructive, hepatocellular

Cholelithiasis: presents as nausea, vomiting, RUQ

pain w/o fever; only 15-20% are symptomatic
Cholelithiasis in pregnancy: manage non-op if
possible (hydration and pain meds), elective lap
chole can be done after delivery
Biliary colic: fatty meal CCK release gall
bladder contraction against non-lodged stone
resulting in transient RUQ pain for <6 hours; labs are
usually normal if episode has passed
Cholecystitis: presents as fever, WBC>15, RUQ pain
>6 hours; MC bacteria are E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis,
Klebsiella, Enterococcus
Cholecystitis management: Dx abdominal U/S,
order CBC and LFTs, Tx lap chole within 72 hrs

Hemolytic jaundice: bilirubin (direct <20%),
search for whats killing the RBCs
Hepatocellular jaundice: bilirubin (direct 20-50%)
and AST/ALT, consider HBV/HCV and alcoholism
Obstructive jaundice: bilirubin (direct >50%) and
alk phos, caused by CBD stones and cancers
Painless jaundice: caused by biliary obstructive
tumors (ampullary cancer, duodenal cancer,
cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma)
Painless jaundice management: Dx CT scan then
ERCP, Tx Whipple if no mets or local invasion
Painless jaundice occult bleed: indicates
ampullary cancer, get CT scan then Whipple

Cholecystitis in elderly: elderly pts respond to

sepsis with hypothermia and WBC
Cholecystitis antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
and metronidazole (Flagyl) to cover GNR and
anaerobes; abx not indicated for cholelithiasis
Cholecystectomy indications: symptomatic
cholelithiasis, acute cholecystitis, and cholangitis;
do not operate on asx stones
Cholecystectomy complications: nicking the CBD
(jaundice) or right hepatic artery (hepatitis)
Post-op biliary leak: presents as Charcots triad;
get an U/S and HIDA scan Tx biliary drainage
and temporary stent during ERCP
Post-op obstruction: presents as Charcots triad
due to stricture or retained stone; get an U/S and
HIDA scan Tx biliary drainage and choledochojejunostomy
Choledocholithiasis: presents as transient jaundice
and alk phos; Dx U/S shows dilated bile ducts +/ERCP, Tx lap chole w/ CBD exploration
Acute cholangitis: presents as Charcots triad
(jaundice, fever, RUQ pain) or Reynolds pentad
(shock, MS) due to choledocholithiasis
Acute cholangitis management: IVF, antibiotics,
and U/S ERCP to decompress biliary tree
finally lap chole w/ CBD exploration
GB polyps: <2 cm observe, >2 cm take it out due to
risk of adenocarcinoma
GB adenocarcinoma: presents as mass in GB fossa;
Dx CT scan, Tx open chole + hilar LN resection + liver
resection w/ negative margins
Porcelain GB: dystrophic calcification of GB has 50%
risk of adenocarcinoma, take it out

Chronic pancreatitis: presents as constant epigastric

pain, steatorrhea, and diabetes in a chronic alcoholic;
Tx insulin and pancreatic enzyme replacement

Pancreatic head mass: check for metastases, then

perform Whipple if no mets
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: presents as obstructive
jaundice, get a CT scan; cancer in head Tx Whipple,
in body or tail distal pancreatectomy, mets or
local invasion palliative care (no surgery)
Acute pancreatitis: presents as epigastric pain
boring through to the back w/ lipase/amylase;
amylase levels do not correlate with severity
Pancreatitis causes: I GET SMASHED Idiopathic,
Gallstones (#1), EtOH (#2), Trauma, Steroids,
Mumps, Autoimmune, Scorpion sting, Hypertriglyceridemia (#3), Hypercalcemia, ERCP, Drugs
Edematous pancreatitis: get amylase/lipase,
then NPO, IVF, pain meds
Hemorrhagic pancreatitis: presents as MSOF,
ARDS, and hemodynamic instability; send to ICU
for resuscitation and serial CTs
Ischemic pancreatitis: Dx no blood flow to
pancreas on contrast CT, Tx IV abx and resection
Gallstone pancreatitis: if amylase returns to
normal lap chole + cholangiogram; if
complicated ERCP to remove stone
Pancreatic abscess: presents as septic shock 2 weeks
after acute pancreatitis; Dx dynamic CT scan, Tx perc
drain + antibiotics
Pseudocyst: abdominal pain and early satiety 5
weeks after acute pancreatitis, Tx cystogastrostomy
only if its symptomatic and has been present for 6+
weeks (must get Bx w/ frozen epithelial section and
see no epithelial lining before the ostomy since
epithelium indicates cancer)

Liver cyst: simple cyst, leave it alone

Echinococcal cyst: multilocular cyst w/ calcified walls
due to parasite Echinococcus granulosus; inject
hypertonic saline inside cyst and carefully excise it
Liver abscess: multiple/small bacterial abscesses
IV antibiotics; single/large bacterial abscess perc
drain; amebic abscess (Mexicans) metronidazole
Liver cancers: hepatic adenoma, focal nodular
hyperplasia, hemangioma, hepatoma
Hepatic adenoma: often presents as hypovolemic
shock and distended abdomen, related to OCPs
and anabolic steroid abuse; Tx d/c OCP if it
persists, resect due to possibility of rupture
FNH: Dx central stellate scar or sunburst pattern
on CT scan, no OCP relationship, leave alone even
if symptomatic
Hemangioma: leave alone even if symptomatic,
never spontaneously rupture, do not needle
biopsy due to possibility of rupture
Hepatoma: presents as vague RUQ pain and mass
related to HBV/HCV and cirrhosis w/ FP; Dx CT
scan then Tx resection w/ negative margins
indicated as long as theres no mets
Portal HTN: Sx esophageal varices, caput medusa,
hemorrhoids; Tx TIPS (connect portal vein to hepatic
vein to relieve pressure) as a bridge to liver txp

Surgery Lower GI Surgery


Small bowel obstruction: presents as colicky abd
pain, nausea/vomiting, and constipation; MCC are
adhesions from previous surgery and hernias
SBO management: get KUB Dx air-fluid levels
and dilated loops; Tx NPO, NG suction, IVF, and
initially observation
SBO electrolyte imbalance: hypokalemic,
hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis due to emesis
SBO bloody diarrhea: indicates obstructive
tumor or ischemic bowel; Dx sigmoidoscopy
observe if mucosal, resection if full-thickness
SBO flatus: indicates partial SBO since gas can
get through, more likely to resolve w/o surgery
SBO diarrhea: indicates partial SBO due to fecal
impaction and severe constipation

Mesenteric ischemia peritonitis: presents as

rebound tenderness, WBC, fever, or metabolic
acidosis due to necrotic bowel; ex lap indicated
Mesenteric ischemia AFib: indicates emboli
shooting from left atrium to celiac trunk or SMA
Mesenteric ischemia hct: polycythemia due to
severe dehydration requires IV fluid resuscitation
Mesenteric ischemia CHF: ischemia may be
secondary to a low-flow, nonocclusive state;
indicated for mesenteric vasodilation and
improve cardiac output
Mesenteric ischemia aortic dissection:
dissected aorta can occlude mesenteric vessels;
Dx angiography, Tx surgical repair
Mesenteric ischemia BP: either ischemic
bowel causing septic shock, or hypotension
causing low-flow, nonocclusive ischemia

SBO inguinal hernia: requires urgent hernia

repair to relieve strangulation

Left colon necrosis: bowel resection anastomosis

if stable, otherwise colostomy and Hartmann pouch

SBO melanoma: melanoma is the MC tumor

that metastasizes to intestine, surgery indicated
since these dont resolve spontaneously

Long segment necrosis: bowel resection small

bowel syndrome requiring chronic TPN or transplant

SBO other cancers: surgery indicated since

these dont resolve spontaneously
SBO peritonitis: presents as rebound tenderness, WBC, fever, or metabolic acidosis due to
necrotic bowel; indicated for ex lap
SBO adhesions: indicated for ex lap lysis of
SBO closed loop obstruction: usually due to
adhesive band occluding two segments of bowel;
indicated for ex lap lysis of adhesions,
resection of any dead bowel, and second look
operation if bowel viability is indeterminate
SBO pneumoperitoneum: indicates perforation
due to ischemic or overdistended bowel;
indicated for ex lap dead bowel resection
Nicked bowel during LOA: small hole primary
repair, large or multiple holes bowel resection;
high risk of leakage and EC fistula formation
Uncertain about SBO: get an upper GI series w/ small
bowel follow-through, barium contrast will stop at
site of obstruction if SBO exists
Mesenteric ischemia: presents as postprandial abd
pain, weight loss, SBO, and multiple abd bruits
usually due to atherosclerosis of celiac trunk or SMA
Mesenteric ischemia management: Dx
mesenteric angiogram, Tx revascularization;
follow-up with aspirin and evaluation for other
atherosclerotic diseases

Short segment necrosis: bowel resection

anastomosis, second look operation if bowel
viability is indeterminate
Small punctate necroses: indicates multiple small
emboli or low-flow state; bowel resection
anastomosis, second look operation if bowel
viability is indeterminate
Bowel ischemia but no necrosis: try to revascularize
the bowel via removing or bypassing the occlusion
Low-flow but no necrosis: non-op management of
hemodynamic status, surgery should be avoided

Crohns rectal disease: rare, indicated for

subtotal colectomy and ileostomy
Ulcerative colitis: inflammatory disease involving
rectum and continuous proximal extension, Bx
shows mucosal involvement + crypt abscesses +
pseudopolyps, Dx lead pipe sign on CT scan
UC management: IV steroids and 5-ASA
(sulfsalazine) for acute flare-ups, annual
colonoscopy for possibility of cancer
UC severe dysplasia: total proctocolectomy,
ileal pouch formation, and ileo-anal anastomosis;
no further cancer surveillance needed
Pouchitis: presents as fever, bloody diarrhea, and
pain on defecation s/p ileal pouch formation for UC;
Tx metronidazole
Toxic megacolon: presents as fever, bloody diarrhea,
pain, and abdominal distention in a pt w/ UC
TM management: get KUB for confirmation, then
NPO, IVF, NG suction, IV steroids and abx;
improves no surgery, stays the same or gets
worse surgery necessary
TM perforation: shows free air on upright CXR,
indicated for total colectomy and ileostomy w/
Hartmann pouch
TM impending perforation: shows pneumatosis
on CT scan, indicated for surgery (see above)
Appendicitis: presents as RLQ pain, low grade fever
and leukocytosis; MCC lymphoid hyperplasia
Appendicitis management: get CT scan or U/S
(U/S is cheaper); if uncomplicated appy, if
abscess (fever/WBC) perc drain, interval


Inflammatory bowel disease: Crohns disease and
ulcerative colitis; presents as crampy abdominal pain,
bloody diarrhea, and recent weight loss
IBD management: colonoscopy to determine if
its UC, Crohns, or something else abdominal
CT scan for confirmation of IBD
Crohns disease: inflammatory disease involving full
GI tract with skip lesions (terminal ileum is MC site),
Bx shows full thickness + noncaseating granulomas +
creeping fat, Dx terminal ileum string sign on CT scan
Crohns management: IV steroids and 5-ASA
(sulfsalazine) for acute flare-ups
Crohns SBO: due to stenotic terminal ileum;
manage with NPO, TPN, and observation if it
fails to resolve, surgical stricturoplasty indicated
Crohns perianal disease: metronidazole

Appendicitis in kids: children with appendicitis

present more often with a ruptured appendix
Appendicitis in elderly: older pts usually dont
have classic presentation of appendicitis, but
rather vague abdominal complaints, sepsis,
altered MS, or failure to thrive
Appendicitis in pregnancy: enlarged uterus can
push appendix upwards RUQ pain; appy can
be performed safely w/o risk to mom or child
RLQ pain dysuria: indicates appendicits, UTI, or
appendiceal abscess next to bladder
RLQ pain minimal dysuria: likely appendicitis
RLQ pain hematuria: indicates severe UTI or a
kidney stone
RLQ pain h/o PID: could be appendicitis, recurrent
PID, or an ectopic; PID confirmed by cervical or
adnexal tenderness, or cervical discharge (get gyn
consult and stain discharge)

Surgery Lower GI Surgery

RLQ pain h/o gastroenteritis: could be appendicitis

but likely gastroenteritis
RLQ pain R pelvic tenderness: likely retrocecal
appendicitis, go to the OR
RLQ pain BPH Sx: likely bladder outlet obstruction
due to enlarged prostate, Tx Foley catheter
RLQ pain h/o IBD: IBD can present similarly to
appendicitis, get colonoscopy and CT scan and
manage appropriately
RLQ pain crampy pain/diarrhea: indicates IBD,
constipation, or cancer rather than appendicitis
RLQ pain corticosteroids: steroids can mask all Sx
of inflammation, be cautious since most steroid pts
wont present until perforation occurs
Appy findings: inflamed appendix, perforated
appendix, normal appendix, inflamed cecum,
fecalith, carcinoid tumor, other tumors
Inflamed appendix: take it out
Normal appendix: take it out anyways unless
cecum is inflamed, check other areas for
abnormalities (terminal ileum for Crohns or
Meckels, perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer,
ovaries, etc.)
Inflamed appendix/cecum: take them both out
via right colectomy

Diverticulitis complications: abscess (Tx perc drain),

obstructions, fistula (pneumaturia or fecaluria, Tx
surgical separation of colon from bladder)
Pseudomembranous colitis: watery diarrhea and
WBC due to clindamycin-related C. diff overgrowth;
Dx stool toxin or colonoscopy, Tx stop clindamycin
and start metronidazole or vancomycin

Perforated appendix: take it out, I/D the abscess,

and leave a drain in to prevent wound infection
Appendiceal carcinoid: <2cm appendectomy,
>2cm right hemicolectomy; can present w/
carcinoid syndrome due to liver metastasis
Terminal ileal carcinoid: resection and check the
rest of bowel for other carcinoids; can present
w/ carcinoid syndrome due to liver metastasis
Diverticulosis: presents as LGIB, 85% stop
spontaneously, may develop into diverticulitis
Diverticulitis: presents like left-sided appendicitis,
get CT scan and manage non-op if possible (IVF, NPO,
IV antibiotics) even with signs of LLQ peritonitis

Polyps: tubular/pedunculated have a stalk,

sessile/villous are flattened; progression from polyp
to cancer takes ~10 years
Pedunculated polyp: polypectomy w/ biopsy
if dysplasia is not localized to head of polyp, then
segmental colectomy
Sessile polyp: biopsy if any high grade
dysplasia, then colectomy
Benign polyps: juvenile, Peutz-Jeghers,
inflammatory, hyperplastic; leave these alone
Colon cancer: left side obstructs, right side bleeds;
Dx apple core lesion on barium enema, 99%
garden variety (MCC, DCC, RAS, p53) and 1%
familial inheritance (FAP, HNPCC)

Stage III: LN involvement, Tx colectomy and

chemo (5-FU + levimasole, only stage that chemo
will improve survival rates)
Stage IV: distal metastasis, Tx palliative chemo
unless there is a resectable mass in liver or lung
Colectomy: requires 12-14 LN removal for adequate
procedure; requires pre-op bowel prep and abx
Post-op wound infection: open fascia to make
sure its intact, then local wound care
Post-op feculent leak: indicates anastomotic leak,
get abd CT scan to check for undrained collection,
then NPO/IVF is sufficient for most cases
Post-op feculent vomit: indicates either post-op
ileus (due to leakage) or mechanical obstruction;
Tx NPO/IVF and NG tube
Post-op abscess: Dx CT scan, Tx perc drain

Diverticulitis f/u: colonoscopy to confirm

presence of diverticula and absence of cancer
Surgery indications: uncontained perforation
that presents as 4-quadrant peritonitis or
pneumoperitoneum (air under diaphragm)
Elective surgery indications: recurrent episodes
(2x in 6 months, 3x in a year)

HNPCC: MLH or MSH mismatch repair genes

microsatellite instability, Tx total abdominal
colectomy + ileorectal anastomosis
Colon cancer recurrence: f/u with colonoscopy, CEA
marker, CXR for lung mets, and LFTs for liver mets

Colon cancer screening: anyone above 50 y/o should

get yearly fecal occult blood test (flex sig and
colonoscopy also used, but less commonly)

Stage I/II: localized cancer, Tx colectomy

Inflamed appendix + fecalith: confirms

FAP pts should always get upper endoscopy and

remove the duodenal polyps

Post-op constipation: indicates either stricture or

cancer recurrence; Dx colonoscopy
FAP: APC on chromosome 5p, autosomal dominant,
presents as >100 polyps in colon; Tx either total
proctocolectomy, or total abdominal colectomy +
strip anal mucosa + ileoanal anastomosis
Gardner syndrome: FAP + polyps in stomach (not
premalignant) and duodenum (premalignant);

All anorectal diseases: first step in management is to

scope and rule out cancer
Hemorrhoids: presents as blood streaks in stool and
extreme pain (external); Tx scope to r/o cancer
fiber/stool softeners if it keeps bleeding, excision
or banding
Non-healing hemorrhoids: indicates anal canal
cancer; Tx chemoradiation (5-FU) APR if it
persists or recurs
LAR vs. APR: LAR is low anterior resection (high in
rectum), APR is abdominoperineal resection (low in
Rectal cancer: Dx colonoscopy to r/o cancer, then
endoscopic U/S for staging Tx depends on stage
Rectal cancer T1: transanal resection
Rectal cancer >T1: neoadjuvant chemoradiation
for 6 weeks to shrink the tumor then LAR with
2cm distal margins APR if margins not possible
Anal cancer: presentation is non-specific (bleeding,
pain, drainage, itching) and requires biopsy
Small anal cancer: Tx resection w/ negative
Large anal cancer: often mistaken as nonhealing hemorrhoids, Tx chemoradiation (Nigro
protocol) APR if it persists or recurs
Perirectal abscess: Tx I&D 40% will develop a
fistula according to Goodsalls rule (anterior straight
tract, posterior curved tract) Tx fistulotomy
Pilonidal abscess: abscess in sacrococcygeal area of
lower back, Tx I&D and removal of hair
Anal fissure: presents as pain and blood with BM
due to increased sphincter tone; Tx fiber/stool
softeners if it wont heal, botox still wont heal,
lateral internal sphincterotomy
Recurring anal fissure: probably Crohns; biopsy
first for possible cancer, then Tx metronidazole if
biopsy reveals Crohns
Rectal prolapse: presents as rectal protrusion
following defecation; internal prolapse high-fiber
diet to normalize BM, external/bleeding prolapse
rectopexy or LAR

Surgery Lower GI Surgery

Hematemesis: bloody vomiting, always UGIB
Melena: coffee ground blood in stool, usually UGIB
but can also be from ascending colon
Hematochezia: BRBPR, can be either UGIB or LGIB;
NG tube aspirate/lavage LGIB if blood/+bile,
UGIB if +blood, indeterminate if blood/bile
UGIB: GI bleeding proximal to Ligament of Treitz,
management is EGD
UGIB in ICU pt: most likely a stress ulcer
LGIB: GI bleeding distal to Ligament of Treitz, 85%
stop spontaneously; MCC are AVM, diverticulosis,
and colon cancer
LGIB management: must localize site of bleeding
w/ tagged RBCs (<1 cc/min) or angiography (>1
cc/min); if not currently bleeding, get upper and
lower endoscopy since localization wont help
LGIB surgery indications: hemodynamic
instability despite transfusion, loss of 4-6 units in
24 hrs or 8-10 units in 48 hrs
LGIB scenario: GI bleed stops spontaneously
get colonoscopy to determine cause and rule out
possibility of colon cancer coagulate if AVM,
leave alone if diverticulosis
LGIB scenario: unstable patient, massive BRBPR,
no imaging to localize site of bleeding total
colectomy since 85% of bleeding is from the colon
LGIB in kids: indicates Meckels diverticulum, Dx
technetium uptake into ectopic gastric mucosa
Dx tagged RBCs: sensitive for LGIB at 0.1 cc/min, but
not specific for localizing site of LGIB; bladder always
lights up first so ignore that part
Dx angiogram: less sensitive for LGIB at 1.0 cc/min,
but more specific for localizing site of LGIB; allows
for smaller LGI resection in surgery if necessary
Sigmoid volvulus: twisting of sigmoid colon around
mesentery results in closed-loop obstruction; Tx
detorse the colon via rigid scope and rectal tube,
then elective sigmoid colectomy
Cecal volvulus: twisting of cecum; Tx right
colectomy since detorsion usually wont work
Ogilvies syndrome: pseudoobstruction and massive
colon dilation w/o mechanical obstruction; Tx
endoscopic decompression or neostigmine if >11 cm
due to possibility of cecal perforation
Constipation: do a rectal exam to make sure stool
isnt impacted, then give enemas from below

Surgery Endocrine Surgery

Thyroid embryology: derivative of foramen cecum
from the base of the tongue
Thyroglossal duct cyst: remnant of thyroglossal
duct as a mobile midline neck mass, Dx at 1-2 yo
due to neck fat, Tx Sistrunk operation (take out
cyst, trunk, and medial portion of hyoid bone)
Thyroid nodule management: first get TSH levels
if euthyroid, get FNA for cancer Dx; otherwise, work
up for hypo- or hyperthyroidism
Risk of malignancy: solid nodules, cold nodules
(lack of radioiodine uptake), size > 1.5 cm
Colloid nodule: benign nodule, manage medically
Hyperthyroidism: Graves disease (most common),
toxic adenoma (#2), toxic multinodular goiter (#3)

Papillary cancer Tx: total thyroidectomy w/

central LN excision modified radical neck
dissection if LN are positive for cancer

DiGeorge syndrome: congenital absence of both 3rd

and 4th branchial pouches hypocalcemia, thymic

Follicular cancer: endemic to iodine-deficient

regions, hematogenous spread, 2nd best Px

PTH: secreted from chief cells; three functions

renal Ca++/P, bone Ca++/P, stimulates 1hydroxylase to activate vitamin D for indirect GI
resorption of Ca++

Follicular cancer Tx: hemilobectomy with biopsy

because 80% are benign adenomas and 20% are
malignant carcinomas, total thyroidectomy if Bx
reveals malignant carcinoma
Medullary cancer: AD inheritance with MEN2A/2B
syndromes, ret proto-oncogene, both lymphatic
and hematogenous spread, Bx amyloid deposits,
3rd best Px
Medullary cancer Tx: total thyroidectomy for
both cancer and ret+ prophylaxis w/ central LN
excision modified radical neck dissection if LN
are positive for cancer

Graves disease (diffuse toxic goiter): autoimmune disease due to IgG against TSH-R causing
exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and
hyperthyroidism; more common in women

Anaplastic cancer: rare, worst Px

Graves disease Tx: oral radioiodine (no surgical

risks) or surgery (wont become hypothyroid)

Thyroid lymphoma: associated w/ chronic

Hashimotos thyroiditis, Tx radiation therapy

Thyroid storm Tx: -blockers, antithyroid drugs

Post-thyroidectomy f/u: take patient off T4 for 6

weeks (use T3 instead for its shorter T), increase
TSH level, and make sure total thyroidectomy was
performed; give radioactive iodine exam after 6
weeks to check if any metastases will light up

Antithyroid drugs: propylthiouracil (PTU) and

methimazole block peroxidase, PTU also blocks
peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
Toxic adenoma: Dx hot nodule on scan with
peripheral suppression, Tx lobectomy if >2 cm,
radio-iodine if <2 cm

Anaplastic cancer Tx: palliative (e.g.


Positive for metastases: get CT scan, macro

excision, micro oral radio-iodine therapy
Papillary cancer f/u: follow thyroglobulin levels

Toxic multinodular goiter: Tx surgical excision if

>2cm, radio-iodine if <2 cm
Hypothyroidism: chronic/Hashimoto thyroiditis
(most common), subacute/De Quervain thyroiditis,
acute bacterial thyroiditis
Hashimoto thyroiditis: autoimmune disease with
lymphocytic infiltration, Tx Synthroid
Hashimoto thyroiditis antibodies: anti-TSH,
anti-microsomal, anti-thyroglobulin, antiperoxidase
De Quervain thyroiditis: subacute, painful
granulomatous inflammation following viral URI,
Tx observation (condition will self-resolve)
Acute thyroiditis: painful, swollen, tender thyroid
mass due to Staph/Strep infection, Tx I&D
Thyroid cancers: 80% papillary, 10% follicular, 4%
medullary, 1% anaplastic; FNA can be used to Dx
papillary and medullary but not follicular (must see
capsular invasion to DDx adenoma vs. carcinoma)
Papillary cancer: associated with radiation,
lymphatic spread, best Px overall, Bx shows
Orphan Annie nuclei with psamomma bodies

Follicular cancer f/u: follow thyroglobulin levels

Medullary cancer f/u: 24-hour urine for VMA or
metanephrines (MEN syndrome can present with
pheochromocytoma), follow calcitonin levels
Modified radical neck dissection: like radical neck
dissection, but spares sternocleidomastoid muscle,
CN XI, and internal jugular vein
Thyroid cancer Px: MACIS system Metastasis (nonlymph nodal), Age (<45 is better), Completeness of
resection, Invasion, Size (>2 cm has worse Px)
Thyroid surgery risk factors: superior laryngeal
nerve (soft/deep voice), recurrent laryngeal nerve
(hoarseness unilateral, dyspnea bilateral), parathyroid glands (hypoparathyroidism)

Osteitis fibrosa cystica: rapid, painful loss of bone

due to HPTH; moth eaten skull
Calciphylaxis: calcium deposition in soft tissue due
Multiple myeloma: punched-out lesions of bone due
to a B-cell neoplasm
Hypercalcemia Sx: kidney stones, painful bones,
abdominal groans (peptic ulcers, pancreatitis,
cholelithiasis), psychic overtones (mental status)
Hypercalcemia DDx: parathyroid adenoma (MCC
outpatient), metastases to bone (MCC inpatient)
1 HPTH: PTH/Ca++/P, most sensitive test is Cl:P
ratio >33:1; causes include 90% adenoma, 9% hyperplasia, 1% carcinoma
1 HPTH management: straight to surgery if
symptomatic (4-gland exploration or minimally
invasive surgery), no imaging necessary
4-gland exploration: open exploration of neck
area; adenoma take it out; hyperplasia take
3 glands out, or take all 4 out and autotransplant gland back in; carcinoma en bloc
resection of parathyroid and ipsi thyroid lobe
Minimally invasive surgery: needs positive
Sestamibi scan pre-op, big/abnormal gland during
exploration, and intra-operative decrease in PTH
levels by >50% following excision
2 HPTH: PTH/Ca++/P, due to renal failure
2 HPTH management: medical management, 3
gland excision if complications exist
3 HPTH: PTH/Ca++/P, found in renal transplant
pts whose parathyroid glands work autonomously
3 HPTH management: 3 gland excision if HPTH
persists for 1 year following transplant
Sestamibi scan: lighting up in parathyroid gland is
85% accurate for Dx parathyroid adenoma


Hypercalcemic crisis: Ca++>15 indicating carcinoma;

Tx flush with NS, then drain with furosemide (Lasix),
then treat the underlying cause

Parathyroid glands: 30-50 mg each, brownish-yellow

color, sinks in water (to differentiate from fat)

Parathyroid nodule: probably a thyroid nodule,

unless Ca++ ~15 indicating parathyroid carcinoma

Parathyroid embryology: 3rd branchial pouch

becomes inferior glands and thymus, 4th becomes
superior glands

2nd operation s/p adenoma removal: requires

localization studies, dont just go back in there

Surgery Endocrine Surgery

Missing parathyroid glands: check thymus (MC

location/15%), up and down neck, open carotid
sheath, retro-esophageal area, esophageal groove,
and inside the thyroid gland itself
Median sternotomy: only indicated if pt is in a lifethreatening hypercalcemic crisis
MEN1 (Wermer): pituitary adenoma, pancreatic
endocrine cancer (MC gastrinoma), parathyroid
MEN1 Tx: excise parathyroid first since hypercalcemia can cause gastrin levels; if Z-E cant be
controlled w/ PPIs total gastrectomy since
MEN gastrinomas are multifocal

Pituitary Cushing: due to ACTH secretion,

suppressable by high dose dexamethasone;
Dx MRI, Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy
Adrenal Cushing: due to cortisol secretion
(causes ACTH); Dx CT scan, Tx adrenalectomy
Ectopic Cushing: due to ACTH secretion usually
from SCLC, not suppressable by high dose dexa
Adrenal gland tumors: aldosteronoma, cortisoloma,
sex hormone-secreting tumor, pheochromocytoma,
Aldosteronoma: presents as Na, K, H, renin;
Dx CT scan for mass (if no mass present or renin,
think RA stenosis), Tx adrenalectomy (adenoma)
or aldactone (hyperplasia)

MEN2A (Sipple): parathyroid hyperplasia,

pheochromocytoma, thyroid medullary cancer

Cortisoloma: presents as adrenal Cushings, Tx


MEN2B: pheochromocytoma, thyroid medullary

cancer, mucosal neuromas, Marfanoid habitus

Sex hormone-secreting tumor: Tx adrenalectomy

MEN2A/2B Tx: excise pheochromocytoma first

since it can be life-threatening
Gastrinoma: give PPIs if acid persists, get serum
gastrin levels <200 absent, >500 present, 200-500
indeterminate and requires secretin stimulation test
if paradoxical gastrin w/ secretin, present get
CT scan to localize and cut it out
VIPoma: presents as rice water diarrhea; get CT
scan to localize and cut it out
Insulinoma: presents as hypoglycemia, Dx Cpeptide levels or monitored fasting (to see if theyre
faking it); get CT scan and cut it out
Glucagonoma: presents as new-onset diabetes and
migratory rash from lower body upwards, Dx
glucose challenge test; get CT scan and cut it out
Metastatic glucagonoma: give somatostatin and
streptozocin since surgery is contraindicated
Nesidioblastosis: presents as hypersecretion of
insulin in a newborn; Tx 95% pancreatectomy
Pituitary adenoma: prolactinoma (#1), null cell tumor
(#2), ACTH (#3), GH (#4); may present as bitemporal
hemianopsia due to optic chiasm compression
Prolactinoma: presents with galactorrhea and
amenorrhea, Tx bromocriptine
Null cell tumor: doesnt secrete anything
Cushing syndrome: presents as truncal obesity, abd
striae, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis,
HTN, and immunosuppression due to cortisol
Cushing causes: MCC is exogenous steroid use;
intrinsic causes include pituitary adenoma,
adrenal adenoma, and ectopic secretion of ACTH

Pheochromocytoma: presents with HA, HTN,

palpitations, etc.; Dx 24 hour urinary VMA or
metanephrines, Tx -blockers (phenoxybenzamine) then -blockers then adrenalectomy
Intraoperative hypotension: give IVF
Incidentaloma: make sure its not secreting
hormones then work-up based on size; <5 cm
leave alone, >5 cm resection + check other organs
since adrenals are common site of metastasis
Aortic coarctation: presents as HTN in arms but
normal BP in legs; get CXR (scalloping of ribs) then
confirm w/ spiral CT, then surgical correction
Renovascular HTN: presents as HTN + abd bruits,
secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia (young women)
or atherosclerosis (old men) of the renal arteries;
get a doppler of renal vessels, then either balloon
dilation or surgical correction

Surgery Skin/Soft Tissue Surgery

Skin cancers: basal cell carcinoma (50%), squamous
cell carcinoma (25%), malignant melanoma (15%);
management is full-thickness incisional biopsy at
border of the lesion
Basal cell carcinoma: raised waxy lesion or nonhealing ulcer in upper face, doesnt spread; Tx local
excision w/ 1 mm margins
Squamous cell carcinoma: non-healing ulcer in lower
face, spreads to LN; Tx local excision w/ 1 cm margins
and LN excision
SCC risk factors: draining fistulas, arsenic
Keratoacanthoma: variant of SCC that grows
rapidly and then dies off spontaneously
Dysplastic nevus: atypical mole, precursor of
malignant melanomas, requires close observation
Melanoma: ABCDE Asymmetric, irregular Borders,
different Colors, Diameter >5mm, Evolving; Px
related to depth, highly metastatic and will be found
in weird places
Ulcerated melanoma: 1/3 reduction in survival
Depth <0.75 mm: Tx excision w/ 1 cm margin,
good prognosis
Depth 0.76-3.99 mm: Tx excision w/ 2 cm margin,
palpable LN removal, no palpable LN
sentinel LN biopsy w/ elective removal
Depth >4 mm: Tx excision w/ 2 cm margin,
remove palpable LN, pt will likely die from mets
Melanoma LN involvement: remove regional LN,
then complete staging for mets (CXR, CT scan, LFTs,
brain MRI)
Melanoma metastases: Tx radiation and
chemotherapy (interferons)

Sarcomas: present as firm, painless masses; Px
depends on size, grade, and distant metastases (no
LN since sarcomas spread hematogenously)
Sarcoma management: Dx incisional biopsy
parallel to resection margins, chest CT for mets,
Tx resection w/ 1 cm negative margins
High-grade sarcomas: Tx radical amputation w/
post-op radiation therapy

McVay repair w/ relaxing incision: cut

transversus abdominis aponeurosis to relax
tension on sutures

Sarcoma liver mets: biopsy for confirmation Tx

hepatic wedge resection or formal lobectomy

Lichtenstein repair: tension-free repair w/ mesh;

fixes direct, indirect, and femoral hernias


TAPP and TEP: TransAbdominal PrePeritoneal

and Totally ExtraPeritoneal lap procedures;
have steep learning curve and unproven results

Hernia surgery indications: all abdominal hernias

due to possibility of strangulation, except sliding
esophageal hernias (Tx PPIs) and umbilical hernias in
pts <2 yo (simple observation)
Umbilical hernia management: <2cm watch,
>2cm fix, fix if it doesnt regress before kindergarten regardless
Hernia SBO: presents as abdominal distention,
nausea, and vomiting due to incarcerated or
strangulated hernia; Tx emergent hernia repair
Hernia strangulation: presents as firm/tender
mass w/ fever, WBC, metabolic acidosis; Tx
emergent hernia repair
Indirect hernia: through internal ring lateral to
inferior epigastrics vessels, due to patent processus
vaginalis; most common hernia overall (even in
women and elderly)
Indirect hernia in kids: high incidence of
bilaterality, repair is limited to high ligation of sac
w/o abdominal wall repair

Acral lentiginous melanoma: melanoma on pale

areas of dark-skinned pts (sole of feet, palm of hand),
worst prognosis due to depth

Femoral hernia: below inguinal ligament into

femoral triangle, more common in women, highest
risk of strangulation (50% of all strangulations)

Subungual melanoma: melanoma under fingernail or

toenail, Tx DIP amputation

Sliding hernia: involves other viscera as part of the

hernia wall (e.g. bladder, cecum, sigmoid colon),
important to recognize sliding hernias as not to
injure any contained structures

Melanoma SBO: presents as abd distention,

nausea and vomiting due to metastatic melanoma in
peritoneal cavity; Tx ex lap w/ excision

McVay repair: Coopers ligament to conjoint

tendon; fixes direct, indirect, and femoral hernias

Shouldice repair: inguinal ligament to reinforced

transversalis fascia in two layers

Direct hernia: medial to inferior epigastric vessels,

due to weakening abdominal wall; more common in

Melanoma in anus: all mucosal melanomas have bad

prognosis, Tx APR w/ palpable LN excision

Bassini repair: inguinal ligament to conjoint

tendon, high tension, fixes direct and indirect

Sarcoma lung mets: get chest CT to characterize

lesion and look for others needle biopsy for
confirmation Tx thoracic wedge resection

Lentigo maligna melanoma: superficial, spreading

melanoma on the face, good prognosis overall, Tx
excision w/ narrow margin

Melanoma on face: Tx excision w/ smaller margins

for cosmetic purposes, consult plastic surgery

Hernia surgery types: open (Bassini, McVay,

Shouldice, Lichtenstein), laparoscopic (TAPP, TEP)

Ventral hernia: hernia through incision site at linea

alba; Tx primary closure (small) or mesh repair (large)
Rare hernia causes: anything that increases
abdominal pressure obesity, COPD, ascites, BPH
causing bladder obstruction, constipation, ascites;
these require further evaluation before surgery

Hernia surgery complications: damage to genital

branch of genitofemoral nerve, ilioinguinal,
iliohypogastric, or lateral femoral cutaneous nerves
causing pain and sensory defects
Hernia surgery post-op: avoid lifting for 6 weeks so
incision site has time to regain strength

Surgery Breast Surgery



Breast cancer screening: monthly self-exam, yearly

breast exam, yearly mammogram if >40 y/o (earlier if
there is a strong family Hx)

Breast cancer buzzwords: family history, ill-defined

or fixed mass, skin or nipple retraction, peau
dorange, nipple eczema, and palpable axillary LN

Breast mass on exam: first, get mammogram to

characterize mass and rule out other masses
get core needle biopsy excisional biopsy if
needle inadequate

Breast cancer Tx: identical for all cancers (except

inflammatory, LCIS, DCIS); depends on cancer stage

Abnormality on mammogram: probably benign

follow-up; suspicious core needle biopsy,
excisional biopsy if needle inadequate

Stage I-II: lumpectomy w/ 1 cm negative margins

+ axillary LN samping + post-op radiation; or
modified radical mastectomy
Stage III-IV: systemic chemotherapy

Breast cancer risk factors: family Hx (#1), BRCA1 and

BRCA2 genes, old age

Axillary LN involvement: Tx chemotherapy if premenopausal, tamoxifen if post-menopausal

MC breast masses: <25 fibroadenoma, 25-50 fibrocystic change, >50 infiltrating ductal carcinoma

Breast cancer pregnancy: work-up and Tx is

identical, except no chemo during 1st trimester
and no radiation anytime; if stage III or IV,
chemoradiation is essential and abortion may be


Fibroadenoma: firm, mobile, rubbery mass in young
women; Dx FNA and U/S, Tx elective removal
Giant juvenile fibroadenoma: seen in teens with
rapid breast growth; Tx excision to avoid breast
Phyllodes tumor: huge, benign tumors that distort
the breast; Dx core or incisional biopsy since FNA is
insufficient, Tx excision w/ negative margins

Breast cancer men: work-up and Tx is identical

Pagets disease: presents as crusty nipple eczema,
indicates underlying infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Inflammatory cancer: resembles cellulitis w/ peau
dorange, tumor cells in dermal lymphatics, Tx
requires pre-op chemo
DCIS: Tx simple mastectomy

Fibrocystic change: multiple, bilateral lumps that

vary with menstrual cycle; if dominant or persistent
lump aspiration excisional biopsy if mass
recurs or persists
Sclerosing adenosis: Tx careful observation or
prophylactic bilateral simple mastectomy; not
precancerous, but is a risk factor of cancers
Atypical ductal hyperplasia: Tx excision; not
precancerous, but high risk of becoming a cancer
Intraductal papilloma: presents as bloody nipple
discharge; Tx galactogram/ductogram-guided
excision (due to small risk of carcinoma)
Acute mastitis: breastfeeding women get
Staph/Strep infection through cracks in nipple w/
yellowish discharge, Tx antibiotics and warm
compresses, may develop into breast abscess
Breast abscess: pus pocket in lactating women;
Tx I&D and biopsy to rule out possible cancer

LCIS: Tx careful observation or prophylactic bilateral

simple mastectomy; not precancerous, but is a risk
factor of breast cancers
Small ipsilateral nodule: local recurrence until
proven otherwise, work-up like any other mass
Contralateral finding: most likely a new primary
cancer, work-up like any other mass
Elevated LFTs: indicates liver mets, get abd CT scan
Back pain: indicates bone mets, get bone scan then
Pathologic fracture: indicates bone mets, get bone
scan then X-ray
Sensorimotor defects: indicates spine mets, get MRI
Severe headache: indicates brain mets, get MRI

Periductal mastitis: subareolar infection in smokers,

both males and females affected
Gynecomastia: breast tissue hypertrophy in males;
common in puberty (will resolve spontaneously) and
older men (excision if it doesnt regress on its own)
Dystrophic calcification: presents as breast lump
following trauma, but work up as a cancer until
proven otherwise (trick question!)

New-onset seizures: indicates brain mets, get MRI

New-onset coma: indicates acute hypercalcemia due
to bone mets, get a renal panel for confirmation

Surgery Acute/Critical Care Surgery

Evaluation of trauma pt: primary survey, get an
ample Hx, secondary survey
Primary survey: initial evaluation of trauma pt;
ABCDE airway, breathing, circulation, disability
(neurological), environment/exposure

C-spine injury: suspected with neurological Sx,

radiological abnormalities, or C-spine tenderness;
intubation requires extreme caution

Stab hemiparesis: suggests injury to the carotid

artery; get angiogram and either vascular or
neurosurg consult

Priapism: indicates fresh spinal cord injury; check

for anal sphincter tone, bradycardia, and possibly
neurogenic shock

Neck GSW: exploration of neck is mandatory in zone

2, observe if stable in zones 1+3

Ample Hx: things to ask a trauma pt allergies,
meds, previous illnesses, last meal, events
surrounding injury
Secondary survey: full inspection of trauma pt
following clearance of life-threatening issues,
continual reassessment is necessary for changes
Airway: determine if airway is clear, quickest way to
evaluate is to see if pt can talk; use intubation,
cricothyroidotomy, or tracheostomy if obstructed
Blunt trauma to neck: consider possibility of
laryngeal edema developing into airway
Breathing: evaluate via lung auscultation, CXR, and
pulse oximetry
Circulation: stop external hemorrhage, 2 large-bore
IV lines (14 or 16-gauge) w/ 2L crystalloid, followed
by packed RBC (type O) if necessary
Cardiac tamponade: presents with Becks triad
JVD, muffled heart sounds, hypotension;
Tx subxiphoid pericardiocentesis and go to OR
Hypovolemic shock: class I <15% and lactic acid;
class II 15-30% and HR; class III 30-40% and BP;
class IV >40% with lethargy and anuria
Hypovolemic shock Tx: 2 large-bore IV lines and
2L crystalloid infusion, resuscitation measured by
urine output, HR, BP, and mental status
Hypovolemic shock Tx unresponsive: search for
underlying cause, ex lap or thoracotomy may be
indicated for continuous internal bleeding
Closed head injury: brain edema and ischemia
causes Cushing reflex peripheral vasoconstriction (BP), bradycardia (HR), and
respiratory depression (RR)
Circulation pregnancy: HR is normal and may
not indicate shock, hct of 31-35% is normal, best
evaluated laying on her left side
Disability: evaluate with GCS; 15 max, 8 coma, 3
nearly dead
Disability awake: stabilize C-spine, palpate
posterior neck for tenderness, assess extremities
for motor/sensory function, and get lateral Cspine imaging
Disability comatose: C-spine cannot be cleared,
so precautions must continue

Head trauma evaluation: begin with primary survey

(ABCs) rapid neuro exam if stable if any neuro
sx, get head CT and neurosurg consult
Rapid neuro exam: check pupils, cranial nerves,
peripheral motor/sensory function, and rate level of
consciousness via GCS
EDH: head CT shows convex lens hematoma;
presents as LOC lucid interval LOC
ipsilateral fixed/dilated pupil, Tx craniotomy
SDH: head CT shows crescent moon hematoma,
high risk for brain herniation; Tx head elevation,
hyperventilate, sedate, mannitol + furosemide
Diffuse axonal injury: head CT shows blurred
gray-white junction and small punctate
hemorrhages; management is prevention of ICP
Head trauma hypovolemic shock: look for another
source of bleeding
Basal skull fx: raccoon eyes, hemotympanum,
otorrhea, rhinorrhea, ecchymosis behind the ear
(Battles sign); neurosurg consult is indicated
Neck stab wound: begin with primary survey (ABCs),
then careful exam for injured structures
Surgery indications: expanding hematoma,
deteriorating vital signs, coughing blood,
subcutaneous emphysema, all GSW and stab
wounds in zone 2 (zones 1+3 can be observed if
Stab zone 1: below cricoid (includes lung);
observation and pre-op angiogram if stable,
otherwise exploration of neck is necessary
Stab zone 2: between mandible and cricoid;
exploration of neck is mandatory
Stab zone 3: above mandible; observation and
pre-op angiogram if stable, otherwise exploration
of neck is necessary
Stab dysphagia: suggests injury to the
esophagus, Dx esophagoscopy or barium
Stab hoarseness: suggests injury to the airway,
larynx (voicebox), or recurrent laryngeal nerve;
Dx laryngoscopy or exploration

Neck blunt trauma: at risk of carotid dissection (Tx

anticoagulation) or laryngeal edema (Tx intubation)
Spinal cord injury management: get MRI to look at
spinal cord, then immediate high-dose steroids
Hemisection syndrome: always due to stab
wounds in posterior neck area, presents as ipsi
DCML/motor loss and contra ACL loss
Anterior cord syndrome: usually seen w/
vertebral burst fractures, presents as bilateral
ALS/motor loss but intact DCML
Central cord syndrome: usually seen w/ whiplash
(e.g. rear end collisions), presents as UE burning
pain and paralysis, but LE nerves intact
Rib fx: painful breathing leads to shallow breaths
atelectasis pneumonia, Tx local nerve block
Chest stab wounds: suspect HTX or PTX, chest tube
insertion is indicated
Infraclavicular stab wounds: suspect injury to
subclavicular artery or vein, Dx angiogram if pt is
stable or urgent exploration if unstable
Nipple-level stab wounds: suspect additional
injury to diaphragm/abdominal organs, ex lap
indicated for abdominal organ damage
PTX: air in pleural space; insert a finger to make sure
of pleural space, then insert a chest tube, remove
when lung is fully inflated and no air leak present
Small PTX: simple observation is okay if its
asymptomatic, no free fluid present, not
expanding, and no other significant injuries
Sucking chest wound: seal with occlusive
dressing, insert chest tube in different location
Nonfunctioning chest tube: chest tube is in the
wrong location or not working properly;
reposition or replace chest tube
Continuous air leak into chest tube: major airway
injury with disruption of bronchus or trachea
Tension PTX: mediastinal shift, hypotension, JVD,
absent breath sounds, and hyperresonant to
percussion; Tx emergent needle aspiration and
chest tube insertion (do not wait for CXR or ABG)
HTX: blood in pleural space, go to OR if chest tube
drains 1.5L or >200 mL/hr for 3 hours

Surgery Acute/Critical Care Surgery

HTX hypotension: suspect blood loss in left

chest, indicated for left chest tube insertion
Thoracic GSW: GSW is managed differently due to
unpredictable path of bullets vs. knife, mark both
entrance/exit sites and get imaging
Thoracic blunt trauma: suspect HPTX, chest tube
insertion is indicated; emergent thoracotomy if >1.5L
or >200mL/hr blood is extracted from tube
Aortic transection: presents as widened mediastinum on CXR, confirm w/ aortic angiography or
chest CT go to OR if transected
Flail chest: presents w/ paradoxic chest wall
movements due to multiple rib fx, suspect lung
contusions and aortic transection; manage by
inserting bilateral chest tubes and serial ABGs
Pulmonary contusions: presents as deteriorating
ABGs and white out of lungs on CXR; Tx colloid
(not crystalloid) + diuretics + fluid restriction
Ruptured diaphragm: CXR reveals stomach in left
chest; rapid eval of non-abd injuries go to OR

Trauma perforated viscera: CXR reveals free air

in abdomen; rapid eval of non-abd injuries
repair perforated viscera in the OR
Trauma hypotensive w/o hemorrhage:
indicated for FAST or DPL ex lap in OR if
positive; CT scan inappropriate for unstable pts
Trauma hypotensive w/ pelvic fx: suspect
vascular injury from branch of internal iliac, Dx
FAST, Tx control by embolization

Air embolus: presents as sudden death in an

intubated/respirator pt; management is immediate
Trendelenburg position + cardiac massage
Fat embolus: presents as RDS and petechiae in
neck/axilla due to bone marrow embolization from
long bone fx; management is respiratory support
Abdominal GSW: mandatory OR for ex lap for all
GSW below nipple level
Abdominal stab wound: mandatory OR if stab
wound penetrates peritoneum (e.g. protruding
viscera, peritonitis, hemodynamic instability);
otherwise, digital exploration and observation
Abdominal blunt trauma: mandatory OR if signs of
peritonitis or hemodynamic instability despite
transfusion; otherwise, CT scan can be done safely
before proceeding
Trauma flat/nontender abd: observe if no
mechanism, imaging if mechanism exists

Dx CT scan: useful for stable pts, avoid in

unstable or severely injured pts
Splenic laceration: ex lap if unstable, preserve
spleen if possible to avoid post-splenectomy sepsis,
avoid blood transfusion if possible, splenectomy
requires vaccination for SHiN bacteria

Mesentery injury: difficult to detect on CT so

mechanism must evoke suspicion, co-exists with
bowel injury since mesentery is tougher than bowel
Renal laceration: stable angiography and planned
operative repair; unstable IV pyelo to detect if
two kidneys present, then OR for nephrectomy
Hematoma in SMA region: suggests major injury to
abd aorta, major aortic branches, pancreas, or
duodenum; stable angiography and assessment
before operation, unstable urgent ex lap
Pancreatic transection: mandatory ex lap; minor
injury debride and drain, major injury resection
of devitalized pancreatic tissue and repair of
duodenal injury
Duodenal hematoma: common in kids hitting abd on
bicycle handlebars, hematoma causes GI obstruction;
Tx NPO/IVF, will resolve spontaneously in 5-7 days

CO/CVP: cardiogenic shock (e.g. CHF, MI, tension

PTX, pericardial tamponade)

Retroperitoneal zones: central is zone 1, flank is

zone 2, pelvis is zone 3
Surgery indications: all zone 1 hematomas, zone 2
and 3 hematomas only if penetrating trauma
Zone 1 (central hematoma): may involve injury to
major vascular structure, indicated for ex lap
Zone 2 (flank hematoma): no exploration
warranted unless penetrating trauma, because
peritoneum will tamponade bleeding
Zone 3 (pelvic hematoma): no exploration
warranted unless penetrating trauma, because
peritoneum will tamponade bleeding
Urologic surgery indications: all GSW, stab wounds,
and other penetrating injuries
Urethral injury: presents as blood on meatus, scrotal
hematoma, and high-riding prostate; get a
retrograde urethrogram and suprapubic catheter
instead of Foley (may compound injury)
Bladder injury: associated w/ seatbelt trauma in
adults; get a retrograde cystogram and post-void
films, then surgical repair
Renal injury: associated w/ blunt trauma to back and
lower rib fx; get CT scan, manage non-op if possible
Scrotal hematoma: manage non-op unless testicle is
ruptured (seen on U/S)

Blood in ex lap: stop bleeding by packing all four

quadrants with gauze packs attack injuries in
order of severity and attempt hemostasis inspect
remainder of abd contents and repair injuries

Penis fx: associated w/ cowgirl sex; insert a

suprapubic catheter then repair surgically

Triad of death: acidosis, coagulopathy, hypothermia

Penetrating limb trauma: no vascular injury give

tetanus PPx and clean wound; vascular injury
present arteriogram if stable, OR if unstable

Trauma severe abd pain: suspect peritoneal

irritation due to blood or intestinal contents, Dx
FAST or CT indicated for ex lap if positive

Hemorrhage hypothermia: can lead to

coagulopathy due to platelet dysfunction and
PT/PTT prolongation; rewarming indicated

Trauma tire mark across abd: indicates severe

direct trauma, high suspicion of internal injury

Hemorrhage low platelets: loss of platelets due

to hemorrhage puts pt at risk for coagulopathy;
platelet transfusion indicated

Trauma coma: abd imaging mandatory since

physical exam is impossible on a comatose pt

CO/CVP: hypovolemic shock, neurogenic shock

(e.g. spinal cord trauma, anaphylaxis)

Dx DPL/FAST: diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL)
or ultrasound (FAST) useful for quick Dx of
internal free fluid positive DPL/FAST is
indicated for ex lap; may be false negative in
retroperitoneal injuries

Liver laceration: ex lap if unstable, observe if stable

Ruptured trachea/bronchi: presents as
continuous air leak into chest tube and
subcutaneous emphysema; go to OR

Hemorrhage abd distention: bleeding into abd

cavity can lead to abd compartment syndrome,
which can cause decreased renal blood flow
(oliguria) and dyspnea (elevated diaphragm)

Hemorrhage metabolic acidosis: results from

decreased tissue perfusion causing lactic acidosis;
crystalloid infusion indicated


Combined limb trauma: order of repair is bone first,

then vascular repair, nerve last; fasciotomy required
to prevent compartment syndrome
Limb GSW: may require extensive debridements and
amputation if unsalvageable
Crushing limb trauma: high risk of myoglobinuria
leading to acute renal failure; Tx IV fluids + mannitol
+ acetazolamide to maintain a high urine output

Surgery Acute/Critical Care Surgery

Burn assessment: determine depth of burn, type of
burn, and body surface area (%BSA) burned
First-degree burns: epidermis only, painful
Second-degree burns: extends into dermis,
causes pain and blistering, may develop into
third-degree burns w/o proper management
Third-degree burns: full thickness, painless
Burn management: tetanus PPx, IV pain meds,
topical agents (silver sulfadiazine is default, mafenide
acetate for deep penetration, triple abx ointment for
the eyes)
Rule of 9s: estimates %BSA burned; head and upper
extremities are 9% each; anterior trunk, posterior
trunk, and lower extremities are 18% each; and
perineum is the last 1%
Parkland formula: estimates fluid replacement in
burn victims, LR volume = %BSA kg 4mL/kg;
give 50%LR in first 8 hours, 50%LR in next 16 hours
Fluid for infants: 20 mL/kg if BSA>20%
Chemical burns: alkaline burns are worse than acids
Chemical burn management: massive tap water
irrigation, dont try acid-base neutralization,
except in ingestion orange juice for alkali, milk
for acids
Electrical burns: may appear benign on surface, but
masks large amounts of interior damage to muscles,
nerves, and vessels; at risk of cardiac injury
(arrhythmias) and muscle injury (myoglobinuria)
Electrical burn management: IV fluids + mannitol
+ acetazolamide to maintain a high urine output
Inhalation burns: suspected with carbonaceous
sputum, facial burns, singed facial/nasal hairs,
hoarseness, etc. due to smoke inhalation
Inhalation burn management: confirm w/
fiberoptic bronchoscopy and order serial ABGs;
high COHb levels Tx 100% O2
Circumferential burns: rapidly become thick and
contracted, causing restricted ventilation in the
chest and ischemia in extremities; Tx escharotomy

Snake bites: dont always result in envenomation; if

signs of venom evident (pain, swelling, discoloration)
then draw blood for labs and Tx anti-venin
Bee stings: may present as anaphylactic shock
(warm and pink) secondary to allergic response;
Tx stinger removal and epinephrine
Spider bites: black widows have neurotoxins, brown
recluses have necrotoxins
Black widow spiders: present w/ severe muscle
cramps, acute abdomen, and nausea/vomiting;
give IV calcium gluconate + muscle relaxants
Brown recluse spiders: present as an ulcerated
lesion; excise ulcer and skin graft
Human bites: requires extensive irrigation and
debridement due to high amounts of bacteria
TPN: indicated for nutrition when gut is nonfunctional or not availble, requires personalization of
formula for nutrition status
TPN fever: examine catheter site for infection,
obtain cultures from catheter site and blood;
if bacteria change catheter site, if +bacteria
change catheter site and start antibiotics
TPN metabolic coma: hyperglycemic,
hyperosmolar, nonketotic coma is commonly due
to excessive osmolar diuresis in hyperglycemia
TPN elevated LFTs: very common (up to 30%),
TPN can cause fatty liver, structural liver damage,
and even cirrhosis with prolonged TPN
TPN dry/scaly skin: indicates free fatty acid
deficiency, Tx FFA administration
Nitrogen in TPN: positive nitrogen balance is the
goal, since negative nitrogen balance indicates a
catabolic state; severity of injury correlates with a
higher amino acid requirement
BEE: basal energy expenditure, equal to (body
weight 25 kcal/kg/day)
Nondepleted pts: 1.2 BEE calories needed; good
nutritional status before surgery
Depleted pts: 1.2-1.5 BEE calories needed;
malnourished before surgery

Scalding burns in kids: consider child abuse

Burns methemoglobinemia: Sx chocolate-brown
blood, central cyanosis of trunk, arrhythmias,
seizures, coma; Dx ABGs (pulse ox is unreliable), Tx
IV methylene blue
Bite management: all require tetanus PPx
Dog bites: rabies PPx only required if bite was
unprovoked and dog isnt available for brain Bx

Hypermetabolic pts: 1.5-2 BEE calories needed;

severely stressed catabolic state due to trauma,
burns, sepsis, cancer, etc.
Macronutrients: carbs (4 kcal/gm), protein (4
kcal/gm), fat (9 kcal/gm), etoh (7 kcal/gm)

Surgery Subspecialty Surgery

VACTERL syndrome: vertebral, anal atresia, cardiac,
TE fistula, esophageal atresia, renal, limbs (radius);
presence of any of these requires checking for the
Esophageal atresia: presents as excess salivation,
choking spells, coiling NG tube, and often a TE
fistula; Tx surgical repair (if delay is necessary,
Anal atresia: high rectal pouch colostomy then
delayed repair, low rectal pouch repair, if anofistula present delay repair since further
growth may correct condition
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: presents as RDS
due to hypoplastic left lung; Dx CXR shows bowel in
left chest, Tx intubation w/ low-pressure ventilation
Gastroschisis: midline hernia to left of umbilical cord
tearing through peritoneum; Tx closure if small, silo
if large, and TPN for a month since GI doesnt work
Omphalocele: midline hernia through the cord with
peritoneal covering; Tx closure if small, silo if large

Vascular rings: presents as stridor, RDS, crowing

respiration, and dysphagia in an infant due to
compression of trachea and esophagus; Dx barium
swallow and bronchoscopy, Tx surgical correction
Cardiac anomalies: all require prophylactic antibiotics for subacute bacterial endocarditis
LR shunts: all present with murmurs and lateonset cyanosis due to Eisenmenger syndrome
(pulmonary HTN reversing direction of shunt)
ASD: presents as low-grade systolic murmur,
fixed S2, and frequent colds; Dx echo, Tx surgery
VSD: presents as pansystolic harsh-sounding
murmur with failure to thrive; Dx echo, Tx surgery
PDA: presents with machinery-like murmur, often
seen with congenital rubella syndrome; Dx echo,
Tx indomethacin or surgery
RL shunts: all present with murmurs and earlyonset cyanosis

Embolic occlusion of retinal artery: presents as

sudden unilateral loss of vision; Tx breathe into
paper bag and repeatedly press on eye to shake clot
into a more distal branch of retinal artery
Neck masses: three types congenital, inflammatory,
neoplastic; differentiate via onset and resolution
Congenital neck masses: thyroglossal duct cyst
(midline), branchial cleft cyst (lateral), cystic
hygroma (base of neck)
Thyroglossal duct cyst: remnant of thyroglossal
duct as a mobile midline neck mass, Dx at 1-2 yo
due to neck fat, Tx Sistrunk operation (take out
cyst, trunk, and medial portion of hyoid bone)
Branchial cleft cyst: lateral mass at anterior edge
of SCM, may have a small opening and blind tract
Cystic hygroma: dilated lymphatic duct at base of
neck, common in Turner syndrome, get CT scan
to find extent of mass before surgical removal

Tetralogy of Fallot: presents as cyanosis and

clubbing in a 5 y/o child who squats for relief;
Px determined by degree of pulmonary stenosis,
Dx echo shows RVH, Tx surgery

LN DDx: cancers are large (>2 cm), painless, fixed,

insidious onset, unusual site; infectious LN are small
(<2 cm), painful, rapid onset, mobile, normal site

Malrotation: presents as biliary vomiting and

double-bubble on X-ray; Dx contrast enema or
upper GI study, Tx emergency surgical correction

Transposition of great vessels: presents as lifethreatening cyanosis in a newborn; Dx echo, Tx


Lymphomas: presents with multiple swollen LN,

fever, and night sweats; get excisional biopsy, then
Tx chemo


Supraclavicular metastases: MC primary sites are

pancreas and stomach; get excisional biopsy for Dx

Intestinal atresia: presents as biliary vomiting and

multiple air-fluid levels on X-ray, aka apple-peel
atresia due to vascular accident in utero

Strabismus: misaligned eyes due to uncoordinated

extraocular muscles; Tx surgical extraocular muscle
manipulation to prevent ambylopia

Biliary vomiting: indicates SBO distal to ampulla of

Vater; DDx duodenal atresia, intestinal atresia
annular pancreas, or malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis: presents as feeding

intolerance, abd distention, and platelets in
premies; Tx NPO, IVF, TPN, IV abx surgical repair if
signs of intestinal necrosis/perforation present
Pyloric stenosis: presents as non-bilious projectile
vomiting in first-born boys; Dx palpable epigastric
olive, Tx rehydration and pyloromyotomy
Biliary atresia: presents as progressive jaundice in a
1-2 month old due to lack of CBD; Dx HIDA scan +
phenobarbital (to stimulate GB contraction), Tx liver
Hirschsprungs disease: presents as chronic
constipation due to lack of nerves in distal colon,
rectal exam can decompress bowel; Dx X-ray shows
distended proximal colon, Tx surgical pull-through
Intussusception: presents as colicky abd pain that
lasts 1 minute then resolves, and currant jelly stools;
Dx/Tx barium or air enema (surgery if it doesnt work)
Child abuse: presents as retinal hemorrhages, SDH,
multiple healed fx, and scalding burns; call child
protective services
Meckels diverticulum: presents as LGIB in a child,
Dx technetium uptake for ectopic gastric mucosa

Amblyopia: vision impairment usually due to

strabismus in kids, Tx eyepatch the good eye to
develop the impaired one
Retinoblastoma: presents as a leukocoria in a baby,
Tx surgical enucleation (remove the eye)
Narrow-angle glaucoma: presents as severe eye pain,
headache, seeing halos around lights, eye feels as
hard as a rock; Tx iridotomy (give pilocarpine, acetazolamide, or mannitol as first aid)
Orbital cellulitis: presents as cellulitis of eyelids w/
fixed/dilated pupil and limited eye ROM; get CT scan
then drain the pus
Chemical burns of eye: irrigate w/ plain water ASAP,
at hospital irrigate w/ saline, remove corrosive
particles, and test pH before sending home; alkaline
burns are worse than acid burns
Retinal detachment: presents as flashes and floaters,
and a dark curtain being pulled down over the eye;
Tx emergency laser spot welding
Amaurosis fugax: emboli from carotid travels to
retina causing transient blindness; Dx fundoscopic
exam reveals Hollenhorst plaque, a bright shiny spot
in a retinal artery

Head/neck SCC: presents as persistent hoarseness,

painless ulcer in floor of mouth, or unilateral earache;
risk factors are EtOH, smoking, and AIDS
SCC management: get triple endoscopy to look
for primary tumor biopsy tumor CT scan to
determine stage; Tx resection, radical neck
dissection, cisplatin-based chemo
Acoustic neuroma: presents as unilateral deafness
due to Schwann cell proliferation on CN VIII, get MRI
Facial nerve tumor: presents as gradual-onset
unilateral facial paralysis (sudden-onset is Bells
palsy), get MRI
Parotid tumors: present as masses around angle of
mandible, two types pleomorphic adenomas
(benign, painless) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas
(malignant, painful)
Parotid tumor management: get FNA or formal
superficial parotidectomy (open biopsy contraindicated due to CN VII)
Foreign bodies: any toddler w/ unilateral ENT sx
(earache, rhinorrhea, wheezing) has a toy stuck in
there; do endoscopy under anesthesia to remove
Ludwig angina: abscess in floor of mouth due to
tooth infection, Tx I&D and tracheostomy

Surgery Subspecialty Surgery

Bells palsy: sudden CN VII paralysis for no evident

reason, Tx antivirals immediately
CN VII trauma: sudden CN VII paralysis following
facial trauma, will resolve spontaneously
Cavernous sinus thrombosis: presents as diplopia in
a pt w/ sinusitis due to nerve (CN III/IV/VI) injury, Tx
antibiotics, CT scan, and drainage of abscess
Epistaxis: nosebleed has different causes and
management depending on pts age
Epistaxis children: due to nosepicking, Tx local
pressure and phenylephrine nasal spray
Epistaxis teens: either cocaine abuse and septal
perforation (requires packing) or juvenile
nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (surgical resection)
Epistaxis elderly: due to HTN; requires packing,
BP control, and often surgical ligation of vessels
Vertigo: dizziness can be attributed to diseases of
inner ear or brain itself
Vertigo inner ear: room is spinning, Tx
meclizine, phenergan, or diazepam
Vertigo brain: room is stable, but patient is
spinning, do a neurologic work-up

then resect (give mannitol, hyperventilate, and highdose steroids while waiting)
Frontal lobe tumors: present as disinhibition,
anosmia (CN I), ipsilateral blindness (CN II), and
contralateral papilledema
Craniopharyngioma: presents as GH deficit and
bitemporal hemianopsia in a kid, Dx calcified
lesion in sella turcica
Prolactinoma: presents as amenorrhea and
galactorrhea in a young woman, consider
possibility of MEN1 syndrome, Tx bromocriptine
Acromegaly: presents as huge hands, feet,
tongue, and jaws in a tall man due to GH; Dx get
somatomedin C levels and MRI, then resection
Nelson syndrome: presents as bitemporal
hemianopsia and hyperpigmentation in an
adult due to pituitary microadenomas that grew
to full size; Dx MRI then Tx surgical resection
Pituitary apoplexy: presents with typical pituitary
adenoma sx, then sudden onset headache and
CNS sx due to bleeding into tumor; Dx MRI then
emergent steroid replacement
Pinealoma: presents as loss of upper gaze and
sunset eyes due to compression of vertical
gaze center in superior colliculi

Vascular CNS diseases: TIA, ischemic stroke,

hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage
TIA: brief neurologic deficit that fully resolves
within 24 hours; due to thromboembolus from
internal carotid arteries
TIA management: carotid duplex, then aspirin
and elective CEA (if >70% stenosis)
Ischemic stroke: a neurologic deficit that doesnt
resolve within 24 hours due to thromboembolus
from internal carotid arteries, Tx t-PA within 3
hours, otherwise observe and rehab
Hemorrhagic stroke: severe headache and
neurologic deficit that doesnt resolve within 24
hours in uncontrolled HTN; Dx CT scan, Tx rehab
and control of HTN
SAH: worst headache of my life due to rupture
of Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm in lenticulostriate
arteries; Dx CT scan to confirm SAH, then arteriogram to locate aneurysm, then surgical clipping

Lower UTI: presents as dysuria and cloudy, stinky

urine but no fever, chills, or flank pain; common in
young women, give antibiotics
Pyelonephritis: UTI that has ascended to the kidneys,
presents with fever, chills, flank pain; Dx urologic
work-up and Tx antibiotics
Prostatitis: presents as fever, chills, dysuria, back
pain, and tender prostate on rectal exam; give antibiotics and dont do any more rectal exams
Urologic workup in kids: indicated for traumatic
hematuria and UTIs, since it may indicate congenital
abnormalities otherwise undiagnosed
Congenital malformations: posterior urethral valves,
hypospadias, epispadias, vesicoureteral reflex, low
implantation of ureter, ureteropelvic obstruction
Posterior urethral valves: presents as anuria in a
newborn boy; cathereterize to empty bladder,
then Dx voiding cystourethrogram, Tx resection
Hypospadias: presents as urethral opening on
ventral side of penis, never circumcise since
prepuce is needed for surgical correction
Epispadias: urethral opening on dorsal penis

CNS diseases: vascular (sudden onset), metabolic
(hours), infectious (days-weeks), tumors (months),
degenerative disease (years)

surgical emergency that requires immediate

decompression (stent or perc nephrostomy) in
addition to IV antibiotics

Brain tumors in kids: present as cerebellar sx and

headaches relieved by knee-chest position, due to
posterior fossa lesions; Dx MRI, Tx resection
Spinal cord tumors: present as back pain in
someone whos been treated for other cancers
(spine is a common site of mets); Dx MRI, Tx neurosurgical decompression
Neurogenic claudication: presents with pain on
exertion and relief with rest, but pain is positiondependent and pulses are intact; Dx MRI, Tx neurosurgical decompression
Trigeminal neuralgia: severe facial pain lasting 60
seconds; Dx MRI to r/o organic cause, then Tx anticonvulsants (radiofrequency ablation as backup)
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: presents as severe
pain months after a crush injury w/ sympathetic
overload (cold, cyanotic, moist); Dx sympathetic
block, Tx surgical sympathectomy
Testicular torsion: presents as severe testicular pain
and high riding testicle with horizontal lie due to
twisting of the cord; Tx emergent surgical detorsion,
then orchiopexy (do not do any Dx tests)

CNS abscess: presents as space-occupying lesions

but short-onset (weeks) and w/ nearby infections
(otitis media, mastoiditis); get CT scan then resect

Epididymitis: presents like testicular torsion but w/

fever, pyuria, and cord is also tender; Dx U/S to rule
out torsion, then Tx antibiotics

CNS tumors: presents as space-occupying lesions

and progressive headache over months; get MRI

Obstructive UTI: presents as sepsis (fever, chills,

flank pain) in someone passing a kidney stone;

VUR: presents as dysuria, fever, chills, and flank

pain in kids due to ascending UTI; give antibiotics
and Dx IV pyelo and voiding cystogram to look for
reflux, long-term abx until child grows out of it
Low implantation of ureter: asymptomatic in
boys, wet with urine all the time in girls b/c
ureter drips into vagina instead of bladder; Dx
physical exam or IV pyelo, Tx surgical correction
Ureteropelvic obstruction: usually asymptomatic,
but presents with colicky pain with large diuresis
(e.g. colicky pain following beer drinking binge)
Hematuria: always get IV pyelo (CT scan if allergic or
poor renal function) and cystoscopy to r/o cancers
Urologic cancers: renal cell carcinoma, transitional
cell carcinoma, prostatic cancer, testicular cancer
RCC: presents as hematuria, flank mass/pain, and
paraneoplastic syndromes (PAPER PTHrP, ACTH,
prolactin, EPO, renin); get CT scan if suspected,
Tx surgical resection
Bladder TCC: presents as painless hematuria in
smokers; get IV pyelo and cystoscopy, then Tx
surgical resection, then lifelong f/u for high-rate
of local recurrence
Prostatic cancer: asymptomatic, detected as
rock-hard nodule on rectal exam; get U/S-guided
needle biopsy, then TURP or radiation therapy
(Tx flutamide and leuprolide if metastatic)

Surgery Subspecialty Surgery

Testicular cancer: presents as painless testicular

mass that doesnt transilluminate; get radical
orchiectomy w/ biopsy, then f/u FP or HCG for
recurrence (Tx cisplatin or radiation if metastatic)
BPH: presents as dribbing, nocturia, and difficulty
voiding in an old man; put in Foley for 3 days, and Tx
-blockers (tamsuosin), 5R-blockers (finasteride)
+/- surgical prostate resection
Post-op urine retention: presents as a need to void,
but inability to do so; Tx straight cath at 6 hours
post-op and Foley after 2nd straight cath
Stress incontinence: presents as urine leaking w/
abd pressure due to weakened pelvic floor in a
multigravid woman; Tx surgical repair of pelvic floor
Kidney stones: presents as colicky flank pain and
hematuria +/- radiation to inner thigh, Dx plain X-rays;
Tx analgesics, fluids, and observation (<3 mm) or
shockwave lithotripsy (>3 mm)
Impotence: two types organic and psychogenic,
management depends based on etiology
Psychogenic impotence: sudden onset w/o
traumatic cause, specific to partner or situation;
Tx psychotherapy
Organic impotence: sudden onset (trauma) or
gradual onset (atherosclerosis, diabetes); firstline Tx is PDE5-blockers (sildenafil, Viagra)
Transplant donors: almost everyone including braindead pts, Hep and HIV pts to each other, metastatic
cancer pts for corneas
Transplant rejection: hyperacute (minutes), acute
(days/months), chronic (years)
Hyperacute rejection: preformed abs against donor
organ causes vascular thrombosis within minutes;
never seen since type-and-cross prevents this from
Acute rejection: HLA mismatch causes macrophage
attack on donor tissue with lymphocytic infiltrate,
confirmed by biopsy
Liver rejection: indicated by elevated LFTs, first
step is to get U/S and Doppler to rule out biliary
obstruction and vascular thrombosis
Heart rejection: indicated by progressive heart
failure; management is getting routine ventricular
biopsies and Tx steroid bolus + OKT3
Chronic rejection: gradual deterioration of organ
function due to polymorphisms, irreversible and no
Tx available

Surgery Orthopedic Surgery

Congenital hip dysplasia: presents as uneven gluteal
folds, posterior dislocating hips (with snapping) in
a newborn; Dx U/S since hip isnt calcified for X-ray,
Tx splinting
Avascular necrosis of femoral head: presents in a kid
w/ limping, hip pain, and limited hip ROM; Dx X-ray,
Tx cast + crutches

Anterior shoulder dislocation: presents w/ outward

rotated arm + deltoid numbness due to axillary palsy

Open fx: require cleaning and reduction within 6

hours to prevent ischemia of distal limb

Posterior shoulder dislocation: rare, presents w/

internally rotated arm held close to body

Gas gangrene: presents as tender, swollen,

discolored wound site w/ crepitus following a
penetrating injury; Tx high-dose penicillin G,
hyperbaric oxygen, and debridement

Colles fx: distal radial fx in osteoporotic women

falling on outstretched hand; Tx reduction + cast
Monteggia fx: diaphyseal fx of proximal ulna + radial
dislocation, following direct trauma to ulna

Hip dislocation: presents as a chubby kid limping

due to groin pain, hip has limited internal rotation;
Dx X-ray, Tx pin femoral head back in place

Galeazzi fx: diaphyseal fx of distal radius + ulnar

dislocation, following direct trauma to radius

Septic hip: presents in toddlers who refuse to move

hip following a septic illness; Dx hip aspiration unter
anesthesia, Tx perc drain

Scaphoid fx: presents as wrist pain and tender

anatomic snuffbox in a young person falling on
outstretched hand; Tx thumb spica cast

Osteomyelitis: presents in kids w/ severe localized

bone pain following a septic illness; Dx bone scan
since X-ray will be false negative, Tx antibiotics

Metacarpal neck fx: presents as swollen and tender

hand after punching a wall; Tx splint or plate

Genu varum: aka bowlegs, <3 y/o observe since its

normal, >3 y/o surgical correction
Genu valgus: aka knock-knee, observation okay
Osgood-Schlatter disease: presents in teens w/
persistent pain over tibial tubercle, aggravated by
quad contraction; Tx immobilization in cast
Club foot: presents as bilateral inverted feet in a
newborn; Tx serial plaster casts on adducted
forefoot hindfoot varus equinus
Scoliosis: laterally curved spine, common in teenage
girls; Tx spine brace until mature, surgery if severe
Osteosarcoma: presents as low-grade knee pain in a
10-25 y/o, X-ray shows Codmans triangle and
sunburst appearance; consult a specialist
Ewing sarcoma: presents as low-grade epiphyseal
pain in a child, X-ray shows onion skinning, due to
t(11;22); consult a specialist
Metastatic bone cancers: usually from breast (lytic)
and prostate (blastic), causing bone pain and pathologic fx; Dx bone scan, Tx chemoradiation
Multiple myeloma: plasma B-cell tumor results in
CRAB hyperCalcemia, Renal failure, Anemia, and
Bone pain (X-ray shows punched-out lesions); Dx
urinary Bence-Jones protein, Tx chemotherapy
Fractures: all require 2 X-rays (90 from each other)
including joints above and below fractured bone;
anticoagulation of choice is fondaparinux + leg
compression devices
Clavicular fx: typically between mid-to-distal third of
clavicle; Tx figure-of-eight device for 4-6 weeks

Hip fx: presents as shortened and externally rotated

hip in an osteoporotic woman; Tx depends on
location of fx
Femoral neck fx: may lead to avascular necrosis of
femoral head; Tx prosthetic replacement of head
Intertrochanteric fx: less likely to cause avascular
necrosis; Tx ORIF
Femoral shaft fx: Tx intramedullary rod fixation,
high risk of hypovolemic shock and fat embolisms
Knee injury: all severe knee injuries present w/
swelling, and first step in management is an MRI
Unhappy triad: injury to ACL, MCL, and medial
meniscus following blow to lateral leg; Tx surgical
ACL tear: presents as swelling, pain, and positive
anterior drawer sign; Dx MRI, Tx immobilization
and rehab
Meniscal tear: presents as pain, swelling, and
clicking of knee w/ forceful extension; Tx
arthroscopic repair to salvage meniscus
Tibial stress fx: presents as localized tibial pain in a
soldier following a long march; Tx cast and f/u X-ray
in 2 weeks
Leg fx: common in pedestrian vs. car accidents; Tx
cast for easily reduced fx, intramedullary nailing
otherwise, high risk of compartment syndrome
Achilles tendon rupture: presents as popping noise
in ankle following exertion w/ pain and swelling; Tx
cast or surgery
Ankle fx: common after falling on inverted or
everted foot; Tx ORIF
Pain under cast: remove cast to examine


Examination and Diagnosis


Appearance: objective description of pt
Appearance buzzwords: pupil size = drug abuse
or withdrawal, bruises = abuse, needle
marks/tracks = drug abuse, eroding enamel =
bulimia, superficial cuts on arms = self-harm
Activity: amount/type of motor movement

Word salad: incoherent collection of words

Clang associations: rhyming and punning (think
Thought blocking: abrupt cessation of speech
before idea is finished
Tangentiality: never gets to goal, keeps breaking
off on a tangent

Psychomotor agitation: excess, non-productive

motor activity in response to inner tension

Circumstantiality: overinclusion of trivial or

irrelevant details

Psychomotor retardation: visible slowing of

thoughts, speech, movement

Perseveration: inability to change the topic, or

giving the same response to different questions

Tics: involuntary, spasmodic motor movement

Akathisia: subjective feeling of muscular tension
resulting in restlessness, pacing, repeated sitting
and standing

Thought content: what the pt thinks

Poverty of thought vs. overabundance: too few
or too many ideas expressed
Delusions: fixed, false beliefs

Stereotypic movements: repetitive, fixed pattern

of physical action or speech (e.g. head banging)
Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary choreoathetoid
movements of head/limbs/trunk, due to
prolonged use of antipsychotics

Suicidal/homicidal ideation: thoughts about

wanting to kill self or others; assess by directly
asking about suicide, not just do you want to
hurt yourself?
Phobias: persistent, irrational fears

Echopraxia: imitating movements

Memory: controlled by temporal lobes; three

main types immediate, short-term (recent),
long-term (remote)
Fund of knowledge: ask pt about simple facts
(e.g. who is the current president?)
Concentration: ask pt to spell WORLD forwards
and backwards or do serial 7 test
Abstraction: ask pt to interpret a proverb, and
explain similarities between objects; lack of
abstraction concrete thinking
Insight: pts awareness and understanding of his/her
own problem
Judgment: pts ability to understand the outcome of
his/her actions
DSM-IV: axis I mental illnesses, axis II personality
d/o and mental retardation, axis III medical
conditions, axis IV psychosocial stressors, axis V
global assessment of function (scale 0-100)
GAF 30: criteria for hospitalization
Intelligence quotient: [IQ = 100 (mental age /
chronological age)], mean IQ is 100 w/ standard
deviation of 15

Echolalia: imitating speech

Obsessions: persistent, intrusive thoughts that

cant be repressed, associated w/ anxiety

Dystonia: slow, sustained contraction of trunk or

limbs, usually a side-effect of drugs

Compulsions: repetitive behaviors (often acting

upon obsessions)

IQ tests: Stanford-Binet test for kids age 2-18,

Wechsler Aduit Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for adults
age 16-75

Ideas of reference: false belief that others are

talking about him/her

Mental retardation: IQ < 70 and deficits in

adaptive skills

Speech: pts ability to articulate thoughts; measured

in terms of rate, amount, volume, articulation, tone
Pressured speech: pt is uninterruptible and feels
compelled to continue speaking
Mood: what the pt feels in his own words; to assess
mood, ask how are you feeling today? or rate your
mood on a scale of 1 to 10
Affect: how pts mood appears to the examiner

Ruminations: mood-congruent concerns that

accompany state of depression/anxiety
Perception: mental process by which sensory stimuli
are brought to awareness
Hallucinations: perceptions w/o external stimuli;
five types auditory (risk factor for SI/HI), visual,
taste, olfactory, tactile

Labile affect: laughing one moment, then crying

the next

Illusions: misperception of external stimuli

Flat affect: pt remains expressionless and

monotone despite gravity of situation

Agnosia: inability to recognize people or objects

even w/ intact sensory function

Inappropriate affect: pt laughs when told he has

a serious illness, or told he faces criminal charges

Depersonalization: feeling that one is falling

apart, fragmenting, detached, not oneself, etc.

Personality tests: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Inventory (MMPI), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT),
Rorschach test
MMPI: objective personality test used to identify
both personality d/o and other psychopathology
TAT: pt creates stories based on pictures of
people in various situations, used to evaluate
motivation behind behaviors
Rorschach test: interpretation of inkblots

Thought process: how the pt thinks

Goal-directed: normal thought process
Loosening of associations: no logical connection
from one thought to another
Flight of ideas: thoughts change rapidly from one
to another, characteristic of mania
Neologisms: made-up words

Derealization: feeling that the world is not real

Synesthesia: sensation of one modality perceived
by another (e.g. seeing sounds)
Cognition: pts ability to perform mental tasks
Alert + oriented x3: alertness controlled by
reticular activating system; orientation refers to
person, place, time

NSAID use: can lithium excretion lithium

concentrations (except sulindac and aspirin)

Psychotic Disorders

Psychosis: distorted perception of reality presenting
as delusions, hallucinations, or severely disorganized

SCZ phases: prodromal phase (prepsychotic

decline in functioning), psychotic phase, residual
phase (negative sx b/t episodes of psychosis)
Schizophrenia subtypes: paranoid, disorganized,
catatonic, residual, undifferentiated

Psychosis in elderly: evaluate for delirium w/ EEG

Psychosis-exacerbating drugs: -blockers,
digoxin, steroids, anticholinergics
Delusion: fixed, false belief; two types bizarre
(impossible) and nonbizarre (could be true)

PSCZ: characterized by delusions and AH/CH,

deafness is a risk factor
DSCZ: characterized by disorganized speech,
behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect

Paranoid/persecution delusion: irrational belief

that one is being persecuted (e.g. CIA phone-tap)

CSCZ: characterized by rigid posture,

inappropriate or repetitive movements,
echolalia/echopraxia, and waxy flexibility

Delusion of reference: belief that cues in

external environment are directed at individual

RSCZ: prominent negative sx (5 As Anhedonia,

flat Affect, Alogia, Avolition, poor Attention)

Delusion of control: thought insertion, thought

withdrawal, and thought broadcasting are unique
to SCZ

USCZ: doesnt fulfill criteria for any other subtype

Schizoaffective disorder: SCZ + mood sx (either

manic, depressive, or mixed episode), delusions or
hallucinations w/o mood sx for 2 weeks; Tx
antipsychotics + mood stabilizers + supportive
SAD vs. mood disorders: SAD has 2 week period of
psychotic sx w/o mood sx; worse Px than mood d/o
Delusional disorder: nonbizarre, fixed delusions for
1+ month w/o functional impairment; 4 subtypes
paranoid, erotomaniac, jealous, somatic
Paranoid/persecution delusions: irrational belief
that one is being persecuted (e.g. CIA phone-tap)
Erotomaniac delusions: delusions regarding love

Delusion of grandeur: belief that one has

superpowers, or inflated self-esteem
Delusion of guilt: false belief that one is
responsible or guilty for something
Somatic delusion: false belief that one is
infected or has a certain illness
Illusion: misinterpretation of sensory stimulus
Hallucination: sensory perception w/o stimulus
Auditory hallucination: most common in
schizophrenia, command hallucinations are
specific AH that tell pt to do things
Visual hallucination: drug intoxication,
drug/alcohol withdrawal, delirium, Lewy body
Tactile hallucination: cocaine or amphetamine
intoxication, alcohol withdrawal
Olfactory hallucination: seizure disorder, must
r/o medical conditions
Gustatory hallucination: r/o medical conditions

SCZ gender: men = women but men have earlier

onset (20 y/o) than women (30 y/o), winter/early
spring birthdays have incidence (due to sunlight
vit D)
SCZ prevalence: 1% overall, 10% siblings, 50% twins
Postpsychotic depression: major depressive
episode after resolution of psychotic symptoms
Downward drift: SCZ prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups (cant hold onto good jobs)
SCZ pathophysiology: dopamine in mesolimbic
pathway (positive sx), dopamine in prefrontal ctx
(negative sx); also 5-HT, NE, GABA, glutamate
SCZ brain: diffuse cortical atrophy w/ enlarged
SCZ Px: good prognosis w/ later onset, good social
support, positive sx, mood sx, acute onset, females,
relapses, and good premorbid function; 10% suicide
SCZ Tx: atypicals first-line, typicals second-line,
clozapine if other antipsychotics dont work
Antipsychotic side-effects: EPS (parkinsonism,
akathisia, dystonia), NMS, tardive dyskinesia, antiHAM, metabolic syndrome, prolactin, etc.

Psychosis 2/2 GMC: CNS diseases, endocrinopathy,

B3/B9/B12 deficiency, lupus, or porphyrias; an axis I
disorder but the GMC goes on axis III

SCZ bad family: increased relapse rate

Substance-induced psychotic disorder: prescription

meds, alcohol, cocaine, hallucinogens, marijuana,
sedative-hypnotics, or PCP

Brief psychotic disorder: SCZ-like for <1 month;

Tx antipsychotics + supportive psychotherapy

Schizophrenia: >6 months with 2/5 for at least 1
month delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech, disorganized/catatonic behavior, negative


Brief psychotic vs. BPD: BPD can have brief, stressrelated psychoses that are part of the personality
d/o and not brief psychotic d/o
Schizophreniform disorder: SCZ-like for 1-6 months;
Tx antipsychotics + supportive psychotherapy

Jealous delusions: aka Othello syndrome,

delusions of unfaithfulness
Somatic delusion: false belief that one is
infected or has a certain illness (e.g. parasitosis)
Delusional disorder Tx: psychotherapy (drugs
Shared psychotic disorder (folie deux): pt picks up
identical delusions as a significant other; Tx
separation + psychotherapy, antipsychotics if not
improved in 1-2 weeks following separation

Mood Disorders

Mood: inner emotional state

Antidepressants: all equally effective and take 4-8

weeks for effect, SSRI/SNRI are first-line, maintain
for 6-9 months

Bipolar II disorder: 1 hypomanic episode + 1 major

depressive episode, no full manic episodes
BII Tx: mood stabilizers (see BI)

Mood episode: distinct period of abnormal mood;

includes major depressive, manic, hypomanic, and
mixed episodes
Mood disorder: loss of control over mood and
subsequent functional impairment; includes MDD,
bipolar I/II, dysthymic, and cyclothymic disorders

MDD in kids: presents as irritability and short temper,

rather than sadness or depression
MDD in elderly: MC psychiatric disorder in elderly,
incidence s/p MI, stroke, and new admits to nursing
MDD subtypes: melancholic, atypical, catatonic,
psychotic, postpartum, seasonal affective disorder

Rapid cycling disorder: 4+ mood episodes in 1 year

Rapid cycling Tx: carbamazepine
Cyclothymic disorder: alternating hypomania and
dysthymia for 2 years, no asx interval of >2 months,
and no major depressive or manic episodes
CtD Tx: mood stabilizers (see BI)

Major depressive episode: 5/9 SIGECAPS (including

depressed mood or anhedonia) for 2 weeks
depressed mood, Sleep, Interest, Guilt, Energy,
Concentration, Appetite, Psychomotor activity,
Suicidal ideation
Manic episode: 3/7 DIGFAST (4/7 if irritable mood) for
1 week Distractibility, Insomnia, Grandiosity, FOI,
Activity, Speech pressured, Thoughtlessness
Hypomanic episode: 3/7 DIGFAST (4/7 if irritable
mood) for 4+ days, no functional impairment or
psychotic features (vs. manic episodes)
Mixed episode: 5/9 SIGECAPS + 3/7 DIGFAST for every
day of 1 week

Melancholic depression: characterized by

anhedonia, excess guilt, anorexia, early morning
awakenings, and psychomotor disturbance
Atypical depression: characterized by hypersomnia, hyperphagia, reactive mood, leaden
paralysis, hypersensitivity to rejection; Tx MAOIs
Catatonic depression: rare, characterized by
catalepsy, purposeless movements, bizarre
postures, and echolalia; Tx ECT
Psychotic depression: MDD + delusions or
hallucinations; Tx SSRI + antipsychotic
Postpartum major depression: onset within 4
weeks of delivery, resolves w/o meds

Mood disorder 2/2 GMC: must have direct causal,
physiologic relationship to mood sx
Substance-induced mood disorder: -blockers
(depression), steroids, levodopa, cocaine (mania),
OCP (depression)
Major depressive disorder: 1 major depressive
episode, no manic or hypomanic episodes
MDD prevalence: 16.2% (25-50% in elderly)
MDD risk factors: stroke (30-50%, lasts 2 years),
pancreatic cancer, loss of parent before age 11,
genetics (70% in twins)
MDD sleep: difficulty falling asleep, multiple
awakenings, and early morning awakenings;
hypersomnia characteristic of atypical depression
MDD etiology: monoamine hypothesis is most
popular (5-HT/DA/NE), other causes include
cortisol, thyroid, psychosocial and genetics
MDD brain: reduced frontal lobe blood flow and
MDD Px: 15% suicide, 30-40% alcoholism, only 50%
receive Tx, 50-85% have another episode
MDD Dx: Beck depression inventory
MDD Tx: antidepressants psychotherapy; acute
risk hospitalization, elderly use lower dose,
unresponsive to drugs add lithium or try ECT

Seasonal affective disorder: 2 consecutive years of 2

major depressive episodes during the same season,
Sx triad irritability, carb cravings, hypersomnia; Tx
light therapy
Dysthymic disorder: depressive sx for 2 years (1 year
in kids) without overt major depressive episodes
DtD Tx: antidepressants CBT
DtD psychosis: dysthymia can never have
psychotic features, consider another diagnosis
Double depression: major depressive disorder +
dysthymic disorder during residual periods
Grief: aka bereavement, normal reaction to a major
loss, does not present w/ SI or disorganization
Kbler-Ross stages of grief: denial, anger,
bargaining, depression, acceptance
Grief vs. depression: grief lasts <2 months and
has illusions but no delusions, hallucinations, or SI
Bipolar I disorder: aka manic depression, 1 manic or
mixed episode; 1% lifetime prevalence, 5-10% with
first-degree relatives
BI Tx: mood stabilizers (lithium suicidality,
carbamazepine for rapid cyclers, valproate for kids
<12); pregnant mania atypicals, h/o postpartum
mania lithium PPx but c/i to breastfeeding
BI antidepressants: will flip into manic mode

Minor depressive disorder: 2-4/9 SIGECAPS w/

functional impairment, euthymic periods also seen
(vs. dysthymic disorder), 20% progress to MDD
Suicide risk factors: SAD PERSONS Sex (male), Age
(<19 or >45), Depression, Previous attempt, EtOH or
drugs, Rational thinking loss, Sickness, Organized
plan, No spouse, Social support loss
#1 suicide risk factor: previous attempt

Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders

Anxiety: subjective experience of fear and its
sympathetic response (e.g. HR, BP, SOB, etc.)
Pathological anxiety: inappropriate to situation
and interferes w/ daily functioning

Specific phobia Tx: CBT + desensitization is firstline, BDZs and -blockers help w/ autonomic sx
Social phobia: aka social anxiety disorder, same as
specific phobia but related to social settings

Generalized anxiety disorder: excess anxiety + 3/6

DRIFTS for 6 months Difficulty concentrating,
Restlessness, Irritability, Fatigue, Tense muscles,
Sleep disturbance

Common social phobias: public speaking, eating

out, using public restrooms

GAD epidemiology: 45% prevalence, women >

men; frequently comorbid w/ MDD, dysthymia, or
other anxiety disorders

Social phobia vs. shyness: shyness + impairment

of daily function = social phobia

GAD Tx: CBT + drugs (SSRIs, buspirone,


Anxiety NTs: NE, GABA/5-HT

Anxiety 2/2 GMC: hyperthyroidism, Graves disease,
Sjogren syndrome, PE, pheochromocytoma, seizure
Substance-induced anxiety disorder: caffeine,
theophylline, alcohol/sedative withdrawal, mercury,
arsenic, benzene, organophosphates, penicillin,
sulfonamides, sympathomimetics, antidepressants

Social phobia Tx: SSRI (paroxetine) + CBT is firstline, BDZs and -blockers help w/ performance

Obsession: intrusive, repetitive thought
Compulsion: ritualistic behavior

Anxiety disorders: panic disorder, agoraphobia,
specific and social phobias, OCD, PTSD, ASD, GAD,
anxiety 2/2 GMC or substance use
Anxiety d/o prevalence: 30% women > 19% men,
more frequent in higher socioeconomic groups

GAD vs. phobias: anxiety is free-floating in GAD,

rather than being fixed to specific situation

Obsessions of contamination: followed by

excessive hand-washing or avoidance of feared
Obsessions of doubt: followed by repeated
checking to avoid potential danger (e.g. turning
off stove, locking the door)

Adjustment disorder: behavioral or emotional sx

following stressful life event, begins within 3 months
after the event and ends within 6 months
AD etiology: triggered by a non-life threatening
psychosocial stressor
AD Tx: psychotherapy, should resolve in 6
months by definition
Adjustment vs. GAD: no stressor in GAD

Panic attack: peak in 10 min and last <25 min; 4 of

the following PANICS Palpitations, Abdominal
distress, Numbness/nausea, Intense fear of death,
Choking/chills/chest pain, Sweating/shaking/SOB
PA risk factors: mitral valve Prolapse, Pulmonary
embolus, Asthma, Angina, Anaphylaxis
PA management: order labs (TSH, metanephrine,
B12, etc.) to r/o medical and substance causes
Panic disorder: PA + 1 of the following for 1 month
persistent concern of another PA, worry about
implications of PA, change in behavior due to PA;
may present as chest pain + normal EKG
PD etiology: dysregulation of autonomic nervous
system w/ NT imbalance (NE, GABA/5-HT)
PD Tx: high-dose SSRI for 8-12 months + CBT,
short-term BDZs for immediate relief of attacks
Agoraphobia: anxiety in places where escape is
difficult or help is not readily available avoidance
of situation
Common agoraphobias: bridges, crowds, buses,
trains, open areas outside the home

Obsessions of symmetry/order: compulsively

slow performance of task

Adjustment vs. PTSD: life-threatening event in PTSD

Intrusive thoughts: often sexual or violent

thoughts distress but no compulsion

Adjustment vs. MDD: consider MDD if sx last over 6


Somatic obsessions: cause pts to view parts of

their body, waste, or secretions as abnormal

Adjustment vs. normal experience: adjustment has

impaired level of social or occupational functioning

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: ego-dystonic

obsessions compulsions
OCD etiology: abnormal 5-HT regulation,
associated w/ head injury, epilepsy, basal ganglia
d/o, and postpartum conditions; onset triggered
by stressful life event in 60% of pts
OCD epidemiology: 2.5% prevalence, frequently
comorbid w/ ADHD and Tourette syndrome
OCD vs. OCPD: OCD is ego-dystonic (marked
distress over sx), OCPD is ego-syntonic
OCD Tx: SSRI (fluvoxamine) is DOC, clomipramine
is second line, last-resort is ECT or cingulotomy
Acute stress disorder: PTSD for 2 days 1 month
ASD Tx: mobilize social supports

Specific phobia: persistent fear of object/situation

avoidance or tolerated w/ intense anxiety, must
be >6 months if <18 y/o, common comorbidities
include MDD and substance abuse
Common specific phobias: animals, blood or
needles, death, flying, heights, illness or injury
Specific phobia epidemiology: most common
mental disorder in the US, women > men

Post-traumatic stress disorder: traumatic event

intense fear for >1 month; characterized by RAIN
Re-experiencing the event, Avoidance of stimuli,
Increased arousal, Numbing of responsiveness
PTSD epidemiology: high MDD and substance
PTSD Tx: SSRIs are DOC, -blockers good for
hyperarousal sx

Personality Disorders



Personality: stable, predictable emotional and

behavioral traits

Antisocial personality disorder: selfish disregard for

others CONDUCT Capriciousness, Oppressive,
Nonconfrontational, Deceitful, Unlawful, Carefree,
Temper issues

Personality disorder: maladaptive, ego-syntonic

personality traits functional impairment; 10-20%
Cluster A: schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid;
association w/ psychotic disorders
Cluster B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic,
narcissistic; association w/ mood disorders
Cluster C: avoidant, dependent, obsessivecompulsive; association w/ anxiety disorders
PD-NOS: passive-aggressive, depressive, sadistic,

ASPD epidemiology: incidence in prisoners and

poor urban areas, high genetic component
ASPD vs. conduct disorder: conduct disorder if
<18 y/o, ASPD if 18 y/o
ASPD vs. drug abuse: antisocial behavior may be
2/2 drug use, need to find out which came first
ASPD Tx: psychotherapy is useless; SSRIs and
mood stabilizers help w/ reducing aggression

AVPD vs. SPD: SPD want to be alone, AVPD want

friends but are too shy to make any
AVPD vs. social phobia: social phobia is a fear of
embarrassment, AVPD is more a fear of rejection
AVPD vs. DPD: both cling to relationships, but
AVPD are slow to get involved while DPD actively
and aggressively seek relationships
AVPD Tx: psychotherapy + assertiveness training
Dependent personality disorder: excessive need to
be taken care of OBEDIENT Obsessive about
approval, Bound by others decisions, Enterprises
rarely initiated, Difficulty decision-making, Invalid
feelings while alone, Engrossed w/ fears, Needs to
be in a relationship, Tentative about decisions
DPD defense mechanism: regression (reverting
back to childlike behavior)

PD Tx: psychotherapy for all PDs except borderline

(use DBT) and antisocial

Borderline personality disorder: IMPULSIVE

Impulsive, Moody, Paranoid, Unstable self-image,
Labile relationships, Suicidal, Inappropriate anger,
Vulnerable to abandonment, Emptiness

Personality traits vs. PD: PDs show impairment of

social or occupational functioning, traits dont

BPD buzzwords: best doctor ever, multiple

meds dont work, >5 allergies, h/o cutting


BPD epidemiology: women > men, high rate of

childhood sexual abuse, 10% suicide rate

DPD vs. BPD/HPD: DPD have long-lasting

relationships w/ one person, BPD/HPD are unable
to maintain a long-lasting relationship

BPD defense mechanism: splitting (people are all

good or bad, no in-betweens)

DPD Tx: psychotherapy (especially groups and

social skills training)

Paranoid personality disorder: general distrust of

others suspicious of spouse and others, grudges,
preoccupied w/ doubts, non-trusting, quick to
counterattack, etc.
PPD defense mechanism: projection (attributing
inappropriate thoughts/emotions onto another)
PPD vs. social isolation: pts w/o social support
system can react w/ suspicion to others, DDx by
getting collateral regarding baseline
PPD Tx: psychotherapy
Schizoid personality disorder: voluntary social
withdrawal friends, sexual interest, emotional
detachment, indifferent to others, anhedonia, etc.
SPD defense mechanism: fantasy (imagination
used as an escape where others arent needed
for emotional fulfillment)
SPD vs. AVPD: SPD want to be alone, AVPD want
friends but are too shy to make any

BPD Tx: dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) +

setting clear boundaries
Histrionic personality disorder: excessive attentionseeking and emotionality, inappropriately seductive,
flirtatious, exaggeration-prone
HPD defense mechanism: regression (reverting
back to childlike behavior) and repression
(unconsciously avoiding bad thoughts)
HPD vs. BPD: HPD pts generally more functional;
BPD pts more likely to have MDD, brief psychotic
episodes, and attempt suicide

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: preoccupation w/ orderliness, control, and perfection at

the expense of efficacy
OCPD epidemiology: men > women, oldest child
OCPD vs. OCD: OCD is ego-dystonic (marked
distress over sx), OCPD is ego-syntonic
OCPD vs. NPD: both involve achievement, but
OCPD loves the work and NPD loves the status
OCPD Tx: psychotherapy

HPD Tx: psychotherapy + setting clear boundaries

Narcissistic personality disorder: poor self-esteem
need for admiration, lack of empathy, sense of
entitlement, arrogance, fishing for compliments,
takes advantage of others, etc.

Passive-aggressive personality disorder: stubborn,

inefficient procrastinors that alternate between
compliance and defiance, make excuses and
manipulate others into doing their chores/errands
PAPD Tx: psychotherapy

SPD Tx: psychotherapy

Schizotypal personality disorder: eccentric thoughts
or behavior + discomfort w/ close relationships
friends, ideas of reference, suspiciousness,
inappropriate/restricted affect, excessive social
anxiety, magical thinking, etc.

DPD vs. AVPD: both cling to relationships, but

AVPD are slow to get involved while DPD actively
and aggressively seek relationships

NPD vs. ASPD: both characterized by exploiting

others, but NPD is for self-elevation and ASPD is
for material gain or subjugation of others
NPD Tx: psychotherapy group therapy to learn

STPD vs. SPD: SPD + eccentric behavior = STPD


STPD Tx: psychotherapy

Avoidant personality disorder: intense fear of

rejection AFRAID Avoids occupation w/ others,
Fear of criticism, Reserved unless sure of being liked,
Always thinking rejection, Isolated from
relationships, Distant from others

Depressive personality disorder: chronically

unhappy, pessimistic, self-doubting, distressed, etc.

Substance-Related Disorders


EtOH metronidazole/sulfa drugs: N/V

Abuse: 1/4 WILD for 1 year Work/school/home

obligation failure, Interpersonal consequences,
Legal problems, Dangerous use

EtOH pregnancy: fetal alcohol syndrome,

leading cause of MR/DD in US
Banana bag: thiamine + folate + MVI + MgSO4 + IVF

Dependence: 3/7 for 1 year tolerance, withdrawal,

time-consuming, cant cut down, activities, use >
intended amount, use despite problems

Alcohol withdrawal: starts in 6-24 hrs and lasts 1 wk;

mild sx = irritability, hand tremors, insomnia;
moderate sx = sympathetic activity; severe = DTs

Tolerance: need amount to achieve same effect

Withdrawal: substance-specific syndrome due to
cesssation following heavy and prolonged use
Substance-use epidemiology: 17% prevalence, MC
substances are alcohol and nicotine, men > women
(think VA population)
Substance types: sedatives, stimulants, opioids,
Sedatives: alcohol, sedative-hypnotics (e.g. BDZs
and barbiturates), inhalants
Stimulants: strong cocaine, amphetamines,
MDMA/MDEA; weak caffeine, nicotine
Opioids: heroin, oxycodone, codeine,
dextromethorphan (cough syrup), morphine,
methadone, meperidine (Demerol)
Hallucinogens: phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine,
psilocybin, mescaline, LSD, marijuana

EtOH withdrawal Tx: BDZ taper, banana bag,

monitor sx w/ CIWA scale
Alcohol dependence: 2/4 CAGE Cut down, Annoyed
by criticism, Guilty about drinking, Eye opener
EtOH dependence Tx: disulfiram (Antabuse)
blocks aldehyde DH aversive reaction;
naltrexone blocks opioid-R cravings;
acamprosate GABA/glu cravings
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: COAT RACK
Wernicke encephalopathy: acute thiamine
deficiency reversible Confusion, Ophthalmoplegia (CN6 palsy), Ataxia, Thought disturbances;
Tx IV thiamine
Korsakoff psychosis: chronic thiamine deficiency
irreversible Retrograde /Anterograde amnesia,
Sedative-hypnotics: BDZs, barbiturates, zolpidem,
zaleplon, GHB, meprobamate, etc.
BDZs: GABA frequency, used for anxiety

Alcohol: potent CNS depressant (GABA, 5-HT,

VGCC, glu), MC abused substance in the US
Alcohol metabolism: alcohol + dehydrogenase
acetaldehyde + dehydrogenase acetic acid;
common cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis
Alcohol intoxication: fine motor control (BAL 2050), judgment and coordination (50-100), ataxic
gait and balance (100-150), lethargy and amnesia
(150-250), possible coma and death (>300)
EtOH intoxication Dx: breathalyzer test,
blood/urine testing (more accurate); labs show
EtOH intoxication Tx: ABCs and banana bag;
possible injury head CT, massive EtOH within
past hour GI evacuation

Inhalant OD: death 2/2 RR or arrhythmias

Inhalant intoxication Tx: ABCs, identify solvent
b/c some (e.g. leaded gas) may require chelation
Inhalant withdrawal: rare

Delirium tremens: delirium, VH/TH, gross tremor,

autonomic instability, seizures 15-25% mortality

Sedatives: alcohol, sedative-hypnotics (e.g. BDZs
and barbiturates), inhalants

Inhalant intoxication: perceptual disturbances,

psychosis, N/V, euphoria, lethargy stupor coma

Barbiturates: GABA duration, used as

anesthetics and antiepileptics, lower margin of
safety vs. BDZs
Sedative-hypnotic intoxication: drowsiness,
confusion, slurred speech, incoordination, ataxia, etc.
SH intoxication Dx: +UDS for variable amount of

Stimulants: strong cocaine, amphetamines,

MDMA/MDEA; weak caffeine, nicotine
Cocaine: blocks DA reuptake stimulant effect +
activates reward system; blocks NE reuptake
Cocaine intoxication: euphoria, self-esteem,
sympathetic activity, TH, paranoia; possible death
by MI, stroke, seizure, arrhythmia, or RR
Cocaine intoxication Dx: +UDS for 2-4 days
Cocaine intoxication Tx: mild agitation/anxiety
BDZs, severe agitation/psychosis haloperidol,
T>102 ice bath or cooling blanket
Cocaine alcohol: cocaethylene metabolite has
24 mortality vs. cocaine alone
Cocaine dependence: purely psychological
Cocaine dependence Tx: psychotherapy, no FDAapproved pharmacotherapy exists
Cocaine withdrawal: aka crash, non-life threatening,
extreme exhaustion following coke binge, severe
depression risk of suicide
Cocaine withdrawal Tx: refer to Narcotics
Anonmyous, resolves w/o meds
Amphetamines: D-amphetamine, methylphenidate,
methamphetamine; blocks DA/NE reuptake and
causes DA/NE release stimulant effect
Amphetamine intoxication: dilated pupils, libido,
sweating, RR, chest pain; heavy use
amphetamine psychosis (mimics SCZ)

SH OD: respiratory depression death,

especially when combined w/ EtOH

Amphetamine intoxication Dx: +UDS for 1-3 days

SH intoxication Tx: BDZs flumazenil,

barbiturates IV NaHCO3

Amphetamine OD: hyperthermia, dehydration,

rhabdomyolysis renal failure

Sedative-hypnotic withdrawal: life-threatening,

presents similar to alcohol withdrawal; barbiturate
withdrawal has highest mortality rate of all drugs

EtOH H2-blockers: EtOH levels

Amphetamine intoxication Tx: IVF + electrolytes,

treat hyperthermia
Chronic amphetamine use: acne + meth mouth

SH withdrawal Tx: BDZ taper

EtOH sedative-hypnotics: respiratory
depression death
EtOH NSAIDs: GI bleeding
EtOH acetaminophen/INH: hepatotoxicity

Amphetamine withdrawal: prolonged depression

GHB: aka sodium oxybate, CNS depressant that
causes memory loss, respiratory distress, coma;
common date rape drug, used to Tx cataplexy
Inhalants: CNS depressants; includes solvents, glue,
paint thinners, fuels, isobutyl nitrates

MDMA/MDEA: aka ecstasy and eve, both stimulants

and hallucinogens that induce sense of closeness w/
others, associated w/ clubs and raves
MDMA/MDEA SSRI: serotonin syndrome

Substance-Related Disorders

Caffeine: adenosine antagonist + PDE blocker

cAMP, stimulant effect via dopaminergic system
Caffeine intoxication: sympathetic activity, anxiety,
diuresis, insomnia, GI distress
Caffeine OD: tinnitus, severe agitation, and
arrhythmias (>1 g); seizures death (>10 g)

Hallucinogen intoxication: perceptual changes,

labile affect, dilated pupils, RR/BP/HR usually
lasting 6-12 hrs
Hallucinogen intoxication Tx: monitor closely,
agitated psychosis BDZ or antipsychotics
Hallucinogen withdrawal: no withdrawal syndrome,
but LSD flashbacks can occur due to storage in fat

Caffeine intoxication Tx: supportive care

PCP: aka angel dust, NMDA antagonist
Caffeine withdrawal: headache, fatigue, irritability,
drowsiness, mild depression
Caffeine withdrawal Tx: self-resolves in 1 week
Nicotine: nicotinic agonist, addictive effect through
the dopaminergic system
Nicotine prevalence: 21%, MCC of preventable
morbidity and mortality in US
Nicotine withdrawal: intense craving and dysphoria,
anxiety, irritability, restlessness
Nicotine withdrawal Tx: varenciline (Chantix) and
buproprion (Zyban) are partial nicotinic agonists;
nicotine patch or gum

PCP intoxication: RED DANES Rage, Erythema,

Dilated pupils, Delusions, Amnesia, Nystagmus
(vertical or rotary is pathognomonic), Excitation,
Skin dryness
PCP intoxication Dx: +UDS for 3-8 days, labs show
PCP OD: seizures, coma, possible death
PCP intoxication Tx: monitor closely; mild
agitation/anxiety lorazepam, severe
agitation or psychosis haloperidol
PCP withdrawal: no withdrawal syndrome, but
flashbacks can occur due to storage in body fat

Nicotine pregnancy: low birth weight and chronic

pulmonary hypertension

Ketamine: aka special K, NMDA antagonist but less

potent than PCP, often used as a date rape drug


Ketamine intoxication: tachycardia, tachypnea,

hallucinations, and amnesia

Opioids: opiate receptor (//) agonists; heroin,

oxycodone, codeine, dextromethorphan (cough
syrup), morphine, methadone, meperidine (Demerol)
Opioid intoxication: respiratory depression,
pupillary constriction (except Demerol Dilation),
sedation, pain, GI motility
Opioid intoxication Dx: +UDS for 2-4 days;
methadone and oxycodone are false negatives,
poppy seed bagels are false positive

Marijuana: aka weed, main ingredient is THC

cannabinoid receptor agonist inhibit adenylate
cyclase cAMP
Marijuana intoxication: euphoria, red eyes, dry
mouth, munchies, anxiety, perceptual disturbances
MJ intoxication Dx: +UDS for 3 days (single use)
to 4 weeks (heavy users)
MJ intoxication Tx: psychosocial interventions

Opioid OD: classic triad RAM Respiratory

depression, Altered mental status, Miosis
Opioid intoxication Tx: ABCs, naloxone or
naltrexone will help respiratory depression but
can precipitate withdrawal syndrome

Chronic MJ use: respiratory sx + gynecomastia

Marijuana withdrawal: irritability, anxiety,
restlessness, depression, headaches, etc.
MJ withdrawal Tx: supportive care

Meperidine MAOI: serotonin syndrome

Opioid withdrawal: violent yawning, dilated pupils,
abdominal cramps, secretions (lacrimation,
rhinorrhea, sweating, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea);
not life-threatening
Opioid withdrawal Tx: moderate CLIP
Clonidine, Loperamide, Ibuprofen, Promethazine;
severe methadone or buprenorphine detox,
monitor sx w/ COWS scale
Hallucinogens: psilocybin (shrooms), mescaline
(peyote cactus), LSD (acid); LSD acts on 5-HT system

Dronabinol (Marinol): pill-form of THC used to Tx

anorexia in AIDS pts and N/V in chemotherapy pts

Cognitive Disorders

Cognitive disorder: significant change in cognition

from previous level of functioning; two types
delirium and dementia



waxing-andwaning change in
pts level of
3 days 2 wks
immediate and
recent memory
abnormal EEG

impairment in
memory and
other cognitive
months yrs
recent and
remote memory
abnormal MRI

Dementia hypothyroidism: reversible, presents

as obesity, coarse hair, constipation, and cold
intolerance; Dx TSH and T4 levels
Dementia B12: presents as diminshed position
and vibration sensation; Dx B12 levels
Dementia neurosyphilis: presents as diminshed
position and vibration sensation, and ArgyllRobertson pupils (accomodates but doesnt
respond to light); Dx CSF FTA-ABS or VDRL levels
Dementia Wilson disease: presents as tremor,
LFTs, and Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings; Dx
serum ceruloplasmin levels


Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE): screening test to

Dx dementia; 30 is perfect score, <25 is dementia

Delirium: aka encephalopathy, waxing-and-waning

change in pts level of consciousness; commonly
presents w/ VH, short attention span, and impaired
recent memory

Alzheimer disease: MCC dementia gradual

progressive decline in memory and other cognitive
functions, average 10 yrs from onset to death

Delirium risk factors: common in elderly, ICU pts,

s/p surgery pts, and cancer pts
Delirium management: r/o life-threatening
causes, then ID and Tx the underlying cause
Delirium causes: AEIOU TIPS Alcohol/drug toxicity
or withdrawal, Electrolyte imbalance, Iatrogenic,
Oxygen hypoxia, Uremia/hepatic encephalopathy,
Trauma, Infection, Poison, Seizures, Stroke
Delirium CVA/mass lesion: presents as focal
neuro sx (e.g. hemiparesis); Dx brain CT/MRI
Delirium HTN encephalopathy: presents as BP
and papilledema; Dx brain CT/MRI
Delirium drug intoxication: presents as HR
and dilated pupils; Dx urine toxicology screen
Delirium meningitis: presents as fever, nuchal
rigidity, and photophobia; Dx lumbar puncture
Delirium thyrotoxicosis: presents as HR,
tremor, and thyromegaly; Dx TSH and T4 levels
Delirium hepatic encephalopathy: due to
ammonia, Tx lactulose + neomycin

Dementia: progressive and irreversible impairment

in memory and other cognitive functions w/o change
in level of consciousness
Dementia epidemiology: prevalence doubles
every 5 years (1.5% at 60, 40% at 90)
Dementia management: r/o reversible causes
Dementia types: Alzheimer (#1), vascular (#2), Lewy
body (#3), Pick/FTD, HIV-associated, Huntington,
Cruetzfeldt-Jakob, normal pressure hydrocephalus

Pick disease/frontotemporal dementia: diverse

group of dementias, average 5 yrs from onset to
death (more rapid than Alzhimer)
Pick/FTD Sx: profound changes in personality and
social conduct, disinhibition, hyperorality, hypersexuality; good memory and language though
Pick/FTD brain: gross marked atrophy of frontal
and temporal lobes; microscopic neuronal loss
and astrocytosis of cortical layer II
Pick/FTD Tx: anticholinergics and antidepressants
help w/ behavior but not cognition
HIV-associated dementia: MCC dementia due to
infectious disease, neutropenia infection

AD NTs: ChAT ACh synthesis

HAD Sx: rapid decline in memory, cognition,

behavior, and motor skills; depression and social
withdrawal also common

AD etiology: amyloid cascade hypothesis high

risk genes (presenilin I, presenilin II, APP, and
apoE4) predispose to excess A-amyloidosis


AD Dx: diagnosis of exclusion, definitive diagnosis

requires brain biopsy
AD brain: gross diffuse atrophy with enlarged
ventricles and flattened sulci; microscopic senile
plaques, neural plaques, and neurofibrillary
tangles (not specific to Alzheimer)

Huntington disease: AD disorder due to CAG

trinucleotide repeats on chromosome 4, shows
anticipation (longer CAG repeats correlates with
earlier age of onset)
HD Sx: chorea, apathy, depression, and dementia
with onset at 35-50 y/o, rate of suicide
HD brain: atrophy of caudate nucleus

AD Tx: AChE-inhibitors for mild-to-moderate AD

(tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine),
NMDA antagonist for moderate-to-severe AD
Alzheimer Down syndrome: trisomy 21 triple
apoE4 expression inevitable Alzheimer by 40 y/o
Vascular dementia: 2nd MCC dementia, due to
accumulation of multiple small infarcts stepwise
loss of function + focal neurological sx
VD Dx: multiple small lacunar infarcts on CT scan,
sensitive but not specific for vascular dementia

Parkinson disease: loss of dopaminergic neurons

both physical and cognitive impairment

VD risk factors: previous stroke, diabetes, HTN

PD Sx: early PD presents as TRAP Tremor,

Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural instability; late PD
presents as Alzheimer-like dementia

VD Tx: no effective cure; AChE-inhibitors and

antihypertensives can help

PD brain: neuronal death in substantia nigra,

senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles

Sundowning: worsening of delirium at night


LBD Tx: AChE-inhibitors for VH, antiparkinsonians

and psychostimulants for motor sx

VD frontal lobe infarct: sx of schizophrenia,

depression, and bipolar I disorder
Lewy body dementia: 3rd MCC dementia, due to
Lewy body and neurite accumulations in the basal
LBD Sx: presents as waxing-and-waning
parkinsonism, VH, and antipsychotic sensitivity
LBD Dx: onset of dementia within 12 mo of
parkinsonism (after 12 mo of onset is Parkinsons)

PD Tx: early PD carbidopa + levodopa

(Sinemet), late PD subthalamic nucleus deep
brain stimulation; antipsychotics will exacerbate
dementia due to PD
Prion diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru,
Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome, fatal familial
insomnia, bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: rapidly progressive CNS
degeneration due to abnormal prion accumulation;
either inherited, sporadic, or acquired

Cognitive Disorders

CJD Sx: rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus

(muscle spasms), and personality changes
CJD Dx: probable clinical picture + periodic
generalized sharp waves on EEG; definitive
spongiform change on brain biopsy
Normal pressure hydrocephalus: potentially
reversible dementia due to CSF pressure
enlarged ventricles
NPH Sx: 3 Ws Wet (urinary incontinence),
Wobbly (gait apraxia), Wacky (dementia)
NPH Tx: CSF shunt to relieve pressure
Pellagra: vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency 3 Ds
Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Herpes encephalopathy: involves temporal lobes

Geriatric Psychiatry

Normal aging: brain volume w/ enlarged ventricles,
muscle, fat, vision/hearing, minor forgetfulness
Elderly MDD: MC psychiatric disorder in elderly,
incidence s/p MI, stroke, and new admits to nursing
Elderly suicide: white elderly males have highest
rate of successful suicides




MDD + cognitive
defects due to
often answers I
dont know,
aware of
cognitive defects
respond to antidepressants

impairment in
memory and
other cognitive
unaware of
defects persist
despite antidepressants

Pseudodementia: MDD + cognitive defects due to

underlying depression, often mistaken for dementia
Pseudodementia Tx: supportive psychotherapy +
low-dose antidepressants (SSRIs > TCAs/MAOIs,
use nortriptyline if TCA is preferred); depression +
low appetite + insomnia mirtazapine
Dementia: progressive and irreversible impairment
in memory and other cognitive functions w/o change
in level of consciousness
Dementia epidemiology: prevalence doubles
every 5 years (1.5% at 60, 40% at 90)
Dementia types: Alzheimer (#1), vascular (#2),
Lewy body (#3), Pick/FTD, HIV-associated,
Huntington, Cruetzfeldt-Jakob, normal pressure
Dementia Tx: behavioral and environmental Tx
preferred over pharmacotherapy (see cognitive
disorders for specifics)
Grief: aka bereavement, normal reaction to a major
loss, does not present w/ SI or disorganization
Kbler-Ross stages of grief: denial, anger,
bargaining, depression, acceptance
Normal grief: normal response to loss, lasts <2
months and has illusions but no delusions,
hallucinations, or SI
Complicated grief: lasts 6 months and 4/8 Tired
And NUMBED Trouble accepting loss, Agitation,
Numbness, Untrusting, Meaninglessness, Bitterness,
Emptiness, Difficulty moving on
Bereavement-associated depression: essentially
MDD following death or loss, similar to complicated
grief but may have delusions, hallucinations, or SI

BAD Tx: antidepressants psychotherapy; acute

risk hospitalization, unresponsive to drugs
ECT (safe and effective in elderly)
Elderly alcohol abuse: elderly have alcohol
dehydrogenase BAL w/ fewer drinks; CNS
sensitivity to alcohol
Medical conditions worsened by alcohol: liver
diseases, GI diseases, CV diseases, gout, diabetes,
depression, anxiety
Elderly sleep: sleep efficiency and total sleep
(stage 1-2, stage 3-4, REM latency, total REM);
incidence of sleep disorders
Periodic leg movements: restless leg movements
during sleep, due to dopamine imbalance
Sleep disturbance Tx: fix sleep hygiene, stop
drinking, stop napping, fix underlying causes;
hydroxyzine or trazodone are second-line
Elderly antidepressants: elderly are very sensitive
to anticholinergic side-effects, including dry mouth,
constipation, blurry vision, etc.
Restraints: should be used as a last resort in nonemergency situations, consider pt health and safety
Medications: polypharmacy is common in elderly,
side-effects due to liver/kidney function and lean
body mass
Elderly abuse: 10% incidence, perpetrator is usually
the caregiver of the victim; can be physical, psychological, neglect, or exploitation (rarely sexual)
Nursing homes: provide care and rehab for both
chronically ill and short-term care pts; 50% stay on
permanently, 50% are d/c after a few months

Child Psychiatry

Mental retardation: IQ 70 and deficits in adaptive
skills, with onset before 18 y/o
MR/DD types: profound <25, severe 25-40,
moderate 40-55, mild 55-70 (intervals of 15)
MR/DD causes: 50% idiopathic, Down syndrome (MC
genetic), Fragile X (MC inherited), fetal alcohol
syndrome (overall MCC); prenatal, perinatal, or
postnatal pathology
TORCHES complex: perinatal infections than can
lead to MR/DD, includes Toxoplasmosis, Rubella,
CMV, Herpes simplex, Syphilis
Prader-Willi syndrome: partial deletion of 15q
MR/DD, obesity, hypogonadism, almond eyes
Fragile X syndrome: MC inherited form of MR/DD;
X-linked CGG trinucleotide expansion in FMR1
gene causes DSM-IV Discontinued chromosomal
staining, Shows anticipation, Males, Mental
retardation, Macrognathia, Macroorchidism
Learning disorders: achievement in reading, writing,
or math that is significantly lower than expected;
must r/o sensory deficits first
Learning disorder types: reading disorder (MC),
mathematics disorder, writing disorder
Learning disorder Tx: remedial education
Disruptive behavior disorders: includes oppositional
defiant disorder and conduct disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder: >6 months of hostile
and defiant behavior towards parents/teachers, but
perfectly fine w/ peers
ODD Tx: individual psychotherapy + family
Conduct disorder: hostile and defiant behavior
towards everyone
CD in boys: cruelty to animals, fighting, stealing,
fire-setting, vandalism
CD in girls: lying, running away, promiscuity
CD Px: 40% of conduct d/o ASPD
CD Tx: multimodal approach w/ family and
teacher involvement
CD vs. ASPD: conduct disorder <18 y/o, ASPD 18 y/o
CD vs. ODD: unlike conduct disorder, ODD doesnt
involve physical aggression or violation of basic
rights of others
CD vs. pyromania: pyromaniacs light things on fire
due to inner tension, not out of anger issues

Attention deficit disorder: >6 months of hyperactivity, inattentiveness, or both; onset before 7 y/o
ADHD types: inattentive type, hyperactiveimpulsive type, combined type
ADHD prevalence: boys > girls, >50% have
comorbid psychiatric diagnosis

CDD vs. Rett: similar loss of previously acquired skills,

but CDD has no head growth or hand wringing
Tic disorders: characterized by sudden, repetitive,
involuntary movements (motor tics) or vocalizations
(vocal tics); one of few DSM-IV Dx that dont require
significant distress as a qualifier

ADHD Px: 50% go onto adulthood untreated

Coprolalia: repetitive speaking of obscene words
ADHD Tx: CNS stimulants are DOC w/ 75% success
rate, second-line is atomoxetine and 2-agonists
(clonidine, guanfacine)
ADHD vs. MR/DD: both struggle w/ academic
performance, so differentiate via IQ tests

Echolalia: exact repetition of words

Tourette disorder: most severe tic disorder w/
multiple daily motor/vocal tics, onset before 18 y/o


Tourette prevalence: very rare; rate of comorbid

OCD (40%) and ADHD (50%)

Pervasive developmental disorders: includes autism,

Asperger, Rett, and childhood disintegrative d/o

Tourette etiology: multifactorial, involves

impaired dopamine regulation in caudate nucleus

Autistic disorder: characterized by problems w/

social interaction, impaired communication, and
repetitive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and
activity; must be present by 3 y/o

Tourette Tx: risperidone and 2-agonists

(clonidine, guanfacine) are DOC; severe cases
typical antipsychotics, tics+OCD SSRIs

Autism prevalence: 70% meet criteria for MR/DD;

associated w/ fragile X syndrome, tuberous
sclerosis, and seizures
Autism Px: most important predictors of adult
outcome are intelligence and communication
Autism Tx: no cure, but remedial education and
behavioral therapy can help w/ developing skills
Autism vs. deafness: toddler w/ communication
skills needs hearing test to r/o deafness
Asperger disorder: mild autism w/ normal language
skills and cognitive development, often rigid and
overly formal in social interaction

Enuresis: involuntary urination (bed-wetting) after 5

y/o, 2/week for 3 months
Enuresis etiology: genetics, stress (MC), small
bladder, or nocturnal ADH
Enuresis Tx: DDAVP is DOC, imipramine is secondline
Encopresis: involuntary defecation after 5 y/o,
1/month for 3 months
Encopresis etiology: genetics, stress, lack of
sphincter control, or constipation w/ overflow
incontinence (MC)
Encopresis Tx: usually remits spontaneously,
bowel catharsis + stool softeners if it doesnt

Aspie Tx: supportive Tx similar to autism

Rett disorder: normal development for 5 months,
followed by rate of head growth and loss of
purposeful hand movements; then ataxia, language
skills, and hand wringing
Rett etiology: MECP2 on X chromosome (only
girls get the disease, guys all die in utero)
Rett Px: cognitive development never progresses
beyond first year of life, risk of sudden death

Selective mutism: refusal to speak in certain

situations for 1 month despite normal language and
comprehension skills
Mutism Tx: psychotherapy, behavioral therapy,
management of anxiety
Separation anxiety disorder: excessive fear of
leaving parents or other figures for 4 weeks
SAD Px: risk factor for development of panic d/o
or agoraphobia as an adult

Rett Tx: supportive care

Childhood disintegrative disorder: normal development for >2 years, then loss of previously acquired
skills before 10 y/o
CDD prevalence: boys > girls, rate of abnormal
EEG and seizures
CDD Tx: supportive care

SAD Tx: family therapy, CBT, low-dose

Child abuse: either physical abuse, emotional abuse,
sexual abuse, or neglect (MC); doctors must report
to child protective services
Sexual abuse prevalence: 15-25%, perpetrator is
usually the childs parent

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociation: loss of memory, identity, or sense of
self; often following trauma, may involve NE + glu
Abreaction: strong reaction pts get when retrieving
traumatic memories
Dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia,
dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder,
depersonalization disorder, dissociative disorder
Dissociative amnesia: 1+ episode of inability to recall
personal information; not due to TBI, medical
condition, substance abuse, or ordinary amnesia
DA epidemiology: MC dissociative disorder,
incidence of MDD and anxiety disorders
DA Tx: psychotherapy; most acute cases return to
normal after min-days, lorazepam or amobarbital
often used to help pt talk freely during interview
DA vs. dementia: DA cant recall common personal
info but can remember obscure details, dementia
can remember personal info but not obscure details
Dissociative fugue: sudden, unexpected travel away
from home + inability to recall ones past
DF epidemiology: rare, usually follows stressful
life event or personal conflict
DF Tx: same as DA
DF vs. DA: DA pts are aware of what they cant seem
to remember, DF dont acknowledge the amnesia
DF vs. transient global amnesia: DA pts show loss of
identity, global amnesia have difficulty with more
recent events but identity remains intact
Dissociative identity disorder: 2+ distinct identities +
inability to recall information about non-dominant
personalities; not due to substance abuse or medical
condition, existence is controversial
DID epidemiology: usually women w/ prior
trauma (e.g. childhood sexual abuse); incidence
of MDD, anxiety, BPD, substance abuse, suicide
DID Tx: psychotherapy; worst Px of all
dissociative disorders
DID DDx: DID-like sx may be seen in BPD, psychosis,
or malingering (factitious disorder)
Depersonalization: feeling that one is falling apart,
fragmenting, detached, not oneself, etc.
Derealization: feeling that the world is not real
Depersonalization disorder: persistent or recurrent
episodes of being detached from ones body or
mental processes; not due to substance use or
medical condition

DPD epidemiology: women > men, severe stress

is a risk factor, incidence of MDD and anxiety
DPD Tx: usually chronic, anxiety or MDD
anxiolytics or SSRIs
DPD vs. normal stress: transient depersonalization is
common during times of stress
Dissociative disorder NOS: loss of memory, identity,
or sense of self; but doesnt meet criteria for other
dissociative disorders
Ataque de nervios: Puerto Rican culturally-bound
trance disorder that consists of convulsive
movements, fainting, crying, and visual problems
Ganser syndrome: giving of approximate answers
to simple questions (e.g. how many legs do you

Somatoform and Factitious Disorders

Primary gain: internal motives (e.g. stress, anxiety)
as the cause of symptoms
Secondary gain: external motives (e.g. attention,
money, avoiding law) as the cause of symptoms
Mnchhausen syndrome: aka factitious disorder,
consciously feigning symptoms to play the sick role
(primary gain)
Mnchhausen Sx: triad of 3 Ps Peregrination,
Pseudologia phantastica, Polysurgery
Mnchhausen Tx: establish therapeutic alliance,
avoid confrontation and unnecessary procedures
Mnchhausen by proxy: intentionally producing
symptoms in someone else, usually ones children
must report child abuse
Malingering: consciously feigning symptoms for
external motives (secondary gain), presents w/
multiple vague complaints and a long medical hx
Somatoform disorders: not consciously feigning
symptoms, though no direct link to medical cause;
50% have comorbid anxiety d/o or MDD
Somatoform disorders gender: women > men,
except hypochondriasis where women = men
Somatization disorder: onset before 30 y/o with
multiple sx (4 pain + 2 GI + 1 sexual/GU + 1 neuro)
that are not intentionally produced
Somatization Px: chronic and debilitating, worse
under stress
Somatization Tx: r/o potential medical causes,
regularly scheduled visits w/ a single PCP who
limits extensive medical work-ups
Somatization vs. conversion: somatization pts are
concerned over condition, conversion dont care
Conversion disorder: conversion of a psych issue
into a neurological one, not limited to pain or sexual
dysfunction, preceeded by conflict or stressors
Conversion Sx: commonly paralysis, blindness,
mutism, parasthesias, seizures, globus hystericus
La belle indifference: apathy despite severity of
Conversion Tx: most spontaneously recover;
if it persists insight-oriented psychotherapy,
hypnosis, or relaxation therapy
Conversion in elderly: high chance of real neuro
deficit, get a neuro consult
Conversion seizures: use EEG to differentiate
between epileptic vs. nonepileptic seizures

Conversion neuropathy: consider multiple

Hypochondriasis: preoccupation w/ fear of having or
contracting a disease, based on misinterpretation of
bodily sx, for >6 months
Hypochondriasis epidemiology: 80% have
comorbid GAD or MDD (vs. 50% in other somatoform d/o), men = women (vs. women > men in
other somatoform d/o)
Hypochondriasis Tx: regularly scheduled visits w/
a single PCP
Hypochondriasis vs. somatization: somatization pts
have a long list of sx, hypochondriacs are worried
about a specific disease
Hypochondriasis vs. BDD: hypochondriasis + about a
specific body part = body dysmorphic disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder: self-consciousness +
preoccupation w/ imagined defect in appearance
BDD Tx: optional CBT SSRIs, avoid cosmetic
Pain disorder: significant pain as the CC, not fully
accounted for by a medical condition, not feigned,
and not regarding sex only (dyspareunia); acute if <6
months, chronic if >6 months
Pain Tx: validate pts pain, moderate
biofeedback and relaxation techniques, severe
antidepressants (not analgesics)

Impulse Control Disorders


Impulse control disorders: IED, kleptomania,
pathological gambling, trichotillomania, pyromania
Core qualities: anxiety before act, repetitive or
compulsive act in spite of consequences, lack of
control during act, relief or satisfaction after act
Intermittent explosive disorder: recurrent episodes
outbursts of aggression against people or property
that remit quickly and spontaneously
IED Tx: SSRIs + lithium + propanolol; individual
psychotherapy is difficult and ineffective
IED vs. amok: amok has amnesia and only in Asians
Kleptomania: inability to resist urges to steal objects
not needed for personal use or monetary reasons
Klepto etiology: multifactorial but with stress;
incidence of OCD, mood disorders, and eating
disorders (25% of bulimics are klepto)
Klepto Tx: insight-oriented psychotherapy +
behavioral therapy + SSRIs; anecdotal evidence
exists for naltrexone
Pathological gambling: persistent and recurrent
maladaptive gambling behavior
Gambling etiology: multifactorial; incidence of
OCD, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders
Gambling Tx: Gamblers Anonymous is first-line,
after 3 months of abstinence insight-oriented
psychotherapy, treat comorbid problems
Trichotillomania: recurrent, repetitive, intentional
pulling out of ones hair causing visible hair loss
Tricho etiology: multifactorial; incidence of
OCD/OCPD, borderline PD, and mood disorders
Tricho Tx: behavioral therapy + SSRIs, lithium, or
Pyromania: 1+ episode of deliberate fire setting +
fascination or attraction to fire; not for monetary
gain, expression of anger, or political statement
Pyro Tx: supervision + behavioral therapy + SSRIs

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,
binge-eating disorder (eating disorder NOS)
Anorexia nervosa: fear of being fat <85% ideal
body weight, amenorrhea in postmenarchal females

Bulimia complications: SPARKED Sialadenosis,

Petechiae, Aspirations, Arrhythmias due to K+,
Russells sign, Kleptomania (25%), Esophagitis,
Edema, Dental erosions or caries
Russells sign: calloused knuckles due to hitting
incisor teeth when inducing the gag reflex

Anorexia subtypes: restrictive type doesnt eat

and has OCPD traits; binge/purge type binge eats
followed by vomiting or exercising

Bulimia lab values: vomiting contraction alkalosis,

laxatives metabolic acidosis; BUN, HCO3-,
amylase, T4/T3, cortisol

Anorexia prevalence: 1%, most commonly in

women in industrialized countries

Bulimia vs. binge-eating disorder: both like to binge,

but bulimics try to control their weight afterwards

Anorexia Px: 10% mortality due to starvation,

suicide (57 normal rate), or cardiac failure

Binge-eating: excessive food intake within 2 hr

period + sense of lack of control

Anorexia Tx: food (behavioral therapy + family

therapy + supervised weight-gain programs);
excessive weight preoccupation low-dose 2G
antipsychotics, preprandial anxiety BDZs

Binge-eating disorder: recurrent binge-eating w/o

compensatory behavior, 2/wk for 6 months

Anorexia complications: BATCH Bone loss

(osteopenia/osteoporosis), Amenorrhea, Thyroid,
Constipation, Heart problems (cardiomyopathy, ACS,
MVP, arrhythmias due to K+)
Anorexia lab values: cortisol, QTc, chol, BUN, GH;
RBC/WBC, LH/FSH, E/T, T4/T3, glucose
Anorexia purging: contraction (hypokalemic,
hypochloremic metabolic) alkalosis
Anorexia DDx: endocrine disorders, GI diseases,
genetic disorders, cachexia (due to cancer/AIDS),
MDD, bulimia
Anorexia vs. bulimia: both may binge and purge, but
bulimics are normal weight and anorexics are <85%
Anorexia vs. MDD: both may refuse to eat, but
anorexics starve in spite of a good appetite and MDD
have poor appetite
Refeeding syndrome: occurs when severely
malnourished pts are refed too quickly fluid
retention and Ca/Mg/Ph RADS Respiratory
failure, Arrhythmias, Delirium, Seizures
Refeeding syndrome Tx: slow feedings and
replace electrolytes
Bulimia nervosa: binge eating + behaviors intended
to counteract weight gain, 2/wk for 3 months
Bulimia subtypes: purging type involves vomiting,
laxatives, enemas, or diuretics; nonpurging type
involves excessive exercise or fasting
Bulimia prevalence: 1-4%, most commonly in
women in industrialized countries
Bulimia Px: chronic and relapsing, but better Px
than anorexia nervosa
Bulimia Tx: SSRIs (fluoxetine) + therapy (CBT);
avoid buproprion which can seizure threshold

BED Tx: psychotherapy + behavioral therapy +

diet/exercise program; drugs can be used as an
adjunct (stimulants, orlistat, sibutramine)

Sleep Disorders

Normal sleep cycle: non-rapid eye movement sleep
(stages 1-4) alternating w/ REM sleep every 90 min
NREM: deeper sleep progression through stages;
stage 2 is tooth grinding, stage (delta sleep) is
sleepwalking, bedwetting, and sleep terrors
REM: dreaming, loss of motor tone, erections,
sympathetic activity (HR, RR, BP)
Sleep EEG waveforms: BATS Drink Blood Beta
(awake), Alpha (resting), Theta (1), Sleep spindles
and K complexes (2), Delta (), Beta (REM)
Sleep disorders: dyssomnias and parasomnias
Dyssomnias: / or altered timing of sleep
Primary insomnia: sleep duration and/or quality;
acute insomnia 1-4 wks, chronic insomnia >1 month
PI subtypes: sleep-onset insomnia (cant go to sleep),
sleep-maintenance insomnia (cant stay asleep),
sleep-offset insomnia (early morning awakenings),
nonrestorative sleep (wake up still tired)
PI etiology: usually poor sleep hygiene
PI Tx: fix sleep hygiene, Chronic insomnia CBT,
acute insomnia long-term BDZs or non-BDZ
hypnotics, insomnia + depression trazodone
Obstructive sleep apnea: difficulty breathing during
sleep snoring and apneic episodes sleep
fragmentation excessive daytime sleepiness
OSA etiology: repetitive upper airway collapse
due to obesity and/or airway narrowing
OSA Tx: first-line is weight loss and exercise,
second-line is CPAP or BiPAP, third-line is surgery
Narcolepsy: excess daytime sleepiness, cataplexy
(suddenly fainting w/ intense emotion), hypnogogic
and hypnopompic hallucinations
Narcolepsy etiology: loss of hypothalamic
neurons that contain hypocretin, may have autoimmune component

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: caused by defect

in circadian pacemaker or impaired entrainment;
includes DPSD, APSD, SWD, and jet lag disorders
Delayed sleep phase disorder: sleep onset and
awakening are delayed, but normal duration/quality
DPSD Tx: bright light phototherapy in the
morning, melatonin in the evening
Advanced sleep phase disorder: sleep onset and
awakening are early, but normal duration/quality
APSD Tx: bright light phototherapy in the evening
Shift-work disorder: sleep schedule is messed up
due to nontraditional work hours
SWD Tx: avoid risk factors, severe modafinil
Jet lag disorder: sleep schedule is messed up due to
travel across multiple time zones
Jet lag Tx: resolves by itself 2-3 days after travel
Parasomnias: unusual sleep-related behaviors (e.g.
movements, emotions, dreams, autonomic activity)
Sleepwalking: walking around during stage sleep
with glassy look on eyes, confusion or violence on
forced awakening, amnesia for episode
Sleepwalking etiology: unknown, usually not
associated w/ any psychiatric problems
Sleepwalking Tx: ensure child safety and wait;
refractory cases BDZs (clonazepam) or TCAs
Sleep terrors: sudden arousal w/ screaming during
stage sleep, sympathetic activity, confusion or
violence on forced awakening, amnesia for episode
Sleep terror etiology: comorbidity w/ restless
leg syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing
Sleep terror Tx: ensure child safety and wait;
refractory cases BDZs (clonazepam)
Nightmare disorder: recurrent nightmares w/ vivid
recall, no confusion or disorientation on awakening
Nightmare etiology: seen in >50% PTSD pts

Narcolepsy Tx: fix sleep hygiene, excess daytime

sleepiness stimulants (e.g. amphetamines,
modafinil), cataplexy sodium oxybate (GHB)
Idiopathic hypersomnia: excess daytime sleepiness,
prolonged nocturnal sleep, frequent urges to nap
Kleine-Levin syndrome: excess daytime sleepiness,
aggression, hyperphagia, hypersexuality
Circadian rhythm: sleep-wake cycle controlled by
suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus

Nightmare Tx: image rehearsal therapy (IRT),

severe antidepressants
REM sleep behavior disorder: dream enactment
(talking, yelling, walking, punching, etc.) that often
presents as injury to the pt or bed partner
RBD etiology: unknown, usually in senior males
RBD Tx: clonazepam, ensure safety
Restless leg syndrome: irresistable urge to move
ones legs while going to sleep; caused by pregnancy,
anemia, renal failure, or other metabolic d/o

Periodic limb movement disorder: aka nocturnal

myoclonus, frequent limb movement during sleep

Sexual Disorders

Sexual response cycle: desire to EXPLORE desire,
EXcitement, PLateau, Orgasm, REsolution
Refractory period: post-resolution period in
which men cant reexperience orgasm
Sex male aging: desire unchanged but requires
stimulation and time to orgasm, intensity of
ejaculation, refractory period
Sex female aging: desire unchanged but estrogen
levels vaginal dryness and thinning
Sex drugs: libido cocaine, amphetamines,
marijuana, and acute alcohol use; libido narcotics
and chronic alcohol use
Sex NTs: DA libido, 5-HT inhibits sexual function
Sex hormones: testosterone libido, progesterone
libido, postmenopausal estrogen levels vaginal
dryness and thinning
Substance-induced sexual dysfunction: anti-HTN,
anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants
(esp. SSRIs), or substance abuse
Sexual dysfunction 2/2 GMC: atherosclerosis (ED),
diabetes (ED + neuropathy), pelvic adhesions
(dyspareunia), depression or anxiety

Orgasmic disorder: cant orgasm or achieves orgasm

w/ great difficulty
Male OD Tx: gradually progress from extravaginal
ejaculation (via masturbation) to intravaginal

Fetishism: sexual preference for inanimate

objects (e.g. womens shoes)

Female OD Tx: masturbation vibrator

Transvestic fetishism: sexual gratification in men

from wearing womens clothing

Dyspareunia: genital pain before, during, or after

sexual intercourse; women > men, often associated
w/ vaginismus
Dyspareunia Tx: gradual desensitization to
achieve intercourse (muscle relaxation erotic
massage sexual intercourse)
Vaginismus: involuntary muscle contraction of
outer 1/3 of vagina during insertion; incidence in
higher socioeconomic groups and strict religious
Vaginismus Tx: manual dilation
Homosexuality: sexual/romantic desire for same sex,
not a sexual disorder, etiology unknown
Homosexual depression: consider MDD or
adjustment d/o due to conflict w/ societal values;
homosexuality is not a disorder
Homosexual prepuberty: same-sex exploratory
activities are common in prepubescent kids and
dont signify latent homosexuality

Sexual disorders: problems involving any stage of
sexual response cycle or pain during intercourse, not
due to substance use or GMC
MC sexual disorders: premature ejaculation and 2
ED in men, HSDD and orgasmic disorder in women
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: deficient or
absent libido
HSDD Tx: hormone replacement therapy
Sexual aversion disorder: avoidance of genital
contact w/ sexual partner
Erectile dysfunction: aka impotence, cant get it up,
either 1 (never had one) or 2 (had it but lost it)
ED Tx: PDE5-inhibitors (sildenafil) or alprostadil
injection are first-line; vacuum pumps, surgical
tube insertion, or constrictive rings
ED vs. psychological condition: men w/ psych
condition can get it up at other times (e.g. other
partners, masturbating, morning wood)
Sexual arousal disorder: cant get it wet
Premature ejaculation: ejaculation earlier than
Premature ejaculation Tx: SSRIs or TCAs can
prolong time to ejaculation

Masochism: sexual excitement from being hurt

or humiliated

Transsexuality: aka gender identity disorder, strong

cross-gender identification + persistent discomfort
w/ own sex
Transsexuality Tx: therapy, family involvement
for younger pts, possibly sex reassignment
Transsexual vs. transvestite: transsexuals identify
with the other sex, transvestites like to wear other
genders vestments (clothing)
Paraphilias: engagement or preoccupation w/
unusual sexual urges or fantasies, must last >6
months and interfere w/ daily life
MC paraphilias: pedophilia, voyeurism, exhibitionism
Pedophilia: getting turned on by kids <13 y/o,
pedophile must be >16 y/o and at least 5 years
older than the child
Frotteurism: sexual pleasure from touching or
rubbing up against a nonconsenting person
Voyeurism: watching unsuspecting nude people
for sexual pleasure
Exhibitionism: exposing self to others
Sadism: sexual excitement from hurting or
humiliating others

Necrophilia: sexual pleasure from f-ing a corpse

Telephone scatologia: sexual excitement from
calling unsuspecting women and having phone
sex with them
Paraphilia Px: good prognosis w/ self-referral (vs.
police arrest), sense of guilt, and low frequency of
Paraphilia Tx: insight-oriented psychotherapy +
aversion therapy; antiandrogens for refractory
hypersexual paraphilias in men
Paraphilia vs. normal fantasy: occasional fantasies
are normal if <6 months and dont interfere w/ daily
Transvestic fetishism vs. homosexuality: dressing up
as a woman doesnt mean youre turned on by men
Sexual disorder Tx: psychotherapy, medications,
and mechanical therapy all play a role
Psychotherapy: dual sex therapy for marriage or
couple issues, behavioral therapy for maladaptive
behaviors, hypnosis for anxiety
Pharmacotherapy: (see specific disorders)
Mechanical therapy: (see specific disorders)


Topographic theory: mind is composed of three
types of thoughts conscious, preconscious, and
Conscious thoughts: current thoughts and 2
process thinking (logical, mature, organized, etc.)
Preconscious thoughts: memories that are not
immediately aware but easy to recall
Unconscious thoughts: repressed thoughts that
are out of ones awareness, involves 1 process
thinking (primitive and pleasure-seeking)
Structural theory: mind is composed of three
identities id, ego, and super-ego

Displacement: redirecting thoughts or feelings

about one thing onto something more tolerable
Isolation of affect: separation of an unpleasant
idea from the feelings it evokes
Controlling: regulating aspects of external
environment to relieve anxiety
Immature defenses: acting out, denial, distortion,
fantasy, regression, passive aggression, projection,
projective identification, splitting, undoing
Acting out: giving into an impulse, even if its
socially inappropriate
Denial: not accepting reality that is too painful,
first stage of Kubler-Ross grief model

Id: primitive; involves sexual/aggressive urges

and 1 process thinking

Distortion: grossly reshaping external reality to

suit inner needs

Ego: realistic; mediates id, super-ego, and

external environment using defense mechanisms

Fantasy: substituting fantasy for reality to resolve

inner conflicts; characteristic of schizoid PD

Super-ego: idealistic; represents morals, society,

and parental teaching

Regression: reverting back to childlike behavior;

characteristic of histrionic PD and dependent PD

Normal development: id is present at birth, ego

develops after birth, superego begins at age 6
Defense mechanisms: used by ego to mediate id,
super-ego, and external environment; three types
mature, neurotic, and immature
Mature defenses: mature women wear a SASH
Sublimation, Altruism, Suppression, Humor
Sublimation: satisfying socially objectionable
impulses in an acceptable manner
Altruism: performing acts that benefit others to
feel better about oneself

Passive aggression: nonconfrontational

expression of aggression towards others
Projection: attributing ones inappropriate
thoughts or emotions onto another (e.g. stealing
from a friend you suspect is stealing from you)
Projective identification: attributing ones
inappropriate thoughts onto another, then
identifying with the countertransference
Splitting: labelling people as all good or all bad;
characteristic of borderline PD
Undoing: attempting to reverse a situation by
adopting a new behavior

Countertransference: doctor projects unconscious

feelings onto pt (e.g. all antisocial pts are
malingering for benzos)
Psychoanalysis-related therapies: brief dynamic
(psychoanalytically-oriented) therapy, interpersonal
therapy, supportive therapy
Brief dynamic therapy: like psychoanalysis but
briefer and face-to-face instead of lying on a
Interpersonal therapy: focuses on development
of social skills
Supportive therapy: focuses on helping pt feel
safe during a difficult time, builds up healthy
defense mechanisms, not insight-oriented
Behavioral therapy: uses learning theory to get rid of
bad behaviors and replace w/ healthy alternatives
Learning theory: behaviors can be learned by
conditioning, and extinguished by deconditioning
Classical conditioning: stimulus can eventually
evoke a conditioned response (e.g. Pavlovs dog)
Operant conditioning: uses positive (rewards)
or negative reinforcement (removing an aversive
stimulus) to encourage behavior
Systematic desensitization: pt uses relaxation
techniques while being exposed to increasing
doses of anxiety-provoking stimuli
Flooding and implosion: pt is exposed to real
(flooding) or imagined (implosion) anxietyprovoking stimuli and not allowed to withdraw
until he/she feels calm and in control
Aversion therapy: uses punishment to
discourage behavior (e.g. electric shock)

Suppression: consciously avoiding unacceptable
impulse or emotion (vs. repression)
Humor: using comedy to express thoughts or
feelings w/o discomfort to self or others
Neurotic defenses: RIDICulous Rationalization,
Reaction formation, Repression, Intellectualization,
Displacement, Isolation of affect, Controlling
Rationalization: making reassuring but incorrect
explanations for outcome or behavior
Reaction formation: doing the exact opposite of
an unacceptable impulse
Repression: unconsciously avoiding unacceptable
impulse or emotion (vs. suppression)
Intellectualization: using excessive abstract
thinking to avoid experiencing disturbing feelings

Split treatment: one psychiatrist provides

medication, another provides the therapy
Psychoanalysis: resolving unconscious conflicts by
making pt aware of repressed experiences and
feelings, then integrating them into consciousness;
an insight-oriented approach, 5 times/wk for years
Psychoanalysis techniques: free association, dream
interpretation, therapeutic alliance, interpretation of

Token economy: rewards (tokens) given after

specific behaviors for positive reinforcement
Biofeedback: vital signs given to pts as they try to
mentally control physiological states
Negative reinforcement vs. aversion therapy:
negative reinforcement removes aversive stimulus
to encourage behavior, aversion therapy adds an
aversive stimulus to discourage behavior
Cognitive therapy: identifying bad thoughts and
replacing them w/ positive ones

Free association: pt says whatever comes to mind

Dream interpretation: dreams represent conflict
between urges and fears, interpret for resolution
Therapeutic alliance: bond between pt and
Transference: pt projects unconscious feelings onto
doctor (e.g. therapist seen as father figure)

Cognitive behavioral therapy: identifying bad

thoughts, making the connection w/ bad behaviors,
then setting an agenda to change thoughts in order
to change behavior
Dialectical behavioral therapy: CBT subtype used to
self-destructive behavior, ideal Tx for borderline PD


Group therapy: 3+ pts w/ similar problems meet w/

therapist for behavioral, cognitive, or supportive
therapy; useful for substance abuse, adjustment d/o,
and personality d/o
Peer led group therapy: no therapist (e.g. AA)
Family therapy: sessions w/ entire family to reduce
conflict, help understand each others needs (mutual
accomodation), and cope w/ internally destructive
Boundaries and triangles: boundaries between
family members may be too rigid or permeable;
triangles are two family members against a third
Couples therapy: used to address conflicts, sexual
problems, and communication issues within couples
Couples therapy types: conjoint therapy (see
couple together), concurrent therapy (see both
separately), collaborative therapy (one therapist
per pt), four-way therapy (all of the above)


Anti-H2: sedation, weight gain
Anti-A1: orthostatic hypotension, sexual dysfunction
Anti-M: dry mouth, blurry vision, constipation,
urinary retention, exacerbates Alzheimer disease

CYP450: liver enzymes that metabolize drugs;

CYP450 inducers drug levels, CYP450 inhibitors
drug levels
CYP450 inducers: smoking, carbamazepine,
barbiturates, St. Johns wort
CYP450 inhibitors: fluvoxamine, fluoxetine,
paroxetine, duloxetine, sertraline

Anti-D2: anti-psychosis, EPS, prolactin

Anti-5-HT1c: weight gain

Teratogenic drugs: TCAs (fetal limb defects), VPA

(neural tube defects), lithium (Ebsteins anomaly),
BDZs (cleft palate + FAS facies)

5-HT2: agitation, akathisia

Mirtazapine (Remeron): can cause weight-gain and

TCAs: inhibit 5-HT/NE reuptake, rarely first-line since
OD can be lethal (Tx NaHCO3); three types tertiary
tricyclics, secondary tricyclics, tetracyclics
TCA side-effects: anti-HAM + 3 Cs Cardiotoxicity
(QTc), Convulsions, Coma; lots of interactions
(highly protein bound) and lethal in OD
2 vs. 3 TCAs: tertiary are more anticholinergic
and sedating, and more lethal in OD; secondary
are active metabolites of tertiary amines

Imipramine (Tofranil): Tx enuresis

5-HT3: diarrhea, nausea/vomiting

Anti-HAM side-effects: TCAs and low-potency antipsychotics can cause anti-H2, anti-1, anti-M
Serotonin syndrome: 5-HT fever, confusion,
flushing, sweats, tremor, hypertonicity, rhabdomyolysis renal failure, death
Serotonin syndrome combos: SSRI+MAOI,
SSRI+OTC cough medicine, SSRI+linezolid,
Serotonin syndrome Tx: cyproheptadine or BDZ,
avoid taking within 5 weeks of each other
Hypertensive crisis: MAOI+tyramines or sympathomimetics can cause NE/epi (severe HTN)
Extrapyramidal side-effects: high-potency typical
antipsychotics can cause Parkinsonism, akathisia,
and dystonia within days
EPS Tx: acute dystonia benztropine or
diphenhydramine, akathisia -blockers or BDZ,
Parkinsonism levodopa or amantadine
Tardive dyskinesia: high-potency typical antipsychotics can cause choreoathetosis of mouth and
tongue after years of use
TD Tx: irreversible, so monitor sx with AIMS
(abnormal involuntary movement scale)

Antidepressants: SSRIs, TCAs, MAOIs, and atypicals;

all have similar efficacy but differ in side-effect
profile, require 3-4 week trial to take effect, none
cause elation or have abuse potential

Amitriptyline (Elavil): strong anticholinergic sideeffects

Clomipramine (Anafranil): very sedating, Tx OCD

Withdrawal phenomenon: dizziness, headache,

N/V, insomnia, malaise after stopping most antidepressant use; may require tapering
SSRIs: first-line for MDD due to low incidence of
side-effects and safe in OD; includes fluoxetine,
sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, (es)citalopram
SSRI side-effects: sexual dysfunction, GI distress,
serotonin syndrome, black box for suicidality

Doxepin (Sinequan): very sedating, useful as a

sleep aid in low doses
Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl): fewest antiHAM side-effects
Desipramine (Norpramin): more activating, less
sedating, least anticholinergic

SSRI sexual dysfunction: switch to bupropion

Amoxapine (Asendin): metabolite of loxapine,

only antidepressant that can cause EPS

Fluoxetine (Prozac): longest T (fewest

withdrawal sx)

Maprotiline (Ludiomil): rate of seizures,

arrhythmias, and fatality w/ OD

Sertraline (Zoloft): highest GI distress

Paroxetine (Paxil): shortest T (highest
withdrawal sx), most anticholinergic side-effects
Fluvoxamine (Luvox): Tx OCD
Citalopram (Celexa): fewest drug interactions,
fewest sexual side-effects
Escitalopram (Lexapro): L-enantiomer of
citalopram, even fewer side-effects but more $$$

MAOIs: not first-line due to side-effects but useful

for atypical depression; includes phenelzine (Nardil),
tranylcypromine (Parnate), isocarboxazid (Marplan),
selegiline (Emsam)
MAOI side-effects: serotonin syndrome (MAOI+
SSRI within 5 weeks), HTN crisis (MAOI+tyramine)
Antipsychotics: typical (1G) and atypical (2G) are
both good for positive psychotic sx, but atypicals are
better for negative psychotic sx

Venlafaxine (Effexor): SNRI, BP

Withdrawal dyskinesia: tendency for TD to
temporarily increase following d/c antipsychotic
Hyperprolactinemia: high-potency antipsychotics
and risperidone can prolactin (galactorrhea,
amenorrhea, libido, infertility), due to dopamine in
tuberoinfundibular pathway
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: all antipsychotics
can cause FALTER Fever, Autonomic instability,
Leukocytosis, Tremor, Elevated CPK, lead pipe
Rigidity; mortality rate is 20%

Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq): SNRI, active metabolite of

venlafaxine, more $$$
Duloxetine (Cymbalta): SNRI, good for painful
diabetic neuropathy, more $$$
Buproprion (Wellbutrin): no sexual side-effects,
contraindicated with seizures and eating disorders
(risk of seizures)
Trazodone (Desyrel): can cause sedation and
priapism (Tx epi injection into penis)

NMS Tx: dantrolene or bromocriptine

Metabolic syndrome: atypical antipsychotics can
BP, insulin, body fat, risk of CAD/stroke/diabetes;
switch to typical antipsychotic if pt is at risk

Nefazodone (Serzone): can cause sedation, black

box for hepatotoxicity

Depot antipsychotics: long-acting decanoate forms

ideal for noncompliant psychotic pts; includes
haloperidol, fluphenazine, risperidone, paliperidone
Typical vs. atypicals: typicals have more EPS, tardive
dyskinesia, anti-HAM, and lethality in OD due to QTc
prolongation; atypicals have more weight gain, DKA,
and metabolic syndrome
Typical antipsychotics: blocks DA only
Typical side-effects: EPS (parkinsonism +
akathisia + dystonia), prolactin, anti-HAM,
tardive dyskinesia (1% annual incidence), NMS
Low potency: anti-HAM, EPS and TD; includes
chlorpromazine (corneal pigmentation + photo-


sensitivity) and thioridazine (retinal pigmentation

night blindness)
Mid-potency: midrange properties; includes
loxapine (seizures), thiothixene (ocular
pigmentation), trifluoperazine (anxiety), and
High potency: EPS and TD, anti-HAM;
includes haloperidol, fluphenazine, pimozide
Atypical antipsychotics: blocks both DA and 5-HT
Atypical side-effects: weight gain, DKA,
metabolic syndrome (monitor weight and lipids)
Clozapine (Clozaril): suicide but weight gain,
seizures, agranulocytosis (requires weekly WBC
counts), R-sided obstipation
Risperidone (Risperdal): #1 for prolactin and
dystonic reactions

Anticonvulsants: includes carbamazepine,
oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, lamotrigine,
gabapentin, pregabalin, tiagabine, topiramate

Ramelteon (Rozerem): melatonin MT-2/3 agonist

used for sedation, no tolerance/depedence

Carbamazepine (Tegretol): good for rapid-cycling

bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia; takes 5-7
days for onset and requires CBC/LFT monitoring

Buspirone (BuSpar): 5-HT1A partial agonist given for

anxiety, useful in alcoholics (no EtOH potentiation
like BDZ)

CBZ side-effects: BATHS Blood dyscrasias,

P450 Autoinduction, Teratogenic, Hepatotoxic,
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Valproic acid (Depakote): requires CBC/LFT/VPA
VPA side-effects: 4 Fs Fat (weight gain), Farts
(GI distress), Fatal hepatotoxicity, Fetal teratogen
(neural tube defects)
Lamotrigine (Lamictal): can VPA levels, causes
Stevens-Johnson syndrome so raise levels slowly

Paliperidone (Invega): metabolite of risperidone

Quetiapine (Seroquel): can cause sedation and
orthostatic hypotension

Chloral hydrate (Somnote): sedative, rarely used due

to tolerance/depedence and liver toxicity

Topiramate (Topamax): causes weight loss,

cognitive slowing (aka Dopamax), kidney stones
Gabapentin (Neurontin): good for chronic pain

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl): antihistamine given

for sedation, anticholinergic side-effects
Hydroxyzine (Atarax): antihistamine given for
anxiety, anticholinergic side-effects
Propanolol: -blocker used to Tx panic attacks,
performance anxiety, and akathisia
Psychostimulants: Tx ADHD and refractory
depression; includes D-amphetamine, amphetamine
salts, methylphenidate, atomoxetine, modafanil
Amphetamines (Dexedrine, Adderall): schedule II
(abuse potential), monitor BP and watch for weight
loss, insomnia

Olanzapine (Zyprexa): weight gain

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal): rarely used
Ziprasidone (Geodon): weight gain
Pregabalin (Lyrica): rarely used
Aripiprazole (Abilify): #1 for akathisia (Tx blockers or BDZ)
Ziprasidone doesnt work: pt wasnt eating, food is
required to activate Geodon in the body
Mood stabilizers: Tx acute mania and prevent
relapses of manic episodes, includes lithium and
anticonvulsants (valproic acid, lamotrigine,

Tiagabine (Gabatril): rarely used

Li+ side-effects: LMNOP Lithium causes

Movement (tremors Tx propanolol),
Nephrogenic DI, Narrow TI (0.6-1.2),
hypOthyroidism (Tx Synthroid), Pregnancy
problems (Ebsteins anomaly)
Li+ level factors: NSAIDs ( except aspirin),
dehydration (), salt deprivation (), sweating
(), renal failure (), diuretics ()

Modafanil (Provigil): used in narcolepsy

Anxiolytics: benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics/anxiolytics
Benzodiazepines: three types based on T (<6 hrs,
6-20 hrs, >20 hrs), choice of BDZ depends on onset,
duration, and metabolism

Non-liver metabolized BDZ: LOT Lorazepam,

Oxazepam, Temazepam
Long-acting BDZ: T >20 hrs; includes diazepam
(Valium) and clonazepam (Klonopin)

Lithium HTN: Tx Ca2+-channel blockers

Cognitive enhancers: used in dementia

AChE inhibitors: Tx mild Alzheimer disease; includes
donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine
Memantine (Namenda): NMDA blocker used for
moderate-severe Alzheimer disease
Electroconvulsive therapy: Tx refractory depression;
8-12 sessions given 3/week then monthly ECT to
prevent relapse; safe for pregnant and elderly

Intermediate-acting BDZ: T 6-20 hrs; includes

alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam
(Serax), and temazepam (Restoril)

ECT method: pt put under general anesthesia and

muscle relaxant, then electrodes induce a seizure;
efficacy based on length of postictal suppression

Short-acting BDZ: T <6 hrs; includes triazolam

(Halcion) and midazolam (Versed), used mainly in
medical and surgical settings

ECT side-effects: amnesia (MC), headaches,

muscle soreness, confusion

Barbiturates: rarely used b/c lethal in overdose

ECT electrodes: bilateral electrodes number of

sessions but amnesia and confusion

Barbiturate overdose: Tx IV NaHCO3

ECT efficacy: 75%

Non-benzo hypnotics: zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon

(Sonata), and eszopiclone (Lunesta); Tx short-term
insomnia, no tolerance/dependence

ECT c/i: recent MI, anything w/ possibility of

hemorrhagic stroke (raised ICP, aneurysms,
bleeding d/o, BBB distruption)

Lithium overdose: if blood level >4.0, hemodialysis

Lithium duration: maintain use for 1 year following
single episode, maintain for lifetime if 3+ relapses

Atomoxetine (Stattera): appetite suppression and

insomnia, but hepatotoxicity and SI in adolescents


BDZ overdose: give flumazenil

Lithium: DOC for acute mania and PPx for manic
episodes, takes 5-7 days for onset, only mood
stabilizer to suicidality

Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): schedule II

(abuse potential), monitor BP/CBC/LFTs and watch
for weight loss, insomnia


Deep brain stimulation: Tx chronic pain, Parkinsons

disease, tremor, and dystonia
DBS method: implant device in brain that sends
regular electrical impulses to specific regions,
high risk of surgical complications
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation:
noninvasive method to excite neurons via electromagnetic induction, Tx psychiatric conditions but
modest effects at best
rTMS side-effects: rare seizures, discomfort at
the delivery site
Light therapy: Tx seasonal affective disorder

Forensic Psychiatry


Parens patriae: protecting citizens who cant care

for themselves

Forensic psychiatry: psychiatry + legal issues

Legal issues: two types criminal if being charged
with a crime, civil if other rights are violated
Standard of care: skill level and knowledge base of
the average psychiatrist

Mental impairment: loss or derangement of a

mental function
Mental disability: inability to meet personal, social,
or occupational demands due to mental impairment

Negligence: practicing below standard of care

Malpractice: act of being negligent as a doctor;
must meet the 4 Ds Deviation (neglect) from
Duty that was the Direct cause of Damage
Damages: reward for malpractice case, includes
compensatory damages (financial reimbursement)
and punitive damages (money awarded to punish
the doctor)
Confidentiality: nondisclosure of information except
to another authorized person

Competence: legal term for pts ability to make

informed treatment decisions; 6th + 14th amendments
require competence to stand trial
6th amendment: right to counsel and to confront
14th amendment: right to due process of law
Conviction: judgment of guilty in a criminal case;
requires both actus reus (evil deed) and mens rea
(evil intent)

Exceptions: COPS Child abuse, Other staff

involved in pts care, Potential harm to others,
Subpoena, Suicidality

Insanity defense: if someone is declared legally

insane, they are not criminally responsible for the act
(i.e. not guilty by reason of insanity, NGRI)

Tarasoff duty: legal obligation to breach patient

confidentiality and warn potential victims about a
pt who may physically harm them

Insanity defense standards: MNaghten rules,

American Law Institute (ALI) model, Durham test

Child abuse: doctors are required to contact child

protective services, lawyers are not
Informed consent: pt knowingly and voluntarily
agrees to a treatment or procedure; includes 4 Rs
Reason for Tx, Risks and benefits, Reasonable
alternatives, and Refused Tx consequences
Exceptions: medical emergencies, suicide or
homicide prevention, unemancipated minors
receiving obstetric care, STD Tx, or substance
abuse Tx
Emancipated minors: do not need parental consent
to make medical decisions; minors are emancipated
if self-supporting, military, married, or have children
Capacity vs. competence: both refer to pts ability to
make informed treatment decisions, but capacity is a
medical term and competence is a legal term
Decisional capacity: task specific
Guardian: appointed to make treatment decisions
for incompetent pts
Voluntary admission: pt checks self into psych ward,
may not have the right to be discharged immediately
upon request
Involuntary admission: pt checked in for potential
harm or inability to provide for basic needs;
supported by legal principles of police power and
parens patriae
Police power: protecting citizens from each other

MNaghten Rules: person does not understand

what he was doing or its wrongfulness
ALI Model: person could not appreciate right
from wrong or could not control his/her actions
(aka irresistible impulse test)
Durham Test: persons criminal act has resulted
from mental illness
Violence risk assessment: h/o violence (#1 factor),
h/o impulsivity, specific threat w/ a plan, psychiatric
illness, substance abuse
Expert witness standards: evidence must be
accepted by appropriate scientific community (Frye
1923), and judge decides if evidence is based on
relevant and reliable science (Daubert 1993)
Malingering: feigning or exaggerating sx for
secondary gain (e.g. money, drugs, avoiding work)
Malingering buzzwords: ASPD, h/o substance
abuse, doctor shopping, textbook description
of illness, symptomatic only when observed
Child forensic psychiatry: involves child custody,
child abuse/neglect, termination of parental rights
Correctional psychiatry: involves balancing
confidentiality vs. violence

Additional Notes


Prevention: PDR 1 is Prevention, 2 is Detecting
disease, 3 is Reduction of disability

Kluver-Bucy syndrome: presents as docility,

hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and disinhibition due to
bilateral amygdala lesions

Suicidal pt: admit to inpatient care (against will if

Homicidal pt: admit to inpatient care

Circumlocution: substitution of a word or
description for a word that cant be recalled (e.g.
that thing you write with)
Tangentiality vs. circumstantiality: tangentiality
never comes back to original topic, circumstantiality
eventually does
Abuse vs. dependence: inability to quit despite
knowledge of harm best indicates dependence over

Psychotic pt: acknowledge pts distress

Postpartum blues: 20-40%, dysthymia that lasts <2
weeks, resolves spontaneously
Postpartum depression: 10-15%, resembles MDD
Postpartum psychosis: 0.1%, a subtype of bipolar
disorder, admit into inpatient care Tx antipsychotic + antidepressant
Bipolar disorder: 25% among relatives, average age
of onset is 30 y/o

Verbigeration: repetitive, meaningless talking

Glossolalia: ability to speak a new language suddenly

Porphyria: presents as psychotic or manic sx +

abdominal pain get urinary porphobilinogen
Hamilton Depression Scale: used to measure
depressive sx

Dementia praecox: another name for SCZ

Psychogenic polydipsia: SCZ pt drinks too much
water causing hyponatremia (Na+ <135)

Angry pt: encourage discussion about whats

bothering the pt
Inappropriate pt: respond firmly but politely, remain
Anorexic pt: admit to inpatient care if <75% ideal
body weight and/or medical complications
Abused pt: ask about abuse in an empathetic, openended question
Suspected child abuse: complete a thorough
physical exam, then get X-rays, then call child
protective services if necessary
Breaking bad news: set the stage and assess pts
comprehension, then deliver news in empathetic

Nasal septum erythema: cocaine abuse

Medical error: admit the mistake and apologize

SCZ brain: diffuse atrophy with decreased size of

hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala

Rotary or vertical nystagmus: PCP abuse

Injected eyes: marijuana (cannabis) abuse

Koro: Asian pt believes that his penis is shrinking and

will disappear causing his death


Amok: sudden unprovoked outbursts of violence of

which the person has no recollection (think to run

Delirium Dx: abnormal EEG

Brain fag: headache, fatigue, and visual disturbances

in African male students

Multiple sclerosis brain: multiple plaques of frontal

white matter

Ataque de nervios: Puerto Rican trance d/o with

convulsions, fainting, crying, and visual problems

Pseudoseizure: resembles seizure but normal EEG

Dementia Dx: MRI

Colleague makes medical error: always act in pts

best interest
Pt refuses tx: respect pt wishes, unless it puts others
at risk (e.g. infx) requires involunary admit
Parents refuse tx for minor: nonemergent and not
fatal respect parent wishes; nonemergent but
potentially fatal get court order; emergent
proceed w/ tx; one parent agrees proceed w/ tx
Kid w/ imaginary friends: completely normal
Teen w/ behavioral changes: get urine tox screen

Mal de ojo: Mediterranean evil eye

Localized amnesia: memory loss surrounding a

discrete period of time

Pt requests medical records: give it to them

Sangue dormido: Portugese d/o with numbness,

tremors, paralysis, convulsions, stroke, heart attack

Selective amnesia: inability to recall certain aspects

of an event

Relative requests dx not be revealed to pt: ask

relative about reasoning, since pt has right to know

Dhat: anxiety and hypochondriasis regarding semen


Placebos: 33% efficacy for depression

Windigo: Native American d/o regarding possession

by a demon that murders and eats human flesh
Autoscopic psychosis: VH of transparent phantom of
ones own body, aka doppleganger

Antidepressants: 70% efficacy for depression

ECT: 75% efficacy for depression
NE: synthesized in locus ceruleus

Capgras syndrome: delusion that friends/family have

been replaced by identical impostors
Lycanthropy: delusion that one is a werewolf (or
another animal)

5-HT: synthesized in raphe nucleus

DA: synthesized in substantia nigra
ACh: synthesized in nucleus accumbens

Cotard syndrome: delusion that one has lost

everything, including ones internal organs

Depressed pt: ask about suicidal ideation

Family disagrees w/ advance directives: discuss

situation w/ family, if unresolved after meeting
call ethics committee
Pregnant woman vs. fetus: woman has right to
refuse tx, even if it puts the fetus at risk


OB 1 Pregnancy


Embryo: 0-8 wk
Fetus: 8 wk delivery
Infant: delivery 1 yr


Gravidity: number of times a womans been pregnant

Parity: number of times a womans delivered
T: >37 wk
P: 20-36 wk
A: <20 wk
L: living births
Grand multip: parity 5

Pregnancy signs

Chadwick sign: bluish discoloration of vagina/cervix

Goodell sign: softening of cervix
Hegar/Ladin sign: softening of uterus

Fetal dating

Naegeles rule: EDC = LMP + 1y 3m + 7d

U/S indications: not mandatory, but useful for uncertain gestational age, size/date discrepancies, multiple gestations, etc.
Physical landmarks: pubic symphysis at 12 wk, umbilicus at 20 wk

Physiologic changes

CV: hyperdynamic (CO), hypotensive (SVR BP) state

Pulmonary: TV creates CO2 gradient w/ fetus for gas exchange
GI: E/P/hCG results in morning sickness, hyperemesis gravidarum if severe
Renal: GFR by 50%, risk of pyelonephritis
Blood: hypercoagulable, dilutional anemia (due to plasma despite RBC)
Endocrine: E/P, hCG, hPL, TBG
hCG: doubles every 48 hrs until peaking at 10-12 wks, then declines to steady state at 15 wk
hPL: maintains fetal nutrition (lipolysis FFA), blocks insulin (can cause GDM)
MSK: hyperlordosis (due to lower center of gravity)
Skin: E causes spider angiomata and palmar erythema, MSH causes linea nigra and melasma/chloasma


: kcal, folate (neural tube defects), iron (RBC), vitamin C, 3 fatty acids
: vitamin A (teratogenic), calcium (need more but chelates iron)

Common pregnancy

Lower back pain
Braxton-Hicks contractions
Round ligament pain
Urinary frequency
Varicose veins
Hyperemesis gravidarum

Prenatal labs

d/t hyperlordosis; Tx mild exercise + stretching, Tylenol
Tx fluids, exercise, fiber supplement
irregular contractions w/o cervical dilatation, normal
Tx PO fluids
Tx leg elevation + r/o preeclampsia
Tx antacids, PPIs or H2-blockers if severe
Tx topical steroids, fiber, stool softeners, sitz baths
eating inedible items; Tx encourage immediate cessation + toxicology
shooting pelvic pain due to ligament stretching; Tx Tylenol + warm
normal, but get UA/UCx to r/o UTI
Tx leg elevation + pressure stockings
Tx NPO 3 days, IV fluids + antiemetics; if severe doxylamine + vitamin B6

Prenatal visits: first visit in first trimester, then q4wks until 28th, q2wks until 36th, and qwk until delivery
Lab test
Blood type
Rh status
Rubella Ab

check for anemia or hemoglobinopathies
for future transfusion
if Rh, give RhoGAM at week 28 and postpartum (if fetus is Rh+)
if HBsAg+, get LFTs and hepatitis panel to determine acute vs. chronic infx;
Tx infant HBIG and HBV vaccine
if ELISA+, confirm w/ Western blot; if WB+ then give anti-HIV meds, elective
C/S, or IV ZDV during labor
if RPR+, confirm with FTA-ABS; if FTA-ABS+ then determine syphilis stage and
Tx benzathine PCN G
if positive, Tx nitrofurantoin + recheck UCx; if organism is GBS then give PCN
during labor
if rubella ab, stay away from sick ppl and vaccinate postpartum
if GC/CT+, Tx ceftriaxone + azithromycin

Antenatal assessment NST (non-stress test): continuous fetal monitoring (toco + HR), look for reactivity (21515)
BPP (biophysical profile): U/S evaluation on a 10 pt scale
BPP >8: normal
BPP =6: get CST
BPP <4: deliver
CST/OCT (ctx stress test/oxytocin challenge test): give oxytocin, look for 3 ctx/10 min w/o late decels

OB 2 Pregnancy Early Complications

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation outside uterine cavity, MC site is fallopian tube

Heterotopic pregnancy: one normal + one ectopic pregnancy
Sx: unilateral abd pain vaginal bleeding
Risk factors: prior ectopic, tubal scarring (STIs or PID), IUD, assisted fertility, endometriosis
Incidence: 1:100 pregnancies
Ectopic pregnancy?
screen -HCG
confirm TV U/S

r/o ectopic


not ruptured

stabilize w/ IVF
ex lap

if no definitive dx,
f/u serial -HCG Q 48hrs


if -HCG doesnt fall 15%

in 4-7 days, repeat MTX

1st trimester SAB

Sx: vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, cramping, sx of pregnancy

Causes: abnormal chromosomes (MCC)
1st trimester abortion?
labs: -HCG, CBC, type/cross
pelvic exam to r/o other sources of bleed
stabilize w/ IVF
complete abortion

incomplete abortion
inevitable abortion
missed abortion

f/u for recurrent bleed or signs of infx

2nd trimester SAB

Tx D+C, prostaglandins,
or allow to finish on its own

threatened abortion

f/u for continued bleeding

give RhoGAM if Rh-

Sx: vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, cramping, sx of pregnancy

Causes: anatomic defects (MCC), infx, maternal disease, trauma, fetotoxic agents
2nd trimester abortion?
r/o PTL + incompetent cervix
Tx D+E, high-dose oxytocin,
or prostaglandins

Incompetent cervix

Incompetent cervix: painless dilation and cervical effacement before term, usually 2nd trimester
Causes: surgery or trauma (MCC), uterine abnormalities, DES exposure
Incompetent cervix?
Dx dilated cervix on PE,
or hourglass membranes on U/S
viable (>24 wks)
Tx betamethasone +
strict bed rest

previable (<24 wks)

emergent cerclage

if cerclage fails,
transabdominal cerclage
Hx of incompetent cervix: offer elective prophylactic cerclage at 12-14 wks
Cerclage: surgical closure of cervix at external os (McDonald) or internal os (Shirokar)
Complications: rupture of membranes, PTL, infx

OB 2 Pregnancy Early Complications

Recurrent preg loss

Recurrent pregnancy loss: 3+ consecutive SABs

Causes: APA syndrome (clots) and luteal phase defect (P) are MCC
Management: look for etiology, then Tx accordingly
Abnormal chromosomes
Anatomy (e.g. bicornuate uterus)
APA syndrome
Luteal phase defect

karyotype of both parents
screen w/ HSG (hysterosalpingogram),
confirm w/ hysteroscopic or ex lap
RPR-VDRL, lupus anticoagulant, ANA,
coag panel, anticardiolipin antibody
progesterone levels
cx cervix, vagina, endometrium

IVF or preimplantation dx
surgery (may not be correctable)
low-dose aspirin

OB 3 Prenatal Diseases


FN (type II)

FP (type I)

Sensitivity: TP / (TP+FN)
Specificity: TN / (TN+FP)
Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis: AR CFTR (Cl- channel) thicker mucus

Sickle-cell disease

Sickle-cell disease: AR HbE6V (hemoglobin -chain) hemolytic anemia, vasoocclusive crises, autosplenic infarction
Dx: screen mom w/ Hb electrophoresis, then dad if positive, then confirm w/ fetal dx
Epidemiology: heterozygote advantage allows for resistance to P. vivax malaria in Africans

Tay-Sachs disease

Tay-Sachs disease: AR HexA ganglioside accumulation progressive neurodegeneration

developmental delay
cherry red spot on macula
onion-skin lysosomes
Dx: screen all high-risk carriers, confirm w/ fetal dx
Epidemiology: founder effect high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews due to small ancestral group


-thalassemia: AR deletion of -chain : ratio

Dx: screen w/ CBC, if microcytic anemia then confirm w/ Hb electrophoresis


-thalassemia: cumulative deletions of -chain : ratio

Silent carrier: 1-2 gene deletion; asx
HbH disease: 3 gene deletion HbH (4) severe microcytic anemia
Barts disease: 4 gene deletion HbBarts (4) hydrops fetalis (IUFD)
Dx: screen w/ CBC, if microcytic anemia then confirm w/ Hb electrophoresis

Chromosomal defects

chronic bronchitis
recurrent Pseudomonas pneumonia
pancreatic insufficiency
male infertility
ADEK deficiency
meconium ileus
Dx: screen mom and dad for F508/G542X, confirm w/ fetal dx
Tx: N-acetylcysteine loosens mucus plugs, pancreatic enzyme replacement

Down syndrome

trisomy 21

flat facies, epicanthal folds, simian crease,
Alzheimer by 40 y/o, MR

Edwards syndrome

trisomy 18

Patau syndrome

trisomy 13

Turner syndrome


Klinefelter syndrome


Cri-du-chat syndrome


Williams syndrome


DiGeorge & velocardiofacial syndrome


micrognathia, clenched hands, rocker-bottom

feet, MR; death by 1 y/o
cleft lip/Palate, holoProsencephaly, Polydactyly,
rocker-bottom feet, MR; death by 1 y/o
Coarctation of aorta
Ovarian dysgenesis
Webbed neck (cystic hygroma)
Nipples spread (shield chest)
Short stature
female traits on a man (long legs, gyno, highpitched voice, female habitus, etc.)
microcephaly, cardiac problems, high-pitched
meowing, epicanthal folds, MR
Elfin facies, Extreme friendliness w/ strangers,
well-developed English, MR
Cleft palate
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia
Cardiac defects

quad screen at 15-20 wk (-HCG, inhibin,
FP, estriol) + nuchal translucency on
U/S ; MCC abnormal value is error in dating
triple screen (-HCG, FP, estriol)
found on routine U/S


OB 3 Prenatal Diseases


Week 0
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 3-8
Week 4
Week 8

fertilization, cell division (blastula morula blastocyst)

implantation + -HCG secretion
bilaminar disc (epiblast + hypoblast)
gastrulation (3 tissues), neurulation
organogenesis (most susceptible to teratogens)
heart (4 chambers), limbs (4 limbs)

Endoderm: becomes GI and respiratory systems

Mesoderm: becomes CV, MSK, GU systems
Ectoderm: becomes CNS, skin, etc.
Neural tube defects

NTDs: folate defective neural tube closure at 4 wk

Etiology: low dietary folate, methyl-THF reductase
Myelomeningocele: Dx screen FP, confirm U/S shows lemon sign (concave frontal bones) and banana sign (flat caudal cerebellum); Tx surgery in utero
Spina bifida occulta: asx lumbar tuft of hair

Cardiac defects

Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF): calcification of papillary muscle on U/S, usually insignificant
LR shunts: all present with murmurs + late-onset cyanosis due to Eisenmenger syndrome (pulmonary HTN reversing direction of shunt)
ASD: presents as low-grade systolic murmur, fixed S2, and frequent colds
VSD: presents as pansystolic harsh-sounding murmur with failure to thrive
PDA: presents with machinery-like murmur, often seen with Congenital Rubella Syndrome
RL shunts: all present with murmurs + early-onset cyanosis
Tetralogy of Fallot: presents as cyanosis and clubbing in a 5 y/o child who squats for relief; Px determined by degree of pulmonary stenosis
Transposition of great vessels: presents as life-threatening cyanosis in a newborn
Dx: fetal echocardiogram
Tx: surgery, indomethacin for PDA

Potter syndrome

Potter syndrome: failure of mesonephros and metanephros to meet at ureteropelvic junction bilateral renal agenesis anhydramnios (no amniotic fluid)
pulmonary hypoplasia + limb contractures
Dx: U/S shows anhydramnios or oligohydramnios (AFI <5)
Tx: none available

Prenatal diagnosis

Prenatal sampling: amniocentesis, chorionic blood sampling (CVS), percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)

insert needle transabdominally into uterus
and withdraw amniotic fluid
insert catheter into intrauterine cavity and
aspirate chorionic villi from placenta
insert needle transabdominally into uterus
and withdraw umbilical cord blood

Prenatal imaging: level-I U/S at 18-22 wk is standard of care

+ 1:200 risk of PTL, PROM, injury
2nd trimester
+ 1st trimester
>1:200 risk of PTL, PROM, injury
+ rapid karyotype analysis
may take maternal blood

OB 4 L&D


Labor: ctx + cervical dilation

<37 wks
37-42 wks
postterm >42 wks
Prodromal (false) labor: irregular Braxton-Hicks ctx w/o cervical dilation

3 Ps of labor

3 Ps of labor: Power, Passenger, Passage determine progression of labor

Power: ctx frequency + intensity + duration
Adequate ctx: 3-5 ctx/10 min + >200 MVU
Passenger: fetus
Fetal lie: longitudinal, transverse, or oblique
Fetal presentation: first part in vagina; cephalic/vertex or breech
Fetal position: depends on occiput position
Leopold maneuver: used to determine presentation, position, engagement
fetal position
Passage: pelvis type
Gynecoid: MC type, best px
Platypelloid: seen in Asians, can lead to deep transverse arrest

pelvis types
Induction of labor

Induction of labor: attempt to begin labor in nonlaboring pt

Methods: prostaglandins (Cytotec), oxytocin (Pitocin), or amniotomy (AROM)
Indications: postterm (>42 wk), PROM (34 wk), preeclampsia, IUGR, nonreassuring fetal testing
PGE contraindications: maternal asthma or glaucoma, >1 prior C/S
IOL success: vaginal delivery; progress measured by Bishop score
Augmentation of labor: increasing ctx in already laboring pt
Bishop score: cervical exam w/ 5 components dilation, effacement, station, position, consistency
Dilation: diameter of internal os (range 0-10 cm)
Effacement: thinning out of cervix (range 0-100%)
Station: 0 station (midpoint) is ischial spines, measure in cm above/below (range -5 to +5 cm)
Position: advancement of cervix as labor progresses (range posterior to anterior)
Consistency: softening of cervix as labor progresses (Hegar or Ladin sign)
Progress of labor:

Bishop score

expectant management

OB 4 L&D
Stages of labor

Stage 1: onset to complete dilation (10 cm)

Phases: latent phase is 0-4 cm and slow, active phase is >4 cm and rapid
Active phase arrest: no change in dilation or station for 2 hrs, indicated for C/S
Stage 2: dilation to delivery
Prolonged stage 2: >2 hrs if nulliparous, >1 hr if multiparous (add 1 hr w/ epidural)
Ritgen maneuver: pressure on fetal head to help shoulders pass through
Stage 3: delivery to placenta delivery (10 min)
Retained placenta: stage 3 lasts >30 min; Tx manual extraction + abx
Signs of placental separation: gush of blood, lengthening of cord, change in shape of uterine fundus
Too much traction: risk of cord avulsion, uterine inversion
Stage 4: placenta delivery to 2 hrs postpartum
Episiotomy: incision in perineum to facilitate delivery, two types median and mediolateral
Lamaze method: classes to teach natural birthing techniques (relaxation, breathing, etc.)

Cardinal movements

Cardinal movements:

1. Engagement (0 station)
2. Flexion
3. Descent
4. Internal rotation
5. Extension
6. External rotation
7. Expulsion

Operative vaginal

Operative vaginal delivery: usage of forceps or vacuum to deliver fetus

Forceps: risk of CN VII palsy
Vacuum: risk of cephalohematoma and shoulder dystocia
Conditions: experienced operator (most important), full dilation, ruptured membranes, engaged w/ >2 station, knowledge of fetal position, anesthesia, empty
bladder, no evidence of cephalopelvic distortion

Perineal lacerations

1st degree: superficial tear

2nd degree: extends into perineal body
3rd degree: extends into anal sphincter
4th degree: extends into rectum

Caesarian section

C/S: delivery by uterine incision

Indications: MC primary is failure to progress in labor, MC overall is prior C/S
VBAC: vaginal birth after C/S; only true c/i is previous vertical (classical) C/S
TOLAC: trial of labor after C/S, MC complication is rupture of uterine scar
Rupture sx: sudden onset severe abd pain vaginal bleed, subjective pop sensation


Pudendal block: indicated for operative vaginal delivery, direct needle towards jxn of ischial spine and sacrospinous ligament
Local anesthesia: indicated for episiotomy and laceration repairs
Epidural anesthesia: more commonly used during labor, can lengthen stage 2
Spinal anesthesia: more commonly used during C/S

OB 4 L&D
Fetal HR

Fetal HR: baseline + variability + periodic changes

Baseline HR: normal is 110-160 bpm; tachy >160 for 10 min, brady <110 for 10 min
Variability: determined by SNS-PSNS interplay; and variability is bad sign

Periodic changes

Early decel: along w/ ctx, due to head compression CN X stimulation

Variable decel: no relation w/ ctx, due to cord compression (possibly oligohydramnios)
Late decel: happens after ctx, due to uteroplacental insufficiency
Prolonged decel: >15 bpm for 2-10 min
Accelerations: reactive if 2 (15 bpm 15 sec) / 20 min
Sinusoidal pattern: sine-wave shaped, due to fetal anemia (e.g. fetal vx rupture)

Category 1 (best): FHR 110-160, moderate variability, no late/var decels

Category 2: everything else
Category 3 (worst): absent variability + recurrent late/var decels, bradycardia, sinusoidal pattern
FHR tracing management:
obtain FHR pattern
category 1

category 2

routine mgmt

evaluation and

category 3
resuscitative measures,
prepare for delivery

if no accels or variability,
resuscitative measures
if not improved, prompt delivery
Resuscitative measures: give O2 + change maternal position

OB 5 Antepartum Hemorrhage

Placenta previa: placenta develops over internal os

Placenta accreta: placenta adheres to uterine wall
Placenta increta: placenta invades into myometrium
Placenta percreta: placenta penetrates through to uterine serosa
Circumvallate placenta: membranes form dense ring around placenta
Vasa previa: fetal vessels develop over internal os
Velamentous placenta: fetal vessels insert between amnion and chorion
Succenturiate placenta: extra lobe of placenta blood fetal vessels between two lobes
Abruptio placentae: premature separation of placenta from uterine wall


Obstetric causes: placenta previa (20%), abruptio placentae (30%), fetal vessel rupture, uterine rupture
Non-obstetric causes: cervical/vaginal lacerations, hemorrhoids, infx, neoplasms
DDx: present as spotting (not frank bleeding), no contractions or abdominal pain
Px: simple management, good outcomes (vs. obstetric causes)

Placenta previa

Placenta previa: placenta develops over internal os

Subtypes: complete, partial, marginal
Sx: painless vaginal bleeding + risk of hemorrhagic shock
Previa management:
Placenta previa?
Dx transabdominal or translabial U/S
(vaginal exam is c/i due to hemorrhage)
if prior to 3rd trimester,
repeat U/S to see if its resolved
labs: H+H, type/cross
give RhoGAM if Rhunstable


stabilize w/ IVF
emergent C/S

expectant management
tocolytics + betamethasone (<34 wk)

Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta: placenta adheres to uterine wall

Placenta increta: placenta invades into myometrium
Placenta percreta: placenta penetrates through to uterine serosa
Sx: usually asx during pregnancy, presents as vaginal bleed + inability to separate placenta after delivery
Tx: puerperal hysterectomy

Abruptio placentae

Abruptio placentae: premature separation of placenta from uterine wall

Subtypes: revealed/external (80%), concealed (20%)
Sx: 3rd trimester vaginal bleeding + severe abd pain, strong ctx
Complications: hemorrhagic shock, DIC, premature delivery, uterine tetany, fetal death (35%)
Risk factors: HTN (#1), trauma, previous abruption, smoking, cocaine
Abruption management:
Abruptio placentae?
Dx clinical presentation
stabilize w/ IVF
labs: H+H, type/cross
RhoGAM if Rhbetamethasone (<34 wk)
delivery (unstable or FHR nonreassuring)

Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture: rupture of uterus associated w/ prior uterine scar (C/S or other surgery)
Sx: sudden onset severe abd pain vaginal bleeding, subjective pop sensation
Tx: emergent ex lap and delivery

Fetal vessel rupture

Vessel rupture causes: velamentous placenta, succenturiate placenta, vasa previa

Vasa previa: fetal vessels develop over internal os
Velamentous placenta: fetal vessels insert between amnion and chorion
Succenturiate placenta: extra lobe of placenta blood fetal vessels between two lobes
Sx: vaginal bleeding + sinusoidal pattern on FHR [tachy brady sinusoidal]
Dx: Apt test (examine blood for fetal/nucleated RBCs, pink indicates fetal blood)
Tx: emergent C/S

OB 6 L&D Complications
Preterm labor

PTL: labor <37 wks

PTL management: tocolytics + betamethasone for lung maturity
PTD: delivery <37 wks, occurs in 10% of pregnancies
Complications: RDS, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis


Premature rupture
of membranes

Tocolysis: delaying premature labor for 48 hrs, to allow for fetal lung maturity w/ betamethasone

Ca-channel blocker (1st line)
competes w/ Ca2+ for Ca-channels


NSAID (blocks PGF2 production)

headache, flushing, dizziness
headache, flushing, dizziness, pulmonary edema,
cardiac arrest (high dose)
headache, tachycardia, anxiety
headache, tachycardia, anxiety
fetal PDA closure, pulmonary hypertension, renal
failure oligohydramnios

ROM: disruption of the amniotic sac

ROM Dx: pool test (visualize fluid pooling)
nitrazine test (alkaline pH turns nitrazine paper blue)
fern test (see ferning under scope)
amnio dye/tampon test (inject dilute indigo-carmine dye into amniotic sac and look for leakage into tampon)
PROM: rupture >1 hr before labor, risk of infx
Risk factors: smoking, chorioamnionitis (Tx IV abx + delivery), latency w/ GA
PROM management: depends on GA
34 wk: delivery
24-33 wk: expectant management, tocolytics + betamethasone
<24 wk: pt counseling, expectant management or induced labor
Prolonged PROM: rupture >18 hrs before labor, risk of infx
PPROM: rupture >1 hr before labor, preterm


CPD: fetal head is too big to pass through maternal pelvis; MCC active phase prolongation
CPD management: suspected CPD trial of labor anyways, if CPD confirmed by CT or U/S C/S

Breech presentation

Breech presentation: fetus presents w/ buttocks first, 2%

Complete breech: thighs and legs flexed
Frank breech: thighs flexed, legs straight
Incomplete (footling) breech: feet first
Breech management: Dx Leopold maneuvers, vaginal exam, or U/S
Tx external version to vertex, C/S, or breech delivery (rare)
Complications of breech delivery: cord prolapse, head entrapment, neurologic injury

Malpresentation of

Malpresentation: includes face, brow, compound, persistent OP and OT

Face presentation: face first
Brow presentation: orbital ridge first
Compound presentation: vertex/breech + limb, high-risk for cord prolapse
Persistent OP: facing anterior, may require external version to OA
Persistent OT: facing sideways, high-risk of deep transverse arrest w/ platypelloid pelvis type
Malpresentation management: vaginal delivery but needs close monitoring

Fetal bradycardia

Bradycardia: <110 bpm for >10 min (2-10 min is prolonged decel)
Preuterine causes: maternal hypotension or hypoxia (seizure, PE, AFE, MI, etc.)
Uteroplacental causes: placental abruption, infx, hemorrhage
Postplacental causes: cord prolapse, cord compression, fetal vx rupture
Bradycardia management: place in LLD/RLD start 2L O2 NC look for cause Tx appropriately

OB 6 L&D Complications
Shoulder dystocia

Shoulder dystocia: anterior shoulder gets caught behind pubic symphysis

Complications: fetal humerus/clavicle fx, brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve palsy, hypoxia brain injury death
Risk factors: previous dystocia, fetal size (macrosomia, diabetes, maternal obesity, postterm delivery), prolonged stage 2
Dystocia management: special maneuvers if failed, cut clavicle or pubic symphysis if failed, Zavanelli maneuver
Suprapubic pressure: add pressure to dislodge anterior shoulder
McRoberts maneuver: sharp flexion of maternal hips increases pelvic AP diameter
Rubin maneuver: apply pressure behind either shoulder to decrease fetal diameter
Wood corkscrew: apply pressure behind posterior shoulder to rotate infant
Posterior arm delivery: deliver posterior arm first, then rotate infant to for anterior shoulder
Zavanelli maneuver: push head back in + perform C/S


Hypotension: maternal BP <80/40; causes include regional anesthesia, hemorrhage, vasovagal events, AFE, anaphylaxis
Hypotension management: start IV fluids + ephedrine, then Tx cause (e.g. Benadryl for anaphylaxis)
AFE: high mortality rate, Dx fetal cells in pulmonary vasculature at autopsy


Seizure vs. syncope: check for postictal disorientation (found in sz but not syncope)
Seizure management: Tx IV or IM MgSO4, get PEII panel, consult neuro if negative for eclampsia

OB 7 Pregnancy Complications
Fetal growth

SGA: <10th percentile, either symmetric or asymmetric

LGA: >90th percentile
Macrosomia: >4500 g
LBW: <2500 g


SGA: <10th percentile, two types IUGR and growth potential

growth potential: congenital abnormalities (chromosomal d/o), infx (CMV, rubella), teratogens (EtOH, cigs)
MCC: cigarettes
IUGR: intrauterine growth restriction, unable to achieve potential size despite good growth potential
Etiology: maternal systemic dz placental perfusion IUGR
SGA management: confirm accuracy of dating Dx serial U/S + umbilical artery doppler check for underlying etiology
Serial U/S results: low growth potential stays small, IUGR progressively falls off growth curve
Doppler results: low or absent diastolic flow indicates placental resistance, reversed diastolic flow is high-risk for IUFD

LGA & macrosomia

LGA: >90th percentile

Risk factors: diabetes, maternal obesity, postterm pregnancy, multiparity, advanced maternal age
Complications: birth trauma, hypoglycemia, jaundice, Apgar scores, childhood tumors, shoulder dystocia
LGA management: confirm accuracy of dating Dx U/S consider IOL prior to macrosomic status

Amniotic fluid

Amniotic fluid physiology: produced by fetal kidneys, resorbed by fetal swallowing

Amniotic fluid index: measure of fluid in quadrants via U/S; AFI <5 is oligo, AFI >20 is poly


Oligohydramnios: AFI <5, FHR shows variable decels

Causes: ROM (MCC), placental perfusion, fetal fluid production, renal malformations (e.g. Potter syndrome)
Complications: pulmonary hypoplasia, limb contractures, cord compression fetal asphyxiation death
Oligo management:
Dx AFI <5



congenital anomaly



induce labor

w/ life

w/ life

genetic counseling

meconium in
amniotic fluid



Polyhydramnios: AFI >20

Causes: congenital abnormalities, diabetes, TTTS, hydrops fetalis
Complications: cord prolapse
Poly management: careful verification of presentation, observe for cord prolapse


Erythroblastosis fetalis: Rh woman w/ Rh+ fetus anti-Rh IgG crosses placenta hemolytic anemia hydrops fetalis (edema, ascites, heart failure)
Rh prevalence: 15% in caucasians, lower in other races
Rh management:
Rh woman

Intrauterine fetal



give RhoGAM at week 28 and

postpartum (if fetus is Rh+)

follow closely w/ serial U/S

and amniocentesis (for bilirubin
levels indicating hemolysis)

IUFD: fetal death in utero

Causes: usually unknown, often chronic placental insufficiency or cord accident
Retained IUFD: high-risk of DIC if fetus is left >3 wks
IUFD management: Dx U/S Tx delivery (not emergent) f/u autopsy to search for cause

OB 7 Pregnancy Complications
Postterm pregnancy

Postterm pregnancy: gestational age >42 wks

Complications: macrosomia, oligohydramnios, meconium aspiration, IUFD, dysmaturity syndrome
Dysmaturity syndrome: chronic IUGR from uteroplacental insufficiency
MCC: inaccurate dating
Management: get accurate dating induce labor, increased fetal surveillance


Cleavage: chorion separates day 4, amnion separates day 8

Di-Di twins: cleavage b/t day 1-3
Mo-Di twins: cleavage b/t day 4-8, at risk for TTTS
Mo-Mo twins: cleavage b/t day 8-13
Siamese twins: cleavage b/t day 13-15

Multiple gestations

Multiple gestations: two types monozygotic and dizygotic

Monozygotic twins: 1 sperm + 1 ova identical DNA; no predisposing factors
Dizygotic twins: 2 sperm + 2 ova separate DNA; in Africans, IVF, clomiphene citrate
Complications: PTL, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia, cord prolapse, malpresentation, GDM, incompetent cervix
Siamese twins C/S
Mo-Mo twins C/S
vertex/vertex twins vaginal delivery
vertex/nonvertex twins vaginal delivery or C/S
nonvertex/nonvertex twins C/S
triplets and above C/S selective reduction


TTTS: unequal blood flow in shared placenta of Mo-Di twins small/anemic twin + large/polycythemic twin
TTTS management: serial U/S Q 2 wks in all Mo-Di twins Tx serial amnioreduction in larger twin

OB 8 Pregnancy HTN
Gestational HTN

Gestational HTN: HTN (>140/90) without proteinuria (<300 mg/day)

GHTN management: labetalol, nifedipine


Preeclampsia: HTN (>140/90) + proteinuria (>300 mg/day) + edema

Etiology: multiorgan vasospasm brain (severe HA, seizure, stroke)
liver (liver damage, RUQ pain, n/v)
kidneys (renal failure, proteinuria, edema)
placenta (IUGR, IUFD)
small vx (thrombocytopenia, DIC)
Risk factors: nulliparity, multiple gestation, chronic HTN, family hx
Preeclampsia management: Dx PEII panel (labs + 24hr urine protein) Tx control HTN (labetalol, nifedipine) + seizure ppx (MgSO4 4g load + 2g/hr) +
delivery if term or unstable
Severe preeclampsia: severe HTN (>160/110), proteinuria (>5 g/day or 3+ dipstick), presence of other complications; must deliver (IOL > C/S)
First-trimester preeclampsia: consider hydatidiform moles

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome: Hemolysis (schistocytes, LDH, bilirubin), Elevated LFTs, Low Platelets in preeclamptic pts

Acute Fatty Liver of


AFLP: fatty liver + HTN (>140/90) proteinuria

AFLP management: supportive care, liver txp if necessary


Eclampsia: tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures in preeclamptic pts

Seizure timing: before labor, during, afterwards
Eclampsia management: control HTN (hydralazine) + seizure ppx (MgSO4) + delivery after pt is stabilized
MgSO4 side-effects: pulmonary edema
MgSO4 overdose: DTR depression (first sign), respiratory depression, coma, cardiac arrest; Tx calcium gluconate

Chronic HTN

Chronic HTN: HTN occuring before conception, before 20 wks GA, or lasting >6 wks postpartum
Chronic HTN management: control HTN (labetalol, nifedipine) + baseline EKG + 24hr urine protein
Superimposed preeclampsia: 24hr urine protein >300 mg in previously HTN pt

OB 9 Pregnancy DM
Pregestational DM

Pregestational DM: diabetes diagnosed prior to pregnancy


GDM pathophysiology: hPL/E/P insulin antagonism

Epidemiology: 5-8% incidence, risk of developing T2DM later in life
Risk factors: prior GDM, family hx, obesity, race (non-whites)
Maternal complications: polyhydramnios, preeclampsia, miscarriage, etc.
Fetal complications: macrosomia shoulder dystocia, hypOcalcemia, hypOglycemia, polycythemia hyperviscosity
Fetal malformations: CV defects, NTDs, caudal regression syndrome, situs inversus, duplex ureter, IUGR
GDM Dx: screen w/ GCT at week 26-28 if 140 mg/dL, confirm w/ OGTT
GDM management: tight glucose control w/ diet (1st line), insulin (2nd line), glyburide (3rd line); induce at 39-40 wk, C/S if macrosomic
Ideal glucose: between 70-110 mg/dL
Ideal HbA1c: less than 6.5%

White classification
of diabetes


GDM, diet controlled
GDM, insulin controlled
onset >20 y/o, duration <10 yrs
onset 10-19 y/o, duration 10-19 yrs
onset <10 y/o, duration >20 yrs
Retinopathy + neFropathy
ischemic Heart disease
prior renal Txp

OB 10 Pregnancy Infx

UTI: presents as dysuria, urinary frequency/urgency, suprapubic tenderness

Etiology: E. coli (MCC), S. saprophyticus (#2), Enterococcus (#3), other GNB
Complications: septic shock (urosepsis), ARDS
Management: Dx UA/UCx
Tx Bactrim or Cipro (not pregnant)
Tx nitrofurantoin (pregnant)
Tx IV cephalosporins + admit (upper UTI)
Asymptomatic bacteriuria: >105 CFU on UA
Management: Tx nitrofurantoin + recheck UCx; if organism is GBS then give PCN during labor


Other infections

Chorioamnionitis: presents as maternal fever, uterine tenderness, WBC, fetal HR

Etiology: MCC are GBS and E. coli
Management: Dx amniocentesis and cx amniotic fluid Tx IV abx + delivery
Bacterial vaginosis
(Gardnerella vaginalis)


thin homogenous vaginal discharge + fishy
odor; complications include preterm
delivery, PPROM, and puerperal infx
subclinical illness or mono-like syndrome
Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease (CID):
blueberry muffin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, periventricular calcifications
UTIs, chorioamnionitis, endomyometritis,
neonatal sepsis (MCC)
Neonatal GC/chlamydia: conjunctivitis,
ophthalmia, otitis externa, pneumonia


(usually asx)


fluid-filled vesicles and irritation

Neonatal herpes: skin lesions, viral sepsis,
pneumonia, herpes encephalitis
Erythema infectiosum: slapped cheek rash
in kids
hydrops fetalis in pregnant women



Parvovirus B19


rash, arthritis/arthralgia, diffuse LN-opathy

Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS):
cataracts + PDA + deafness


Early congenital syphilis: rash, snuffles,

hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, LN-opathy
Late congenital syphilis: CN VIII deafness,
saber shins, mulberry molar, Hutchinsons
teeth, saddle nose
Congenital toxoplasmosis: fever, seizure,
chorioretinitis, microcephaly, jaundice,
head CT shows ring-enhancing lesions
chickenpox or shingles
Congenital varicella syndrome: fulminant
disseminated infx death



Dx clue cells on wet prep Tx
PO metronidazole
postpartum GCV
no tx exists

routine screening at 35-37 wk if

GBS+, Tx IV PCN during labor
screen mom for STDs Tx
ceftriaxone + azithromycin
screen mom w/ HBsAg get LFTs
and hepatitis panel to determine
acute vs. chronic infx Tx infant
HBIG and HBV vaccine
screen mom w/ ELISA confirm
with Western blot Tx anti-HIV
meds, elective C-section, or IV ZDV
during labor
deliver by C/S or Tx IV ACV
Dx viral cx of herpetic lesions Tx
--if suspected, Dx parvo IgM Tx
serial U/S + fetal transfusion w/
signs of hydrops
--if mom is rubella ab negative, stay
away from sick ppl and vaccinate
screen mom w/ RPR-VDRL
confirm with FTA-ABS determine
syphilis stage and Tx benzathine
pregnant women should avoid
cats/cat litter; Dx amniocentesis
Tx pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine
--Tx VZIG for both mom and fetus

OB 11 Pregnancy Complications

Hyperemesis gravidarum: severe n/v + intolerance of PO diet

HG management: Tx NPO 3 days, IV fluids + antiemetics; if severe doxylamine + vitamin B6; get -HCG to r/o moles
Morning sickness: n/v in pregnancy is common and resolves by week 16, HG is more severe and has PO intolerance
Boerhaave syndrome: rupture of esophagus following severe emesis

Seizure d/o

Seizure d/o: both seizures and AEDs can cause fetal malformations, pregnancy is a seizure state
Etiology: either AED metabolism, pt compliance, seizure threshold, or hormonal changes
AED teratogenicity: folate antagonism NTDs, epoxide generation (fetal hydantoin syndrome)
Sz d/o management:

Heart disease

monotherapy w/ lowest AED dose

level II U/S at 19-20 wk (look for congenital anomalies)
folate supplement
vit K supplement at 27 wk

High-risk heart dz: primary PH, Eisenmenger syndrome, severe MS or AS, Marfan syndrome
Marfan syndrome: AD fibrillin elastic tissue dysfxn MVP, aortic aneurysms (cystic medial necrosis), or aortic dissection
Heart dz management: terminate pregnancy (first line)
baseline EKG + medical stabilization
d/c teratogenic drugs (ACEI/ARBs, diuretics, coumadin)
if severe MS/AS surgical or valvuloplasty repair (1 yr prior)
if delivering early epidural, careful fluid monitoring, assisted vaginal delivery, abx ppx for SBE
Peripartum cardiomyopathy: dilated cardiomyopathy 2/2 pregnancy, presents w/ sx of CHF (dyspnea/orthopnea/PND)
PPCM management: Dx echo shows dilated heart w/ EF <40% deliver if 34 wk, medical mgmt if <34 wk

Renal disease

CKD stages: stage 1 is GFR 90-100

stage 2 is GFR 60-89
stage 3 is GFR 30-59
stage 4 is GFR 15-29
stage 5 (ESRD) is GFR <15 or dialysis
Mild renal dz: risk of preeclampsia and IUGR
Moderate/severe renal dz: risk of preeclampsia and IUGR, and worsening of renal dz postpartum
Renal dz management: careful monitoring of renal fxn and fetal status
Renal txp management: requires immunosuppressants (e.g. prednisone) dosage due to risk of acute rejection

Coagulation d/o

Coagulation d/o: pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state; increased risk for SVT, DVT, PE
Virchows triad: risk of blood clots w/ stasis, hypercoagulability (pregnancy), endothelial damage
Coagulation d/o


painful, palpable, venous cord w/ local erythema
and edema
acute onset dull leg pain, unilateral swelling, and
Homans sign (calf pain w/ dorsiflexion)
acute onset chest pain, dyspnea, and
hyperventilation (PCO2); right-sided heart failure
MCC maternal death

Tx warm compresses + analgesics
Dx duplex U/S Tx heparin or
Lovenox (enoxaparin); warfarin is
contraindicated in pregnancy
Dx D-dimer to r/in, V/Q scan to r/o
Tx heparin or Lovenox; t-PA if <3
hrs and no contraindications


Hyperthyroidism: Graves disease (MCC), toxic adenoma (#2), toxic multinodular goiter (#3)
Graves disease (diffuse toxic goiter): autoimmune disease due to IgG against TSH-R causing exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and
hyperthyroidism; more common in women
Thyroid storm Tx: -blockers
Hyperthyroidism management: screen for TSIs if elevated, Tx PTU + monitor fetus for goiter and IUGR
Infantile hyperthyroidism: maternal TSI (IgG) crosses placenta and attacks fetal thyroid gland


Hypothyroidism: Hashimoto thyroiditis (MCC), surgical thyroidectomy (#2)

Hypothyroidism management: requires Synthroid dosage

OB 11 Pregnancy Complications

SLE: IM DAMN SHARP Immunoglobulins

Serositis (pleuritis, pericarditis)
Malar rash
Hematologic d/o
Discoid rash
Renal d/o
Mucositis (oropharyngeal ulcers)
Neurologic d/o
Complications: risk of preeclampsia, IUGR, and spontaneous abortion
1/3 rule: 1/3 of SLE improves, 1/3 stays the same, 1/3 gets worse
SLE antibodies: ANA (sensitive), anti-dsDNA or anti-smith (specific), antihistone (drug-induced lupus)
SLE management: low-dose aspirin, heparin, or corticosteroids for ppx
Lupus flare vs. preeclampsia: can present similarly, DDx w/ complement levels (SLE has C3-C5)
Lupus flare management: Tx high-dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide if unresponsive

Neonatal lupus

Substance abuse

Neonatal lupus syndrome: maternal ag-ab complexes cross placenta and cause lupus in neonate
Congenital heart block: anti-Ro (SSA) can cross placenta and attack fetal heart 3 heart block
Opiates (heroin,

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: abnormal facies,
IUGR, MR, cardiac teratogenic effects
risk of SAB w/ >150 mg/day
placental abruption, MR
IUGR, placental abruption, preterm
delivery, fetal death
no teratogenic effects w/ opiate abuse; but
withdrawal can cause miscarriage, preterm
delivery, fetal death

stop use
reduce to <150 mg/day
stop use
stop use
enroll in methadone program
(opiate withdrawal is worse for
fetus than chronic abuse)

OB 12 Postpartum
Postpartum care

Postpartum period: first 6 wks after delivery

S/p SVD: issues include pain control + perineal care
S/p C/S: issues include pain control + wound care
Breastfeeding benefits: childhood infx dz (maternal IgA in milk), maternal weight loss, risk of future T2DM
Breastfeeding c/i: only c/i are HIV and active HBV infx


Postpartum intercourse: pelvic rest recommended until after 6 wks

Postpartum tubal ligation: very effective, permanent
Condom use: can be used by anyone
Diaphragms/cervical cap use: requires refitting after 6 wks, due to dilated cervix
IUD use: best placed after 6 wks, due to dilated cervix
OCP use: use progestin-only pills if breastfeeding, wait til 4-6 wks to use combined pills if not


PPH: >500 mL s/p SVD, >1000 mL s/p C/S

PPH causes: consider placenta accreta and 4 Ts Tone (uterine atony, MCC)
Tissue (retained POCs)
Trauma (cervical or vaginal lacerations, uterine rupture, uterine inversion)
Thrombin (bleeding d/o)
Placenta accreta: presents as vaginal bleed + inability to separate placenta after delivery; Tx puerperal hysterectomy
Uterine atony: Tx IV oxytocin + bimanual uterine massage (1st line), methylergonovine (c/i with HTN), carboprost (c/i with asthma)
Risk factors: tocolytics, increased uterine size (multifetal gestation, polyhydramnios, macrosomia)
Retained POCs: Tx manual extraction; if unsuccessful D+C and abx
Vaginal/cervical lac: Tx surgical repair
Uterine rupture: sudden onset severe abd pain vaginal bleeding, subjective pop sensation; Tx emergent ex lap and delivery
Uterine inversion: due to pulling too hard on cord; Tx manual replacement of uterus, if unsuccessful laparotomy
Sheehan syndrome: pituitary infarction, usually w/ PP hypovolemia; presents as acute cessation of lactation

Postpartum fever

Postpartum fever: consider endometriitis, acute mastitis, and the 5 Ws Wind (atelectasis POD #1)
Water (UTI POD #3)
Walking (DVT POD #5)
Wound infx (POD #7+)
Wonder drug (drug-induced fever)
Acute mastitis

Wound cellulitis
Wound abscess

Postpartum mood

polymicrobial infx fever, uterine tenderness,
foul-smelling lochia
breastfeeding women get Staph/Strep infection
through cracks in nipple w/ yellowish discharge
partial lung collapse

dysuria, urinary frequency + urgency

UTI + septic shock
acute onset dull leg pain, unilateral swelling, and
Homans sign (calf pain w/ dorsiflexion)
pain, swelling, erythema, heat at incision site
pain, swelling, erythema, heat, fluctuance at
incision site
separation of incision site salmon-colored fluid
soaking dressings

Tx clindamycin + gentamicin
Tx dicloxacillin, do not stop breastfeeding
Dx bilateral inspiratory crackles;
prevent with pulmonary toilet and
incentive spirometry
Dx UA/UCx, Tx Cipro or Bactrim
Dx UA/UCx, Tx empiric abx + IVF
Dx duplex U/S Tx IV heparin or
Tx Bactrim or Keflex
Tx I+D and BID dressing change
Tx stabilize wound site, surgical
closure at a later date

Postpartum mood d/o: three types blues (30-70%), depression (10-20%), psychosis (0.1%)
Postpartum blues: self-resolves by day 10
Postpartum depression: Tx SSRIs (sertraline)
Postpartum psychosis: admit and consult psych

GYN 1 Lower GU

congenital anomalies

Labial fusion: due to excess androgen exposure (MC overall) or to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (MC endogenous)
Excess androgens: Tx d/c androgens + reconstructive surgery
21-OH deficiency: Dx 17-OHP Tx cortisol + reconstructive surgery
Imperforate hymen: presents as primary amenorrhea + cyclic abdominal pain; Dx mucocolpos/hematocolpos Tx surgery
Transverse vaginal septum: presents as primary amenorrhea + cyclic abdominal pain; Dx short vagina that ends in blind pouch Tx surgery
Imperforate hymen vs. septum: presence of hymenal ring indicates transverse vaginal septum
Vaginal atresia: failure of lower vagina to develop, presents as primary amenorrhea + cyclic abdominal pain; Dx U/S or MRI Tx surgery (pull-through)
Vaginal agenesis: aka MRKH syndrome, absence of vagina w/ partial uterus and tubes; Tx surgery (create neovagina w/ McIndoe procedure)

epithelial disorders

Epithelial d/o management: Dx palpation + colpo + bx to r/o cancer; Tx (see below)

Lichen sclerosis
Atopic eczema (squamous
cell hyperplasia)
Lichen simplex chronicus
Lichen planus
Vulvar psoriasis
Vaginal adenosis
Atrophic vaginitis

vaginal thinning and atrophy in postmenopausal
women, 10% associated w/ cancer
chronic irritation pruritis w/ hyperkeratotic
chronic irritation pruritis w/ reactive changes
shiny purple papules vaginal adesions
silvery scaling plaques, Auspitz sign (bleeding when
plaques are removed)
red spots/patches in upper 1/3 vagina due to DES
exposure in utero; precursor for clear cell adeno
vaginal dryness bleeding in postmenopausal

topical steroids
topical steroids
topical steroids
steroid suppository +
surgery for adhesions
topical steroids or UV
close f/u
topical estrogen

Vulvar/vaginal cysts

Epidermal inclusion cysts: MC vulvar cyst, due to blocked hair follicle; Tx I+D or excision if infected
Sebaceous cysts: due to blocked sebaceous gland, often multiple and asx; Tx I+D if infected
Apocrine cysts: due to blocked apocrine sweat glands; found only on groin and axillary region
Hidradenitis suppurativa: superinfx of apocrine cysts abscess formation; Tx I+D or excision
Fox-Fordyce disease: multiple pruritic apocrine cysts
Skene cysts: appear at 12-oclock
Bartholin cysts/abscess: appear at 4- and 8-oclock
Bartholin management: usually self-resolves; if >40 y/o bx to r/o cancer; if large/symptomatic I+D w/ Word catheter or marsupialization
Gartner duct cysts: remnant of mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts; Tx excision

Cervical lesions

DES-associated anomalies: vaginal adenosis, clear cell adenocarcinoma, other cervical or uterine anomalies
Nabothian cysts: benign; occurs when ectocervix (strat squamous) overgrows endocervix (simple columnar)
Cervical endometriosis: reddish-purple, presents w/ sx of endometriosis (dyspareunia/dyschezia/dysmenorrhea)
Cervical polyps: benign; Tx removal if symptomatic, and to avoid masking bleeding from other sources
Cervical fibroids: benign; Tx removal if symptomatic, and to avoid masking bleeding from other sources
Cervical stenosis: Tx cervical dilataion

GYN 2 Upper GU

Uterine anatomic

Uterine anomalies: septate uterus (#1), bicornuate uterus, uterus didelphys; associated w/ urinary tract anomalies and inguinal hernias
Etiology: problems in fusion of paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts
Sx: amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss (2nd trimester), PTL
Management: Dx imaging (pelvic U/S, CT, MRI, HSG, etc.) leave alone if asx
Tx surgery for septate uterus and bicornuate uterus

(uterine fibroids)

Fibroids: benign, estrogen-sensitive smooth muscle proliferation of myometrium

Pseudocapsule: compressed smooth muscle cells surrounding fibroids
Degenerative changes: fibroid outgrows blood supply infarction and degeneration pelvic pain
Incidence: 20-30% of reproductive-age women; 50% of black women
Subtypes: submucosal (most likely to bleed), intramural (MC), subserosal, pedunculated
Sx: usually asx; can cause menorrhagia (MC), pelvic pain and pressure, infertility (rare)
Management: Dx pelvic U/S
leave alone if asx
temporary shrinkage w/ E (progesterone, danazol, leuprolide)
Tx myomectomy if fertility desired
Tx hysterectomy (definitive)
Tx uterine artery embolization if bad surgical candidate
Leiomyosarcoma: sarcoma of uterine smooth muscle, no relation to fibroids

Endometrial polyps

Endometrial polyps: benign overgrowth of endometrial glands/stroma

Sx: vaginal bleeding between periods (metrorrhagia)
Management: Dx pelvic U/S Tx D+C + bx to r/o cancer


Endometrial hyperplasia: presents as vaginal bleeding; precursor to endometrial cancer

Penny, nickel, dime, quarter:
simple hyperplasia w/o atypia = 1% progression to cancer
complex hyperplasia w/o atypia = 3-5%
simple hyperplasia w/ atypia = 8-10%
complex hyperplasia w/ atypia = 25-30%
Risk factors: E levels unopposed E therapy (E w/o P)
tamoxifen use (weak E)
obesity/HTN/DM (aromatase in fat cells)
PCOS/chronic anovulation (E w/o P)
nulliparity (total cycles)
early menarche/late menopause (total cycles)
granulosa cell tumor (E synthesis)
Protective factors:
COC/POP/combination HRT (P)
multiparity (total cycles)
diet and exercise (fat cells)
Management: Dx endometrial bx or D+C Tx progestins for 3 mo + repeat endo bx; hysterectomy if complex/atypia

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian mass management:

Palpable ovarian/adnexal mass?

(premenarchal, postmenopausal,
size >8 cm, or persists >60 days)

Dx pelvic U/S

ex lap for cancer

Follicular cysts: MC ovarian cyst, due to unruptured follicle, usually asx

Management: observe for 8-12 wks, then repeat pelvic U/S; if unresolved Tx cystectomy or oophorectomy
Corpus luteum cysts: due to hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum, presents as dull abd pain (unruptured) or acute abdomen (ruptured)
Management: resolves spontaneously, if recurrent suppress w/ OCPs
Theca-lutein cysts: multiple/bilateral due to FSH/LH stimulation; associated w/ moles and choriocarcinoma
Chocolate cysts: ovarian endometriosis
PCOS: enlarged ovaries w/ multiple subcortical cysts

GYN 3 Endometriosis & Adenomyosis


Endometriosis: presence of endometrial tissue outside endometrial cavity

Etiology: three mechanisms coelomic metaplasia, reverse menses, lymphatic/hematogenous spread
Incidence: 10-15% of reproductive-age women
Sx: 3 Ds dysmenorrhea (hallmark = cyclic pelvic pain, worst 1-2 days before menses)
dyschezia (due to endometrial implants in pouch of Douglas)
Physical exam: uterosacral nodularity on rectovaginal exam, fixed retroverted uterus
Complications: intraabdominal inflammation scarring + adhesions chronic pelvic pain, infertility
Management: Dx requires direct visualization temporary relief w/ E (progesterone, danazol, leuprolide) + NSAIDs
Tx surgical ablation if fertility desired
Tx hysterectomy + LOA + removal of implants (definitive)
Endometrioma: endometriosis in the ovary, aka chocolate cyst


Adenomyosis: extension of endometrial tissue into myometrium

Etiology: E hyperplasia of stratum basalis of endometrium myometrial invasion
Incidence: 10-15% of reproductive-age women
Sx: dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, or both
Physical exam: diffusely enlarged, boggy uterus
Management: Dx pelvic U/S
temporary relief w/ E (progesterone, danazol, leuprolide) + NSAIDs
Tx hysterectomy (definitive)
Adenomyoma: well-circumscribed endometrial tissue collection in myometrium, not encapsulated (vs. intramural fibroids)

GYN 4 Lower GU Infx


STDs and other

genital infx

UTI: presents as dysuria, urinary frequency/urgency, suprapubic tenderness

Etiology: E. coli (MCC), S. saprophyticus (#2), Enterococcus (#3), other GNB
Complications: septic shock (urosepsis), ARDS
Management: Dx UA/UCx
Tx Bactrim or Cipro (not pregnant)
Tx nitrofurantoin (pregnant)
Tx IV cephalosporins + admit (upper UTI)

Candida albicans

thick, white curd-like discharge,
itching, satellite lesions, no odor


Treponema pallidum

1 syphilis: painless chancre +

inguinal LN-opathy
2 syphilis: palmar/plantar rash,
fever, LN-opathy, condyloma lata
3 syphilis: neurosyphilis (tabes
dorsalis), CV syphilis, gummas
recurrent, painful oral/genital
vesicles that can rupture
painful chancre + inguinal LNopathy




Haemophilus ducreyi


Chlamydia trachomatis,
L1-L3 serotypes

Condyloma acuminata
Molluscum contagiosum


Scabies vs. pediculosis

Bacterial vaginosis

Sarcoptes scabiei vs.

Phthirus pubis
Gardnerella vaginalis


Trichomonas vaginalis


Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Chlamydia trachomatis

1 LGV: transient, painless ulcer

2 LGV: painful LN-opathy
3 LGV: anogenital syndrome
(proctocolitis, rectal stricture,
rectovaginal fistula, elephantiasis)
genital warts (MC overall STD)
domed papule w/ umbilicated
itching, irritation, vesicles,
thin homogenous discharge, fishy
green-gray frothy discharge, odor,
strawberry cervix (petechiae)
cervicitis, PID, TOA, Bartholin
cervicitis, PID, TOA, usually asx
(MC bacterial STD)

Dx budding yeast + pseudohyphae on KOH prep Tx
fluconazole (Diflucan)
Dx screen w/ RPR-VDRL
confirm w/ FTA-ABS Tx
benzathine penicillin G
Tx IV penicillin G
Dx Tzanck smear or viral cx
Tx ACV/VACV + palliative care
Dx school of fish on Gram
stain Tx azithromycin or
Dx PE or complement fixation
Tx doxycycline

Dx PE Tx removal
Dx PE Tx removal
Dx PE Tx permethrin cream
Dx clue cells on wet prep
Tx metronidazole
Dx mobile trichomonads on
wet prep Tx metronidazole
Tx ceftriazone ( azithromycin)
Tx azithromycin ( ceftriaxone)

Jarisch-Herxheimer rxn: acute febrile rxn s/p syphilis tx (MC w/ 2 syphilis), due to dead spirochetes endotoxin release

GYN 5 Upper GU Infx


Endometritis: polymicrobial infx fever, uterine tenderness, WBC, foul-smelling lochia

Risk factors: postpartum period, instrumentation of endometrial cavity
Management: Dx clinical judgment if sure, Tx clindamycin + gentamicin
if unsure, get endometrial bx showing plasma cells


PID: Chlamydia or GC infx inflammation of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

Risk factors: MC in sexually active women <25 y/o
Complications: infertility, chronic pelvic pain, adhesions, ectopic pregnancy, TOA/TOC, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Management: Dx pelvic/abd pain + cervical, adnexal, or uterine motion tenderness Tx clindamycin + gentamicin (pregnant)
Tx ceftriaxone + doxycycline (not pregnant)
Chronic cervicitis: cervicitis has cervical motion tenderness but rest of exam is benign (vs. PID); Tx azithro + ceftriaxone


TOA: abscess in tubes/ovary in the setting of PID

Management: Dx adnexal mass w/ PID sx confirm w/ pelvic U/S Tx admit + IV abx drainage if unresponsive

Toxic shock

TSS: S. aureus TSST-1 exotoxin fever, rash, desquamation of palms/soles

Risk factors: tampons
Management: Dx clinical judgment Tx admit + stabilize + IV nafcillin (prevents recurrence, not current toxin-mediated illness)


HIV: retroviral virus infects CD4+ TH cells cellular immunity AIDS-related opportunistic infx death
Primary HIV infx: presents as mono-like syndrome maculopapular rash
Latent stage: CD4+ >500, asymptomatic
Symptomatic stage: CD4+ 200-500, mild HIV sx
AIDS: CD4 + <200 or presence of AIDS OI
Transmission: sexual, parenteral, vertical or via breast milk
Management: Dx ELISA screen confirm w/ WB Tx HAART (2 NRTIs + 1 NNRTI or PI) + OI tx/ppx
HIV+ during pregnancy: give anti-HIV meds, elective C/S, or IV ZDV during labor
HIV+ postpartum: avoid breastfeeding

GYN 6 Prolapse

Pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic floor: levator muscles + fascia + ligaments + nerves

Pelvic organ prolapse: weakened pelvic floor bladder prolapse (cystocele)
urethra prolapse (urethrocele)
rectum prolapse (rectocele)
bowel prolapse (enterocele)
uterine prolapse (procidentia)
Vaginal vault prolapse: inversion of vagina into vaginal canal; MC s/p hysterectomy
1 prolapse: in upper 2/3 of vagina
2 prolapse: down to introitus
3 prolapse: protrudes outside vagina (partial)
4 prolapse: entire structure outside vagina (complete)
chronic abdominal pressure (cough, constipation, heavy lifting, tumors)
pelvic floor weakness (intrinsic weakness, birth trauma, atrophy w/ aging)
Sx: pelvic pressure/pain, dyspareunia, bowel or bladder dysfxn, urinary incontinence
Management: Dx H+P imaging as needed nonsurgical tx (Kegel exercises, pessaries, E replacement)
cystocele anterior colporrhaphy
rectocele posterior colporrhaphy
procidentia hysterectomy
vaginal vault prolapse vaginal suspension

GYN 7 Incontinence


Continence: voluntary control of urination

Sympathetic: hypogastric n 1R detrusor relaxation, int sphincter constriction
Parasympathetic: pelvic splanchnic n MAChR detrusor constriction, int sphincter relaxation
Somatic: pudendal n ext sphincter constriction


Incontinence: involuntary urine leakage

Management: first step is always to get UA/UCx to r/o UTI
Stress incontinence

urine leakage w/ exertion or

Urge incontinence

urine leakage d/t involuntary

bladder contractions
(detrusor overactivity)

Mixed incontinence
Overflow incontinence

stress + urge incontinence

urine leakage d/t urinary
retention and overdistention

Bypass incontinence

urine leakage d/t fistula

following pelvic surgery or
pelvic radiation
urine leakage d/t physical or
psychological issues;
common in nursing home or
gero pts

Functional incontinence

chronic abdominal
pressure, pelvic relaxation,
old age (estrogen loss of
mucosal coaptation)
idiopathic (MCC), UTIs,
bladder stones or cancer,
urethral diverticula, foreign
--medications, neurologic

vesicovaginal, urethrovaginal,
or ureterovaginal fistulas
physical impairment,
dementia or delirium,

surgery to stabilize
hypermobile urethra (best),
Kegel exercises, pessaries
anticholinergics (oxybutinin),
TCAs (imipramine)

--intermittent self-cath,
cholinergics (bladder
contactility) + 1-blockers
(urethral resistance)
Dx methylene blue or indigo
carmine dye Tx surgery to
repair fistula
Tx underlying cause

GYN 8 Menstrual Cycle


Adrenarche: regeneration of adrenal gland zona reticularis

Gonadarche: pulsatile GnRH starts gonadal development
Thelarche: breast development, measured by Tanner stages
Pubarche: growth of pubic hair axillary hair
Menarche: onset of menstruation, 2 yrs after thelarche
Puberty timing:

Tanner stages

Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5

HPO axis

adrenarche gonadarche


at 7 y/o

at 10 y/o

at 8 y/o


pubarche/ menarche
peak growth
at 11 y/o
at 12 y/o

breast buds
breast elevation
areolar mound (look 4 big nipples)









Hypothyroidism infertility: T3/T4 TRH prolactin GnRH; Tx replacement T3/T4 (Synthroid)

Hyperprolactinemia infertility: prolactin GnRH; Tx dopamine analogs (cabergoline, bromocriptine) vs. surgery
Kallman syndrome: congenital GnRH
Menstrual cycle

Ovarian follicle:



Theca/granulosa cells

Theca cells: stimulated by LH to make desmolase (cholesterol androgens)

Granulosa cells: stimulated by FSH to make aromatase (androgens estrogens)


Menopause: cessation of menses and estrogen-deficient state for >12 months; avg age is 51 y/o
Sx: HAVOC hot flashes, atrophy of vagina, osteoporosis, coronary artery dz
Management: Dx FSH, Tx lowest dose HRT (estrogen + progesterone) for only 6-12 months
HRT benefits: prevention of osteoporosis, relief of menopausal sx
HRT risks: risk of endometrial hyperplasia/cancer
HRT contraindications: h/o clotting dz, liver dz, pregnancy, estrogen-dependent neoplasm, undiagnosed vaginal bleeding

GYN 9 Amenorrhea


1 amenorrhea: absence of menarche by age 16, or 4 yrs after thelarche

2 amenorrhea: absence of menses for 6 months, had periods at one time

1 amenorrhea

1 amenorrhea: absence of menarche by age 16, or 4 yrs after thelarche

Etiology: three types outflow tract obstruction, end-organ d/o, central regulatory d/o
Outflow tract obstruction: something getting in the way of blood from leaking out
Imperforate hymen: Dx PE shows bulging red/purple membrane (hematocolpos), Tx surgery (hymenotomy)
Transverse vaginal septum: Dx PE shows septum and presence of hymenal ring, Tx surgery
MRKH syndrome: mullerian agenesis or dysgenesis lack of uterus and upper vagina
Vaginal atresia: distal vagina fibrosed but mullerian system intact, Tx surgery
Androgen insensitivity syndrome: T-receptor 46/XY female w/ blind pouch vagina, Tx surgery
Central regulatory d/o: something wrong with either GnRH or FSH/LH release
Kallmann syndrome: lack arcuate + olfactory nuclei (no GnRH + anosmia), Dx olfactory challenge, Tx exogenous GnRH (pulsatile)
Craniopharyngioma: Rathkes pouch tumor pituitary compression; Dx supracellar calficied cysts
End-organ d/o: ovaries wont respond to FSH/LH
Savage syndrome: FSH/LH-receptor primary ovarian failure
Turner syndrome: 45/XO rapid ovarian atresia streak gonads w/o oocytes left; Tx GH + estrogen
17-hydroxylase deficiency: cant produce testosterone but still have MIF 46/XY female w/ blind pouch vagina
Swyer syndrome: male w/o testes 46/XY female w/ both internal and external female genitalia
1 amenorrhea management:

1 amenorrhea labs:
1 amenorrhea?
(lacks MIF)

no uterus
(MIF present)

no vagina

Central d/o: FSH/LH, E2

Ovarian d/o: FSH/LH, E2
Outflow d/o: normal FSH/LH, normal E2

Dx karyotype ...
(46/XY females)

outflow tract
breasts no breasts obstruction
(E present) (lacks E)
P challenge
2 amenorrhea

P challenge negative

2 amenorrhea: absence of menses for 6 months, had periods at one time

Etiology: four types pregnancy (MC), acquired abnormalities, hyperprolactinemia, HPO axis d/o
Pregnancy: MCC secondary amenorrhea, always r/o w/ -HCG
Acquired abnormalities: either anatomic or ovarian abnormalities causing 2 amenorrhea
Asherman syndrome: D+C, surgery, or endometritis intrauterine adhesions ; Tx lysis of adhesions + estrogen
Cervical stenosis: surgical or obstetric trauma scarring of cervical os; Tx surgical dilation or laminaria
PCOS: LH, FSH, T/E anovulation, hirsutism, obesity, polycystic ovaries; Tx OCP + weight loss
Hyperprolactinemia: anything that elevates prolactin inhibits GnRH (TSH, DA, tumors)
Progesterone challenge test: give P for 1-2 wks and check for withdrawal bleeding afterwards (checks to see if endometrium is estrogenized)
2 amenorrhea management:
2 amenorrhea?
-HCG (r/o preg)

prolactin normal

TSH normal


get cone view and

prolactin levels

Tx Synthroid

cone view normal

and prolactin <100

cone view abnormal

or prolactin >50 or visual sx

repeat prolactin q 6 mo,

cone views q 1-2 yrs

head CT or MRI

P challenge test
r/o Asherman syndrome
and cervical stenosis
FSH >40

microadenoma (<10 mm)

or hyperplasia
Tx bromocriptine
or cabergoline


FSH <40


ovarian failure severe hypothalamic

macroadenoma (>10 mm)

Tx surgery


mild hypothalamic

GYN 10 Menstrual Abnormalities


Dysmenorrhea: pain and cramping during menstruation that interferes w/ normal activity
1 dysmenorrhea: PGF2 uterine ctx dysmenorrhea w/o organic cause; Tx NSAIDs and/or COCs
2 dysmenorrhea: dysmenorrhea 2/2 endometriosis, adenomyosis, fibroids, cervical stenosis, pelvic adhesions
Cervical stenosis: surgical or obstetric trauma scarring of cervical os; Tx surgical dilation or laminaria
Pelvic adhesions: infx (PID), inflammation, or prior surgery scarring of endometrium; Dx/Tx laparoscopy



PMS/PMDD: luteal phase sx (HA, bloating, weight gain, dysphoric mood) for 2+ consecutive cycles
Etiology: interaction between 5-HT and E/P
Management: Dx menstrual diary Tx SSRI/SNRI, Xanax (alprazolam), Yaz OCP (E + drospirenone), diet and exercise
Normal menses

3-5 days Q 4 wks, 30-50 mL/cycle
heavy flow
light flow
irregular timing
heavy flow + irregular timing
slow cycles (>5 wks, <6 months)
fast cycles (<3 wks)
heavy or irregular bleeding w/o
identifiable cause, dx of exclusion

--cervical or endometrial lesions
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in athletes/anorexics
cervical or endometrial lesions
cervical or endometrial lesions
anovulation, PCOS, pregnancy, thyroid dz

AUB management: Dx labs (-HCG, TSH, prolactin, FSH) + endometrial bx (>35 or obese) + pelvic U/S; Tx the underlying cause
Fibroids: Tx myomectomy vs. hysterectomy
Adenomyosis: Tx NSAID/OCP vs. hysterectomy
Cervical polyps: Tx polypectomy
Endometrial polyps: Tx hysteroscopy vs. polypectomy D+C
Endometrial hyperplasia: Tx progestins vs. hysterectomy
Endometrial cancer: Tx hysterectomy + BSO + radiation
Pregnancy: Tx expectant management vs. delivery
Miscarriage: Tx expectant management vs. D+C
Ectopic pregnancy: Tx MTX vs. surgery
Hypothyroidism: Tx Synthroid
Hyperprolactinemia: Tx bromocriptine or cabergoline
Anovulation: Tx cyclic OCP or progestins

DUB: heavy or irregular bleeding w/o identifiable cause, dx of exclusion

Etiology: anovulatory cycles (endometrium continues to grow w/o progesterone, sloughs off at random intervals)
DUB management:
r/o AUB w/ labs (-HCG, TSH, prolactin, FSH) +
endometrial bx (>35 or obese) + pelvic U/S
acute hemorrhage

chronic DUB

Tx 25mg IV estrogen

(POP if estrogen c/i)

surgery if not responsive to meds

(D+C, endometrial ablation, hysterectomy)

Postmenopausal bleeding: any vaginal bleeding 12+ months after LMP

Etiology: vaginal/endometrial atrophy and exogenous estrogens are MCC, must r/o endometrial cancer
Postmenopausal bleeding management: Dx labs (CBC, TSH, prolactin, FSH) + endometrial bx + pelvic U/S; Tx the underlying cause
Lacerations: Tx repair
Vaginal atrophy: Tx estrogen cream
Cervical polyps: Tx polypectomy
Endometrial polyps: Tx hysteroscopy vs. polypectomy D+C
Endometrial hyperplasia: Tx progestins vs. hysterectomy
Endometrial cancer: TAHBSO pelvic/paraaortic LN-ectomy and radiation (if high-risk)

GYN 11 Hirsutism/Virilization
Hirsutism vs.

Hirsutism: excess male-pattern hair growth

Virilization: hirsutism + secondary male sex characteristics (clitoromegaly, deep voice, etc.)
Initial management:
Hirsutism or virilization?
Labs: free T, DHEAS, 17-OHP, cortisol
If adrenal, CT scan for adrenal tumor
If ovarian, pelvic U/S or CT for ovarian tumor
Tx underlying cause
Cosmetic tx of hirsutism

Hirsutism labs

Hirsutism diseases

free T: either adrenal or ovarian source

DHEAS: adrenal source
17-OHP: indicates congenital adrenal hyperplasia
cortisol: indicates Cushing syndrome
Cushing syndrome

Theca-lutein cysts
Sertoli-Leydig cell
Idiopathic hirsutism

excess production of cortisol from pituitary adenomas,
adrenal tumors, or paraneoplastic syndromes
congenital deficiency of 21-hydroxylase (MC), 11hydroxylase, or 3-HSD
Rotterdam criteria: 2/3 of the following polycystic
ovaries on U/S, anovulation, signs of hyperandrogenism
LH or HCG (pregnancy, moles) bilateral ovarian
cysts possible androgen production
ovarian hyperplasia in postmenopausal women
possible androgen production
androblastoma, secretes testosterone
due to drug use
absence of adrenal or ovarian causes, not drug-induced

Dx cortisol dexamethasone
suppression test to confirm Tx surgery
Dx DHEAS + 17-OHP Tx cortisol
replacement, consult endocrinology
Dx LH:FSH ratio >3:1 + estrone Tx
OCPs, clomiphene, metformin, weightloss; and screen for fasting blood sugars
Dx ovarian bx should resolve
postpartum or s/p mole removal
Dx ovarian bx
Dx pelvic U/S Tx unilateral salpingooophrectomy
Tx d/c meds
Dx normal T and DHEAS look for
increased peripheral 5-R activity Tx
finasteride (5R blocker) if elevated

GYN 12 Contraception
and sterilization


blocks LH surge, thickens
cervical mucus, slows tubal
peristalsis, creates hostile

Failure rate

normalizes cycles
cervical and
ovarian cancer
benign breast dz

hepatic adenoma

smokers >35, clotting
dz (PE, DVT, stroke,
CAD), uncontrolled
HTN, migraines w/
aura, CHF, estrogendependent cancers,
pregnancy, liver dz

Ortho Evra

COC as a transdermal patch;

3 weeks on, 1 week off
COC as a vaginal ring;
3 weeks in, 1 week out
thickens cervical mucus

women >198 lbs



indicated for
lactating women
indicated for
women >40 y/o



thickens cervical mucus,

injection Q 12-14 wks




thickens cervical mucus,

implantable rod in arm



prevent sperm and ova from

prevent sperm and ova from


good for 3 yrs

no weight gain,
depression, or bone
low cost
STI prophylaxis
low cost

must take at same

time everyday
irregular vaginal
reversible bone
weight gain
irregular vaginal
reversible bone
weight gain



Cervical caps

prevent sperm and ova from


~10% nullip
~25% multip

low cost

Mirena IUD



inhibits sperm motility,

creates hostile environment


used in combo w/
other methods
indicated for
monogamous pts
good for 5 yrs
low maintenance
menstrual flow

toxic shock
must leave inside
6-8 hrs after sex
needs to be fitted
by MD
failure rate
needs to be fitted
by MD
must have nl Pap
STI susceptibility

pregnancy, uterine
anomalies, infx,
unresolved vaginal
bleeding, breast

ParaGard IUD

inhibits sperm motility,

creates hostile environment


indicated for
monogamous pts
good for 10 yrs
low mainenance

Natural family

periodic abstinence measured

by basal body temperature or
cervical mucus methods
prolactin-induced GnRH





plan B (levonorgestrel) given

within 72 hrs, or copper IUD
inserted within 5 days
blocks ova passage


90% effective
not abortifacient


99% effective

blocks sperm passage, must

use alternative methods for
90 days while sperm die off


99% effective
more reversible
than tubal ligation
safer and more
effective than tubals

ratio of ectopics
needs to be placed
by MD
risk of PID, uterine
perforation, SAB
menstrual flow
ratio of ectopics
needs to be placed
by MD
risk of PID, uterine
perforation, SAB
failure rate
between cycles
failure rate
only use for max
of 6 months
breast tenderness
surgical risks
risk of regret (1015%)
no STD protection
surgical risks
no STD protection
must wait 3
months before sex



Tubal ligation







pregnancy, uterine
anomalies, infx,
unresolved vaginal
bleeding, copper
allergy or Wilson dz


>5 days

women <25 y/o,

uninformed about
other methods,
making decision
under pressure
men <25 y/o,
uninformed about
other methods,
making decision
under pressure

GYN 13 Abortion

1st trimester abortion

1st trimester abortion: suction D+C (MC), manual vacuum extraction, medical abortion (7 wk)
MCC death during abortion: general anesthesia
Suction D+C: 90% of all abortions, safest method, most effective 7-13 wk
Medical abortion: indicated 7 wk only, requires f/u in 2 wks for -HCG levels
Mifepristone (RU-486): blocks progesterone stimulation embryo detachment
Methotrexate: blocks DHF reductase cell division blocks placental proliferation
Misoprostol: ripens cervix; use w/ MTX or RU-486 to efficacy rates
Side-effects: abd pain/cramps, uterine bleeding, nausea/vomiting

2nd trimester abortion 2nd trimester abortion: D+E or induction of labor (IOL is better, since intact fetus can be used for autopsy)
D+E: like D+C, but requires wider cervical dilation + use of special forceps to extract fetal parts
Complications: trauma, infx, retained tissue, uterine perforation
Induction: cervical ripening w/ misoprostol (Cytotec) amniotomy induction w/ high-dose oxytocin (Pitocin)
Complications: trauma, infx, retained tissue
3rd trimester abortion

3nd trimester abortion: illegal 24 wk, unless necessary for preservation of maternal life

GYN 14 Infertility


Infertility: failure to conceive after 12 mo of unprotected sex (6 mo if woman >35 y/o)

Fecundability: ability to get pregnant in one cycle
Categories: male factor (35%)
female factor (45-55%)
combined (10-20%)
unexplained (10%)
Infertility management:

Female factor

Ovarian factors


Tubal factors

Advanced maternal age

Pelvic adhesions

Uterine factors

Cervical factors

Tubal ligation
Asherman syndrome
Submucosal fibroids
Congenital malformations
Cervical stenosis
Chronic cervicitis
DES exposure
Congenital malformations

OCPs, clomiphene, metformin, weight-loss, and screen for
fasting blood sugars
cabergoline or bromocriptine
surgical ablation (if fertility desired)
hysterectomy + LOA + removal of implants (definitive)
surgery (lysis of adhesions)
IV clindamycin + gentamicin (pregnant)
IV ceftriaxone + doxycycline (not pregnant)
hysteroscopic lysis of adhesions + estrogen
hysteroscopic polypectomy
hysteroscopic myomectomy
surgery, may not be treatable
IV clindamycin + gentamicin
cervical dilation or IUI
surgery, may not be treatable

Male factor

Male factor infertility: 3 categories sexual problems, endocrine d/o, sperm abnormalities
Management: stay away from risk factors (drugs, radiation, heat) + Tx underlying cause


Unexplained infertility: no underlying cause found during initial assessment

Management: refer to REI clinic Tx IVF/ICSI or use donor sperm

Assisted reproductive ART: any therapy where sperm/egg are handled for increasing rate of conception
Clomiphene: blocks E-receptors in hypothalamus FSH/LH promotes ovulation
Indications: chronic anovulation, hypothalamic insufficiency
Letrozole: aromatase inhibitor E FSH/LH promotes ovulation
HMGs: FSH/LH analogs promotes ovulation
Indications: second line to Clomid
Complications: antiestrogen effects, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), multiple gestation
OHSS: overstimulation of ovaries risk of torsion or rupture
IVF: insert fertilized gamete into uterus
ICSI: inject sperm into oocyte before IVF

ONC 1 Vulvar/Vaginal Cancer

Squamous neoplasia

Squamous neoplasia: defined by depth of epithelial involvement (xIN if not invasive, SCC if invasive)
Risk factors: multiple sexual partners (#1), sex at young age, high-risk HPV strains, smoking, immunosuppression, other xINs


VIN: premalignant dz of vulvar epithelium, three grades (VIN I-III)

Sx: usually asx but can have vulvar itching and irritation; classic presentation is fungal infx that doesnt resolve w/ antifungal cream
Management: Dx vulvar bx Tx wide local excision if unifocal, vulvectomy or laser ablation if multifocal

Vulvar SCC

Vulvar SCC: malignant dz of vulvar epithelium, 90% are unifocal

Sx: vulvar itching, pain, bleeding, ulceration
Management: Dx vulvar bx Tx (see below)
Px: depends on LN+ status good if 0-2, <15% if 3+

TNM criteria
<2 cm, <1 mm depth
<2 cm, >1 mm depth
>2 cm
LN+ or local spread (lower urethra, distal vagina, anus)


local met+ (bladder or rectum)

distal met+

wide local excision + ipsi LN-ectomy
radical vulvectomy + bilat LN-ectomy
radical vulvectomy + bilat LN-ectomy +
pelvic exenteration

Verrucous carcinoma: well-differentiated subtype of vulvar SCC, good px


VAIN: premalignant dz of vaginal epithelium, 50-90% associated w/ VIN or CIN

Sx: usually asx but can have vaginal discharge or postcoital spotting; classic presentation is persistent abnl Pap but nl cervical bx
Management: Dx colpo-directed bx Tx local excision, laser ablation, or topical 5-FU

Vaginal SCC

Vaginal SCC: malignant dz of vaginal epithelium, usually in upper 1/3 and posterior wall
Sx: usually asx but can have vaginal discharge, itching, or bleeding
Management: Dx colpo-directed bx + check for spread (CXR/cystoscopy/proctosigmoidoscopy/IVP) Tx (see below)

TNM criteria
carcinoma in situ
within vaginal wall
spread into subvaginal tissue
spread into pelvic wall
local met+ (bladder or rectum)
distal met+

surgical resection
radiation tx

Vaginal clear cell


Vaginal adenosis: red/superficial ulcer, precursor to clear cell adenocarcinoma

Clear cell adenocarcinoma: vaginal cancer in women <20 y/o w/ in utero DES exposure

Paget disease

Paget disease: red, velvety lesions + scarred white plaques; 20% associated w/ underlying adenocarcinoma
Paget vs. melanoma: Paget halo cells are PAS+, mucicarmine+, Alcian blue+; melanoma cells are PASSx: classic presentation is vulvar itching and pain in women >60 y/o
Management: Dx vulvar bx Tx wide local excision + r/o underlying adeno
Px: high local recurrence rate, fatal if LN+

Sarcoma botryoides

Sarcoma botryoides: embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, resembles grape-like mass protruding from vagina in girls <5 y/o
Management: Dx bx shows desmin+ spindle-shaped rhabdomyoblasts, Tx excision

ONC 2 Cervical Cancer


HPV-1-4: verruca vulgaris (common warts)

HPV-6/11: low-risk strains cause condyloma acuminata (genital warts)
HPV-16-18/31/33/45: high-risk strains cause cervical dysplasia/cancer
Gardasil: quadrivalent 3-series HPV vaccine for strains 6/11/16/18; indicated for women 11-26 y/o

Pap smears

Pap smear: scrape transformation zone w/ spatula, then sample endocervical canal w/ brush
Screening protocol: start age 21, Q2 yrs 21-29 y/o, Q3 yrs >30 y/o after 3 negative Paps
Exceptions: annual if HIV, immunosuppressed, DES, previous CIN II+; dont need s/p total hysterectomy

Bethesda system

Pap result

atypical squamous cells, undetermined significance


atypical squamous cells, cant r/o high grade

low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion = CIN I
high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion = CIN II-III
squamous cell carcinoma
atypical glandular cells

HPV DNA testing repeat Pap in 1 yr if
HPV, colpo + cervical bx if HPV+
colpo + cervical bx

Diagnostic cone bx

Cone indications:

Microinvasion <3mm
ECC positive
Discrepancy of 2 steps (high-grade Pap, not confirmed on bx)
Inadequate colpo (cant see all borders of TZ or lesion)
Adenocarcinoma in situ
Cone complications: bleeding or infx (common), cervical stenosis, incompetent cervix, PROM/PTL


CIN: premalignant dz of cervical epithelium due to high-risk HPV strains, three grades (CIN I-III)
MC timing: during menarche and after pregnancy
MC location: anterior lip of transformation zone, multifocal

dysplasia in basal 1/3 of epithelium, mild

repeat Pap Q 6 mo 2 or HPV testing in
12 mo (65% regression rate) LEEP if
persistent for 2 yrs
diagnostic cone bx

dysplasia in basal 2/3 of epithelium, moderate
dysplasia >2/3 to full epithelium, severe
2-step discrepancy (e.g. HGSIL on pap but normal bx)
Cervical SCC

Cervical SCC: malignant dz of cervical epithelium defined by basement membrane invasion

Epidemiology: US incidence after Pap smear; #1 cancer killer of women in 3rd world countries
Sx: usually asx, can present as postcoital bleeding

TNM criteria
carcinoma in situ
cervix only,<7 mm
cervix only, >7 mm or visible lesion
involves upper 2/3 vagina, no parametrium
involves upper 2/3 vagina, parametrium


involves lower 1/3 vagina, no pelvic wall

involves lower 1/3 vagina, pelvic wall and/or
hydronephrosis or nonfunctional kidney
local met+ (bladder or rectum)
distal met+


simple hysterectomy or cold knife cone
radical hysterectomy or radiation tx
chemoradiation (external and internal
radiation + cisplatin chemotherapy)

Px (5 yr)




Simple hysterectomy: removes uterus only

Radical hysterectomy: removes uterus + parametria, upper vaginal cuff, uterosacral/cardinal ligaments, local vascular and lymphatic supply

ONC 3 Endometrial Cancer


Endometrial hyperplasia: precursor to type I endometrial cancer

Penny, nickel, dime, quarter:
simple hyperplasia w/o atypia = 1% progression to cancer
complex hyperplasia w/o atypia = 3-5%
simple hyperplasia w/ atypia = 8-10%
complex hyperplasia w/ atypia = 25-30%
Risk factors: E levels unopposed E therapy (E w/o P)
tamoxifen use (weak E)
obesity/HTN/DM (aromatase in fat cells)
PCOS/chronic anovulation (E w/o P)
nulliparity (total cycles)
early menarche/late menopause (total cycles)
granulosa cell tumor (E synthesis)
Protective factors:
COC/POP/combination HRT (P)
multiparity (total cycles)
diet and exercise (fat cells)
HNPCC/Lynch II syndrome: high-risk for colon, endometrial, ovarian cancer; get annual endo bx 35 y/o

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer types:

Type I
Type II

E-dependent neoplasm preceded by hyperplasia
E-independent neoplasm, not preceded by
hyperplasia (papillary serous or clear-cell)





Sx: presents as postmenopausal bleeding or other abnormal vaginal bleeding

Management: (premenopausal) Dx endometrial bx Tx (see below)
(postmenopausal) Dx U/S if endometrial stripe >5 mm then endometrial bx Tx (see below)

TNM criteria
uterus, endometrium only

uterus, <50% myometrial invasion
uterus, >50% myometrial invasion
endocervix, glands only
endocervix, stroma
in serosa
in vagina
pelvic/paraaortic LN+
spread beyond true pelvis, or in bladder or rectum
distal met+
Pelvic recurrence
Vaginal recurrence

TAHBSO pelvic/paraaortic LN-ectomy
and radiation (if high-risk)
High-dose progestins chemotherapy
Vaginal radiation

Px: grade is #1 factor; three grades G1 shows <5% solid growth pattern, G2 6-50%, G3 >50%
High-risk endo cancers: >50% myometrial invasion
type 2 (papillary serous or clear-cell)
grade 3 (>50% solid growth)
stage 3+
size >2 cm

ONC 4 Ovarian/FT Cancer

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer: four types epithelial (90%), germ cell, sex-cord stromal, metastatic
Sx: asx in early stages; present w/ vague abd pain, bloating, distention, early satiety in later stages
Etiology: chronic uninterrupted ovulation cellular repair opportunities for gene deletion/mutation
CA-125: ovarian tumor marker useful for testing tx response and recurrence, but not screening or dx
Risk factors: family hx (#1), familial ovarian cancer syndrome, uninterruped ovulation, old age
Familial ovarian cancer syndrome: BRCA1/2, HNPCC (Lynch II)
Uninterrupted ovulation: nulliparity, infertility, early menarche, late menopause
Protective factors: OCPs, multiparity, breastfeeding, chronic anovulation (all ovulation)
Management: Dx pelvic U/S stage Tx (see below)

TNM criteria
one ovary
two ovaries
Ia/Ib + ovarian surface tumor, ruptured capsule, malignant ascites, or peritoneal cytology+
invades FT or uterus
invades other pelvic tissue
IIa/IIb + ovarian surface tumor, ruptured capsule, malignant ascites, or peritoneal cytology+
abd peritoneal met+, <2 cm
abd peritoneal met+, >2 cm
pelvic/paraaortic/inguinal LN+
distal met+

Germ cell
Sex-cord stromal

surgery (TAHBSO, omentectomy, pelvic/paraaortic LN-ectomy) + carboplatin/paclitaxel
USO + BEP (bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin)
USO only

Ovarian cancer

Carcinomatous ileus: intraperitoneal tumor spread ascites and bowel encasement intermittent bowel obstruction
Sister-Mary-Joseph nodule: ovarian cancer metastasis to umbilicus
Pseudomyxoma peritonei: jelly belly associated w/ appendiceal carcinoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
Meigs syndrome: fibroma + ascites + right-sided hydrothorax
Latzko triad: pain, profuse watery d/c, pelvic mass; associated w/ FT adenocarcinoma
Precocious puberty: granulosa cell tumor

Epithelial tumors

Epithelial tumors: slow growing and usually asx, thus found at stage III+
MC type: serous cystadenocarcinoma
Serous cystadenoma: bilateral, lined w/ FT-like epithelium
Serous (papillary) cystadenocarcinoma: bilateral, Dx Psamomma bodies
Mucinous cystadenoma: multilocular cyst lined w/ mucus-secreting epithelium
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: pseudomyxoma peritonei
Endometrioid carcinoma: resembles endometrial cancer, good px
Clear cell carcinoma: masses of glycogen-filled clear cells, poor px
Brenner tumor: benign, resembles bladder (transitional epithelium)

Psammoma body

Germ cell tumors: rapidly growing in women <20 y/o, thus found at early stages
MC type: mature teratoma aka dermoid cyst (MC overall), dysgerminomas (MC malignant)
Teratoma: tumor of totipotent fetal tissue
Mature teratoma: benign, contains hair/teeth/calcifications
Immature teratoma: aggressively malignant, contains neural tissue
Struma ovarii: monodermal, contains thyroid tissue
Dysgerminoma: LDH, associated w/ Turner syndrome (45/XO), good px due to radiosensitivity
Endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor: AFP, Dx Schiller-Duval bodies resembling primitive glomeruli
Choriocarcinoma: -hCG, also a malignant type of GTD

Schiller-Duval body

Germ cell tumors

Sex-cord stromal

Sex-cord stromal tumors: slow growing, steroid hormone secreting tumors

MC type: granulosa cell tumor
Granulosa cell tumor: secretes estrogen risk of endometrial hyperplasia, Dx Call-Exner bodies
Fibroma: pulling sensation in groin, Dx bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: androblastoma, secretes testosterone virilization

Metastatic tumors

Krukenberg tumor: metastatic stomach cancer, Dx mucin-containing signet ring cells

FT cancer

FT adenocarcinoma: very rare (0.5%), mets to FT are more common than primary FT cancer
Sx: 15% present as Latzkos triad Pain, Profuse watery discharge (hydrops tubae profluens), Pelvic mass
Management: Dx pelvic U/S Tx same as epithelial ovarian cancers

Call-Exner body

ONC 5 Gestational Trophoblastic Disease


GTD: group of diseases 2/2 abnl proliferation of trophoblastic (placental) tissue

Benign GTD: complete and partial hydatidiform moles (80%)
Malignant GTD: persistent/invasive moles (15%), choriocarcinoma (<5%), PSTTs (rare)

Benign GTD

Hydatidiform moles: two types complete (90%) and partial (10%)

Epidemiology: highest incidence in Asian women
Risk factors: extremes in age, prior GTD, nulliparity, low -carotene/folate/fat diet
Other sx

Malignant potential

Malignant GTD

Complete moles (90%)

empty egg + sperm
46/xx (both paternal)
14 wks to return to normal
enlarged uterus + grape cluster villi
bilateral theca-lutein cysts
presents as abnormal vaginal bleeding
severe hyperemesis gravidarum, 1st
trimester preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism,
anemia (all related to -hCG)
15-20% overall, 2% choriocarcinoma
Dx -hCG and pelvic U/S showing
snowstorm pattern Tx D+C
oxytocin f/u serial -hCG and reliable
contraception for 6 months

Partial moles (10%)

egg + 2 sperm
normal or slightly ,
8 wks to return to normal
normal-sized uterus, fetal parts found
on autopsy of abortion prodcuts
presents as a missed abortion

<5% overall, no choriocarcinoma

Dx pelvic U/S shows swiss cheese
uterus Tx D+C oxytocin f/u serial
-hCG and reliable contraception for 6

Nonmetastatic: confined to uterus

Metastatic: spread beyond uterus
Low-risk: duration <4 mo, -hCG <40k, liver/brain met, no prior chemo
High-risk: duration >4 mo, -hCG >40k, liver/brain met+, failed chemo, GTD following pregnancy
Persistent/invasive moles
remnant of benign
hydatidiform moles

malignant, necrotizing tumor


presents as plateauing or hCG s/p molar evacuation


Dx -hCG and pelvic U/S

Tx single-agent chemo (nonmet or low-risk), multi-agent
chemo (high-risk) f/u serial
-hCG and reliable
contraception for 6 months

presents w/ sx of metastasis
(lungs, vagina, liver, brain,
Dx -hCG and pelvic U/S
check for mets Tx singleagent chemo (non-met or
low-risk), multi-agent chemo
(high-risk) f/u serial -hCG
and reliable contraception for
6 months


rare tumors that arise
from placental invasion
site, have no villi
presents as abnormal
vaginal bleeding
Dx -hCG (persistently
<100) and pelvic U/S
Tx hysterectomy + multiagent chemo

ONC 6 Breast Disease/Cancer

Breast anatomy
and physiology

Blood supply: internal mammary (off subclavian) + lateral thoracic (off axillary) arteries
Lymph drainage: axillary LN (97%) + internal mammary LN (3%)
Estrogen: promotes ductal development + fat deposition
Progesterone: promotes lobular-alveolar (stromal) development
Prolactin: promotes milk production
Oxytocin: promotes milk letdown, uterine ctx

Breast pain

Breast pain management:

Breast pain?
likely benign

h/o trauma

reassurance, NSAIDs,
sports bra, compresses




Nipple discharge

Bloody discharge: intraductal papilloma

Milky discharge: pregnancy, hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, drug-induced (e.g. antipsychotics)
Yellowish discharge: fibrocystic change, galactocele, acute mastitis
Green/sticky discharge: mammary duct ectasia
Purulent discharge: breast abscess

Breast cancer

Incidence: 1 in 8 women
Screening: annual mammogram (>50, >40 if strong family hx); monthly self-exam + annual physician exam (>20)
Risk factors: family hx (#1), previous breast cancer, old age, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (only 5-10% are genetic)
MC location: upper outer quadrant (has most breast tissue)
Mets sx:
bone pathologic fx, back pain, coma (hypercalcemia)
liver jaundice, elevated LFTs
lung dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis
brain severe HA, seizures
pleura pleuritic chest pain

Breast masses

MC breast masses:

<25 y/o
25-50 y/o fibrocystic change
>50 y/o
infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Benign masses: soft/rubbery, smooth surface, mobile, painful, <50 y/o
Malignant masses: firm/hard, irregular surface, fixed, painless, >50 y/o
Breast mass management:
Breast mass?
<30 y/o

30 y/o
Nonpalpable abnormal
mammogram finding?


wire-guided excision

needle drainage
f/u in 4 wks



probably benign
suspicious of malignancy
probably malignant

core needle bx

mammogram +
core needle bx

excisional bx if

additional imaging needed
routine f/u
routine f/u
short-term f/u (6 mo)
core needle bx
core needle bx

Risk of malignancy

ONC 6 Breast Disease/Cancer

Benign tumors

Fibroadenoma: firm, mobile, rubbery mass <5 cm in young women; Tx elective removal
Giant juvenile fibroadenoma: 5 cm, seen in teens with rapid breast growth; Tx excision to avoid breast deformity
Intraductal papilloma: presents as bloody nipple discharge; Tx galactogram/ductogram-guided excision (due to small risk of carcinoma)
Phyllodes tumor: huge, benign tumors that distort the breast; Dx core or incisional biopsy since FNA is insufficient, Tx excision w/ negative margins

Malignant tumors

DCIS: mammogram shows clustered microcalcifications, Tx simple mastectomy

LCIS: multiple/bilateral; Tx close observation tamoxifen
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma: MC breast cancer, Tx (see below)
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma: multiple/bilateral, Tx (see below)
Paget disease: crusty nipple eczema, indicates underlying infiltrating ductal carcinoma, Tx (see below)
Inflammatory carcinoma: resembles cellulitis w/ peau dorange, tumor cells in dermal lymphatics, Tx pre-op chemo + (see below)

Breast cancer Tx


TNM criteria
T1 (<2 cm)


T2+ (>2 cm) or N1 (mobile ipsi ALN+)

N2+ (fixed ipsi ALN+)
M1 (distal met+)

lumpectomy + ALND/SLN + post-op radiation;
or modified radical mastectomy

ALND/SLN+: indicates LN involvement; Tx chemotherapy

ER/PR: indicates poor px; Tx chemotherapy
ER/PR+: indicates good px; Tx tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrazole, exemstane)
HER2/neu+: indicates poor px; Tx trastuzumab (Herceptin), most associated w/ comedocarcinomas
Modified radical mastectomy: removes breast + pectoralis major/minor + axillary LN
Complications: winged scapula (cut long thoracic nerve), arm lymphedema (lymphatic blockage)
Breast reconstruction: add implants or autogenous tissue, good for psychosocial benefits
Breast diseases

Fibrocystic change: painful, multiple/bilateral lumps that vary with menstrual cycle; Tx reduction in tea/caffeine/chocolate
Dominant lump: Tx aspiration excision if mass recurs or persists
Atypical ductal hyperplasia: Tx excision; not precancerous, but high risk of becoming a cancer
Acute mastitis: breastfeeding women get Staph/Strep infection through cracks in nipple w/ yellowish discharge, Tx dicloxacillin + continue breastfeeding
Periductal mastitis: subareolar infection in smokers, both males and females affected
Breast abscess: pus pocket in lactating women; Tx I&D + biopsy to r/o possible cancer
Mammary duct ectasia: bilateral breast pain and green/sticky discharge in perimenopausal women; Tx excision + biopsy to r/o possible cancer
Dystrophic calcification: presents as breast lump following trauma, but work up as a cancer until proven otherwise (trick question!)



Coronary artery dz: atherosclerotic occlusion of coronary vx asx

stable angina
unstable angina
acute MI
sudden cardiac death
Acute coronary syndrome: ruptured atherosclerotic plaque unstable angina or acute MI
Stable angina

Acute coronary syndrome

substernal gripping chest
pain or pressure on exertion,
relieved w/ rest or NTG

unstable angina
+EKG change
Unstable angina: ruptured
atherosclerotic plaque
increasing pain or pain at rest
NSTEMI/STEMI: ruptured
atherosclerotic plaque
typical MI-pattern chest pain;
can be asx in elderly, diabetics,
women, s/p heart txp

Prinzmetal (variant) angina


transient coronary vasospasm

episodic angina at rest
Left-sided CHF: dyspnea,
orthopnea, PND
Right-sided CHF: pitting edema,
hepatic congestion, JVD, ascites
NYHA class I: sx only w/
vigorous activity (e.g. sports)
NYHA class II: sx w/ moderate
activity (e.g. stairs)
NYHA class III: sx w/ ADLs
NYHA class IV: sx at rest


Adenosine toxicity: HA, flushing, nausea, SOB, chest pressure

Nitrate toxicity: headache, orthostatic hypotension, tolerance, syncope
Digoxin toxicity: atrial tachycardia w/ AV block


abnl ST or T-wave

exercise stress test

(pharmacological if
unable to exercise)

Tx for unstable angina




close f/u

mild (1 vx) Tx -blocker + aspirin + nitrates

moderate (2 vx) Tx (above) vs. PTCA/CABG
severe (3 vx) Tx CABG
Dx EKG + cardiac enzymes
Tx MONABASH Morphine (analgesia)
Nitrates (analgesia)
Aspirin clopidogrel
ACE inhibitor (remodeling)
Heparin vs. enoxaparin
(only ASA, -blockers, ACEI reduce mortality)
angina/NSTEMI medical management
STEMI call cath lab for PTCA or CABG

Positive stress test: chest pain,
ST depression, hypotension, or
significant arrhythmias
Pharmacological stress test: IV
adenosine, dipyridamole, or
dobutamine can stress the heart
in place of exercise
Coronary steal: dipyridamole
causes blood flow redistribution
to nondiseased vx in stress test

CK-MB: peaks in 24 hrs and lasts

2-3 days, good for recurrence
Troponin I: peaks in 24 hrs and
lasts 1-2 weeks, most specific
EKG changes: peaked T waves,
ST-elevation, ST-depression, Q
waves, T wave inversion
Lateral: I, aVL
Inferior: II, III, aVF
Anterior: V1-V4
Posterior: V1-V2
Complications: CHF, arrhythmias,
recurrent infarction, free wall
rupture, papillary muscle
rupture, acute pericarditis,
tamponade, Dressler syndrome

Dx EKG (ST-elevation during episode),

inducible by IV ergonovine
Dx EKG + cardiac enzymes (r/o MI) + BNP +
echo (best test, estimates EF)
class I Tx loop diuretic + ACE inhibitor
class II-III add -blocker
class IV add digoxin

Frank-Starling curve: normal

heart has contractility with
preload, but impaired in CHF
Systolic etiology: post-MI (MCC)
Diastolic etiology: LVH due to
chronic HTN (MCC)



EKG tracing
early P wave that looks differently than other P waves
wide QRS without preceding P wave


irregularly irregular rhythm



saw-tooth baseline w/ HR = 150

looks like AFib but the P waves are variable, need 3 different P waves for dx

no risk factors reassurance
recurrrent PVCs w/ underlying
heart dz implantable defib
Couplet: 2 PVCs
Bigeminy: sinus beat + PVC
Trigeminy: sinus beat + 2 PVCs
acute, stable anticoagulate +
rate control w/ Ca-blockers
then cardioversion
acute, unstable immediate
chronic anticoagulate +
rate control w/ Ca-blockers
(same as AFib)

Tx improve oxygenation
Etiology: end-stage COPD (MCC)
Tx IV adenosine if stable,
cardioversion if unstable


HR > 200
Tx ablation

WPW syndrome

delta wave reflects accessory conduction pathway from atria to ventricles

sustained Tx IV amiodarone
nonsustained reassurance
torsades Tx IV mag sulfate


Sustained VTach: lasts >30 sec, always symptomatic

Nonsustained VTach: lasts <30 sec, usually asx
Torsades de pointes: rapid, polymorphic VTach due to QT prolongation
Tx immediate defib + CPR, then
continue IV amiodarone


Sinus bradycardia

sinus rate <60 bpm

Sick sinus syndrome

1 AV block

persistent sinus bradycardia; presents as dizziness, syncope, fatigue

Pulseless electrical activity: EKG

shows activity but no pulses felt
usually insignificant; if sx Tx
atropine (blocks vagus nerve)
Tx pacemaker

PR interval >0.2 sec (1 block)


2 AV block (Mobitz type 1)

progressive PR prolongation until QRS drops, dz in AV node

Tx pacemaker (can convert to

3 w/o Tx)

2 AV block (Mobitz type 2)

random QRS drop, dz in bundle of His

Tx pacemaker

3 AV block (complete)

P waves and QRS complexes function independently



contractility CHF sx


exertional dyspnea, angina,

syncope, sudden death in a
young athlete, murmur
enhanced by preload (e.g.
handgrip, Valsalva)
infiltration of myocardium
compliance CHF sx



Etiology: MI (MCC), infx, alcohol,
doxorubicin (Adriamycin), etc.
Etiology: most are autosomal
dominant, few are sporadic

Dx echo + endomyocardial bx to find cause

Tx underlying cause

Etiology: CASHES carcinoid

syndrome, amyloid, sarcoid,
hemochromatosis, endocardial
fibroelastosis (kids), scleroderma
Etiology: coxsackie B virus (MCC)


usually asx, can present w/

fever, chest pain, pericarditis

Dx cardiac enzymes, ESR

Tx underlying cause

Acute pericarditis

pleuritic positional chest pain
(relieved by leaning forward),
pericardial friction rub; can lead
to pericardial effusion and
cardiac tamponade
fibrous pericardial scarring
systemic venous pressure
edema, ascites, hepatic
congestion, JVD, pericardial
knock, Kussmaul sign
muffled heart sounds, soft PMI,
pericardial friction rub

Dx EKG (diffuse ST elevation + PR dePRession)

Constrictive pericarditis

Pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade


Dx echo + CXR
Tx for CHF + heart txp (MC indication)
Dx echo + family hx
asx avoid exercise
sx -blockers vs. myomectomy vs.
pacemaker implantation

pulsus paradoxus + Becks triad

(hypotension, JVD, muffled
heart sounds)

pericarditis + uremia Tx hemodialysis

Dx EKG shows AFib, cardiac cath shows
square root sign
Tx pericardiectomy

Dx echo (gold standard), CXR shows water

bottle silhouette
small/asx repeat echo in 1-2 wks
rapidly developing pericardiocentesis
Dx echo (gold standard), EKG shows electrical
nonhemorrhagic, stable close monitoring
nonhemorrhagic, unstable
hemorrhagic ER thoracotomy

Etiology: coxsackie B virus (MCC)
Dressler syndrome: post-MI
pericarditis, feels like a second
heart attack; Tx NSAIDs
Constrictive pericarditis vs.
tamponade: pericarditis fills
rapidly then stops suddenly,
tamponade fills slowly throughout diastole
Etiology: acute pericarditis

Etiology: trauma, pericarditis,

post-MI w/ free wall rupture
Rate vs. amount: rate is more
important than amount b/c
pericardium has ability to stretch

Valvular dz: all require warfarin (anticoagulate) + amoxicillin (SBE ppx)

Mitral stenosis

loud S1, opening snap w/ late
diastolic rumble

asx nothing
sx Tx balloon valvuloplasty

Etiology: rheumatic heart
disease (MCC)

Mitral regurgitation

holosystolic blowing murmur

asx medical management

sx Tx valve replacement

Etiology: ischemic heart dz, MVP,

LV dilation

Aortic stenosis

systolic crescendo-decrescendo
murmur following opening
snap, parvus et tardus; triad
of angina, syncope, dyspnea

asx nothing
sx Tx valve replacement

Etiology: calcified tricuspid valve

(old), calcified bicuspid aortic
valve (young)
Px: usually asx until old age, then
1-3 yrs after development of sx

Aortic regurgitation

high-pitched blowing diastolic

murmur, wide pulse pressures,
head bobbing, pulsating uvula,
pistol-shot over femoral arteries

asx medical management

sx Tx valve replacement
acute-onset emergent valve replacement

Etiology: bicuspid aortic valve,

syphilitic aortitis, rheumatic fever

Tricuspid regurgitation

holosystolic blowing murmur,

pulsatile liver

asx medical management

sx Tx valve replacement

Etiology: tricuspid endocarditis

(IVDA), RV dilation

Mitral valve prolapse

midsystolic click, late systolic

crescendo murmur; enhanced
by TPR (Valsalva, hand grip)


Etiology: connective tissue d/o,

MCC Marfans


Endocarditis: diseases of endocardial lining of heart, most commonly in valves

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic heart disease

Infx endocarditis

Marantic (thrombotic)
Libman-Sacks endocarditis


strep throat (GAS) anti-M ab
type 2 hypersensitivity
FEVERSS fever, erythema
marginatum, valvular damage,
ESR, red-hot joints (migratory
polyarthritis), subcutaneous
nodules, Sydenham chorea
repeated episodes of rheumatic
fever scarring of mitral valve
Acute: S. aureus on normal
valves rapid onset
Subacute: dental procedures
S. viridans (or GU/GI procedures
enterococcus) on damaged
valves insidious onset

Dx ASO titers
strep throat Tx PCN or erythromycin
rheumatic fever Tx steroids

MC murmur: mitral regurgitation

Tx valve repair

MC murmur: mitral stenosis

Dx Dukes criteria (sustained bacteremia,

endocardial involvement, fever, immune or
vascular phenomena, +blood cx, +echo)
Tx IV abx

Rapid onset: S. aureus

Dental procedures: S. viridans
GI/GU procedures: enterococcus
Colon cancer: Strep bovis,
Clostridium septicum
IVDA: S. aureus on tricuspid valve
>> Pseudomonas, Candida
Prosthetic valves: S. epidermidis
Cx-negative: HACEK group

metastatic cancer hypercoagulable state clots form

on valves can embolize
SLE wart-like vegetations on
both sides of mitral valve
mitral regurg > mitral stenosis

Tx heparin (controversial)

Tx underlying SLE + anticoagulate

CHD endocarditis: all CHD require amoxicillin (SBE ppx) before dental procedures
Eisenmenger syndrome: L-to-R shunts pulmonary HTN reversal of shunting late-onset cyanosis

low-grade diastolic rumble
murmur w/ fixed split S2


holosystolic murmur at mid-LSB


continuous, machinery-like

Aortic coarctation

HTN in upper extremities,

hypotension in lower
extremities; midsystolic
murmur heard over back

Dx echo
asx reassurance
sx Tx surgical repair
Dx echo
asx reassurance
sx Tx surgical repair
Dx echo
infants Tx indomethacin
adults w/o Eisenmenger surgical ligation
adults w/ Eisenmenger surgery is
Dx CXR (rib notching + figure 3 aorta)
Tx surgical decompression

Paradoxical emboli: venous clots
can travel through ASD and
cause stroke instead of PE

Congenital rubella syndrome:

PDA + deafness + cataracts
MCC death: heart failure,
infectious endocarditis
Aortic coarctation in short
women: Turner syndrome


(vasculitides in MSK section)

HTN urgency
HTN emergency

Aortic dissection


lower BP gradually over 24 hrs w/ PO meds
lower BP by 25% in 1-2 hrs w/ IV nitroprusside
severe HA get head CT to r/o intracranial
bleeding lumbar puncture if CT is negative
Dx screen w/ CXR (widened mediastinum),
confirm w/ TEE or CT scan
type A Tx -blockers + surgery
type B Tx -blockers

usually asx, can present as

pulsatile mass on abd exam

Dx abdominal U/S
<5 cm close f/u vs. elective repair
>5 cm or sx Tx synthetic graft

Ruptured AAA

triad of tearing abdominal pain,

hypotension, pulsatile mass

Tx emergency laparotomy (dont waste time

on dx tests)

Peripheral vascular dz

peripheral atherosclerosis
intermittent claducation (mild),
rest pain and ischemic ulcers

Dx arteriogram (gold standard)

Dx ABI (normal 1.0, mild <0.7, severe <0.4;
calcified arteries give false readings)
mild conservative management
severe bypass graft vs. angioplasty

Acute arterial occlusion

Cholesterol embolization

Mycotic aneurysm
Luetic heart


BP >220/120
BP >220/120 + end-organ
damage (e.g. headache, renal
failure, pulmonary edema)
acute-onset tearing chest pain
(type A) or interscapular back
pain (type B), asymmetric BP, pt
usually in severe distress

emboli arterial occlusion

6 Ps pain, pallor, paralysis,
parasthesias, poikilothermia,
surgical or radiographic
procedure disruption of
atherosclerotic plaque
cholesterol emboli small
areas of tissue ischemia (e.g.
black/blue spots on toes)
bacterial (not fungal) infx
aortic aneurysm
tertiary syphilis aortic
aneurysm + aortic regurg +
coronary artery stenosis

Dx arteriogram
Tx IV heparin + surgical embolectomy (<6 hrs)
vs. amputation (>6 hrs)
Tx fasciotomy for compartment syndrome ppx
Tx supportive care
severe amputation


Etiology: HTN, connective tissue

Stanford classification: type A
involves Ascending aorta, type B
involves descending aorta
MC site: below the renal arteries
MC pts: old smoking men
Aortoenteric fistula: small herald
bleed followed by massive UGIB
s/p aortic graft placement
Signs of impending rupture:
Cullen sign (umbilical
ecchymoses), Grey-Turner sign
(flank ecchymoses)
MC site: superficial femoral
Risk factors: diabetes, smoking
Leriche syndrome: PVD of distal
aorta above bifurcation
bilateral claudication, impotence,
femoral pulses
Etiology: AFib (MCC)
MC site: common femoral artery

Tx IV abx + surgical excision

Tx IV PCN G + surgical repair

Virchows triad: risk of blood clots w/ stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage

Heparin vs. enoxaparin: enoxaparin (Lovenox) and dalteparin (Fragmin) have longer T for qday dosing, more $$$

painful, palpable venous cord
w/ local erythema and edema


acute-onset dull leg pain,

unilateral swelling, and
Homans sign (calf pain w/
acute-onset chest pain,
dyspnea, hyperventilation,
hemoptysis, right-sided heart
failure death


Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Post-thrombotic syndrome
(chronic venous insufficiency)

venous outflow obstruction

acute onset leg edema with
pain and cyanosis
DVT damages valves chronic
venous HTN severe leg
edema and ulceration around
ankle area

mild Tx aspirin
severe Tx aspirin + warm compresses
septic remove IV cath + give IV abx
Dx duplex U/S
Tx heparin + warfarin
PPx compression boots + early ambulation
Dx D-dimer to r/o, spiral CT or V/Q to confirm
Tx heparin + warfarin
Tx tPA to speed up clot resolution (massive
PE, unstable, right heart failure, no c/i)
recurrent PE Tx IVC filter
Dx duplex U/S or pelvic CT scan
Tx heparin + venous thrombectomy
Tx compression stockings + leg elevation;
wet-to-dry TID for ulcers

Migratory SVT: consider
pancreatic cancer (Trousseau

PE on EKG: sinus tachycardia is

more common than S1Q3T3


Shock: inadequate tissue perfusion

Types of shock: cardiogenic (JVD)
septic (warm skin)
neurogenic (CO, warm skin)
Initial shock management: ABCs 2 large-bore IVs + 2L IV fluids (except cardiogenic) EKG, CXR, labs (CBC/renal/coags)
Cardiogenic shock

typical shock sx (MS, BP/HR,
pale cool skin) + JVD

Hypovolemic shock

Class I: <15% + asx

Class II: 15-30% + HR
Class III: 30-40% + BP
Class IV: >40% + MS, anuria
SIRS: 2+ of the following /T,
Sepsis: SIRS + positive blood cx
Septic shock: sepsis + BP
MODS: multiple organ dysfxn
syndrome 2/2 septic shock
sympathetic denervation
loss of vascular tone typical
shock sx (MS, BP/HR, warm

Septic shock

Neurogenic shock


Cardiac metastases


Atrial myxoma

pedunculated, benign mass that

presents like intermittent mitral
MC heart tumor in kids

Cardiac rhabdomyoma


(initial shock management) but use dopamine
or IABP instead of IV fluids
Dx EKG + echo to find underlying cause
Tx underlying cause
(initial shock management)
hemorrhagic find and stop source of bleed
nonhemorrhagic stabilize w/ IVF + close
monitoring for improvement
(initial shock management)
Tx IV abx + IV fluids, dopamine (2nd line)

Etiology: acute MI (MCC),
cardiac tamponade, tension PTX,
massive PE, etc.

Complications: septic shock is

MCC of ARDS + ICU death

(initial shock management)

Tx IV fluids + supine or T-berg position

Dx CT scan
Tx surgical excision

more common than primary
tumors (75%)
Etiology: most are sporadic, few
are autosomal dominant
Etiology: associated w/ tuberous

EKG reading: 0. find old EKG for comparison

1. Rate: use 300-150-100-75-60-50 rule, or count long strip x12
2. Rhythm: look at long strip
Irregularly irregular: AFib or MAT
3. Axis: look at leads I and II
I+/II+: normal
I+/II: left-axis deviation
I/II+: right-axis deviation
4. Intervals: look at PR interval, QRS complex, QT interval
PR interval: normal <0.2 sec, heart block >0.2 sec
QRS complex: normal <0.12 sec
LBBB: WiLLiaM W in V1-V2, M in V3-V6
RBBB: MaRRoW M in V1-V2, W in V3-V6
QT interval: normal if T-wave doesnt go past mid QRS-QRS, prolonged QT is risk of torsades de pointes
5. Waves: look for chamber enlargement and signs of ischemia/infarct
LAE: lead II wide P-wave (>0.12 sec)
RAE: lead II tall P-wave (>2.5 mm)
LVH: left-axis deviation + V1/V2 and V5/V6 overlapping
RVH: right-axis deviation + lead V1 R-wave >7 mm
Ischemia: T-wave inversion, ST elevation or depression
Infarct: T-wave inversion, ST elevation, significant Q waves


Lung volumes:

Obstructive lung dz: TLC, FEV1/FVC (<70%), compliance, elasticity

Restrictive lung dz: TLC, FEV1/FVC, compliance, elasticity
COPD: emphysema + chronic bronchitis, commonly coexist, MCC of both is smoking

destruction of alveolar walls
permanent alveolar dilation
pink puffers, thin w/ barrel
chest, expiration w/ pursed lips

Dx spirometry shows FEV1/FVC <70%
Dx CXR shows hyperinflated lungs and
increased AP diameter (emphysema only)
<50 y/o Dx A1AT levels

Chronic bronchitis

chronic productive cough of 3

months/year for 2 years
blue bloaters, overweight
and cyanotic, may have signs of
cor pulmonale

stage I (FEV1 80%) Tx short-acting

bronchodilators (albuterol, ipratropium)
stage II (FEV1 50-80%) add long-acting
bronchodilators (salmeterol, tiotropium)
stage III (FEV1 30-50%) add inhaled steroids
(fluticasone, triamcinolone)
stage IV (FEV1 <30% or <5o% w/ hypoxia)
add O2 therapy for 18 hrs/day


Asthma attack: airway

inflammation reversible
airflow obstruction
wheezing, shortness of breath,
cough, chest tightness

COPD exacerbation Tx bronchodilators +

abx + systemic steroids + O2 therapy
Dx spirometry shows reversible FEV1/FVC <70%
1-2 atk/wk prn SABA (albuterol)
2+ atk/wk add low-dose inhaled steroids
daily atk add LABA (salmeterol)
continuous add high-dose inhaled steroids

Status asthmaticus: sustained

asthmatic state, not responsive
to meds


destruction of bronchial walls

permanent bronchiolar
dilation chronic cough w/
cupfuls of sputum, dyspnea,
hemoptysis, recurrent
Pseudomonas pneumonia

Dx high-res CT scan shows signet rings

Tx bronchodilators + abx for acute

Etiology: smoking causes centriacinar emphysema in upper
lungs; A1AT deficiency causes
panacinar emphysema in lower
lungs in pts <50 y/o
Etiology: smoking (MCC)

Extrinsic asthma: IgE-mediated

rxn to environmental triggers
Intrinsic asthma: not related to
triggers or atopy
Atopy: asthma + allergic rhinitis +
atopic dermatitis (eczema)
Triad asthma: asthma + aspirin
sensitivity (LT) + nasal polyps
ABPA: asthma + pulmonary
infiltrates + Aspergillus allergy
Churg-Strauss syndrome:
asthma + eosinophilia +
granulomatous vasculitis
Etiology: cystic fibrosis (MCC),
Kartagener syndrome (dynein)


Lung cancer

Solitary pulmonary nodule

(coin lesion)

cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea,
wheezing, recurrent PNA in
same lobe

Dx CXR if suspicious, sputum cytology and
CT scan if still suspicious, bronchoscopy and
mediastinoscopy w/ biopsy (tissue is the

Pancoast tumor: superior sulcus

tumor at the apex of the lung;
presents as Horner syndrome
ipsilateral ptosis, miosis,
anhidrosis, flushing due to loss
of sympathetic tone (invades
superior cervical ganglia)

NSCLC stage I (local) pneumonectomy vs.

sleeve lobectomy
NSCLC stage II (hilar LN) pneumonectomy
vs. sleeve lobectomy
NSCLC stage III (distal LN) chemo/radiation
NSCLC stage IV (mets) chemo/radiation

Bronchial adenoma: MC cancer

in women and nonsmokers

SCLC limited (ipsi) chemo/radiation

SCLC extensive (contra) chemo/radiation

solitary pulmonary nodule

found incidentally on a CXR;
DDx primary lung cancer,
granuloma (TB or fungal),
hamartoma, metastatic cancers

Complications: SPHERE SVC
syndrome, Pancoast tumor
Horner syndrome, Endocrine
(paraneoplastic), Recurrent
laryngeal nerve (hoarseness),
Effusions (pleural or pericardial)
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic
syndrome (LEMS): SCLC antiVGCC antibodies myasthenia
gravis-like presentation
Paraneoplastic syndromes:
squamous cell makes PTH-rP,
SCLC makes ADH and ACTH

Bronchial adenoma lobectomy is curative

Pancoast tumor irradiation for 6 weeks to
shrink tumor, then surgical resection
Dx get an older CXR for comparison studies
if suspicious, sputum cytology and CT scan
Benign coin lesions (calcification = granuloma,
bulls-eye shape, popcorn shape = hamartoma,
air-crescent or halo sign = aspergilloma,
Southwest region = coccidioidomycosis, Ohio
river valley = histoplasmosis) leave alone
Indeterminate coin lesions resection
Malignant coin lesions (spiculations or 20+
pack-year smoking = primary lung cancer,
multiple lesions = metastatic cancer)
resection indicated


Pleural effusion

fluid build-up in pleural space;
two types transudative (thin)
and exudative (thick)

Dx CXR shows blunting of costophrenic angle
Dx thoracentesis + 4 Cs chemistry (glucose,
protein), cytology, CBC+diff, culture
transudative Tx diuretics + Na+ restriction
exudative Tx underlying disease
parapneumonic abx chest tube drainage



Tension PTX


collection of pus within pleural

cavity nonproductive cough,
fever, chest pain
air pocket in pleural space
chest pain, cough, dyspnea

PTX + building pressure

mediastinal shift, hypOtension,
JVD, absent breath sounds,
hyperresonance to percussion
cancer of mesothelial lining
dyspnea, cough, weight loss

Dx CXR or CT scan
Tx abx + insert chest tube, evacuate pus
collection, then re-expand the lung
Dx CXR shows visceral pleura line or deep
sulcus sign
small/asx observation
large or sx Tx chest tube drainage
recurrent Tx pleurodesis (scraping vs. talc)
always get CXR after transthoracic needle
aspiration, chest tube, or central line to r/o
Dx H+P, do not get a CXR
Tx immediate needle decompression (2nd
intercostal space) + chest tube
Dx CT scan shows thick pleural walls
Tx extrapleural pneumonectomy (high rate of

Lights criteria: pleural fluid is
exudative if any of the following
p/s protein <0.5, p/s LDH <0.6,
p LDH at upper 2/3 of normal
Pleural fluid analysis:
amylase = esophageal rupture,
pancreatitis, malignancy
milky fluid = chylothorax
purulent fluid = empyema
bloody fluid = cancer
lymphocytic fluid = TB
pH <7.2 = empyema or
parapneumonic effusion
glucose <60 = r/o RA
Etiology: Staph aureus is MCC

1 spontaneous PTX: rupture of

apical blebs in healthy young
2 spontaneous PTX: due to
underlying lung dz (MCC COPD)
Traumatic PTX: s/p transthoracic
needle aspiration, chest tube, or
central line

Etiology: asbestos exposure

(especially shipyards, rooftops)


ILD presentation: dyspnea, nonproductive cough, fatigue

ILD management: Dx spirometry (TLC, FEV1/FVC) get CXR + tissue bx + UA if hematuria
Honeycomb lung: end-stage ILD scarred, shrunken lung w/ dilated air spaces
Drug-induced pulmonary

(classic ILD sx) s/p amiodarone,
busulfan, bleomycin, MTX, or
young black female w/
respiratory complaints,
erythema nodosum, and blurry
vision (anterior uveitis)

Histiocytosis X

(classic ILD sx)

Wegener granulomatosis

triad of necrotizing vasculitis,

necrotizing granulomas in lungs
and upper respiratory tract, and
necrotizing glomerulonephritis
hematuria + hemoptysis
triad of asthma + eosinophilia +
necrotizing vasculitis
inhalation of coal dust
containing carbon and silica
(classic ILD sx)
inhalation of asbestos
fibrosis of lower lungs + pleural

Churg-Strauss syndrome
Coal worker pneumoconiosis



inhalation of silicon fibrosis

of upper lungs


inhalation of beryllium
sarcoidosis-like presentation
Acute form: inhalation of
antigenic agent (e.g. bird
droppings) type III and IV
hypersensitivity flu-like sx
Chronic form: (classic ILD sx)
(classic ILD sx) + fever +

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
(extrinsic allergic alveolitis)

Eosinophilic pneumonia

Goodpasture syndrome

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

anti-GBM antibodies attack

alveolar and glomerular
basement membrane (type II)
hematuria + hemoptysis
accumulation of surfactant-like
protein and phospholipids in
alveoli (classic ILD sx)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis


(classic ILD sx) death in 3-7


Cryptogenic organizing
pneumonitis (COP)

infectious pneumonia-like
presentation (cough, dyspnea,
flu-like sx) but unresponsive to
s/p thoracic radiation for lung or
breast cancer alveolar
thickening and pulmonary
fibrosis (classic ILD sx)

Radiation pneumonitis

Tx d/c meds


Dx CXR shows bilateral hilar LN-opathy

(pulmonary fibrosis is end-stage finding)
Dx tissue bx shows noncaseating granulomas
w/ Schaumann and asteroid bodies
Tx steroids
Dx CXR shows honeycomb lung
Dx tissue bx shows eosinophilic granulomas
Tx steroids vs. lung txp (if not responding)
Dx tissue bx shows necrotizing granulomas
Tx cyclophosphamide

Complications: GRAINeD IgG,

rheumatoid arthritis, ACE, ILD,
noncaseating granulomas, 1hydroxylase vitamin D

Tx steroids

Dx CXR shows lower lung fibrosis + pleural

Dx tissue bx shows ferruginous bodies
Tx supportive care
Dx CXR shows upper lung fibrosis + egg shell
Tx supportive care
Dx beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test
Tx steroids
Dx CXR shows pulmonary infiltrates (acute
form), interstitial fibrosis (chronic form)
Tx steroids + avoid birds

Dx CXR shows peripheral infiltrates, CBC+diff

shows eosinophilia
get p-ANCA to r/o Churg-Strauss
Tx steroids
Dx tissue bx shows linear staining
get c-ANCA to r/o Wegener
Tx steroids + cyclophosphamide +
Dx CXR shows ground glass appearance w/
bat-shaped bilateral alveolar infiltrates
Dx tissue bx (definitive)
Tx lung lavage vs. GM-CSF
Dx CXR shows honeycomb lungs w/ temporal
Dx tissue bx shows UIP (usual interstitial PNA)
Tx steroids (temporizing), lung txp
Dx CXR shows bilateral patchy infiltrates
Tx steroids

Dx CT scan shows diffuse infiltrates (CXR is

usually normal)
Tx steroids
PPx not useful

Caplan syndrome: rheumatoid

nodules + pneumoconiosis
Etiology: shipyards, naval bases,
Complications: bronchogenic
carcinoma >> mesothelioma
Etiology: mining, stone cutting,
glass manufacturing



Acute respiratory failure

dyspnea (first sx), cough,
respiratory distress, etc.
Types: hypoxia (PaO2 <60),
hypercapnia (PCO2 >50)

Dx ABG analysis

A-a nl


diffuse inflammatory response

neutrophil activation
interstitial damage and alveolar
collapse massive shunting
dyspnea + respiratory distress
Neonatal RDS: due to preterm
birth <34 wks w/o surfactant


CO2 nl
V/Q mismatch vs. shunting
(DDx w/ supplemental O2)
inspired PaO2

Dx CXR, CBC/renal, cardiac enzymes if needed

Tx underlying cause, supplemental O2,
CPAP/BIPAP if conscious, ventilation if not
Dx CXR shows diffuse bilateral pulmonary
infiltrates (white-out of lungs)
Dx ABG shows hypoxia (PaO2 <60) not
responsive to O2 therapy
Dx PCWP shows no evidence of CHF

V/Q mismatch: imbalance
between lung perfusion and
ventilation, presents as O2 but
nl CO2
Shunting: lack of ventilation in
well-perfused areas (e.g. PNA,
atelectasis); not responsive to
supplemental O2
Hypoventilation: not breathing
inspired PaO2: high altitudes
Etiology: septic shock (MCC),
aspiration pneumonia, trauma

Tx ventilation w/ FiO2, PEEP

Ventilation goals: maintain alveolar ventilation, correct hypoxia

Ventilator settings: 1. AC (assisted control) has backup RR, gives preset VT per attempted breath
2. SIMV (synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation) has backup RR, does not have preset VT per breath
3. CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) no backup RR, continuous PEEP support
4. PSV (pressure support ventilation) PEEP support only with attempted breath
Key parameters:

RR and VT control CO2

FiO2 and PEEP control O2

Tracheomalacia: softening of tracheal cartilage w/ prolonged ventilation; PPx tracheostomy if ventilator-dependent for 2+ wks


Pulmonary HTN

PA pressure >25 mmHg (rest) or
>30 mmHg (exercise)
presents as exertional dyspnea,
fatigue, chest pain, syncope
pulmonary HTN w/o identifiable
cause (a dx of exclusion)

Dx loud P2 + subtle sternal lift on auscultation
Dx find the underlying cause via CXR, PFTs,
ABG, EKG, echo, catheterization
Tx underlying cause + bosentan
Dx (see above)
Tx pulmonary vasodilators (CCB) + lung txp

Cor pulmonale

pulmonary HTN + RVH

Dx (see above)
Tx underlying cause + bosentan


acute onset chest pain,

dyspnea, hyperventilation,
hemoptysis, right-sided heart
failure death

Dx D-dimer to r/o, spiral CT or V/Q scan to r/in

Tx heparin + warfarin
Tx tPA to speed up clot resolution (massive
PE, unstable, right heart failure, no c/i)
recurrent PE Tx IVC filter

Pulmonary aspiration

either acute onset respiratory
distress, or delayed onset of
respiratory sx (cough, SOB,
fever, tachypnea, dypsnea, etc.)

Dx CXR + H+P
Tx ABCs, O2 mask, supportive care
aspiration pneumonia Tx abx
obstruction Tx bronchoscopy

1 pulmonary HTN (PPH)



Etiology: BMPR2 uninhibited

smooth muscle growth
pulmonary resistance
Px: mean survival 2-3 yrs
Etiology: COPD (MCC), recurrent
PE, ILD, asthma, sleep apnea, CF,
PE on EKG: sinus tachycardia is
more common than S1Q3T3
Fat embolism: dyspnea, MS,
petechiae in a pt w/ long bone fx
Amniotic fluid embolism: intraor postpartum, or amniocentesis

Etiology: gastric aspirates (can
lead to ARDS), oral flora (can
lead to abscess), foreign bodies
Risk factors: MS, alcoholics,
instrumentation, esophageal d/o


RUQ pain:

RLQ pain:


liver (hepatitis)
common bile duct (cholecystitis, cholangitis)
lungs (PE, pneumonia)
duodenum (ulcer)
bowels (appendicitis, perforated ulcer, IBD,
inguinal hernia)
male GU (testicular torsion)
female GU (ectopic, PID, ovarian cyst)
ureters (ureterolithiasis)

Colorectal cancer

Proximal colon: bleeding
melena, iron-deficiency anemia,
fatigue, dull pain

LUQ pain:

pancreas (pancreatitis)
spleen (splenic dz)
lungs (PE, pneumonia, subphrenic abscess)

LLQ pain:

bowels (diverticulitis, IBD, inguinal hernia)

male GU (testicular torsion)
female GU (ectopic, PID, ovarian cyst)
ureters (ureterolithiasis)

>50 y/o colonoscopy screen q 10 yrs
Dx barium enema (apple core) + CEA marker

Distal colon: obstruction

constipation, colicky pain,
Rectal cancer: hematochezia,
rectal mass, tenesmus
Metastatic: portal drainage to
liver jaundice, LFTs



Dx colonoscopy
Tx polypectomy


low-fiber diet need more

strain to poop outpouching
of sigmoid colon erosion
painless rectal bleeding
fecalith impacts in diverticula
necrosis infx LLQ pain,
fever, WBC (no bleeding)
AV malformation in submucosa
of colon wall erosion LGI
bleed (MCC)
compromised blood supply to
SMA or SMV ischemia
infarction acute onset severe
abd pain

Dx barium enema
Tx stool softeners (high-fiber diet, psyllium)


Angiodysplasia (vascular
ectasia, AVM)
Acute mesenteric ischemia

Chronic mesenteric ischemia

Ogilvie syndrome

Pseudomembranous colitis


Arterial embolism: MCC, most

sudden and severe
Arterial thrombosis: gradual
onset and less severe
Nonocclusive ischemia: due to
CO, seen in critically ill pts
Venous thrombosis: rare,
slowest onset and least severe
atherosclerosis of celiac artery,
SMA, or IMA postprandial
dull abd pain
colonic pseudoobstruction w/o
mechanical cause bloating,
obstipation, nausea/vomiting
abx use kills off colonic flora
and allows C. diff overgrowth
profuse watery diarrhea
twisting of redundant bowel
acute-onset colicky pain,
obstipation, nausea/vomiting

Duke stage A (local) Tx surgery

Duke stage B (invasive) Tx surgery
Duke stage C (LN) Tx surgery + chemo
(5-FU, leucovorin) + Radiation if Rectal
Duke stage D (mets) Tx surgery + chemo
(5-FU, leucovorin) + Radiation if Rectal

Risk factors: old age (>50),
villous adenomas, IBD, family hx,
low-fiber diet, major polyposis
FAP: AD APC thousands of
polyps 100% progression to
CRC; Tx ppx colectomy
Gardner syndrome: FAP +
osteomas, soft tissue tumors
Turcot syndrome: FAP + CNS
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome:
multiple nonmalignant
hamartomas throughout GI tract
w/ pigmented spots around
mucus surfaces
HNPCC/Lynch syndrome: AD
DNA repair genes hundreds
of polyps 80% progression to
Hyperplastic polyps: MC type,
leave alone, no malig potential
Juvenile polyps: polyps in kids,
remove due to vascularity
Inflammatory (pseudo) polyps:
associated w/ UC
Adenomatous polyps: high risk
of malig potential, worst types
are large villous polyps
Complications: hypovolemic
shock, diverticulitis

Dx CT scan
first episode Tx IVF, NPO, IV abx
recurrent episodes Tx surgery
Dx colonoscopy
Tx observation (90% stop spontaneously),
colonoscopy w/ coagulation (2nd line)
Dx screen w/ LDH, confirm w/ mesenteric
Tx IVF, NPO, IV abx; intra-arterial papaverine if
arterial, heparin if venous
dead bowel Tx surgery

Complications: abscess, bowel

obstruction, colovesical fistulas,
Heyde syndrome: angiodysplasia
+ aortic stenosis

Dx mesenteric angiography
Tx surgical revascularization

(equivalent to stable angina of

the bowels)

Dx of exclusion (r/o other causes)

Tx underlying cause, decompressive
colonoscopy (2nd line), neostigmine (3rd line)
colon >10 cm Tx emergent decompression
Dx C. diff stool toxins
Tx Flagyl (1st line), PO vancomycin (2nd line)

Etiology: surgery or trauma,

serious medical illnesses, drugs
(e.g. opiates)

Dx KUB shows Omega loop sign (dilated

sigmoid colon) or coffee bean sign (cecal
volvulus causing RLQ air-fluid level)
sigmoid volvulus Tx sigmoidoscopy w/
decompression elective surgery
cecal volvulus Tx emergent surgery

MC site: sigmoid colon

(equivalent to MI or unstable
angina of the bowels)

Complications: toxic megacolon,



Acute appendicitis

Carcinoid tumor


Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

Acute gastritis

Chronic gastritis

Gastric adenocarcinoma

lymphoid hyperplasia or fecalith
in appendix ischemia infx
and necrosis perforation
Nonruptured sx: umbilical abd
pain that migrates to RLQ,
anorexia, n/v
Ruptured sx: severe abd pain w/
guarding in all 4 quadrants
neuroendocrine tumor that
secretes 5-HT, most commonly
found in appendix (no systemic
effects b/c liver metabolism)
Carcinoid syndrome: metastasis
of carcinoid tumor to liver
systemic 5-HT effects flush +
diarrhea + wheezing + TIPS
(tricuspid insufficiency,
pulmonary stenosis)

Dx CT scan + CBC (WBC) + -HCG (r/o ectopic
in females)
Tx appendectomy

Rovsing sign: LLQ pressure
causes referred RLQ pain
Psoas sign: right psoas flexion
causes RLQ pain
Obturator sign: right obturator
flexion causes RLQ pain
McBurney point: 2/3 distance
from umbilicus to right ASIS

Dx CT scan
Tx appendectomy (<2 cm), right
hemicolectomy (>2 cm)
Dx urinary 5-HIAA
Tx resection

aching or gnawing epigastric
pain, either relieved (DU) or
exacerbated (GU) by eating

H. pylori Dx stool ag > urease breath test,
Tx triple or quad therapy

Duodenal ulcers: due to acid

secretion; most commonly in 1st
part of duodenum, DU in 2nd-4th
part indicates Z-E syndrome
Gastric ulcers: due to mucosal
protection; type I lesser
curvature, type II duodenum
and stomach, type III pylorus,
type IV GE junction
Perforated ulcer: severe abd
pain, hemodynamic instability
Gastric outlet obstruction: early
satiety, nausea/vomiting
Bleeding ulcer: iron-deficiency
anemia (slow) or hypovolemic
shock (rapid)
inflammation of gastric mucosa
aching or gnawing epigastric
either H. pylori or pernicious
anemia atrophy of gastric
mucosa aching or gnawing
epigastric pain
presents as epigastric abd pain,
weight loss, early satiety, etc.

Tx triple therapy if ulcer persists, surgery

(HSV) + get serum gastrin levels to r/o Z-E

Tx PPIs if ulcer persists for 6 wks, EGD w/ bx

to r/o gastric cancer if ulcer persists for 18
wks, surgery (wedge resection or distal

Etiology: NSAIDs and H. pylori
(MCC); EtOH, uremia, burns
(Curling), smoking, stress, head
injury (Cushing)
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome:
gastrinoma gastrin
parietal cell stimulation HCl
ulcer formation

Dx CXR (pneumoperitoneum)
Tx emergent surgical repair
Dx barium swallow
Tx NPO/IVF/NG tube
Tx PPIs (slow) or surgical repair (rapid)
Dx EGD w/ bx
Tx d/c NSAIDs, triple therapy for H. pylori
Dx EGD w/ bx
Tx d/c NSAIDs, triple therapy for H. pylori

Complications: PUD, gastric

adenocarcinoma or lymphoma

Dx EGD w/ bx, then CT scan for staging

Tx surgical resection

Krukenberg tumor: ovarian mets

(bx shows signet ring cells)
Blumer shelf: rectal mets
SMJ node: periumbilical LN mets
Virchow node: left supraclavicular LN mets
Irish node: left axillary LN mets

Linitis plastica: leather bottle

stomach due to full thickness
infiltration and fibrosis, poor px

Risk factors: type A blood,

Japanese (smoked foods)
Gastric lymphoma

presents as epigastric abd pain,

weight loss, early satiety, etc.

Dx EGD w/ bx
Tx radiation (partial thickness) or surgical
resection (full thickness)





Esophageal cancer


Diffuse esophageal spasm

Hiatal hernia

Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Boerhaave syndrome

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Schatzki ring

Esophageal divertula

GI bleed proximal to Ligament
of Treitz hematemesis,
melena, hematochezia (if rapid)

GI bleed distal to Ligament of

Treitz hematochezia, melena
(if slow)

dysphagia of solids > liquids +
weight loss odynophagia (if
SCC: found in upper 2/3, due to
smoking and EtOH abuse
Adenocarcinoma: found in
lower 1/3, due to GERD/Barretts
hypertonic and nonrelaxing LES
w/ poorly relaxing esophagus
dysphagia of liquids > solids
uncoordinated esophageal
peristalsis dysphagia +
angina-like chest pain
Type 1 HH: sliding hernia, can
present as GERD or reflux
Type 2 HH: paraesophageal
hernia, high risk of incarceration
and strangulation
Type 3 HH: both type 1+2
retching laceration of lower
esophagus UGIB
retching perforation of lower
esophagus epigastric pain,
fever, pneumomediastinum
iron deficiency anemia,
upper esophageal webs
(dysphagia), koilonychia
ingestion of acids, alkali, bleach,
or detergents lower
esophageal webs usually asx,
dysphagia if severe
Zenker diverticulum: lack of
cricopharyngeal relaxation
diverticulum at upper
esophagus food gets stuck
halitosis + dysphagia
Traction diverticulum: TB or
cancer LN-opathy traction
diverticulum at middle
Epiphrenic diverticulum:
esophageal motility d/o
diverticulum at lower

Dx NG tube aspirate/lavage
+blood/bile is UGIB
blood/+bile is LGIB
blood/bile is indeterminate
LGIB Dx colonoscopy
bleeding wont stop Dx tagged RBCs or
angiography to localize site of bleeding
hemodynamic instability despite
transfusion, loss of 4-6 units in 24 hrs, or 8-10
units in 48 hrs Tx ex lap
unstable pt w/ massive BRBPR, no imaging to
help localize site Tx total colectomy

Dx esophagoscopy w/ bx, then staging via
endoscopic U/S + CT scan

Etiology: PUD (#1), NSAID use
(#2), esophageal varices (#3)
UGIB in ICU pt: stress ulcer
UGIB in alcoholics: esophageal
varices, Mallory-Weiss tear,
Boerhaave syndrome
UGIB s/p aortic graft: aortoenteric fistula (small herald bleed
followed by massive UGIB)
Etiology: diverticulosis (#1), AVM
(#1), colon cancer (#3)
LGIB in kids: Meckel diverticulum


upper 1/3 Tx chemo + radiation

middle 1/3 Tx chemo + radiation, then
lower 1/3 Tx esophagectomy + proximal
Dx screen w/ barium swallow (birds beak),
confirm w/ manometry (LES pressure)
Tx botox vs. Heller myotomy
Dx screen w/ barium swallow (corkscrew),
confirm w/ manometry (uncoordinated)
Tx nifedipine, nitrates
Tx PPIs vs. lap Nissen

Tx surgical repair

Tx surgical repair
Dx upper GI endoscopy
Tx observation (bleeding stops on its own)
Dx barium swallow
Tx emergent surgical repair

Etiology: alcoholics (MCC),

hyperemesis gravidarum, etc.
Etiology: alcoholics (MCC),
hyperemesis gravidarum, etc.

Tx esophageal dilatation + PO iron supplement

dysphagia Tx esophageal dilatation

full-thickness necrosis Tx esophagectomy

Dx barium swallow
Tx cricopharyngeal myotomy

Dx barium swallow
Tx observation

Dx barium swallow
Tx esophagomyotomy

Complications: esophageal
stricture or cancer




colicky abd pain, n/v,
obstipation or constipation

Paralytic ileus

lack of peristalsis

Celiac sprue

gluten hypersensitivity villi

atrophy w/ dietary wheat
malabsorption, diarrhea, weight
loss, bloating

Dx KUB (dilated loops w/ air-fluid levels)
Tx NPO/IVF/NG tube, observation
adhesions Tx LOA + resect dead gut
hernias Tx herniorrhaphy + resect dead gut
Dx KUB (uniform gas in SI, colon, rectum)
Tx NPO/IVF/NG tube, observation

Dx anti-gliadin or anti-endomysial ab
Tx avoid wheat/gluten in diet

Etiology: adhesions from prior
abd surgery (MCC), hernias (#2)
Complications: septic shock,
gangrene, peritonitis, bowel
Etiology: s/p abd surgery, meds
(e.g. narcotics, anticholinergics),
spinal cord injury, shock, hypokalemia, peritonitis
Dermatitis herpetiformis: skin
lesions found in celiac sprue

IBD: Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

flare-and-remission pattern of
crampy abd pain, bloody
diarrhea, recent weight loss

flare-and-remission pattern of
crampy abd pain, bloody
diarrhea, recent weight loss

Pouchitis: fever, bloody

diarrhea, and dyschezia s/p ileal
pouch formation in a UC pt
Toxic megacolon: huge flare
paralyzes the colon fever,
bloody diarrhea, abd distention
in a UC pt

Dx KUB (terminal ileum string sign), flex sig,
tissue bx (transmural, noncaseating
granulomas, creeping fat)
Tx steroids + 5-ASA (sulfsalazine)
perianal Crohn Tx metronidazole
rectal Crohn Tx subtotal colectomy
Dx KUB (lead pipe sign), flex sig, tissue bx
(mucosa only, crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps)
Tx steroids + 5-ASA (sulfsalazine)
severe dysplasia Tx total proctocolectomy
Tx metronidazole

Dx KUB (dilated colon)

Tx NPO/IVF/NG tube, IV steroids, abx

Location: mouth to anus w/
skip lesions, terminal ileum is MC
Complications: erythema
nodosum, SBO, fissures/fistulae

Location: colorectal only,

continuous lesions
Complications: CRC, pyoderma
gangrenosum, sclerosing
cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma,
pouchitis, toxic megacolon



Wilson disease
(hepatolenticular degeneration)

Hemochromatosis (bronze

Hepatic adenoma

Cavernous hemangioma
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)

fibrosis disruption of liver
architecture portal HTN +
impaired biosynthetic function
multiple complications
Varices: portal HTN dilated
veins in butt (hemorrhoids), gut
(esophageal varices), and caput
(caput medusae)

Ascites: portal HTN + hypoalbuminemia fluid

accumulation in abd cavity
Hepatic encephalopathy: NH4
metabolism NH4 CNS
toxicity MS, asterixis,
rigidity, hyperreflexia, fetor
Hepatorenal syndrome: endstage liver dz renal vx vasoconstriction progressive
renal failure (despite normal
Spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis (SBP): infx of ascitic
fluid abd pain, fever, n/v,
rebound tenderness
Hyperestrinism: estrogen
metabolism estrogen
spider angiomas, palmar
erythema, gynecomastia,
testicular atrophy
Coagulopathy: clotting factor
synthesis risk of bleeding
AR ceruloplasmin copper
accumulation in liver (cirrhosis),
corneas (Kayser-Fleischer rings),
brain (movement d/o), RBCs
iron accumulation in liver
(cirrhosis), heart (restrictive
CM), joints (arthritis), skin
(bronze suntan), pancreas (DM)
usually asx, can present as
hypovolemic shock and
distended abdomen if ruptured
usually asx, MC benign liver
usually asx

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

vague RUQ pain and mass +

s/sx of chronic liver dz (portal
HTN, ascites, jaundice)

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Gilbert syndrome

fatty liver in a nonalcoholic pt,

usually asx
AD UDP-glucuronyltransferase
usually asx, but can present
w/ mild jaundice after fasting
injury to liver or biliary tract
blood drains into duodenum via
CBD UGIB, jaundice, RUQ
Polycystic liver: ADPKD
simple cyst in liver and kidneys
Hydatid cysts: Echinococcus
granulosus (dog tapeworm)
multilocular cyst w/ calcified
multiple types, all present as
fever, RUQ pain, jaundice


Liver cysts

Liver abscess

Budd-Chiari syndrome

occlusion of hepatic vein

outflow hepatic congestion +
portal HTN hepatomegaly,
RUQ pain, ascites, jaundice

Dx liver bx

PPx -blockers
bleeding esophageal varices Tx band the
varices, correct coagulopathy, IV octreotide to
lower portal pressure if bleeding continues,
repeat banding if bleeding continues, TIPS
or gastric balloon tamponade
Dx PE (shifting dullness, fluid wave) +
paracentesis (to determine cause)
Tx salt restriction + loop diuretic
Tx lactulose (prevents NH4 absorption) +
neomycin (kills GI flora that make NH4) + low
protein diet

Etiology: alcohol (MCC), HBV and
HCV (2nd), other causes
Childs classification: stratifies
risk of surgery in pts w/ liver
failure; measure 3 labs (albumin,
bilirubin, PT) and 3 clinical
findings (encephalopathy,
ascites, nutrition)

Tx liver txp

Dx paracentesis (WBC)
Tx IV abx + repeat paracentesis in 2-3 days


Tx FFP transfusion (vit K wont work)
Dx ceruloplasmin, AST/ALT, liver bx
Tx D-penicillamine (copper chelating agent) +
zinc (copper uptake competition)

Dx ferritin, TIBC, liver bx

Tx repeated phlebotomies

Dx CT scan or U/S
Tx d/c OCP, if it persists Tx resection due to
possibility of rupture
Dx CT scan or U/S
Tx reassurance
Dx CT scan (central stellate scar or sunburst
Tx reassurance
Dx CT scan, FP
Tx resection w/ negative margins (as long as
theres no mets)

1 hemochromatosis: AR dz that
GI iron absorption
2 hemochromatosis: iron 2/2
multiple transfusions or chronic
hemolytic anemia
Etiology: associated with OCP
and anabolic steroid use
Etiology: VAT vinyl chloride,
aflatoxin, thorotrast

Etiology: cirrhosis (MCC), A1AT

deficiency, hemochromatosis,
Wilson dz, smoking, chemical

Dx mild ALT/AST
Tx controversial
Tx reassurance

Dx arteriogram (gold std); EGD shows

bleeding from ampulla of Vater
Tx supportive care, stop bleeding if severe

Etiology: trauma (MCC), surgery

(CBD exploration), tumors, infx

Tx reassurance
Tx inject hypertonic saline inside cyst and
carefully excise it + post-op mebendazole

multiple/small bacterial abscesses Tx IV abx

single/large bacterial abscess Tx perc drain
amebic abscess (in Mexicans) Tx Flagyl
Tx TIPS as a bridge to liver txp

Etiology: polycythemia vera

(MCC), OCPs (#2)


AST/ALT (ALT>AST): chronic viral hepatitis (virALT)

AST/ALT (AST>ALT): acute alcoholic hepatitis (toAST)
AST/ALT: acute viral hepatitis
AST/ALT: severe hepatic necrosis
A + GGT nl: pregnancy or bone dz (e.g. Pagets)
A + GGT: biliary obstruction



bilirubin (conjugated <20%): hemolytic jaundice

bilirubin (conjugated 20-50%): hepatocellular jaundice (viral or alcoholic hepatitis)
bilirubin (conjugated >50%): obstructive jaundice (cancer, choledocholithiasis)
albumin: chronic liver dz, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition, inflammatory states


Gallstone dz

fatty meal
biliary colic
into CBD
acute cholecystitis

Dx RUQ U/S (HIDA scan if inconclusive) + get
ERCP for choledocholithiasis/acute cholangitis

acute cholangitis
gallstone pancreatitis

Acalculous cholecystitis

GB adenocarcinoma

1 sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

1 biliary cirrhosis (PBC)


Choledochal cysts
Biliary stricture

Biliary dyskinesia

Cholelithiasis: presence of
stones in GB, usually asx
Biliary colic: cholelithiasis
RUQ pain after fatty meals n/v
Acute cholecystitis: impacted
stone in cystic duct infx
RUQ pain, n/v, Murphys sign
Choledocholithiasis: presence
of stones in CBD
Gallstone pancreatitis:
impacted stone in pancreatic
duct reflux of pancreatic
enzymes midepigastric pain
Acute cholangitis: impacted
stone in CBD infx Charcot
triad Reynold pentad
acute cholecystitis (RUQ pain,
n/v, Murphys sign) w/o stones
in the cystic duct, usually found
in ICU pts
presents as a mass in GB fossa

thickening of bile duct walls

narrowed lumens gradual
jaundice and pruritus liver
failure, cirrhosis, portal HTN
AMA destruction of intra-hepatic bile ducts gradual
jaundice and pruritus liver
failure, cirrhosis, portal HTN
tumor of bile ducts s/sx of
obstructive jaundice (dark
urine, clay stools, pruritus)

cystic dilation of biliary tree

RUQ mass/pain, jaundice, fever
iatrogenic injury s/sx of
obstructive jaundice (dark
urine, clay stools, pruritus)
motor dysfxn of sphincter of
Oddi recurrent biliary colic
w/o stones

Boas sign: referred right scapular
pain of biliary colic
Charcot triad: RUQ pain, fever,
Reynold pentad: Charcot triad +
MS, hypotension
Gallstone ileus: gallstone enters
bowel through cholecystenteric
fistula gets stuck in terminal
ileum SBO

Tx reassurance
Tx elective lap chole
Tx NPO, IVF, abx lap chole within 24 hrs

Tx NPO, IVF, abx ERCP to remove stone

if amylase returns to normal Tx lap chole
if amylase elevated ERCP to remove stone

Tx NPO, IVF, abx ERCP to decompress CBD

finally lap chole
Tx NPO, IVF, abx lap chole within 24 hrs;
perc drain w/ cholecystostomy if nonsurgical
Dx CT scan
Tx radical cholecystectomy (GB + hilar LN +
liver resection w/ negative margins)
Dx ERCP (beading of bile ducts)
Tx cholestyramine (helps w/ pruritus), liver txp

Porcelain GB: dystrophic

calcification of GB has 50% risk of
adenocarcinoma, take it out
Etiology: idiopathic, but highly
associated w/ UC

Dx screen w/ AMA (anti-mitochondrial ab),

confirm w/ liver bx
Tx ursodeoxycholic acid

2 biliary cirrhosis: progressive

cirrhosis 2/2 biliary obstruction,
sclerosing cholangitis, cystic
fibrosis, or biliary atresia
Etiology: PSC (MCC US),
Chlonorchis sinensis (MCC China)
Klatskin tumor: tumor of
proximal 1/3 of CBD, poor px
since its not resectable

Tx Whipple if resectable

Tx resection
Tx endoscopic stent (1st line), surgical bypass
Dx HIDA scan (fill up GB w/ contrast and give
CCK to determine ejection fraction)
Tx lap chole

Complications: 2 biliary cirrhosis,

acute cholangitis, liver abscess


Acute pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

stabbing epigastric pain boring
through to the back

Dx screen w/ lipase, confirm w/ CT scan
Tx NPO/IVF/pain meds

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis:
presents as MSOF, ARDS, hemodynamic instability, signs of
ecchymoses (Grey-Turner, Fox,
Cullen signs)
Pancreatic abscess: presents as
abd pain and early satiety 2 wks
s/p acute pancreatitis
Pseudocyst: presents as abd
pain and early satiety 5 wks s/p
acute pancreatitis
chronic epigastric pain,
steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus

Dx CT scan
Tx admit to ICU for close monitoring

dull abd pain + s/sx of

obstructive jaundice (dark
urine, clay stools, pruritus)

Dx CT scan
Tx perc drain + IV abx
Dx CT scan
Tx observation (<5 cm), perc drain (>5 cm)
Dx stool elastase test
Tx insulin + pancreatic enzyme replacement,
IVF/NPO/pain meds for acute attacks
Dx CT scan
cancer in head Tx Whipple
cancer in body or tail Tx distal
mets or local invasion palliative care
f/u tumor markers CA 19-9, CEA

idiopathic, gallstones (#1), EtOH
(#2), trauma, steroids, mumps,
autoimmune, scorpion sting,
hypertriglyceridemia (#3),
hypercalcemia, ERCP, drugs
Grey-Turner sign: flank
Cullen sign: periumbilical
Fox sign: ecchymoses of inguinal
Etiology: alcoholism (MCC
adults), cystic fibrosis (MCC kids)
Trousseau phenomenon:
migratory SVT in 10% of
pancreatic cancer pts
Courvoisier sign: palpable GB
w/o pain in 30% of cancer pts


Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroid storm


Myxedema coma

Thyroid nodules

remnant of thyroglossal duct
mobile midline neck mass
Graves disease (diffuse toxic
goiter): autoimmune dz due to
TSI (anti-TSH) hyperthyroid
sx, exophthalmos, thyroid
bruits, pretibial myxedema
Plummer disease (toxic
multinodular goiter): multiple
hyperfunctioning areas in
thyroid hyperthyroid sx
Toxic adenoma: single hyperfunctioning nodule hyperthyroid sx
precipitating factor (stress,
infx) hyperthyroidism
exacerbation marked fever,
tachycardia, agitation, GI sx
Hashimoto thyroiditis:
autoimmune dz w/ lymphocytic
infiltration hypothyroid sx
De Quervain thyroiditis: painful
granulomatous inflammation
following viral URI hypothyroid sx
Acute thyroiditis: painful,
swollen, tender thyroid mass
due to Staph/Strep infx hypothyroid sx
Riedel thyroiditis: firm, painless
thyroid hypothyroid sx
precipitating factor (stress,
infx) hypothyroidism
exacerbation marked
hypothermia, MS, respiratory
thyroid nodule found on
physical exam

Tx Sistrunk operation (take out cyst, trunk, and
medial portion of hyoid bone)
Dx TSH, free T4
Tx PTU (pregnant), methimazole (not
pregnant), oral radioiodine (can become
hypothyroid), subtotal thyroidectomy
Dx TSH, free T4 + patchy uptake on T3 scan
Tx oral radioiodine (<2 cm), subtotal
thyroidectomy (>2 cm)


Hyperthyroidism in elderly:
presents as weakness, weight
loss, atrial fibrillation

Dx TSH, free T4 + hot nodule on T3 scan

Tx oral radioiodine (<2 cm), lobectomy (>2 cm)
Tx -blockers + antithyroid drugs

Px: 20% mortality rate

Dx TSH, /nl free T4

Tx Synthroid

Hashimoto abs: anti-TSH, antimicrosomal, anti-thyroglobulin,

anti-peroxidase (TPO)

Dx TSH, /nl free T4

Tx NSAIDs + observation (will self-resolve)

Dx TSH, /nl free T4

Tx I+D

Dx TSH, /nl free T4

Tx Synthroid vs. surgery
Tx IV thyroxine + hydrocortisone + supportive

Dx TSH (normal)

MC type: benign colloid nodule

Malignancy signs: solid nodules,
cold nodules (lack of radioiodine
uptake), size >1.5 cm




Dx thyroid scan

Thyroid cancer

thyroid nodule or mass found

on physical exam; 80% papillary,
15% follicular, 4% medullary, 1%
Papillary cancer: lymphatic
spread, Psamomma bodies w/
Orphan Annie nuclei, best px
Follicular cancer: hematogenous spread, endemic to
iodine-deficient areas
Medullary cancer: lymphatic
and hematogenous spread,
amyloid deposits
Anaplastic cancer: rare, worst
Hrthle cell cancer: aggressive ,
lymphatic-spreading variant of
follicular cancer


Tx surgery
Dx FNA (for all types except follicular, must
see capsular invasion for adenoma/carcinoma)

Tx total thyroidectomy w/ central LN excision

modified radical neck dissection if +LN
f/u thyroglobulin levels
Tx hemilobectomy + frozen bx total
thyroidectomy if bx shows carcinoma
f/u thyroglobulin levels
Tx total thyroidectomy w/ central LN excision
modified radical neck dissection if +LN
f/u calcitonin levels + 24-hr urinary VMA
(MEN2 syndrome also has pheos)
Tx palliative care
Tx total thyroidectomy w/ central LN excision
modified radical neck dissection if +LN
f/u thyroglobulin levels

Risk factors: Post-radiation

(Papillary), MEN2 syndrome
Px: MACIS system Metastasis,
Age (<45), Completeness of
resection, Invasion, Size (>2 cm)
Surgery complications: recurrent
laryngeal nerve (hoarseness),
superior laryngeal nerve (soft,
deep voice), parathyroid glands


Hypocalcemia sx: neuromuscular irritability (tingling, tetany), prolonged QT, arrhythmias

Hypercalcemia sx: stones (kidney)
bones (bone pain, osteitis fibrosa cystica)
groans (peptic ulcers, pancreatitis)
psychic overtones (depression, anxiety, MS)

head/neck surgery accidental
PTH-ectomy hypocalcemia sx

Dx PTH, Ca, P
Tx vit D + calcium replacement


end-organ resistance to PTH

hypocalcemia sx

Dx PTH, Ca, P
Tx vit D + calcium replacement


90% adenoma, 9% hyperplasia,

1% carcinoma hypercalcemia


renal failure 1-hydroxylase

vit D Ca
compensatory PTH
2 HPTH pts get renal txp but
parathyroid glands still
hypersecretory despite Ca
Ca >15

Dx PTH, Ca, P + Cl:P ratio >33:1

Tx surgery (adenoma take it out,
hyperplasia 3 gland removal, carcinoma
en bloc resection of parathyroid and ipsi
thyroid lobe)
Dx PTH, Ca, P
Tx vit D + calcium replacement, low P diet


Hypercalcemic crisis


Chvostek sign: tapping on Cheek
causes muscle contractions
Trousseau sign: inflating BP cuff
causes carpal muscle spasms
DiGeorge syndrome: thyroid +
parathyroid hypoplasia
sign: hand morphology seen w/

Dx PTH, Ca, P
Tx observation for 1 year, then 3 gland
excision if still problematic
Tx flush and drain (NS then Lasix), then
surgery for parathyroid carcinoma

Polyuria/polydipsia DDx: DM, DI, diuretic use, primary polydipsia ( d/o)

Pituitary adenoma


Diabetes insipidus (DI)


tumor of anterior pituitary
gland bitemporal hemianopsia () + hyperpituitary
or hypopituitary sx
Prolactinoma: PRL
galactorrhea, amenorrhea,
infertility, libido
Acromegaly: GH
overgrowth of brow, jaw,
hands, and feet; MCC death is
CV disease
Pituitary Cushing: ACTH
truncal obesity, abd striae,
buffalo hump, hyperglycemia,
osteoporosis, HTN, immunosuppression
Hypopituitarism: FSH/LH,
embryological remnant of
Rathke pouch bitemporal
hemianopsia (), headache,
papilledema, MS
polyuria, polydipsia

Central DI: ADH secretion from

posterior pituitary
Nephrogenic DI: normal ADH
but kidneys dont respond
ADH secretion from posterior
pituitary volume expansion,
hyponatremia (coma/sz/death if
acute, asx if chronic)



Dx PRL + -HCG/TSH (r/o 2 causes)

Tx bromocriptine or cabergoline (<1 cm),
transsphenoid hypophysectomy (1 cm)
Dx oral glucose test
Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy +
octreotide (suppress GH)
Dx ACTH + dexa suppression test (pituitary
Cushing is suppressable)
Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy

Dx hormone levels
Tx hormone replacement
Dx MRI (supracellar calcified cysts)
Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy

Dx water deprivation test (normal pts increase

urine osm >280, central DI <280 but normalize
w/ ADH, nephrogenic DI <280 and dont
normalize w/ ADH)
Dx Na <135, plasma osm <270
Tx water restriction

Central pontine myelinolysis:

rapid correction of hyponatremia
will cause demyelination and
locked-in syndrome, so replace
Na at a max of 0.5/hr


Cushing syndrome

cortisol truncal obesity, abd
striae, buffalo hump,
hyperglycemia, osteoporosis,
HTN, immunosuppression


Cushing syndrome

Dx ACTH, cortisol,
dexamethasone suppression test
ACTH, cortisol

ACTH, cortisol
adrenal Cushing
(Dx abd CT)

>50% suppression


1 hyperaldosteronism (Conn
Adrenal insufficiency

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia




Gastrinoma (ZE syndrome)




MEN 1 (Wermer syndrome)

MEN 2A (Sipple syndrome)


Pituitary Cushing: ACTH

secretion from pituitary gland
Adrenal Cushing: cortisol
secretion from adrenal gland
Ectopic Cushing: ACTH
secretion from SCLC
(paraneoplastic syndrome)
Iatrogenic Cushing: MCC
0verall, d/t exogenous steroids
episodic catecholamine excess
5 Ps Pressure (BP), Pain
(HA), Perspiration, Palpitations,
67% adenoma, 33% hyperplasia
aldosterone Na (HTN),
K, H (metabolic alkalosis)
hypoglycemia, HTN, fatigue,
hyperpigmentation, weight
loss, abd pain
1 adrenal insufficiency
(Addison disease): autoimmune
(MC US), TB (MC 3rd world),
syndrome (N. meningitidis)
2 adrenal insufficiency: due to
abrupt cessation of steroid use
(MCC overall)
congenital deficiency of 21hydroxylase (MC) or 11hydroxylase hirsutism,
virilization, Na/K/H
adrenal tumor found
incidentally on CT scan

insulin Whipples triad
(hypoglycemia, worse w/
fasting, better w/ glucose)
gastrin gastric acid
secretion ulcers

glucagon new-onset
diabetes + necrolytic migratory
SST triad of gallstones,
diabetes, steatorrhea
VIP rice water diarrhea

pituitary adenoma, pancreatic
endocrinoma (MC gastrinoma),
parathyroid hyperplasia
parathyroid hyperplasia,
pheochromocytoma, thyroid
medullary cancer
pheochromocytoma, thyroid
medullary cancer, mucosal
neuromas, Marfanoid habitus

<50% suppression

pituitary Cushing
ectopic Cushing
(Dx head MRI)
(Dx chest/abd CT)
Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy
Tx adrenalectomy
Tx underlying cause

Tx taper steroids slowly

Dx 24 hr urinary VMA/metanephrines
Tx -blockers (phenoxybenzamine) then
-blockers then adrenalectomy

Rule of 10s: 10% malignant, 10%

bilateral, 10% extraadrenal, 10%
calcify, 10% kids, 10% familial

Dx abd CT scan
Tx adrenalectomy (adenoma), spironolactone
Dx cortisol + ACTH levels (ACTH if primary,
ACTH if secondary)

Tx glucocorticoid (prednisone) +
mineralocorticoid (fludrocortisone)

Tx glucocorticoid (prednisone) only

Dx 17-OHP
Tx glucocorticoid (prednisone) +
mineralocorticoid (fludrocortisone)
<5 cm leave alone
>5 cm Tx resection + check other organs
since adrenals are common site of metastasis

Dx C-peptide levels or monitored fasting (to
see if theyre faking it)
Tx resection
Dx gastrin levels (<200 absent, >500 present);
if 200-500, get secretin stimulation test
(paradoxical gastrin w/ secretin)
Tx resection
Dx glucose challenge test
Tx resection


Gastrinoma triangle: neck of

pancreas, cystic duct, junction
b/t 2nd and 3rd part of duodenum

Tx resection
Tx resection

Tx excise parathyroid first (since hyper
calcemia can cause gastrin), then gastrinoma,
then pituitary adenoma (w/ cabergoline)
Tx excise pheo first (life-threatening)


Tx excise pheo first (life-threatening)

Etiology: AD ret proto-oncogene

Etiology: AD ret proto-oncogene


Impaired glucose tolerance


autoimmune destruction of cells lack of insulin pt
usually presents in acute DKA
obesity FFA release
insulin resistance glucose
classic sx (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia) + blurry
vision, weight loss, recurrent
vaginal yeast infx

Dx fasting glc 110-126
Tx insulin, 0.5-1 u/kg (2/3 morning, 1/3 evening)
inpatient Tx SSI


Dx fasting glc >126, random glc >200 w/ sx, or

HbA1C >6.5%

Ideal levels: HbA1c <7%, fasting

glc <130, post-prandial glc <180,
BP <130/80, LDL <100

fasting glc <240
lifestyle changes
(still high)
Tx metformin or
(still high)
add another PO drug

DM complications




Macrovascular complications:
nonenzymatic glycosylation
(NEG) atherosclerosis
CAD, MI, PVD, stroke/TIA, etc.
Diabetic nephropathy: NEG of
basement membrane loss of
negative charge microalbuminuria proteinuria
Diabetic retinopathy: NEG of
retinal vx either background
or proliferative retinopathy
Diabetic neuropathy: NEG of
peripheral nerves damage
stocking/glove burning pain,
numbness, tingling
Diabetic foot: peripheral
neuropathy + PVD (ischemia)
repetitive injuries ulcers and
T1DM exacerbation insulin
hyperglycemia + ketosis
osmotic diuresis, dehydration,
fruity breath, Kussmaul
respiration, etc.
T2DM exacerbation insulin
hyperglycemia hyperosmolarity, osmotic diuresis,
severe dehydration
glc epinephrine
(sympathetic sx), CNS
dysfunction at 40-50 (HA,
weakness, drowsiness, coma)

fasting glc >240

Insulin dosage: basal bolus

long-acting Lantus + short-acting
Novolog w/ meals

Tx insulin
(still high)

Outpatient mgmt: q day glucose

q visit BP, foot chk
q 3 mo HbA1c
q 6 mo neuropathy chk
q yr microalbuminuria,
BUN/Cr, lipids, eye chk
PPx reduction of risk factors (BP, lipids,
smoking, diet, exercise)

Microalbuminuria: 20-200
g/min or 30-300 mg/day

PPx annual microalbuminuria screening

Tx ACE inhibitors

PPx annual ophtho referral

Tx photocoagulation
neuropathy Tx amitriptyline (1st line),
gabapentin or duloxetine (2nd line)
gastroparesis Tx metoclopramide
PPx regular foot check
Tx wound care, amputation (last resort)

Dx glc, ketones, metabolic acidosis

Tx insulin + IVF (NS) + potassium (paradoxical)

Dx glc, osmolarity, no acidosis or ketosis

Tx insulin + IVF (NS)

Dx glc
Dx C-peptide, insulin levels, anti-insulin ab, and
sulfonylurea levels (look for underlying cause)
Tx underlying cause + sugary foods or IV D50W

Etiology: insulin overdose (MCC),

factitious hypoglycemia (low Cpeptide levels), insulinoma, etc.


Stroke types: ischemic (85%), hemorrhagic (15%)

Stroke in young pt: cocaine abuse
Carotid bruit: either internal carotid artery stenosis, or referred heart murmur
Subclavian steal syndrome

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Ischemic stroke

Hemorrhagic stroke


asx at rest, but arm claudication
and CNS sx with exercise due to
stenotic subclavian artery (can
present like a TIA)
focal neuro sx <24 hrs (usually
<1 hr)
Carotid TIA: abrupt
contralateral sx
Vertebrobasilar TIA: ipsilateral
CN palsy, contralateral
Drop attacks: brief paralytic
spells resulting in pt dropping
to knees w/o LOC
Transient global amnesia: TIA in
temporal lobes or thalamus
rapid retrograde memory loss +
confusion but preservation of
Amaurosis fugax: TIA in retinal
artery temporary unilateral
loss of vision
focal neuro sx >24 hours
ACA syndrome: contralateral
leg hemiparesis, incontinence
MCA syndrome: contralateral
face/arm hemiparesis
PCA syndrome: homonymous
Vertebrobasilar syndrome:
ipsilateral CN palsy,
contralateral hemiplegia
Cerebellar infarction:
headache, nausea, vomiting,
vertigo, nystagmus
Lacunar syndromes: pure
motor or sensory stroke, clumsy
hand-dysarthria syndrome
ICH: bleeding into brain
parenchyma focal neuro sx +
sudden headache + vomiting
SAH: rupture of berry aneurysm
bleeding into subarachnoid
space worst headache of my

Dx arteriogram
Tx bypass surgery


CV risk factor analysis, since risk of stroke is

much higher in the near future
anterior circle TIAs Dx carotid duplex;
consult surg for CEA if 70% stenosis

Dx head CT w/o contrast (dark areas)

Tx TPA <3 hrs, aspirin 3 hrs or TPA c/i
AFib-related stroke Tx heparin/warfarin
lacunar strokes Tx control HTN
anterior circle strokes Dx carotid duplex;
consult surg for CEA if 70% stenosis

Dx head CT w/o contrast (white areas)

Tx intubate and hyperventilate, slowly lower
BP, control ICP w/ mannitol, admit to ICU
Dx head CT w/o contrast (white areas),
do an LP if not sure (blood, xanthrochromia)
Tx bed rest in dark/quiet room, analgesics for
headache, nifedipine for vasospasm ppx,
consult neurosurg to clip berry aneurysm

Risk factors: HTN (#1), old age

(#2), CAD, CHF, acute MI, AFib,
diabetes, male sex, Black race,
smoking, alcohol, OCPs
Etiology: embolic stroke (AFib,
endocarditis), thrombotic stroke
(atherosclerosis), lacunar stroke

Risk factors: HTN (#1)

Basal skull fx: raccoon eyes, hemotympanum, otorrhea, rhinorrhea, ecchymosis behind the ear (Battle sign)
Coup-contrecoup injury: injury at site of impact + opposite point of impact
Diffuse axonal injury: global damage to entire brain during impact severe neuro dysfxn, coma



temporal bone fx tear in
middle meningeal artery
bleeding into epidural space
LOC w/ lucid interval
tear in bridging veins venous
bleed into subdural space
MS, headache, cortical dysfxn,
possible herniation if acute
brief LOC following blunt head
trauma w/ confusion, dizziness,
impaired concentration, etc.

Dx head CT (convex lens hematoma)
Tx emergent craniotomy


Dx head CT (crescent moon hematoma)

Tx craniotomy (acute), reassurance (chronic)

Risk factors: shrunken brain

states (alcoholics, elderly)
SDH in kids: consider child abuse

no tx available


Movement d/o in young pt: consider Wilson disease

Parkinson disease (PD)

loss of dopaminergic neurons
early PD presents as TRAP
pill-rolling Tremor, cogwheel
Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural
instability; late PD presents as
Alzheimer-like dementia

early PD Tx Sinemet (carbidopa + levodopa)
late PD Tx subthalamic nucleus deep brain

Huntington chorea

AD CAG trinucleotide repeats on

chromosome 4 GABA
chorea, apathy, depression,
dementia w/ onset at 35-50 y/o

Dx MRI (caudate atrophy), DNA testing

no tx available

PD brain: neuronal death in
substantia nigra, senile plaques,
Lewy bodies
Shy-Drager syndrome: PD +
autonomic insufficiency
Progressive supranuclear palsy
(PSP): PD w/o ophthalmoplegia
or tremors

Anticipation: longer CAG repeats

correlates with earlier age of
Essential tremor


Tourette syndrome

AD tremor w/ intentional
activity but not at rest,
improved w/ EtOH use
gait instability, loss of balance,
impaired limb coordination
Acquired ataxia: ataxia 2/2
EtOH, B12/thiamine deficiency,
cerebellar dz, demyelinating dz,
or 3 syphilis
Friedreich ataxia: ataxia w/
staggering gait, nystagmus, pes
cavus and hammer toes
Friedreich ataxia +
most severe tic disorder w/
multiple daily motor/vocal tics,
onset before 18 y/o; associated
w/ OCD and ADHD

Tx -blockers

Tx underlying cause

Tx clonidine or pimozide (Haldol if severe)

Coprolalia: involuntary swearing,

pathognomonic but rare in
Tourette syndrome


Normal aging vs. dementia: no impairment of daily functioning w/ normal aging

Delirium vs. dementia:


waxing-andwaning change in
pts level of
3 days 2 wks
immediate and
recent memory
abnormal EEG

impairment in
memory and
other cognitive
months yrs
recent and
remote memory
abnormal MRI

Dementia: progressive and irreversible impairment in memory and other cognitive functions w/o change in level of consciousness
Causes of dementia: Alzheimer (#1), vascular (#2), Lewy body (#3), others
Secondary dementia

Alzheimer disease (AD)

Vascular dementia

Lewy body dementia

Pick disease (frontotemporal


HIV-associated dementia

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

severe depression that can
present like dementia in elderly
dementia 2/2 hypothyroidism,
B12/folate deficiency, thiamine
deficiency, neurosyphilis, or
medication use
ACh gradual progressive
decline in memory and other
cognitive functions


accumulation of multiple small

infarcts stepwise loss of
function + focal neurological sx
Lewy body and neurite
accumulations in the basal
ganglia dementia, waxingand-waning parkinsonism,
visual hallucinations, sensitivity
to antipsychotics
profound changes in
personality and social conduct,
disinhibition, hyperorality,
hypersexuality; good memory
and language though
neutropenia infection
rapid decline in memory,
cognition, behavior, motor
skills; depression and social
withdrawal also common
abnormal prion accumulation
rapidly progressive
dementia, myoclonus (muscle
spasms), personality changes
3 Ws Wet (urinary
incontinence), Wobbly (gait
apraxia), Wacky (dementia)

Dx MMSE (<25), head CT (multiple small

lacunar infarcts)
no tx available
Dx MMSE (<25), clinical judgment
manage like Alzheimer disease


Tx underlying cause

Dx MMSE (<25), head CT (diffuse atrophy w/

enlarged ventricles, flat sulci)
r/o secondary causes
Tx AChE-inhibitors for mild/moderate AD
(tacrine, donepezil), NMDA antagonist for
severe AD (memantine)

Dx MMSE (<25), head CT (marked atrophy of

frontal and temporal lobes)
no tx available


Dx EEG (generalized sharp waves), confirm w/

postmortem brain bx (spongiform change)

Dx MRI (large ventricles)

Tx CSF shunt

Amyloid cascade hypothesis:

high risk genes (presenilin I,
presenilin II, APP, apoE4) can
predispose to A-amyloidosis
Alzheimer Down syndrome:
trisomy 21 triple apoE4
expression inevitable by 40


ICP: normally 5-15; ICP >20 bilateral fixed/dilated pupils herniation death
Cushing triad: triad of vital signs in ICP BP, HR, irregular RR
Glasgow coma scale: GCS score = E+M+V / 15
Abnl pupillary light reflex: mass lesions, pupil drugs, hypoxia, eye drops
Bilateral fixed/dilated pupils: severe anoxia
Unilateral fixed/dilated pupil: herniation w/ CN III compression
Pinpoint pupils: narcotics, ICH (in pons)


Locked in syndrome

Brain herniation

waxing-and-waning change in
level of consciousness; can also
have visual hallucinations, short
attention span, and impaired
recent memory
Sundowning: worsening of
delirium at night
damage to RAS or bilateral
hemispheres depressed LOC,
unresponsive to any stimuli
damage to ventral pons
coma-like state but pt is fully
conscious and can control
blinking, vertical eye movement
edema or mass lesion ICP
brain tissue moves past
anatomic barriers

Dx MMSE (<25)
r/o life-threatening causes, then ID and Tx
underlying cause

Etiology: AEIOU TIPSS Alcohol
and drug toxicity or withdrawal,
Electrolyte imbalance,
Iatrogenic, Oxygen hypoxia,
Uremia/hepatic encephalopathy,
Trauma, Infection, Poison,
Seizures, Stroke

Dx GCS (8)
r/o life-threatening causes, then ID and Tx
underlying cause

Dx head CT
Tx intubate, lower ICP, consult neurosurg

CN III: ipsilateral blown pupil

PCA: contralateral
homonymous hemianopia
Crus cerebri: ipsilateral paresis
Brainstem: Duret hemorrhages,



Brain death

irreversible absence of brain

function despite adequate
oxygenation/ventilation, no
brainstem reflexes

Dx EEG (no activity)

d/c life support

Multiple sclerosis

selective CNS demyelination
optic neuritis, intranuclear
ophthalmoplegia (crazy eyes),
transient sensory deficits, etc.

Dx MRI (multiple white plaques), LP w/ CSF
analysis (oligoclonal bands)
Tx IFN- (prevent relapses), high-dose steroids
(for acute attacks)

Guillain-Barr syndrome

rapid PNS demyelination

ascending weakness/paralysis,
possible respiratory arrest

Dx CSF (protein), EMG (nerve conduction)

Tx IVIG vs. plasmapheresis


Ring-enhancing lesions: MALT metastases, abcesses, lymphoma, toxo

Brain cancer sx: mass effect headache, seizures, focal neuro sx
MC brain cancers: metastases (overall), astrocytoma (adults), infratentorial tumors (kids)

Acoustic schwannoma
CNS metastases
Primary CNS lymphoma
Meningeal carcinomatosis

can cross corpus callosum
(butterfly glioma), pseudopalisading necrosis, GFAP+
Rosenthal fibers, GFAP+
fried egg cells, chicken-wire
capillary pattern
Psamomma bodies, attached to
S-100+, CN VIII
multiple ring-enhancing lesions
cancer that metastasizes to
meninges via bloodstream
focal neuro sx, meningitis,

Tx resection (if resectable), radiation
(astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas,
lymphoma, metastases)


Bilateral schwannoma: NF type 2

Mets source: lung > breast > skin
> kidney > colon
Dx LP w/ CSF analysis (malignant cells)
Tx intrathecal chemotherapy


Myasthenia gravis

anti-nAChR gradually
progressive muscle weakness
(initial sx is ptosis, diplopia,
blurry vision) that get worse w/
repetitive muscle use

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic
syndrome (LEMS)

SCLC anti-VGCC gradually

progressive muscle weakness
that get better w/ repetitive
muscle use
XR dystrophin muscle cells
die off ascending weakness
w/ Gowers maneuver, calf
pseudohypertrophy, death by
15 y/o
XR dystrophin same as
DMD, but later onset and less
severe sx

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy


Neurofibromatosis type I
(von Recklinghausen disease)
Neurofibromatosis type II
Tuberous sclerosis

Sturge-Weber syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau disease


AD NF1 caf-au-lait spots,
Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas),
CNS tumors, pheo
AD NF2 bilateral acoustic
neuromas, juvenile cataracts
AD TSC1/2 CNS/retinal
hamartomas, sebaceous
adenomas, hypopigmented
ash leaf spots, Shagreen
patches, renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma
facial port-wine stain w/
ipsilateral brain AVM
AD VHL hemangioblastomas, bilateral RCC,

Dx anti-nAChR (best), edrophonium test,
EMG (decreased response w/ repetitive
stimulation), chest CT to look for thymoma
Tx pyridostigmine, plasmapheresis (if severe),
thymectomy (if thymoma)


myasthenic crisis emergent ventilation

Dx anti-VGCC
Tx underlying cause

Dx CPK, DNA testing

no tx available

Dx CPK, DNA testing

no tx available

NF pt w/ HTN Dx urinary metanephrines




CS tract: descending motor signals, crosses at medulla

DCML tract: ascending touch and proprioception, crosses at medulla
ALS tract: ascending pain and temperature, crosses in spinal cord

central cavitation of cervical
cord bilateral cape-like
loss of ALS, ipsilateral CS

Tx syringosubarachnoid shunt

Brown-Sequard syndrome

stab wound spinal cord

hemisection ipsilateral loss
of DCML and CS, contralateral
loss of ALS


Transverse myelitis

viral infx loss of function of

entire spinal cord at a single
level bilateral loss of
CS/DCML/ALS below level of
lesion + sphincter dysfunction
polio infx (fecal-oral)
bilateral lower motor neuron
loss of function asymmetric
muscle weakness w/ normal

Tx high-dose steroids


PPx vaccination



Syncope vs. seizures: prolonged LOC or bowel/bladder incontinence indicates seizures


spinning of the room, five
types (BLAME) BPPV,
Labyrinthitis, Acoustic
neuroma, Meniere disease,
Cardiac syncope: sudden LOC
w/o prodromal sx; d/t massive
MI, arrhythmias, or obstruction
(e.g. aortic stenosis)
Vasovagal syncope: paradoxical
PSNS activity during intense
emotion LOC w/ premonitory
sx (pallor, sweating, nausea)
Orthostatic hypotension: delay
in peripheral venoconstriction
LOC w/ sudden or prolonged
Simple partial sz: transient
unilateral movements w/o LOC
Complex partial sz: transient
automatisms w/ LOC
postictal confusion
Grand-mal sz: sudden LOC
rigidity (tonic phase)
musculature jerking (clonic
phase) postictal confusion
Absence sz: staring into
space for a few seconds

Tx underlying cause + meclizine for nausea

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

(Lou Gehrig disease)

upper and lower motor neuron

lesions progressive muscle
weakness death in 5-10 yrs

Dx EMG (fasciculations, fibrillations), nerve

conduction studies (conduction velocity)
Tx supportive care + riluzole (glutamate antagonist that delays death by 3-5 months)


Wernicke aphasia: superior

temporal gyrus lesion fluent
w/ impaired comprehension
Broca aphasia: inferior frontal
gyrus lesion nonfluent w/
intact comprehension
Conduction aphasia: both gyri
lesion nonfluent w/ impaired
Global aphasia: arcuate
fasciculus lesion cant repeat
no ifs, ands, or buts
weakness or paralysis of facial
muscles innervated by CN VII

usually resolves on its own

Etiology: stroke (#1), trauma,

tumors, Alzheimer dz

usually resolves on its own

Tx steroids if 10 days, ACV if shingles,
doxycycline if Lyme disease

Etiology: trauma, Lyme disease,

tumors, Guillan-Barre syndrome,



Bell palsy

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic


Bilateral Bell: Lyme disease or

Guillain-Barre syndrome
severe, recurrent pain attacks in
trigeminal distribution


first step is to r/o cardiac causes (get EKG,

CV-focused physical)
cardiac syncope Tx underlying cause
vasovagal syncope Dx tilt-table study,
Tx -blockers + disopyramide
orthostatic hypotension Dx orthostatics,
Tx fluid/sodium intake

first time Dx labs (renal panel, glucose) +

EEG + MRI (r/o mass lesions)
epileptic check anticonvulsant levels
partial sz Tx phenytoin or CBZ
grand-mal sz Tx phenytoin or CBZ
absence sz Tx ethosuximide


Etiology: 4 Is + 4 Ms Infx,
Ischemia (stroke/TIA), ICP,
Intoxication, Metabolic and
electrolytes, Mass lesions,
Missing drugs (anticonvulsants,
sedatives/EtOH), Misc
Pseudoseizure: looks like sz but
no EEG changes
Secondary generalization:
partial sz generalized sz
Status epilepticus: brain is stuck
in a state of persistent seizure


HLA-B27: PAIR psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, IBD, Reiter syndrome

HLA-DR3: SLE, Sjgren syndrome
HLA-DR4: Rheumatoid 4rthritis, mixed CT disease
C-ANCA: Wegener granulomatosis
P-ANCA: Churg-Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis
Anti-basement membrane: Goodpasture syndrome
Anti-CCP: rheumatoid arthritis
Anti-centromere: CREST syndrome
Anti-desmosome: pemphigus vulgaris
Anti-dsDNA: SLE
Anti-endomysial: celiac sprue
Anti-Fc IgG (RF): SLE, RA, many others
Anti-gliadin: celiac sprue
Anti-hemidesmosome: bullous pemphigoid
Anti-histone: drug-induced lupus
Anti-Jo-1: polymyositis/dermatomyositis
Anti-microsomal: Hashimoto thyroiditis
Anti-mitochondrial (AMA): primary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-nAChR: myasthenia gravis
Anti-nuclear (ANA): SLE, RA, many others
Anti-peroxidase: Hashimoto thyroiditis
Anti-Scl-70 (anti-topoisomerase): scleroderma (diffuse)
Anti-Sm: SLE
Anti-smooth muscle: autoimmune hepatitis
Anti-SSA/SSB (anti-Ro/La): Sjgren syndrome
Anti-thyroglobulin: Hashimoto thyroiditis
Anti-TSH (TSI): Graves disease
Anti-U1-RNP: mixed CT disease
Anti-VGCC: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome



Drug-induced lupus

Neonatal lupus

APA syndrome

Raynaud disease
Scleroderma (diffuse)
Scleroderma (CREST syndrome)

Sjgren syndrome

Mixed CT disease

type 3 HS flare-and-remission
pattern of IM DAMN SHARP
Malar rash
Discoid rash
Mucositis (throat ulcers)
Neurologic d/o
Serositis (pleuritis, pericarditis)
Hematologic d/o
Renal d/o (wire loops)
drugs type 3 HS SLE-like
presentation but no kidney or
CNS involvement
maternal ag-ab cross placenta
lupus sx; anti-SSA attacks
fetal heart 3 AV block
hypercoagulability in SLE or
other collagen-vascular dz
high-risk for venous (DVT, PE)
and arterial clots (stroke, MI),
recurrent abortions
digital vasospasm fingertips
go from blue-to-white-to-red
severe, widespread fibrosis of
skin (sclerodactyly) and viscera
Calcinosis of fingers, Raynaud
phenomenon, Esophageal
dysmotility, Sclerodactyly (only
face and fingers), and
Telangiectasias (over fingers)
autoimmune attack of salivary
and lacrimal glands dry eyes,
dry mouth, arthritis
overlap syndrome of SLE,
RA, scleroderma, polymyositis

Dx screen w/ ANA, confirm w/ anti-dsDNA,
anti-Sm, or C3-C5
Tx low-dose aspirin, corticosteroids for flares,
cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis

MC pts: Af-American women

Dx anti-histone
Tx d/c meds

Etiology: HIPP Hydralazine,

INH, Procainamide, Phenytoin

Tx close management during prenatal care

Dx lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin ab

Tx anticoagulation (warfarin)

Tx underlying disorder, keep hands warm,

Ca-blockers if severe
Dx anti-Scl-70 (anti-topoisomerase)
Tx palliative care
Dx anti-Centromere
Tx palliative care

Dx anti-SSA/SSB (anti-Ro/La)
Tx pilocarpine, artifical tears, oral hygiene
Dx anti-U1-RNP
Tx predominant dz



Rheumatoid arthritis


Pseudogout (CPPD)



Inclusion body myositis

Polymyalgia rheumatica



Joints: weight-bearing joints

(hips, knees, spine), PIP+DIP
(Heberden, Bouchard)
type 3 HS symmetric
polyarthritis w/ morning
stiffness, rheumatoid nodules
Joints: wrists (ulnar deviation),
MCP+PIP (Boutonniere, swan
neck, Z-thumb deformities)
cold, stress, EtOH, red meat
hyperuricemia MSU deposits
in joints sudden-onset
monoarthritis (e.g. podagra),
chronic tophi

Dx X-ray (joint space narrowing, osteophytes
aka bone spurs, sclerosis, subchondral cysts)
Tx weight loss + physical therapy (1st line),
acetaminophen/NSAIDs (2nd line), steroid
injections (3rd line), joint replacement (4th line)

Risk factors: old age, obesity,
joint overuse, trauma

Dx RF, anti-CCP , X-ray (joint space

narrowing, bony erosions)
Tx NSAIDs or low-dose steroids (for pain);
MTX, hydroxychloroquine, TNF-blockers

Felty syndrome: RA +
neutropenia + splenomegaly
Juvenile RA: RA before 18 y/o

Dx arthrocentesis (needle-shaped, negatively

birefringent yellow crystals)
Tx indomethacin > colchicine (acute attacks),
probenecid or allopurinol (chronic ppx)

Etiology: uric acid excretion

(90%), uric acid production (10%)

calcium pyrophosphate
deposits in joints suddenonset monoarthritis

Dx arthrocentesis (rhomboid-shaped, weakly

positively birefringent blue crystals)
Tx indomethacin > colchicine (acute attacks) +
Tx underlying cause

hip and shoulder muscle
weakness pain
hip and shoulder muscle
weakness pain, skin rashes
(heliotrope rash, Gottron
papules, V sign, shawl sign)
symmetrical proximal and distal
muscle weakness
hip and shoulder muscle pain
w/o weakness, profound
morning stiffness
widespread muscle pain and
stiffness associated w/ trigger

Dx CK, anti-Jo-1, muscle bx
Tx steroids
Dx CK, anti-Jo-1, muscle bx
Tx steroids

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: AR
HGPRT gout, self-mutilation,
yellow sand in diapers

-myositis: weakness, may have pain

-myalgia: pain, no weakness


wear-and-tear of joints
degeneration of cartilage
deep, dull joint pain, worse w/
activity and improved w/ rest


Complications: ovarian cancer

Dx slightly CK, muscle bx

Tx steroids
Dx ESR (CK is normal)
Tx steroids

Complications: aortic aneurysms,

temporal arteritis

Dx PE (multiple trigger points)


Complications: depression,
anxiety, axis II diagnoses

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies: PAIR Psoriatic arthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, IBD, Reiter syndrome
Common features: inflammatory oligoarthritis, negative RF, HLA-B27 association
Ankylosing spondylitis

Reiter syndrome (reactive


Psoriatic arthritis

bilateral sacroiliitis + gradualonset upward fusion of spine +
enthesitis (pain at tendon
attachment sites)
triad of anterior uveitis,
urethritis, arthritis (cant see,
cant pee, cant climb a tree)
following a bacterial GI infx
(Salmonella, Shigella, Campy,
Chlamydia, Yersinia)
asymmetric polyarthritis in 10%
of psoriasis pts, usually fingers

Dx X-ray (bamboo spine)
Tx NSAIDs + physical therapy

Complications: restrictive lung
dz, cauda equina syndrome,
spine fx w/ spinal cord damage,
osteoporosis, spondylodiscitis

Dx joint aspiration (r/o infx arthritis)


Dx X-ray (pencil-in-cup deformity)


Complications: dactylitis
(sausage fingers)


Small vessel vasculitis: type 3 HS, palpable purpura

Muscular artery vasculitis: claudication/infarction
Elastic artery vasculitis: granulomatous dz, pulselessness
Temporal arteritis (giant cell
Takayasu arteritis
Polyarteritis nodosa

Buerger disease
(thromboangiitis obliterans)
Behet syndrome
Churg-Strauss syndrome
Wegener granulomatosis

Hypersensitivity vasculitis

elderly pt w/ unilateral
headache, jaw claudication,
visual changes
young Asian woman w/ absent
pulses and asymmetrical BP
vasculitis of renal and visceral
vx abd pain (bowel angina),
fatigue, joint pain, renal failure;
associated w/ HBV infx
smokers w/ gangrene and
autoamputation of fingers/toes
recurrent oral and genital
ulcers, arthritis, uveitis, CNS sx
triad of asthma + eosinophilia +
granulomatous vasculitis
triad of necrotizing vasculitis,
necrotizing granulomas in lungs
and upper respiratory tract, and
necrotizing glomerulonephritis
hematuria + hemoptysis
drug-induced type 3 HS
palpable purpura

Tx emergent high-dose steroids (can become
blind if you wait too long)
Dx arteriogram
Tx steroids, angioplasty for stenosed vx
Dx tissue bx, P-ANCA
Tx steroids

Tx smoking cessation
Dx tissue bx
Tx steroids
Dx tissue bx, P-ANCA
Tx steroids
Dx tissue bx (necrotizing granulomas),
Tx cyclophosphamide

Dx tissue bx
Tx steroids, d/c meds

Complications: polymyalgia
rheumatica, blindness, aortic


protein: proteinuria >150 mg/day, nephrotic syndrome >3.5 g/day

albumin: microalbuminuria is earliest sign of diabetic nephropathy
glucose: diabetes
RBC: microscopic hematuria >3 RBC/HPF, gross hematuria visible to naked eye
ketones: DKA or starvation
nitrites: indicates bacteria in urine
LE: indicates WBC in urine
eosinophils: acute interstitial nephritis
RBC casts: glomerulonephritis, ischemia, or malignant HTN
WBC casts: pyelonephritis, tubulointerstitial dz, or txp rejection
Granular casts: acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Broad waxy casts: CRF w/ dilated ducts
Fatty casts: nephrotic syndrome
Hyaline casts: nonspecific


BUN: normally reabsorbed, cant be reabsorbed if kidney is damaged

Azotemia: BUN
Uremia: BUN w/ sx (usually BUN >60)
Cr: freely filtered and not reabsorbed, measure of GFR
Acute renal failure: rapid decline in renal fxn BUN, creatinine
Oliguric phase: UOP <500 mL/day, lasts 10-14 days
Diuretic phase: UOP >500 mL/day, due to diuresis of retained fluids/electrolytes
Recovery phase: recovery of tubular function


Urine osm
Urine Na+

Prerenal ARF
renal blood flow
GFR (hypotension,
CHF, etc.)

Intrinsic ARF
damage to renal
parenchyma (ATN,
toxins, glomerulonephritis, etc.)

Postrenal ARF
bilateral urinary tract
obstruction (stones,
BPH, cancer, etc.)

Ischemic ATN: renal blood flow proximal/distal tubules dont enough O2 for Na/K pump cell death ARF
Nephrotoxic ATN: toxin-mediated damage to proximal tubules cell death ARF (e.g. IV dye, gentamycin, Hb/Mb)
Chronic renal failure: irreversible, progressive reduction in GFR
Etiology: DM (#1), HTN (#2), chronic glomerulonephritis (#3)
Stages: stage 1 GFR 90-100
stage 2 GFR 60-89
stage 3 GFR 30-59
stage 4 GFR 15-29
stage 5 GFR <15 or dialysis (aka ESRD)
ARF/CRF complications: GFR electrolyte retention Na, K, H HTN, CHF
uremia n/v, pericarditis, asterixis, encephalopathy, platelet dysfxn
EPO normocytic anemia
vit D renal osteodystrophy, 2 HPTH, calciphylaxis


Dialysis: artifical removal of electrolytes/toxins from blood

Dialysate: articifial solution that resembles human plasma
Indications: AEIOU Acidosis (severe metabolic acidosis)
Electrolytes (severe hyperkalemia)
Intoxication (methanol, ethylene glycol, lithium, aspirin)
Overload (severe hypervolemia)
Uremia (severe uremia, pericarditis, BUN >150)
Limitations: doesnt help w/ kidney synthetic functions (e.g. EPO, vitamin D)



blood from AV fistula pumped
through dialyzer, filtrated, then
sent back into pt body
MWF or TuThSa
faster/more efficienct
can be initiated quickly
risk of removing too much
fluid or electrolytes
requires vascular access
first-use syndrome
chest and back pain, rare
anaphylaxis w/ new machine

Peritoneal dialysis
high-glucose dialysate infused into
peritoneal cavity, then drained from
q 4-8 hrs
mimics normal kidney fxn
risk of hyperglycemia
risk of peritonitis
increased abdominal girth




>150 mg protein/24 hr

Microscopic hematuria:
Gross hematuria: visible to
naked eye

Nephritic vs. nephrOtic syndrome:




Dx screen w/ dipstick and UA, then get 24 hr
urine collection
asx/transient reassurance
asx/persistent Dx check BP and examine
urine sediment; Tx underlying cause
sx Tx underlying cause + ACE inhibitors
Dx screen w/ dipstick and UA, then get
imaging of upper/lower urinary tracts
Tx underlying cause

Nephritic syndrome
- hematuria
- oliguria
- azotemia
- proteinuria (<3.5 g)
RBC casts


Etiology: glomerular dz
Etiology: postrenal causes
(trauma, stones, cancer)

NephrOtic syndrome
loss of GBM negative
- proteinuria (>3.5 g)
- edema
- hypoalbuminemia
- hyperlipidemia
- hypercoagulability
fatty casts

Nephritic syndrome chronic pain: analgesic nephropathy

Nephritic syndrome hemoptysis: Goodpasture, Wegener
Nephritic syndrome s/p strep throat: post-strep GN
NephrOtic syndrome deafness/blindness: Alport syndrome
NephrOtic syndrome kids: minimal change dz
NephrOtic syndrome HBV: MGN
NephrOtic syndrome HCV: MPGN
NephrOtic syndrome HIV: FSGS
NephrOtic syndrome Hodgkin lymphoma: minimal change dz
Minimal change dz
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN)
IgA nephropathy (Bergers dz)

Alport syndrome

Diabetic nephropathy

nephrOtic syndrome in kids
following a viral infx
nephrOtic syndrome in adults
and HIV+ pts, steroid-resistant
nephrOtic syndrome in adults;
associated w/ drugs, infx, SLE,
and solid tumors
nephritic syndrome following
URI or gastroenteritis;
associated w/ Henoch-Schonlein
(palpable) purpura in kids
XR type 4 collagen split
GBM (nephritic and nephrOtic
syndromes), deafness, ocular
and nerve disorders
nephrOtic syndrome in DM pts

HTN nephropathy
Lupus nephropathy

nephrOtic syndrome in HTN pts

ag-ab deposits nephritic
syndrome in SLE pts

glomerulonephritis (MPGN)
Poststreptococcal GN

nephrOtic syndrome in HCV+

coke-colored urine and
periorbital edema in a kid w/
strep throat or cellulitis
anti-GBM attacks glomeruli
and alveoli hematuria +

Goodpasture syndrome

Dx EM (foot process effacement)
Tx steroids
Dx LM (segmental sclerosis)
Dx LM (diffuse GBM thickening), EM (spike
and dome appearance)
Dx LM (mesangial deposits), IF (IgA stain)

Dx family hx

Dx microalbuminuria, LM (mesangial
expansion, Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules)
Tx ACE inhibitors
Tx underlying HTN
Dx LM (wire loops), EM (subendothelial
deposits), IF (full house)
Tx underlying SLE
Dx EM (tram tracks or dense deposits)
Dx ASO, LM (lumpy-bumpy appearance)
Tx reassurance
Dx LM (crescent shaped), IF (linear staining)



Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)
Chronic interstitial nephritis

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)

Hartnup syndrome

Fanconi syndrome


Adult polycystic kidney dz

Medullary sponge kidney

Simple renal cysts


RA stenosis (renovascular HTN)

RV thrombosis

Hypertensive nephrosclerosis

Sickle cell nephropathy

drug allergy acute renal
railure, rash, fever, eosinophilia
slowly progressive nephritis
asx, but can lead to progressive
scarring, renal failure, and ESRD
damage to renal papillae
necrosis slough off and
cause ureteral obstruction

Dx UA (eosinophuria)
Tx d/c meds

Etiology: gentamycin, IV dye,

Dx excretory urogram
Tx underlying cause

Etiology: analgesic nephropathy

(chronic NSAID/Tylenol use),
diabetic nephropathy, sickle cell,
obstruction, txp rejection

Type 1 (distal) RTA: collecting

duct cant excrete H+
metabolic acidosis, hypo-K,
nephrolithiasis, alkaline urine
Type 2 (proximal) RTA:
proximal tubule cant reabsorb
HCO3- metabolic acidosis,
hypo-K, hypophosphatemic
rickets, alkaline urine
Type 3 RTA: type 1 + type 2
Type 4 (hyper-K) RTA: either
hypoaldosteronism or lack of
response to aldosterone
metabolic acidosis, hyper-K,
acidic urine
AR neutral amino acid
transporter neutral amino
acids tryptophan for niacin
synthesis pellagra (3 Ds
diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
proximal tubule dysfxn
defective transport of glucose,
amino acids, HCO3-, phosphate
glucosuria, aminoaciduria,
type 2 RTA, hypophosphatemic
rickets, etc.


AD APKD1/2 multiple, large
bilateral cysts that can destroy
renal parenchyma renal
failure, HTN, berry aneurysms,
liver cysts
cystic dilation of collecting
ducts resembles sponge in
medulla hematuria,
recurrent UTIs, kidney stones
benign incidental finding

Dx renal U/S (multiple large cysts)
no tx available

RA stenosis renal blood
flow kidney thinks youre
hypotensive RAA system
HTN, abdominal bruits, renal
intrinsic clot or extrinsic
compression renal blood
outflow flank pain, HTN,
hematuria, proteinuria
Benign nephrosclerosis: hyaline
arteriolosclerosis in chronic
Malignant nephrosclerosis:
hyperplastic (onion skin)
arteriolosclerosis in rapidly
progressive HTN
recurrent sickling papillary
infarction eventual papillary
necrosis, renal failure, UTIs

Dx renal arteriogram (if pt is in renal failure,
use MRA instead since dye is nephrotoxic)
Tx angioplasty

Tx underlying cause

-- Tx fludrocortisone

Tx niacin replacement

Tx electrolyte replacement


Dx IV pyelo (sponge-like calyx)

no tx available

leave it alone

Dx renal venography
Tx underlying cause

Tx BP control, sodium nitroprusside for

malignant HTN

Tx ACE inhibitors (w/ hydroxyurea for SCD)

Etiology: fibromuscular dysplasia
(young women), atherosclerosis
(old men)


Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)

Urinary tract obstruction



colicky flank pain radiation to
groin, hematuria, n/v
Calcium stones: most common
type, 2/2 hypercalciuria or
Uric acid stones: radiolUcent
(rest are all radioopaque), 2/2
gout or tumor lysis syndrome
Struvite stones: 2/2 urease+
bugs (P. mirabilis), can form
large staghorn caliculi
Cystine stones: 2/2 cystinuria
colicky flank pain radiation to
groin (if acute), asx (if chronic)

Prostate cancer

usually asx, elderly man w/ low
back pain if invasive

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

Bladder cancer

abdominal mass, flank pain,

hematuria, and paraneoplastic
syndromes (PAPER PTH-rP,
ACTH, prolactin, EPO, renin)
painless hematuria

Testicular cancer

firm, painless testicular mass

Penile cancer

exophytic penile mass in a

noncircumcised dirty old man

Testicular torsion

twisting of spermatic cord
severe testicular pain + high
riding testicle w/ horizontal lie
presents like testicular torsion,
but w/ fever, pyuria, and cord is
also tender


Tx analgesics + fluids (<0.5 cm), shockwave
lithotripsy (0.5 2 cm), percutaneous
nephrolithotomy (2 cm)
recurrent calcium stones PPx HCTZ
uric acid stones PPx allopurinol, Tx
potassium citrate
cystine stones Dx urinary sodium nitro prusside test, Tx acetazolamide

Hematuria + pyuria: stone w/
concomitant UTI
Kidney stone diet: high fluids
(#1), low sodium, low protein,
high calcium (counterintuitive),
low oxalate

Dx renal U/S (shows dilation), then IV pyelo

Tx underlying cause

MC location: ureteropelvic jxn

Complications: renal
insufficiency, hydronephrosis

Dx screen w/ PSA (10) or DRE (firm nodule);
confirm w/ U/S-guided needle bx
Tx radical prostatectomy (local), radiation +
flutamide + leuprolide (invasive)
Dx abdominal CT
Tx radical nephrectomy

Cancers that rarely metastasize:
prostate, esophageal, skin
(nonmelanoma), oropharyngeal

Dx IV pyelo + cystoscopy w/ bx
Tx resection + close f/u for high recurrence

Risk factors: Pee SAC pain killer

abuse, smoking (#1), aniline dyes,
Bladder SCC: Schistosoma

Dx transillumination (doesnt light up),

testicular U/S (solid mass)
Tx radical orchiectomy, then CT chest/A/P for
staging, then radiation (if seminoma),
retroperitoneal LN-ectomy (if nonseminoma)
f/u FP + HCG levels
Dx skin bx
Tx local excision

Tx emergent surgical detorsion, then
orchipexy (dont waste time on dx tests)
Dx U/S to r/o torsion
Tx abx

Risk factors: smoking (#1),

Bilateral RCC: von Hippel-Lindau

Etiology: HPV-16/18 infx

Cremasteric reflex: stroking of
inner thigh causes elevation of
testicle; absent w/ torsion
Etiology: GC or CT in young men,
E. coli in kids and elderly

Cystine Uric acid

crystal crystal

Cystine crystals

(think gout or TLS)

Uric acid crystals

(think Proteus mirabilis)

Struvite crystal

Oval calcium
oxalate crystals

Calcium oxalate crystals


Budding yeast

(think CRF w/ dilated ducts)

Broad waxy cast

Granular casts

Normal RBC
Ghost RBC
Crenated RBC Normal RBC

(think nephritic syndrome)

RBC casts
(think acute pyelonephritis)

WBC casts


Subepi Humps

Granular CapillaryIgG/C3




Nephritic Dz

MSG Deposits

Granular MSG IgA

IgA Neprho



Full House:


SLE Class II


Wire Loops

Crescents + Fibrin


Linear Capillary IgG/C3







Minimal Change

Nephrotic Dz

Foot process


Segmental Sclerosis



Capillary IgG

Art. Hyalinosis

Diabetic Neph

Nodular MSG

in BM

Subepi Deposits

Thick Cap


Thick GBM



60-40-20 rule: 60% of body weight is water, 40% is ICF, 20% is ECF (5% plasma, 15% ISF)
Starling forces: hydrostatic pressure drives fluid into ISF, oncotic pressure sucks it back out
Blood osmolarity: 2Na + BUN/2.8 + gluc/18; normally 285-300 mOsm/L
Urine osmolarity: 70-1200 mOsm/L, controlled by ADH
Urine output: normally 0.5-1.0 mL/kg/hr
IV fluids: NS, LR, D5NS, D5W
NS: good for dehydrated pts
LR: good for trauma pts
D5NS: standard maintenance fluid
D5W: good for hypernatremic pts
100-50-20 rule: maintenance fluids for 24 hrs (100 mL/kg for first 10 kg, then 50 for next 10 kg, then 20 for each kg over)
4-2-1 rule: maintenance fluids for 1 hr (4 mL/kg for first 10 kg, then 2 for next 10 kg, then 1 for each kg over)


ADH: causes water reabsorption (V2, aquaporins) and vasoconstriction (V1)

Aldosterone: causes Na, K, H
PTH: causes Ca, P, vit D
Calcitonin: causes Ca, P
Vit D: causes Ca, P

water loss due to 6 Ds Diuresis,
Dehydration, Diabetes insipidus,
Docs (iatrogenic), Diarrhea,

thirst and signs of volume depletion
(slow) or MS (rapid)

Tx PO fluids > IV fluids (correct gradually due
to risk of cerebral edema)

confusion, coma, convulsions


renal failure, K-sparing diuretics,

release from dead tissue (crush
injury, ischemic bowel, etc.)

nausea/vomiting, intestinal colic,



diarrhea, vomiting, diuretics


hyperparathyroidism (MCC
outpt), cancer (MCC inpt)


hypoparathyroidism (MCC)

weakness, muscle cramps, ileus,

digoxin toxicity (K and dig compete for
same Na/K receptors on heart)
stones (kidney), bones (bone pain,
osteitis fibrosa cystica), groans (PUD,
pancreatitis), psychic overtones
(depression, anxiety, MS)
neuromuscular irritability (tingling,
tetany), arrhythmias, Chvostek and
Trousseau signs

Tx water restriction + NS (correct gradually

due to risk of central pontine myelinolysis)
first, confirm w/ repeat blood draw
Dx EKG (peaked T waves, sine waves)
Tx C BIG K DIE calcium gluconate, bicarb
insulin-glucose, kayexalate, dialysis (if severe)
Dx EKG (scooped T waves)
Tx KCl (<10 mEq/hr)




renal failure (MCC)

alcoholism (MCC), DKA
renal failure (MCC)
alcoholism (MCC), DKA

Acid-base algorithm:
CO2 <40
CO2 >40

pH <7.4
met acidosis*
resp acidosis

delirium, DTRs, cardiac arrest

refractory hypo-K
kidney stones, metastatic calcifications
rickets, osteomalacia

Dx EKG (short QT)

Tx flush and drain (NS + furosemide),
bisphosphonates if mild
confirm w/ corrected Ca = [measured Ca +
0.8 x (4 albumin)]
Dx EKG (prolonged QT)
Tx vit D + calcium replacement
Tx IV calcium gluconate + NS + furosemide
Tx mag replacement
Tx antacids (binds phosphate in GI tract)
Tx phos replacement

pH >7.4
resp alkalosis
met alkalosis

*if met acidosis, calculate anion gap (Na+ (Cl- + HCO3-)), nl 8-12

Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis
Anion-gap metabolic acidosis

Non anion-gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

hyperventilation 2/2 pain, fever,
sepsis, or early ARDS
MUDPILES Methanol, Uremia,
DKA, Paraldehyde, Iron, INH,
Lactic acidosis, Ethylene glycol,
diarrhea, glue sniffing, RTA,
vomiting, diuretics, antacids,

Tx mechanical ventilation
Tx underlying cause
Tx underlying cause

Tx underlying cause
Tx chloride or potassium replacement

pH changes: CO2 10 pH 0.08

HCO3 10 pH 0.15
Post-ictal AGMA: will resolve on its own in 60-90 minutes, recheck labs then
Aspirin overdose: tinnitus, fever, hyperventilation respiratory alkalosis (early), metabolic acidosis (late)
Iron overdose: AGMA, shock, abdominal pain, UGIB


PRBCs: Hb +1, Hct +3; indicated if Hb 7 or acute bleed

Platelets: platelets +10,000
FFP: contains clotting factors 1-12; PT, PTT
Cryoprecipitate: contains factors 1+8 only; PTT
Whole blood: contains everything, rarely used


MCV: RBC size, normally 80-100

Ferritin: iron levels in blood
TIBC: transferrin levels (protein that binds ferritin); serum ferritin has a negative feedback on TIBC levels
RDW: variability in RBC size; characteristic RDW in thalassemias
RI: measure of immature RBCs; <2% indicates impaired bone marrow function
LDH: enzyme of anaerobyic glycolysis; w/ intravascular hemolysis or tissue hypoxia
Haptoglobin: enzyme in blood that binds free Hb; w/ intravascular hemolysis
Schistocytes + helmet cells: indicates hemolytic anemia
Coombs test: detects antibody or complement on RBCs


(MCV <80)

(MCV 80-100)

(MCV >100)

thalassemias (RDW)
sideroblastic anemia

folate deficiency
B12 deficiency

calculate reticulocyte index

(retic count hct/45)
impaired erythropoiesis
(RI <2%)
acute hemorrhage
acute IDA or ACD
aplastic anemia
anemia of CRF (EPO)

normal erythropoiesis
(RI >2%)
intrinsic RBC defects

extrinsic RBC defects

membrane defects (PNH, spherocytosis)

abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell)
deficient enzymes (G6PD, PK)

prosthetic valves
chronic hemorrhage

Anemia sx: conjunctival pallor, headache, fatigue; HR/BP if severe

Pseudoanemia: Hb/Hct/WBC/plt secondary to dilution (e.g. fluid overload)
Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA)

(typical anemia sx)

Dx RBC panel (MCV <80, Fe, TIBC, RDW)
Tx underlying cause + PO iron supplements

Anemia of chronic disease


(typical anemia sx)

Dx RBC panel (MCV <80, Fe, TIBC, RDW)

Tx underlying cause
Dx RBC panel (MCV <80, RDW); confirm w/
Hb electrophoresis
Tx reassurance
Dx RBC panel (MCV <80, RDW); confirm w/
Hb electrophoresis (HbF)
Tx frequent transfusions

-thal minor: heterozygous

-chain mild anemia sx
-thal major: homozygous
-chain severe anemia sx


Sideroblastic anemia

Aplastic anemia

Folate deficiency

Vit B12 deficiency

Silent carrier: 1-2 -chain

deletion asx
HbH disease: 3 -chain deletion
severe anemia sx
Barts disease: 1-2 -chain
deletion fetal hydrops
biochemical abnormalities
iron gets stuck in mitochondria
cant make Hb anemia sx
bone marrow failure
pancytopenia (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia)
anemia sx + infx + petechiae
folate methionine (RBC)
anemia sx, glossitis
vit B12 methionine (RBC) +
impaired FA synthesis (myelin)
anemia sx, glossitis,
peripheral neuropathy

Etiology: Meckel diverticulum
(MCC kids), menorrhagia (MCC
women), peptic ulcers (MCC
men), colon cancer (MCC elderly)
Etiology: cancer, chronic infx,
systemic inflammation, trauma

Dx RBC panel (MCV <80, RDW); confirm w/

Hb electrophoresis (HbH)
Tx frequent transfusions
Dx post-mortem autopsy
Dx blood smear (ringed sideroblasts)
Tx underlying cause, vit B6 supplements

Etiology: lead poisoning, vit B6

deficiency, INH or EtOH use

Dx CBC (RBC, WBC, plt); confirm w/ bone

marrow bx
Tx transfusions, bone marrow txp

Fanconi anemia: aplastic anemia

+ short stature, hypopigmented
areas, eye/ear deformities

Dx RBC panel (MCV >100), hypersegmented

neutrophils, folate
Tx underlying cause, folate supplements
Dx RBC panel (MCV >100), hypersegmented
neutrophils, vit B12; DDx w/ Schilling test
Tx underlying cause, vit B12 injections

Folate source: leafy vegetables

Etiology: tea and toast diet,
alcoholics, phenytoin or MTX use
Vit B12 source: meats
Etiology: pernicious anemia (lack
of IF), s/p gastrectomy, strict
vegans, terminal ileal dz (Crohn),
D. latum fish tapeworm


Intravascular hemolysis: ABO-mismatched blood hemolysis within blood stream immediate fever/chills, nausea, vomiting, chest and flank pain,
dyspnea risk of hypovolemic shock, DIC, renal failure
Extravascular hemolysis: minor antigen-mismatched blood (e.g. Kell) delayed hemolysis within spleen mild fever, jaundice, anemia
Sickle cell disease

Hereditary spherocytosis

G6PD deficiency

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia


Paroxysmal nocturnal
hemoglobinuria (PNH)


Platelet range: >750


AR HbE6V (-chain) sickling
of RBCs w/ O2 conditions
small vessel occlusion extravascular hemolysis, painful
vasoocclusive crises,
autosplenic infarction
AR spectrin spherical RBCs
get stuck in spleen
extravascular hemolysis
XR G6PD glutathione for
handling oxidant stressors
intravascular hemolysis, back
pain, hemoglobinuria in men
Warm AIHA: IgG against RBC
chronic, extravascular
Cold AIHA: IgM against RBC
acute, intravascular hemolysis
triggered by cold
acquired DAF lack of
complement inactivation on
RBCs hemolytic anemia +
hepatic vein thromboses

Dx blood smear (sickled RBCs), confirm w/ Hb
Tx avoid crises + hydroxyurea (HbF) + early
SHiN vaccination

Dx osmotic fragility test

Tx splenectomy
Dx blood smear (Heinz bodies, bite cells)
Tx avoid precipitants

Dx Coombs test (coating w/ IgG is warm,

complement is cold)
Tx steroids (warm), avoid cold exposure (cold)

Sickle cell trait: painless
hematuria in young black male
Splenic sequestration crisis:
sudden, rapid pooling of blood
into spleen splenomegaly,
hypovolemic shock, death
Aplastic crisis: spherocytosis +
parvovirus B19 infx, prevent w/
folic acid supplements
Etiology: sulfa drugs, antimalarials, infx, fava beans

AIHA lymphoma: CLL is a

trigger for both warm/cold AIHA
AIHA PNA: Mycoplasma
pneumoniae is a trigger for cold

Dx urine hemosiderin
Tx steroids, bone marrow txp

risk of clots
thrombocytosis by definition
thrombocytopenia by definition
risk of bleeding during surgery/trauma
major spontaneous bleeding

Thrombocytopenia sx w/ normal plt count: aspirin or NSAID use

thrombocytopenia (HIT)

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic
purpura (ITP)
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic
purpura (TTP)

Bernard-Soulier syndrome
Glanzmann thrombasthenia

plt <150,000; most common sx
is petechiae
HIT type 1: heparin directly
causes platelet aggregation,
within 0-2 days
HIT type 2: heparin induces
auto-antibodies against platelet
factor 4, after 3-12 days
auto-antibodies against
gpIIb/IIIa platelet clearance
petechiae, ecchymoses, etc.
HUS: tons of clots form in small
vx (e.g. renal vx) microangiopathic hemolytic anemia +
thrombocytopenia + renal
TTP: HUS + fever + MS
AR gpIb platelets cant
adhere to subendothelium
AR gpIIb/IIIa platelets cant

Tx underlying cause, plt transfusion (severe)

Asx thrombocytopenia: consider
HIV testing

Tx reassurance

Tx d/c heparin

Dx plt <20, megakaryocytes

Tx steroids, plt transfusion then splenectomy
Dx CBC (plt, RBC) + blood smear
Tx emergent plasmapheresis


HUS diarrhea: EHEC (O157:H7)


PTT: measures intrinsic pathway (121)

PT/INR: measures extrinsic pathway (71)
Thrombin time: measures fibrinogen levels (21)
Bleeding time: measures platelet function
Shortest T: factor 7


Heparin: potentiates AT-III to inhibit factors 2/10 PTT

Heparin side-effects: bleeding, HIT, osteoporosis
Heparin reversal: protamine sulfate
LMWH: longer T, less side-effects, but more $$$
Warfarin: blocks vitamin K from activating factors 2/7/9/10/C/S PT/INR
Warfarin side-effects: bleeding, skin necroses (d/t protein C/S), teratogen
Warfarin reversal: vit K if mild, FFP if severe
tPA: activates plasmin to break down existing clots
tPA side-effects: severe bleeding (c/i in active bleed, recent surg, prior ICH)
tPA reversal: aminocaproid acid
Therapeutic INR: 2-3 normally, 2.5-3.5 for prosthetic valves


von Willebrand disease (vWD)

Dx //no vWF, bleeding time
Tx DDAVP (types 1-2), factor 8 concentrate
(refractory type 2, type 3)


Hemophilia A (classic

vWD type 1: AD vWF
bleeding diathesis
vWD type 2: AD vWF
bleeding diathesis
vWD type 3: AD lack of vWF
severe bleeding diathesis
XR factor 8 hemarthroses,
hematomas, and ICH in men

Dx PTT, factor 8
Tx factor 8 concentrate; analgesia + RICE (for
acute hemarthroses)

Hemophilia A vs. factor 8

inhibitor: mix pts plasma w/
normal plasma; if PTT fails to
normalize, then factor 8 inhibitor

Hemophilia B (Christmas

XR factor 9 hemarthroses,
hematomas, and ICH in men

Disseminated intravascular
coagulation (DIC)

abnl activation of clotting

factors microthrombi all over
blood stream run out of
factors bleed out die
vit K cant -carboxylate
factors 2/7/9/10/C/S bleeding

Dx PTT, factor 9
Tx factor 9 concentrate; analgesia + RICE (for
acute hemarthroses)
Dx PT/PTT, D-dimer, fibrinogen, plt,
blood smear (schistocytes)
Tx underlying cause, supportive measures

Vit K deficiency

Coagulopathy of liver disease

AT-III deficiency

Factor V leiden

liver cant make coagulation

factors bleeding diathesis
cant break down factors 2-12
hypercoagulability that doesnt
respond to heparin
protein C cant block factor 5

Dx PT/PTT, everything else is nl

Tx vit K supplements, FFP if severe

Dx PT/PTT, fibrinogen, everything else is nl



Etiology: G septic shock (MCC),

obstetric complications, cancer,
massive burns, rattlesnakes, etc.
Vit K source: leafy vegetables,
intestinal flora
Etiology: critically ill pts that are
NPO and on broad-spectrum abx
(MCC), fat malabsorption,
warfarin overdose, neonates


Multiple myeloma

Monocolonal gammopathy of
undetermined significance

monoclonal plasma cell
proliferation makes lots of
monoclonal IgG and eats up
bone marrow space CRAB
hyperCalcemia, Renal failure,
Anemia, Bone lesions/fx
(asx, precursor of myeloma)

monoclonal IgM plasma cell

proliferation IgM
hyperviscosity (IgM is big),
anemia, splenomegaly, LNopathy

Dx SPEP (monoclonal spike), urinalysis (Bence
Jones protein), X-ray (punched out lytic bone
lesions), blood smear (rouleaux formation)
Tx chemo/radiation only if symptomatic

MCCOD: recurrent lung or
urinary tract infx (normal IgG)

Dx SPEP (monoclonal spike), urinalysis (Bence

Jones protein)
Tx close f/u
Dx SPEP (monoclonal spike), urinalysis (Bence
Jones protein), IgM, no bone lesions
no tx exists

Px: <20% convert to myeloma in

10-15 yrs

- painful
- small (<2 cm)
- rapid onset
- mobile
- normal site

- Reed-Sternberg cells (CD15+/CD30+)

- localized, single group of nodes with contiguous spread
- B symptoms fever, night sweats, weight loss
- prognosis: stage of disease and HL subtype are most important factors

Hodgkins lymphoma

- multiple, peripheral nodes with noncontiguous spread

- fewer constitutional B symptoms
- associated with HIV/immunosuppression

Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

- painless
- large (>2 cm)
- insidious onset
- fixed (fibrotic)
- unusual site


Is the lymph node swollen due to malignancy

or is it an inflammatory process?

T-cell NHL (10-15%)

B-cell NHL (80-85%)


RS > lymphocytes

RS << lymphocytes

RS = lymphocytes

RS << lymphocytes

high grade

high grade

low grade

low grade

middle grade

high grade

high grade

- older males with disseminated disease

- poor prognosis

Lymphocyte-depleted HL

- popcorn cells
- infrequent classic RS cells
- excellent prognosis

Lymphocyte-predominant HL

- male-dominant
- numerous RS cells, EBV association

Mixed cellularity HL

V = viral association

- female-dominant
- supraclavicular nodes + anterior mediastinal nodes

Nodular sclerosing HL

- skin lesions with Pautriers microabscesses

- CD4+ T-cell neoplasm
- Sezary syndrome is leukemic phase of mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides

- adults with aggressive cutaneous lesions
- HTLV-1 association

Adult T-cell lymphoma

- H. pylori (stomach), Sjogrens syndrome (salivary glands)

MALT/extranodal lymphoma

- t(14;18)
- overexpression of BCL-2 anti-apoptosis gene

Follicular lymphoma

- t(11;14)
- poor prognosis, CD5+

Mantle cell lymphoma

- most common adult NHL

- 20% are T-cell origin (counterintuitive)

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

- t(8;14)
- EBV association, common childhood NHL
- starry sky appearanceW
- jaw lesion in endemic form in Africa
- pelvis/abdomen in sporadic form

Burkitts lymphoma





(extremely important)


- <5% blasts
- accumulation of mature cells

Chronic leukemias

- >20% blasts
- accumulation of immature cells

Acute leukemias

- bone marrow proliferation of myeloid lineages

- associated with specific TK abnormalities

Chronic lymphoid neoplasms

myeloid lineage

myeloid lineage



MKC lineage
w/ fibroblasts

MKC lineage

RBC lineage


B-cells (90%), T-cells (10%)

Myeloproliferative neoplasms



- gum infiltration

Acute monocytic leukemia

- t(15;17), defect in retinoic acid

- Tx retinoic acid, possible DIC

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

- severe anemia in elderly

- 30% develop AML
- ringed sideroblasts

Myelodysplastic syndrome

- positive TRAP stain

- splenomegaly
- Tx with purine nucleosides

Hairy cell leukemia

- B-cell neoplasm, -globulins

- MCC generalized lymphadenopathy >60 y/o
- smudge cells


- marrow fibrosis (dry bone marrow aspirate)

- extramedullary hematopoiesis splenomegaly
- tear drop RBCs

Primary myelofibrosis

- abnormal appearing platelets

Essential thrombocythemia

- plasma volume, RBC mass, normal SaO2, EPO

- 4 Hs: hyperviscosity, hypervolemia, histaminemia, hyperuricema

Polycythemia vera

- age: 30-60 y/o

- Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) or Bcr-Abl gene
- LAP score


- age: <15 y/o

- pre-B cells (90%); CALLA+/TdT+
- CNS and testicle involvement
- t(12;21) offers good prognosis


- age: median onset ~60 y/o

- Auer rods in myeloblasts




Lung abscess



Typical CAP: Strep pneumo
(#1), H. influenzae (#2),
aerobic GNR
Atypical CAP: Mycoplasma
(#1), Chlamydia, Legionella
Nosocomial PNA: Staph
aureus (#1), Pseudomonas,
aerobic GNR
PNA alcoholics: Klebsiella
PNA immigrants: TB
PNA nursing home:
nosocomial pathogens
PNA AIDS: Pneumocystis
carinii (PCP), TB
oral anaerobes (Prevotella,
Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides)
M. tuberculosis

influenza virus

Typical CAP: sudden-onset fever/chills,
productive cough, pleuritic chest pain
Atypical CAP: insidious-onset sore throat,
headache, nonproductive cough, dyspnea
Complications: pleural effusions,
empyema, acute respiratory failure

Dx CXR (consolidations)
suspect TB acid-fast stain
suspect Legionella urinary ag
HIV+ silver stain (fungi, PCP)
admit if 2/5 of CURB-65 Confusion, Uremia,
RR 30, BP <90/60, age 65
outpatient Tx azithromycin (<60 y/o),
ceftriaxone (60 y/o)
inpatient Tx azithromycin + either
ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolone
PPx annual flu vaccine, Pneumovax if 65 y/o

aspiration cough w/ foul-smelling

sputum, SOB, fever/chills
1 TB: granulomatous inflammation in lower
lobes infx contained usually asx
2 TB: reactivation in upper lobes
fever/chills, night sweats, weight loss,
cough w/ hemoptysis
Miliary TB: hematogenous miliary seed
spread of TB sx depend on organs
Pott disease: TB in vertebral body bone
pain, risk for pathological fx
rapid-onset fever/chills, malaise, headache,
sore throat, nonproductive cough

Dx CXR (cavitation w/ air-fluid levels, most

commonly in right lower lobe)
Tx IV abx
Dx screen w/ tuberculin skin test (15 mm,
10 mm if high-risk, 5 mm if HIV+ or CXR+);
confirm w/ CXR (cavitation in upper lobe)
active TB Tx SPIRE (streptomycin,
pyrazinamide, INH, rifampin, ethambutol) for
2 months, then INH + rifampin for 4 months
latent TB Tx INH only
Tx supportive care + oseltamivir if 48 hrs

2 bacterial infx: pt gets better from flu,

then sick again d/t bacterial colonization




Brain abscess

Meningitis neonates: GBS >
E. coli > Listeria
Meningitis kids: MC > Strep
pneumo > H. influenzae
Meningitis adults: Strep
pneumo > MC > H. influenzae
Meningitis elderly: Strep
pneumo > MC > Listeria

viruses (HSV-1 in temporal

lobe, arbovirus, enterovirus),
toxoplasmosis, aspergillosis
Staph, Strep, anaerobes

triad of fever, nuchal rigidity, MS
Kerning sign: inability to fully extend knees
when lying supine w/ hips flexed
Brudzinski sign: flexion of head causes
flexion of hips/knees when lying supine
Disseminated meningococcal infx:
meningitis, purpura fulminans, bilateral
adrenal hemorrhage (W-F syndrome)
MS, focal neuro sx, s/sx of meningitis

mass effect headache, MS, seizures,

nausea/vomiting, focal neuro sx

Dx head CT to check for ICP, then lumbar
puncture + CSF analysis
Tx IV abx

Dx head CT to check for ICP, then lumbar

puncture + CSF PCR
Tx admit + ACV (for HSV), GCV (for CMV)
Dx head CT or MRI
Tx IV abx, surgical drainage, steroids

Abscess AIDS: toxo, fungi

Abscess DKA: zygomycosis


Lower UTI (cystitis)

E. coli (#1), Staph saprophyticus (#2), Enterococcus
(#3), other GNB

Upper UTI



E. coli (kids/elderly), STDs

(young adults)


dysuria, hematuria, frequency/urgency,

suprapubic tenderness
Risk factors: diabetes, females (shorter
urethra), sexual intercourse, Foley catheter
(same as above) + fever/chills, flank pain,
CVA tenderness
Risk factors: (same as above) + VUR
Acute prostatitis: fever/chills, dysuria,
frequency, urgency, low back pain
Chronic prostatitis: usually asx

Dx UA/UCx (105 CFU w/o squamous cells)
Tx only if pregnant (nitrofurantoin) or before
urologic surgery, otherwise reassurance
Dx UA/UCx (105 CFU w/o squamous cells)
Tx Bactrim or Cipro, nitrofurantoin if pregnant,
low-dose Bactrim ppx if recurrent

Dx UA/UCx (105 CFU w/o squamous cells,

WBC casts)
uncomplicated Tx Bactrim or Cipro
complicated Tx admit + IV amp/gent
Dx DRE (boggy tender prostate) + UA/UCx
Tx Bactrim or Cipro
Dx prostatic secretion analysis (WBC)
Tx long-term Cipro


Viral hepatitis

HAV (fecal-oral)

jaundice, dark-colored urine, RUQ pain, n/v

HBV (parenteral or sexual)

Buzzwords: Asx (usually), daycare, travel

jaundice, dark-colored urine, RUQ pain, n/v
Buzzwords: polyarteritis nodosa, MGN


Intra-abdominal abscess



Necrotizing fasciitis
(gas gangrene)

HCV (parenteral)

jaundice, dark-colored urine, RUQ pain, n/v

HDV (parenteral or sexual)

Buzzwords: Cryoglobulinemia, Chronic infx,

Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carriers, IVDA, MPGN
jaundice, dark-colored urine, RUQ pain, n/v

HEV (fecal-oral)

Buzzwords: Deadly, HBV co-infection

jaundice, dark-colored urine, RUQ pain, n/v

Clostridium botulinum
preformed exotoxin (from
canned food or wound infx)

Buzzwords: cruise ships, fatal in pregnancy

symmetric, descending flaccid paralysis

fever/chills, abd pain, mass

Dx HAV IgM = acute infx
Dx HAV IgG = previous infx or immunity
Tx supportive care
Dx HBsAg = acute/chronic infx
Dx HBsAb = previous infx or immunity
Dx HBeAg = infectivity
Dx HBcAb IgM = window period
Tx IFN- + ribavarin, liver txp if severe

Tx supportive care
Dx toxin assay
Tx admit + antitoxin
Dx CT scan (cavitation w/ air-fluid levels)
Tx I&D + IV abx
acute diarrhea

Diarrhea n/v: viral gastroenteritis or food poisoning

Diarrhea fever/blood:
Shigella, Salmonella, Campy,
Diarrhea mayonnaise:
Staph aureus (<6 hrs),
Diarrhea raw chicken:
Salmonella, Shigella
Diarrhea raw seafood:
Vibrio, Salmonella, hep A
Diarrhea abx: C. diff
Diarrhea travel: ETEC
Diarrhea daycare: rotavirus,
Shigella, Giardia
Diarrhea AIDS:


skin flora (Strep pyogenes,
Staph aureus)

infx of skin and subcutaneous tissue
erythema, warmth, pain, swelling

Tx Keflex or Bactrim, consult ophtho if orbital

fiery red, painful skin lesion on face or

infx of deeper fascia extreme fever and
pain, evident tissue necrosis, crepitus
infx of LN tender LN w/ local cellulitis

Tx PCN or erythromycin

blocks GABA and glycine release trismus

(lockjaw), opisthotonos (spastic back),
risus sardonicus (spastic smile)
fever, rash, desquamation of palms/soles;
associated w/ menstruation and tampons

Tx tetanus antitoxin (TIG) in one site, Td

immunization in a different site

Cellulitis fight bite:

Strep pyogenes


Strep pyogenes, Clostridium

skin flora (Strep pyogenes,
Staph aureus)
Clostridium tetani exotoxin

Toxic shock syndrome

Staph aureus TSST-1 exotoxin

not complicated

(blood, fever, n/v)

Tx symptomatic relief
(rehydrate, loperamide) Dx fecal leukocytes

stool cx,
C. diff toxin

bacteria Tx ciprofloxacin x5 days

C. diff Tx Flagyl or PO vancomycin

Tx rapid surgical exploration + debridement,

broad-spectrum IV abx
Tx Keflex or Bactrim, warm compresses

Tx admit + stabilize + IV nafcillin (prevents

recurrence, not current toxin-mediated illness)




Chlamydia trachomatis


Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Vaginal candidiasis

Candida albicans


Treponema pallidum


Haemophilus ducreyi



Women: cervicitis, PID, TOA, usually asx
Men: urethritis
Women: cervicitis, PID, TOA, usually asx
Men: urethritis
Disseminated gonoccocal infx: migratory
polyarthritis, endocarditis, skin rash
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: perihepatitis
causing RUQ pain, LFTs, violin string
thick, white curd-like discharge, itching,
satellite lesions, no odor
1 syphilis: painless chancre + inguinal LNopathy
2 syphilis: palmar/plantar rash, fever,
condyloma lata, generalized LN-opathy
3 syphilis: neurosyphilis (tabes dorsalis),
CV syphilis (luetic heart), gummas
Jarisch-Herxheimer rxn: acute febrile rxn
s/p syphilis tx (MC w/ 2 syphilis), due to
dead spirochetes endotoxin release
painful chancre + inguinal LN-opathy
recurrent, painful oral (HSV-1) or genital
(HSV-2) vesicles that can rupture


Chlamydia trachomatis, L1-L3


Condyloma acuminata


Herpetic whitlow: painful, paronychia-like

lesions in fingers of healthcare workers
1 LGV: transient, painless ulcer
2 LGV: painful LN-opathy
3 LGV: anogenital syndrome (proctocolitis,
rectal strictures, rectovaginal fistulae,
genital elephantiasis)
genital warts

Bacterial vaginosis

Gardnerella vaginalis

thin homogenous discharge, fishy odor


Trichomonas vaginalis


HIV-1/2 (sexual, parenteral,

vertical, or breastmilk)

Pediculosis pubis

Phthirus pubis

green-gray frothy discharge, odor,

strawberry cervix (petechiae)
Primary infx: presents as mono-like
syndrome truncal maculopapular rash
Asx stage: CD4+ >500, asx
Sx stage: CD4+ 200-500, mild sx
(generalized LN-opathy, fungal infx, night
sweats, weight loss, diarrhea)
AIDS: CD4+ <200, or presence of AIDS OI
severe itching, irritation, vesicles, burrows


Staph aureus (#1), coag-neg
Staph epidermidis (#2), others

hematogenous or direct spread infx of
bone bone pain w/ local inflammation

Infx arthritis

OM IV catheter: Staph
OM prosthetic joint: coagneg Staph epidermidis
OM diabetic foot:
OM nosocomial:
OM IVDA: Pseudomonas
OM sickle cell: Salmonella
OM vertebra: TB (Pott dz)
OM cat/dog bite: Pasturella
Staph aureus (#1), others
Arthritis sexually-active
young adults: N. gonorrhoeae
Arthritis IVDA:
Arthritis sickle cell:

Dx Chlamydia NAAT
Tx azithromycin ceftriaxone
Dx discharge Gram stain (G diplococci)
Tx ceftriaxone azithromycin

Dx KOH prep (budding yeast + pseudohyphae)

Tx fluconazole (Diflucan) or miconazole cream
Dx screen w/ RPR-VDRL, confirm w/ FTA-ABS;
or definitive dx w/ Darkfield microscopy
Tx Benzathine PCN G (1/2), IV PCN G (3)

Dx Gram stain (school of fish appearance)

Tx azithromycin or ceftriaxone
Dx Tzanck smear (multinucleated giant cells)
or viral cx
Tx ACV/VACV + palliative care

Dx complement fixation
Tx doxycycline

Tx removal
Dx wet prep (clue cells)
Tx metronidazole
Dx wet prep (mobile trichomonads)
Tx metronidazole
Dx screen w/ HIV ELISA, confirm w/ WB
Tx HAART (2 NRTIs + 1 NNRTI or PI)

Dx hair under microscope

Tx permethrin shampoo

Dx needle aspiration + cx (best), MRI
Tx admit + IV abx + debride dead bone
f/u serial ESR/CRP to monitor response to tx

hematogenous or direct spread infx of

joints swollen, painful joint w/ ROM

Dx joint aspiration + analysis

Tx admit + IV abx, drain if shoulder or knee



Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi via Ixodes
tick vector

Rocky Mountain
spotted fever


Rickettsia rickettsii via tick

Plasmodium falciparum (24h),
P. vivax and ovale (48h),
P. malariae (72h) via
Anopheles mosquito vector
rabies virus via animal host


Candida albicans

Dx screen w/ ELISA, confirm w/ WB
Tx doxycycline

pain at bite location fever, malaise

agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia
(foaming) paralysis, coma death

Dx viral cx, Negri bodies on Purkinje cell bx

Tx emergent passive + active immunization

Vaginal candidiasis: thick, white curd-like
discharge, itching, satellite lesions, no odor
Thrush: thick, white plaques in oral mucosa
Cutaneous candidiasis: erythematous,
eroded patches w/ satellite lesions

Dx KOH prep (budding yeast + pseudohyphae)
Tx fluconazole or miconazole cream (vaginal),
nystatin powder (cutaneous), nystatin swish
and-swallow (thrush)

Risk factors: DM, abx use, immunosuppression, HIV/AIDS

ABPA: asthma + pulmonary infiltrates +
Aspergillus allergy
Aspergilloma: prior lung cavitation, filled
up w/ Aspergillus ball chronic cough
Invasive aspergillosis: acute-onset fever,
cough, respiratory distress, hemoptysis
meningitis/encephalitis in HIV+ pts

Tx doxycycline
Dx blood smear w/ Giemsa stain
Tx chloroquine (mefloquine if resistant)
primaquine for P. vivax/ovale hypnozoites

Dx CXR (air-crescent sign for aspergilloma)

Tx avoidance (ABPA), lung lobectomy
(aspergilloma), IV ampho B (invasive


Aspergillus fumigatus



Cryptococcus neoformans via

pigeon droppings
Histoplasma capsulatum via
bat/bird droppings in caves
Blastomyces dermatitidis


Coccidioides immitis

Sporotrichosis (rose
gardener disease)

Sporothrix schenkii via rose

thorn prick


Giardia lamblii


Entamoeba histolytica


Cryptosporidium parvum

bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling fatty
flask-shaped ulcers in ascending colon
bloody diarrhea; anchovy paste abscess
in liver RUQ pain
mild diarrhea, severe diarrhea in HIV+ pts


Ascaris lumbricoides

usually asx, can cause bowel obstruction


Ancylostoma duodenale (old),

Necator americanus (new)
Enterobius vermicularis

hooks onto bowel walls and sucks blood

iron-deficiency anemia
perianal pruritus, worse at night


Taenia saginata (beef),

Taenia solium (pork),
Diphyllobothrium latum (fish)

usually asx, D. latum eats vitamin B12

macrocytic anemia


S. haematobium

S. mansoni/japonicum cause fibrosis of liver

and spleen; S. haematobium causes bladder
infx dysuria, bladder SCC

Dx stool/urine sample
Tx praziquantel

erythema around an IV cath left in for too
long (>3 days)
fever/chills, sore throat, malaise, myalgias,
severe cervical LN-opathy after making out
w/ someone

Dx remove and send tip for cx
Tx IV abx
Dx Monospot (heterophile agglutination) test
Tx supportive care + avoid contact sports to
prevent splenic rupture



Stage 1: erythema chronicum migrans
(target-shaped lesion)
Stage 2: bilateral Bell palsy + AV block
Stage 3: chronic arthritis
triad of HA + fever + rash (vasculitis that
starts on extremities and comes inward)
cyclic fever/chills, headache, anemia,


S. mansoni

usually asx, mild respiratory sx

inflammatory lung dz, granulomatous
nodules in skin and bone
usually asx, mild respiratory sx after
earthquakes in SW US
local ulcer + ascending LN-opathy

Dx LP + India ink stain (thick capsules)

Tx IV ampho B + flucytosine
Dx bx (macrophage-filled spores)
Tx itraconazole
Dx bx (Broad Based Buds)
Tx itraconazole
Dx bx (huge spherule w/ endospores)
Tx itraconazole
Dx bx (cigar-shaped yeasts)
Tx itraconazole or potassium iodide

Dx stool sample
Tx metronidazole
Dx stool sample
Tx metronidazole (for diarrhea and abscess)
Dx acid-fast stain
(no tx exists)
Dx stool sample
Tx mebendazole
Dx stool sample
Tx mebendazole
Dx Scotch tape test
Tx mebendazole
Dx stool sample
Tx praziquantel

S. japonicum


Catheter-related sepsis

Staph aureus (#1), coag-neg
Staph epidermidis (#2)
EBV (#1), CMV (#2)


Acne vulgaris

Seborrheic dermatitis

Contact dermatitis

Pityriasis rosea

Erythema nodosum

Lichen planus
Bullous pemphigoid

Pemphigus vulgaris



Molluscum contagiosum

Shingles (zoster)



obstruction of sebaceous
follicles proliferation of P.
acnes noninflammatory
comedones (pimples)
inflammatory acne
red forehead, nose, cheeks w/o
underlying comedones
usually asx; can present as scaly
patches on scalp (dandruff),
hairline, behind ears, eyebrows,
armpits, groin area
skin rash w/ vesicles and oozing
(acute) or crusted, thickened
skin (chronic)
Irritant contact dermatitis:
physical or chemical insult to
skin rash shortly after
Allergic contact dermatitis:
reexposure to allergen rash
hours-to-days after exposure
herald patches (ringworm-like),
then generalized Christmas
tree rash
painful, red, subcutaneous
nodules over shins

4 Ps pruritic, purple, polygonal

anti-hemidesmosome ab
tense blisters on skin but not
oral mucosa
anti-desmosome ab tense
blisters on skin and oral mucosa
w/ acantholysis

HPV infx epithelial growth
fleshy asx mass, plantar warts
can be painful on walking
Common wart: verruca vulgaris
found on elbows, knees, palms,
and fingers
Flat wart: verruca plana found
on chin/face, dorsum of hands,
and legs
Plantar wart: verruca plantaris
found on sole of foot
Anogenital wart: condyloma
acuminatum found on genital
poxvirus infx highly
contagious domed papules w/
umbilicated center
reactivation of latent VZV
(chicken pox) infx pain and
rash in dermatomal distribution

Tinea capitis: found on scalp of

kids w/ itching and hair loss
Tinea corporis: ringworm,
found on body/trunk
Tinea unguium: onychomycosis,
found on finger- and toenails
Tinea pedis: athletes foot,
found on webbing of toes
Tinea cruris: jock itch, found in
groin and inner thighs
Sarcoptes scabiei skin mite
tunnel in epidermis burrows
and severe pruritus

Tx clean skin (1st line), topical benzoyl
peroxide, retinoids, or abx (2nd line), systemic
abx (3rd line), isotretinoin (last line/teratogen)

Tx topical metronidazole (1st line), systemic

abx (2nd line), isotretinoin (last line)
Tx sunlight + dandruff shampoo (1st line),
topical ketoconazole (2nd line), topical steroids
(last line)
Dx patch test if unsure
Tx cold compresses, topical steroids, systemic
steroids (severe)
PPx avoid allergen

Risk factors: male sex, puberty,
Cushing syndrome, oily skin,
androgens, meds
Steroid acne: not associated w/
underlying comedones
Rhinophyma: large, bulbous,
greasy nose in men

Etiology: ACD is delayed (type 4)

HS to poison ivy, oak, sumac,
iodine, nickel, rubber, cosmetics

Tx reassurance

Dx CXR (for TB, sarcoidosis), VDRL, CBC, ESR,

skin cx/bx to look for underlying cause
Tx underlying cause + symptomatic relief (bed
rest, leg elevation, NSAIDs, heat pads)
Tx systemic steroids

Etiology: Strep, sarcoidosis, IBD,

fungal infx, syphilis, TB,
pregnancy, meds, idiopathic

Tx systemic steroids

Tx systemic steroids

Tx removal (cryotherapy, salicylic acid,
podophyllin, surgical or laser excision)


Tx removal (cryotherapy, podophyllin, surgical

or laser excision)
Tx ACV + analgesics
PPx shingles vaccine for elderly

Dx scrape lesions + KOH prep

Tx PO griseofulvin for tinea capitis and
onychomycosis, topical antifungals for others

Dx scrape lesions + microscopy

Tx permethrin cream for pt and close contacts

MC sites: thorax and trigeminal

nerve distribution
Complications: postherpetic
neuralgia, uveitis, dissemination,
meningoencephalitis, deafness


Actinic (solar) keratosis

small, rough, scaly lesions on
face of fair-skinned people;
precursor to SCC
raised waxy lesion or nonhealing ulcer in upper face,
doesnt spread
non-healing ulcer in lower
face, spreads to LN

Tx removal (cryotherapy, surgical scraping,
or topical 5-FU)


ABCDE asymmetric, border

irregularity, colors, diameter >6
mm, elevated; highly metastatic

Tx excisional bx w/ 1 cm margins + search for


Decubitis ulcers (pressure

prolonged pressure tissue
ischemia and necrosis ulcers

Tx local wound care, surgical debridement,
BID wet-to-dry for deeper ulcers
PPx turn and reposition q 2 hrs


Stage 1: skin intact

Stage 2: partial-thickness skin
Stage 3: full-thickness skin loss
Stage 4: full-thickness skin loss
that extends into underlying
muscle, bone, joints, tendons
abnormal proliferation of skin
cells silvery, scaling plaques
w/ Auspitz sign (bleeding upon
pasted on dark, oily plaques
common in older pts
irregular depigmentation of
skin, most commonly on face




Seborrheic keratosis



Tx excisional bx w/ 1 mm margins

Tx excisional bx w/ 1 cm margins + LN excision

Risk factors: sunlight exposure,

draining fistulas, arsenic, HPV
Keratoacanthoma: variant of SCC
that grows rapidly and dies off
Marjolins ulcer: SCC arising from
a chronic wound
Growth phases: initially grows
radially, then vertically; px
related to depth of invasion
Dysplastic nevus: atypical mole,
precursor to melanoma
Spitz nevus: well-circumscribed,
raised lesion confused w/

MC sites: sacrum, greater
tuberosity, ischial tuberosity
Risk factors: immobilization,
dementia, peripheral vascular dz
Complications: secondary
bacterial infx (cellulitis, osteomyelitis, nec fasc, gangrene)

mild Tx topical steroids, calcipotriene

severe Tx MTX, infliximab, cyclosporine A

Tx removal (cryotherapy, surgical excision)

only for cosmetic reasons
Tx topical steroids or photochemotherapy

Type 1 HS: allergen exposure IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation HA release, atopic/anaphylactic
Type 2 HS: IgG or IgM against cell surface, cytotoxic
Type 3 HS: ab-ag complex deposition complement activation cell damage
Type 4 HS: T-cell mediated activation of macrophages, delayed-type
Urticaria (hives)

type 1 HS edematous wheals
(hives) that cause intense
severe urticaria + target lesions
(bulls-eye lesions)
severe erythema multiforme +
mucus membrane involvement
severe Stevens-Johnson
fluid extravasation into
subcutaneous tissue painful
swelling of eyelids, lips, tongue,
genitalia, hands, or feet
types 1-4 HS skin eruptions
(MC), lung, kidney, hematologic
complications, anaphylaxis

Tx remove offending agent, symptomatic
relief (anthistamines)


Tx remove offending agent, symptomatic

relief (anthistamines)
Tx remove offending agent, admit to ICU

Etiology: sulfa drugs (MCC),

other drugs, HSV infx
Etiology: sulfa drugs (MCC),
other drugs
Etiology: sulfa drugs (MCC),
other drugs
Etiology: ACE inhibitors (MCC)
Hereditary angioedema: C1esterase inhibitor deficiency

Food allergy

type 1 HS skin eruptions

(MC), GI sx, anaphylaxis

Tx remove offending agent, symptomatic

relief (anthistamines)
anaphylaxis Tx epinephrine

Insect sting allergy

Nonallergic rxn: localized

swelling, pain, pruritis, redness
Allergic rxn: looks like cellulitis
severe type 1 HS skin
eruptions followed by airway
obstruction, then shock

nonallergic Tx ice pack

allergic Tx ice pack + antihistamines
anaphylaxis Tx epinephrine
Tx ABCs, epinephrine, antihistamines, steroids

Erythema multiforme
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Drug allergy


Tx remove offending agent, admit to ICU

Tx remove offending agent, symptomatic
relief (anthistamines)
laryngeal edema Tx epinephrine
Tx remove offending agent, symptomatic
relief (anthistamines)
anaphylaxis Tx epinephrine

Adverse drug reaction: broad

category including drug allergy,
side-effects, drug interactions,
toxicity, etc.
Adverse food reaction: broad
category including food allergy,
food poisoning, metabolic
conditions, malabsorption, etc.
Etiology: Hymenoptera spp.
(wasps, yellow jackets, honeybees, hornets)



asx, but can present w/ end-organ

Dx BP cuff
lifestyle modifications

Heart: LVH, MI, CHF

Eyes: retinopathy, papilledema
Kidney: CKD
Brain: stroke, TIA
Arteries: PVD, aortic dissection

not at goal BP
stage 1


stage 2


Tx HCTZ + Tx specific drug

not at goal BP

optimize dose or add drug

if diabetic, stroke Tx ACE inhibitor
if CAD, CHF Tx -blocker
if pregnant Tx Ca-blocker
if refractory check for compliance


H+P: ask about CP, SOB, HA, side-effects;

labs (renal panel, fasting lipids)
Lifestyle modifications: weight loss,
DASH eating plan, sodium restriction,
aerobic exercise, moderate alcohol use
Goal BP: <140/90, <130/80 if CKD or DM
Dx fasting lipid panel

asx, but can present w/ end-organ


initial evaluation +
lifestyle modifications

Atherosclerosis: MI, CAD, stroke,

LDL: xanthelasma, xanthoma
TG: acute pancreatitis

not at goal lipids

LDL >130 (if high risk)
LDL >160 (if med risk)
LDL >190 (if low risk)
Tx statins

TG >500

Tx niacin

not at goal lipids

optimize dose or add drug
Initial evaluation: look for 2 causes + labs
(TSH, LFTs, renal, fasting glucose)
Lifestyle modifications: diet + exercise
Goal lipids: <130, <100 if CHD or DM

Hyperlipidemia drugs:





Bile acid resins (colestipol,

Fibrates (gemfibrozil)

hepatotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis (check
flushing, hyperglycemia,
hyperuricemia (check CK, LFTs)
GI distress, poorly tolerated
hepatotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis,
cholesterol gallstones (check CK, LFTs)

Pre-HTN: 120-139/80-89
Stage 1 HTN: 140/90
Stage 2 HTN: 160/100
HTN urgency: 220/120
HTN emergency: 220/120 + endorgan damage
1 (essential) HTN: 95%, no
underlying cause
2 HTN: 5%, due to renovascular
dz (MCC), OCPs (MCC young
women) or other meds,
stimulants, endocrine dz, etc.


1 HA types: tension, cluster, migraines

2 HA causes: VOMIT Vascular (SAH, SDH, EDH, ICH, temporal arteritis)
Other (malignant HTN, psedomotor cerebri, post-LP, pheo)
Meds (nitrates, alcohol withdrawal, analgesic withdrawal)
Infx (meningitis, encephalitis, abscess, sinusitis, shingles, fever)
Severe HA w/ HTN: get noncontrast head CT to r/o ICH, then get LP
Tension HA

Cluster HA

Migraine HA
Rebound analgesic HA


tight band-like pain encircling
entire head + tightness in
posterior neck muscles
unilateral, episodic burning,
searing, or stabbing pain
behind eye + ipsi tearing, flush,
or nasal discharge in men
unilateral, throbbing HA n/v,
phono-/photophobia in women
migraine after discontinuing
long-term analgesic use

Tx NSAIDs or Tylenol if mild/moderate,
sumatriptan (Imitrex) if severe

Etiology: unknown

Tx sumatriptan + O2 for acute attacks,

use verapamil for ppx

Etiology: unknown

Tx sumatriptan for acute attacks,

use TCA or propranolol for ppx
Tx wean pt from analgesics (do not give pt
more narcotics)

Etiology: stress 5-HT

vasospasm headache

Viral vs. bacterial URI: common sx fever, cough

viral only rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache
bacterial only yellow sputum
Double sickening: cold that gets better for a few days then gets worse, consider 2 bacterial infx

Acute bronchitis
Common cold (viral


cough (dry or productive),

fever, shortness of breath
dry cough, sore throat, malaise,
rhinorrhea, nasal congestion


nasal stuffiness, purulent

discharge, cough, sinus pain or
pressure (maxillary sinuses may
resemble dental pain)


hoarseness, sore throat, other

viral URI sx

Sore throat

suspect pulmonary dz Dx CXR
suspect infx Dx CBC
suspect asthma Dx PFT
Tx underlying cause (if known) + symptomatic
relief (codeine syrup, hydration, expectorants)
smoker Tx cessation
postnasal drip Tx antihistamine +
suspect PNA Dx CXR
Tx symptomatic relief (codeine syrup)
Tx symptomatic relief (codeine syrup,
hydration, expectorants, analgesics)
PPx hand washing
Dx (think viral if <7-10 days, bacterial if
>7-10 days)
viral Tx decongestant (pseudoephedrine)
bacterial Tx decongestant + amoxicillin; if
not improved after 2 wks, Tx penicillinase
resistant abx ENT consult
Tx voice rest
Dx rapid strep test, throat cx
suspect mono Dx Monospot test
Tx symptomatic relief (salt water gargling,
throat lozenges, analgesics)
strep throat Tx PCN x10 days

Acute cough: <3 wks, MCC
Chronic cough: >3 wks, due to
smoking, postnasal drip, GERD,
or asthma

Etiology: MCC viruses

Etiology: MCC viruses, through
hand-to-hand transmission
Complications: 2 bacterial infx
Etiology: viruses, Strep pneumo,
H. flu, Moraxella catarrhalis
Complications: mucocele,
polyps, infx spread (cellulitis,
osteomyelitis, abscess)
Etiology: MCC viruses
Etiology: MCC viruses, bacterial
tonsillitis, strep throat, mono





spectrum of epigastric sx
(pain/discomfort, heartburn,
bloating, indigestion)

heartburn, regurgitation,
waterbrash (sour taste), cough,


suspect severe GI dz Dx endoscopy +
urease breath test
suspect MI Dx EKG + cardiac enzymes
Tx underlying cause, make lifestyle changes,
antacids for acid reflux
H. pylori Tx triple or quadruple therapy
Tx PPIs if it persists >6 wks, Dx EGD w/ bx
to see whats going on
Esophagitis: multiple nonulcerating erosions;
mild Tx PPIs, severe lap Nissen
Barrett esophagus: intestinal metaplasia of
esophageal epithelium; no dysplasia Tx
PPIs, low-grade dysplasia Tx lap Nissen +
annual surveillance, high-grade dysplasia
Tx esophagectomy
acute diarrhea
not complicated

(blood, fever, n/v)

Tx symptomatic relief
(rehydrate, loperamide) Dx fecal leukocytes

stool cx,
C. diff toxin

bacteria Tx ciprofloxacin x5 days

C. diff Tx Flagyl or PO vancomycin






altered bowel habits (diarrhea,

constipation, or both) that
improve w/ defecation + chronic
abdominal pain

dilated perianal veins; can

present as BRBPR or painful

suspect 2 cause Dx TSH, renal panel

suspect CRC Dx CBC, FOBT
suspect obstruction Dx KUB
Tx underlying cause, make lifestyle changes
(exercise, fluids, high-fiber diet)
obstruction surg consult
Dx CBC and FOBT to r/o organic causes
constipation Tx fiber, lubiprostone (2nd line)
diarrhea Tx loperamide
Dx (ask food intake, meds, recent abdominal
surgery, define vomitus)
suspect 2 cause Dx CBC, renal panel, LFTs
women Dx -HCG
suspect obstruction Dx KUB
Tx underlying cause, symptomatic relief
(promethazine or prochlorperazine)
severe dehydration Tx admit + IVF (NS+K)
Tx symptomatic relief (high-fiber diet, stool
softeners, sitz baths, steroid suppository)
severe Tx hemorroidectomy or rubber
band ligation (internal only)

Etiology: 90% due to GI causes
(PUD, GERD, gastritis, nonulcer
dyspepsia); must r/o acute MI

Etiology: LES tone

retrograde flow of stomach
contents into esophagus
Complications: erosive
esophagitis, peptic strictures,
esophageal ulcers, Barrett
esophagus, recurrent PNA w/
lipid-laden macrophages

Acute diarrhea: <2 wks, due to

viruses (MCC), bacteria, or meds
Chronic diarrhea: >4 wks, IBS
(MCC), lots of causes
Diarrhea n/v: viral gastroenteritis or food poisoning
Diarrhea fever/blood: Shigella,
Salmonella, Campy, EHEC
Diarrhea mayonnaise: Staph
aureus (<6 hrs), Salmonella
Diarrhea raw chicken:
Salmonella, Shigella
Diarrhea raw seafood: Vibrio,
Salmonella, hep A
Diarrhea abx: C. diff
Diarrhea travel: ETEC
Diarrhea daycare: rotavirus,
Shigella, Giardia
Diarrhea AIDS:
Diarrhea appendicitis-like pain:
Yersinina enterocolitica
Diarrhea mycotic aneurysm:
Diarrhea PNA hyponatremia:
Electrolyte imbalance:
hypokalemic metabolic acidosis
Etiology: diet (lack of fiber),
meds, IBS, obstruction, etc.
Complications: hemorrhoids,
rectal prolapse, anal fissures,
fecal impaction

Etiology: unknown, but more

common in women and high
prevalence of d/o
Etiology: viral gastroenteritis or
food poisoning (MCC), lots of
Complications: dental caries,
aspiration pneumonitis, MalloryWeiss or Boerhaave syndrome
Electrolyte imbalance:
hypokalemic, hypochloremic
metabolic alkalosis
Internal hemorrhoids: above the
dentate line, painless but can
External hemorrhoids: below
the dentate line, painful


Low back pain

Ankle sprain



Carpal tunnel syndrome

Osteoarthritis (OA)


Lumbar strain: dull LBP after
physical activity
Herniated disc: sciatic-type LBP
radiating to butt/thigh, worse w/
sitting or leaning forward
Degenerative disc dz: chronic
LBP, worse w/ activity
Cauda equina syndrome: bilat
sciatica + bowel/bladder sx,
neuro sx
Vertebral osteomyelitis: LBP +
fever, tender to palpation
Malignancy: LBP + night pain,
h/o cancer, weight loss, failure
to improve
Spinal stenosis: LBP worse w/
activity, better w/ sitting or
leaning forward
Compression fx: well-localized
LBP, worse w/ activity
Spondylolisthesis: LBP worse w/
tenderness directly over injured
ligament (ATFL or CFL)

Supraspinatus tendinitis: aka

impingement syndrome, dull
pain over lateral deltoid w/ arm
Lateral epicondylitis: aka tennis
elbow, pain at lateral elbow w/
supination or pronation
Medial epicondylitis: aka
golfers elbow, pain at medial
elbow w/ wrist flexion
De Quervain dz: pain at radial
wrist w/ thumb gripping
Olecranon bursitis: swelling
bag of fluid and pain at point
of elbow
Trochanteric bursitis: greater
trochanter painful on palpation
carpal tunnel tightness
median nerve compression
pain, numbness, tingling over
median nerve distribution;
usually worse at night

wear-and-tear of joints
degeneration of cartilage
deep, dull joint pain, worse w/
activity and improved w/ rest

decreased bone mass (2.5 std

deviations) asx, but can
present w/ complications



no red flags
Tx rest + NSAIDs

red flags
(night pain, pain at rest,
fever, neuro sx, trauma,
bowel/bladder sx, IVDA)
focused work-up

suspect radiculopathy Dx straight leg raise

suspect compression fx, tumor mets, or
osteomyelitis Dx X-ray
suspect cauda equina Dx emergent MRI +
consult neurosurg

Dx ankle X-ray only if Ottawa rules are met

(cant walk 4 steps, bony tenderness over
either malleolus, navicular bone, or base of 5th
Tx RICE + physical therapy
Tx steroid injections, surgical acromioplasty

Tx forearm splint, physical therapy

Tx forearm splint, physical therapy

Dx Finkelstein test (clench thumb under other

fingers then ulnar deviate wrist)
Tx thumb spica splint + NSAIDs
Tx reassurance

Tx NSAIDs, steroid injections

Dx screen w/ Tinels sign (tapping median
nerve causes tingling), Phalens test (palmar
flexion for 1 min causes tingling)
Dx confirm w/ EMG
Tx wrist splints (1st line), steroid injections (2nd
line), surgical carpal tunnel release (3rd line)
Dx X-ray (look for joint space narrowing,
osteophytes aka bone spurs, sclerosis, and
subchondral cysts)
Tx glucosamine-chondroitin supplements
Tx weight loss + physical therapy (1st line),
acetaminophen or NSAIDs (2nd line), steroid
injections (3rd line), joint replacement (4th line)
screen women 65 w/ DEXA scan q 2 yrs
Dx DEXA scan
Tx calcium + vitamin D + weight-bearing
exercise (1st line), bisphosphonates or HRT

MC joints: hips, knees, spine

Risk factors: old age, obesity,
joint overuse, trauma
HeberDen nodes: OA at DIP
Bouchard nodes: OA at PIP
Risk factors: postmenopause,
old age, steroid or heparin use
Complications: vertebral body
compression fx ( kyphosis),
Colles fx (distal radius), hip fx


Age-related macular
degeneration (ARMD)

degeneration of macula loss
of central vision, scotoma


Wet ARMD: sudden onset

Dry ARMD: gradual onset
intraocular pressure optic
nerve damage loss of
peripheral vision, blindness


Red eye


Amaurosis fugax


Sleep apnea



Open-angle: gradual onset,

usually asx for years
Closed-angle: sudden onset w/
severe eye pain, tearing, n/v
opacification of lens gradual
loss of visual acuity

Conjunctivitis: (see below)

Subconjunctival hematoma:
blood vx rupture blotchy red
spot in eye
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca: dry
Blepharitis: eyelid inflammation,
due to Staph aureus
Scleritis:inflammation of sclera
eye pain, blurry vision
Uveitis/iritis: inflammation of iris
circumcorneal injection, eye
pain, blurry vision
HSV keratitis: presents similar to
conjunctivitis but fluorescein
stain shows dendritic ulcer

Viral conjunctivitis: adenovirus

infx swollen, red eye w/
watery discharge
Bacterial conjunctivitis: Strep
pneumo infx rapid-onset red
eye w/ mucopurulent discharge
Hyperacute conjunctivitis: N.
gonorrhoeae infx rapid-onset
red eye w/ copious purulent
Allergic conjunctivitis: bilateral
red eye w/ itching, tearing, other
upper respiratory sx
internal carotid artery plaque
embolize to retinal artery
suddent, transient monocular
loss of vision

neck obesity or structural
abnormalities intermittent
airflow obstruction episodic
apenic/hypoxic periods
snoring + fragmented sleep
daytime sleepiness, brain
damage, HTN/pulmonary HTN
REM sleep disregulation
excessive daytime sleepiness,
cataplexy, sleep paralysis,

Dx ophthalmoscope shows drusen (yellow white deposits under pigmented epithelium)
no effective tx exists, but ranibizumab
rate of vision loss due to wet ARMD


Dx ophthalmoscope to check CN II damage,

visual field testing, tonometry to measure IOP
open angle Tx topical -blockers,
agonists, acetazolamide, or prostaglandins
closed angle Tx pilocarpine drops +
emergent iridectomy
Dx ophthalmoscope
Tx surgery

Etiology: old age (MCC),

smoking, diabetes, etc.
Second sight: pts w/ cataracts
become increasingly nearsighted and no longer need
reading glasses

red eye
no red flags

red flags
(severe eye pain, flashes,
Tx cause
floaters, trauma, recent
eye surgery, orbital cellulitis,
corneal ulcer/opacification)
consult ophtho

subconjunctival hematoma reassurance

keratoconjunctivitis sicca Tx artificial tears
blepharitis Tx warm compress
scleritis consult ophtho (Tx steroids)
uveitis/iritis consult ophtho
HSV keratitis Tx topical ACV
viral Tx cold compress
bacterial Tx topical Cipro
hyperacute Tx topical + PO ceftriaxone
allergic Tx topical antihistamines

Dx ophthalmoscope shows Hollenhorst plaque

Dx carotid U/S and cardiac work-up (lipid
panel, EKG)
Tx resolves spontaneously

Dx polysomnography
mild-moderate Tx weight loss
severe Tx CPAP, surgery (last resort)

Tx methylphenidate (Ritalin), modafinil

Tx underlying cause, short-term symptomatic

relief (Ambien, Lunesta, Sonata)



Hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss: lesion
in external or middle ear
decreased perception of lowvolume sounds
Sensorineural hearing loss:
lesion in CN VIII or CNS
decreased perception of lowand high-volume sounds w/
Stress incontinence: urine
leakage w/ exertion or straining

Dx whisper test, audiogram, Weber/Rinne test
suspect CNS lesion Dx MRI

Tx anticholinergics (oxybutinin), TCAs



Urge incontinence: urine

leakage d/t involuntary bladder
contractions (detrusor hyperactivity)
Overflow incontinence: urine
leakage d/t urinary retention
and overdistention
Bypass incontinence: urine
leakage d/t fistula following
pelvic surgery or pelvic radiation
Functional incontinence: urine
leakage d/t physical or psych
issues; common in nursing home
or gero pts

Erectile dysfunction (ED)

Chronic fatigue syndrome

(CFS): profound fatigue for >6
months, not due to medical or
psych d/o
cant get it up



Urinary incontinence

cerumen impaction Tx Debrox eardrops

conductive Tx underlying cause
sensorineural Tx underlying cause, consider
cochlear implants

Tx surgery to stabilize hypermobile urethra

(best), Kegel exercises, pessaries

Tx intermittent self-cath

Etiology: vesicovaginal, urethrovaginal, ureterovaginal fistulas

Tx underlying cause

Etiology: physical impairment,

dementia or delirium,

Dx CBC (anemia), TSH, fasting glucose, renal

panel, UA, LFTs to r/o organic causes
Tx underlying cause

Etiology: depression (MCC), lots

of other causes

Tx sildenafil (nitrates c/i)

Etiology: penile vasculature

atherosclerosis (MCC), meds
(anti-HTN), alcohol abuse, etc.
Wernicke encephalopathy:
acute thiamine deficiency
reversible Confusion,
Ophthalmoplegia (CN VI palsy),
Ataxia, Thought disturbances

Dx CAGE screening (cut down, annoyed by

criticism, guilt, eye opener)
Dx labs show LFTs (AST:ALT >2, GGT, CDT),
MCV (folate deficiency)



Tx varenciline (Chantix) and buproprion

(Zyban) are partial nicotinic agonists; nicotine
patch or gum


adults 18
adults 18

Colorectal cancer

adults 50

Prostate cancer
Breast cancer

--women 20

Cervical cancer

women 21-65


sexually active women <25,

other high-risk women
women 65
adults 18
adults 18
adults 18

Screening test
measure BP
fasting lipid panel q 5 yrs (more frequently if
increased risk of CAD)
annual FOBT + either colonoscopy q 10 yrs or
flex sigmoidoscopy q 5 yrs
not recommended
monthly self-exam + physician exam q 3 yrs until
40, then q yr + mammogram q 1-2 yrs 40
Pap smear q 2 yrs 21-29, q 3 yrs >30 after 3
negative Paps (dont need s/p hysterectomy)
cervical sampling + RPR-VDRL HIV ELISA

Diabetic retinopathy
Hearing loss
Atherosclerosis complications
(PVD, stroke, CAD)

diabetic pts
adults 65
adults 65

Etiology: chronic abdominal

pressure, pelvic relaxation, old
age (estrogen loss of
mucosal coaptation)
Etiology: idiopathic (MCC), UTIs,
bladder stones or cancer,
urethral diverticula, foreign
Etiology: medications,
neurologic disease

Dx methylene blue or indigo carmine dye

Tx surgery to repair fistula

Tx AA referral
Tx disulfiram (Antabuse) blocks aldehyde
dehydrogenase aversive reaction;
naltrexone blocks opioid-R cravings;
acamprosate GABA/glu cravings


Etiology: cerumen impaction
(MCC conductive), presbycusis
(MCC sensorineural), lots of
other causes

DEXA scan q 2 yrs

screen + counsel
screen + counsel
screen + counsel if clinic has adequate
mechanisms for dx, tx, and f/u
referral to ophtho for annual fundoscopic exam
hearing test
assess risk factors

Korsakoff psychosis: chronic

thiamine deficiency
irreversible Retrograde and
Anterograde amnesia,
Complications: CV dz (CAD, MI,
stroke, PVD), COPD, cancers,
osteoporosis, Buerger dz, etc.


Pediatrics Shelf notes


Developmental milestones

Fine motor


recognizes parents, social smile

6 mo
1 yr

Gross motor
holds head up, rolls
sits up

raking grasp
throws object, 3 blocks

10 words

2 yr

climbs stairs

turns pages, 6 blocks

3 yr

rides tricycle

draws circle, 9 blocks

4 yr

hops on one foot

draws cross

40 words, 2-word sentences,

50% understandable
900 words, 3-word sentences,
75% understandable
counts to ten, tells stories,
100% understandable

stranger anxiety
comes when called, imitates
actions, object permanence
parallel play

3 mo

cooperative play, imaginary


Speech delay: deafness, autism, child abuse

Vaccinations: only contraindication across all vaccines is a severe allergic response

DTaP contraindications: severe allergic response, encephalopathy within 7 days

Adverse response to DTaP: give DT instead, since rxn is due to pertussis component

Foot drop s/p injection: needle injection in lower/inner gluteal quadrant iatrogenic damage to sciatic nerve
Orthopedic issues

Clavicle fx: presents w/ clavicular crepitus or callus, risk w/ LGA infants and breech deliveries; Tx reassurance > figure-of-8 splint

Supracondylar fx: MC fx in kids, due to trauma to humerus; Tx ortho c/s + check radial pulse since brachial artery can be injured

Toddler fx: nondisplaced spiral fx of distal tibia in infants; Tx splint immobilization

Nursemaid elbow: pulling on hand subluxation of radial head from annular ligament kid holds arm in a pronated position; Tx manual
reduction via supinating motion

Radial epiphyseal separation: falling out outstretched arm separation of radius at epiphyseal plate

Genu varum (bowlegs): observe in kids <2 y/o, called Blount disease in kids >2 y/o and requires ortho c/s

Genu valgus (knock-knees): observation okay

Metatarsus adductus: congenital foot deformity, forefoot pointing inwards

Type I metatarsus adductus
overcorrects into position w/ passive and active movements
Tx reassurance
Type II metatarsus adductus
corrects into position w/ passive and active movements
Tx orthosis or corrective shoes
Type III metatarsus adductus
doesnt correct into position w/ passive or active movements
Tx surgical correction

group play

Clubfoot: congenital foot deformity, inward and downward-pointing feet, risk of associated spina bifida; Tx stretching + manipulation +
serial casts (<3 mo), surgery (>3 mo)

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: avascular necrosis of femoral head, presents as painless limp in a boy <10 y/o, requires ortho c/s

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: painful limp in a fat boy; Dx X-ray, requires ortho c/s

Osgood-Schlatter disease: overuse injury of quads and patellar tendon traction apophysitis of tibial tuberosity localized
pain/swelling; Tx RICE + NSAIDs

Congenital hip dysplasia: presents as uneven gluteal folds and snapping hips during physical exam in a newborn; Dx U/S (not calcified
enough for X-ray), Tx splinting

Osteomyelitis: fever + localized bone pain, due to hematogenous spread or direct inoculation; Dx bone scan (X-ray can be false-neg for 3
days), Tx admit + IV abx

Septic arthritis: fever + localized joint pain + limited ROM; Dx joint aspiration, Tx drainage + IV nafcillin

Osteogenesis imperfecta: AD type 1 collagen abnormal bone matrix (multiple fractures) + blue sclera + abnormal dentition + hearing loss;
often mistaken as child abuse

Osteosarcoma: presents w/ localized bone pain and swelling; Dx X-ray shows Codmans triangle and sunburst appearance, Tx ortho c/s for

Ewing sarcoma: presents w/ localized bone pain and swelling; Dx X-ray shows onion skin appearance, Tx ortho c/s for surgery

Growing pains: deep aching pain in leg muscles w/o any red flags (fever, swelling, systemic sx); Tx reassurance

Patellofemoral syndrome: chronic anterior knee pain, worse w/ exercise or prolonged sitting; Tx strengthening exercises
Skin rashes
Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
chronic pruritic rash on cheeks, behind ears,
Tx moisturizers (calamine or eucerin
extensor surfaces, flexural areas
lotion) + topical steroids
allergic reaction pruritic wheal and flare
Tx antihistamines + PO steroids + avoid
Chickenpox (varicella)
VZV infx dew drops on a rose petal
Tx antihistamines, ACV if onset <24 hrs
vesicular rash in an ill child
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Staph aureus exfoliatoxins A/B fever +
Tx abx + local skin care
severe, painful rash that develop into bullae,
rupture, and eventually desquamate
Pityriasis rosea
single oval herald patch (resembles
Tx reassurance
ringworm), followed by diffuse Christmas
tree pattern rash on back 5-10 days later
Lichen planus
Purple Polygonal Pruritic Papules (rare in
Tx PO steroids
Contact dermatitis
skin rash w/ vesicles and oozing (acute) or
Tx antihistamines + topical steroids +

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Henoch-Schonlein (anaphylactoid)

Porphyria cutanea tarda

crusted, thickened skin (chronic) in an

exposure pattern (e.g. linear for poison ivy,
localized for nickel)
thick silvery scales that bleed upon removal
(Auspitz sign)
IgA-mediated small vessel vasculitis
palpable purpura on buttocks and legs,
renal disease (IgA mesangial expansion),
ileocecal edema colicky abdominal pain +
risk for intussusception
Sarcoptes scabeii infx under skin pruritic
bullae and pustules (not burrows like adults)
Staph aureus infx vesicles/pustules on face
and extremities w/ classic golden crust
uroporphobilinogen decarboxylase
photosensitivity to UV light, tea-colored urine,
recurrent attacks of abdominal pain

avoid exposure

Tx topical steroids + calcipotriene (mild),

MTX/infliximab/cyclosporine A (severe)
Tx steroids vs. symptomatic relief, will

Tx permethrin cream (lindane causes

seizures in kids/elderly)
Tx topical mupirocin > PO erythromycin

Behavioral issues

Enuresis: involuntary urination >5 y/o; Dx UA to r/o UTI, Tx bed-wetting alarm > desmopressin > imipramine

Encopresis: involuntary defecation >4 y/o, majority due to chronic constipation and overflow incontinence; Dx KUB shows dilated/stoolfilled colon, Tx bowel catharsis + miralax

Breath-holding spells: child holds breath and passes out, due to pain or being upset; Tx avoid reinforcing behavior

Night terrors: child wakes up screaming/agitated, but falls back asleep and remembers nothing in the morning

Nightmares: child wakes up scared and crying, remembers incident

Learned behavior: child wakes up scared and crying, in order to gain sympathy and sleep in mommys bed; Tx avoid reinforcing behavior

Somnambulism: sleepwalking, dont wake up the child

Somniloquy: sleeptalking, benign

Conduct disorder: Capriciousness, Oppressive, Nonconfrontational, Deceitful, Unlawful, Carefree, Temper issues; <18 y/o

Antisocial personality disorder: conduct disorder >18 y/o

ADHD: short attention span, impulsivity, hyperactivity for >6 months in 2+ settings (e.g. home and school); risk of aggression; Dx
Vanderbilt scale, Tx dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate

Mental retardation (MR/DD): IQ <70; MCC overall is fetal alcohol syndrome, MC genetic cause is Down syndrome, MC inherited cause is
Fragile X syndrome
Abnormal physical exam findings

Head lice: due to Pediculosis capitis; Tx permethrin shampoo (lindane causes seizures in kids/elderly)

Traction alopecia: linear hair-loss in kids who tie their hair too tightly

Alopecia areata: hair stops growing suddenly small patches of complete hair loss w/ exclamation point stubs

Asymmetric red reflex: retinoblastoma (AD Rb on chromosome 13), juvenile cataracts (galactosemia, congenital rubella syndrome,
neurofibromatosis II, myotonic muscular dystrophy)

Cherry-red macula: Tay-Sachs disease (AR hexosaminidase A) w/o HSM, Niemann-Pick disease (AR sphingomyelinase) w/ HSM

Strabismus: cross-eyes; Tx ophtho c/s to patch the good eye (uncorrected strabismus can lead to ambylopia)

Blue sclerae: osteogenesis imperfecta

Pinpoint pupils: opioids (Tx naloxone), organophosphates (Tx atropine + pralidoxime)

Cholesteatoma: small whitish debris-containing sac on TM, risk w/ recurrent otitis media; Tx ENT c/s for surgical removal

Nasal polyps: cystic fibrosis, triad asthma (aspirin-sensitive)

Strawberry tongue: Kawasaki disease, scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome

Primary teeth eruption: central incisors (at ~6 mo), lateral incisors, first molars, canines

Permanent teeth eruption: central incisors (at ~6 yr), lateral incisors, canines, first molars, second molars, third molars

Tooth decay: prolonged use of bottles high sugar concentration extensive tooth decay of all but mandibular front teeth

Tooth avulsion: facial trauma knocked out teeth; Tx transport teeth in mouth or milk/saline, then replant permanent teeth within 30 min
(earlier is better)

Retained primary teeth: Job syndrome (hyper-IgE)

Single central incisor: GH deficiency

Thyroid nodule: Dx TSH levels, if euthyroid then get FNA

Caf-au-lait spots: neurofibromatosis I, McCune-Albright syndrome

Knuckle-knuckle-dimple-knuckle sign: brachydactyly of 4th digit = Turner syndrome

Knuckle-knuckle-dimple-dimple sign: brachydactyly of 4th/5th digits = pseudohypoparathyroidism

Erythema nodosum: painful red nodules on shins; MCC in kids is Strep pyogenes (not sarcoidosis like adults)

Pes cavus: high-arched foot associated w/ Friedreich ataxia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Micropenis: GH deficiency

Child abuse: suspect w/ retinal hemorrhages, subdural hematoma, multiple healed fx, posterior rib fx, metaphyseal corner (bucket
handle) fx, long-bone spiral fx (except distal tibia), cigarette burns, stocking-and-glove scalding water injury, or genital trauma/STDs; first
r/o medical causes, then do a complete physical exam, then get whole-body X-rays, then call CPS if necessary

Neonatal HIV: suspect w/ thrush, generalized LAD, hepatomegaly, and FTT; Dx HIV PCR (not ELISA since moms ab can cause false-positive),
requires Bactrim ppx for PCP pneumonia
Environmental exposure

Dog/cat bite: Tx copious irrigation, make sure tetanus is up-to-date, allow healing by 2 intention, PPx Augmentin for Pasturella cellulitis

Human bite + cellulitis: due to Eikenella or other oral anaerobes; Tx admit + debridement + IV abx, leave open to heal by secondary intention

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Black widow bite: neurotoxin severe abdominal cramps, acute abdomen, n/v; Tx IV calcium gluconate + muscle relaxants
Brown recluse bite: necrotoxin local skin ulceration; Tx excise ulcer + skin graft
Heat stroke: T>105 after playing in the sun, #1 risk factor is dehydration, risk of rhabdomyolysis renal ATN; Tx emergent cold water bath +
IV fluids
Frostnip: cold exposure small/firm/cold/white blisters on exposed skin; Tx rewarming
Frostbite: cold exposure dead tissue numb/white extremities followed by erythema and pain on reexposure to heat
Chilblain: cold exposure small, ulcerated lesion on ears and fingertips; Tx reassurance
Cold panniculitis: cold exposure destruction of fat cells; popsicle panniculitis found on lips/cheeks of kids during summertime
Hypothermia: cold exposure T<95, lethargic, tired, uncoordinated, bradycardia; Tx gradual rewarming
Trench foot: prolonged cold/moisture exposure foot becomes cold, clammy, numb, pale, swollen


APGAR score: score of 0-10 taken at 1 and 5 minutes; score of 0-3 requires resuscitation
all blue/pale
mixed blue/pale and pink
no response to stimulation
some flexion of limbs

all pink
active cough
active flexion of limbs

Primitive reflexes: originate from brainstem and vestibular (CN VIII) nuclei

Moro reflex: limb flexion when extending head

Grasp reflex: grasps at finger when placed in babys palm

Rooting reflex: turns face towards cheek stimulation

Placing reflex: steps up when stimulating dorsum of feet

Tonic neck reflex: turning neck causes arm extension (ipsi) and flexion (contra)

Babinski reflex: fanning of toes when scratching dorsum of feet

Parachute reflex: startled arm extension when dropping baby

Neonatal skin rashes

Milia: benign, tiny white bumps on nose

Salmon patch (nevus flammeus): benign, splotchy red rash on forehead, eyelids, or back of neck; more prominent with exercise or emotion

Pustular melanosis: benign, little pustules that leave a hyperpigmented spot when ruptured

Erythema toxicum: benign, yellow-white papules w/ surrounding erythema, fluid exam shows eosinophils

Mongolian spots: benign, bluish macules on back and buttocks

Seborrheic dermatitis: greasy scaly rash, usually on scalp in newborns (cradle cap), can result in dandruff; Tx sunlight + mild shampoo

Sebaceous nevus: raised, yellow-orange hairless lesion on scalp; Tx resection before adolescence (can undergo malignant degeneration)

Neonatal acne: pimples on healthy newborn due to maternal hormones; Tx reassurance (mild), topical benzoyl peroxide or tretinoin (severe)

Strawberry hemangioma: small reddish capillary malformations

Incontinentia pigmenti: XR, inflammatory bullae that evolve into hyperpigmented lesions, lethal in males
SIDS: sudden-death in infants w/o underlying cause; prevent by putting infant on back to sleep, dont smoke around your kid
Breastfeeding contraindications: HIV, HSV on breast, active TB, chemotherapy, galactosemia, PKU, lithium, EtOH, iodine
LP contraindications: elevated ICP w/o open fontanelle, severe cardiorespiratory distress, puncture site cellulitis, severe coagulopathy
Circumcision contraindications: hypospadias (foreskin used to repair defect)
Oligohydramnios: renal problems amniotic fluid pulmonary hypoplasia (respiratory distress) + constraint deformities (club feet)
Polyhydramnios: GI obstruction or maternal diabetes amniotic fluid
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS): abnormal vascular flow between mono-di twins donor twin oligohydramnios/anemia, recipient twin
polyhydramnios/polycythemia; Dx hct difference >15
Coombs test: indicated for neonatal jaundice in type-O or Rh- moms

ABO hemolytic disease: type-O mom w/ type-A/B baby develops anti-A/B IgG crosses placenta and attacks fetal RBCs causes fetal
hydrops; risk of late-onset high output CHF; Dx Coombs test, PPx RhoGAM, Tx intrauterine blood transfusions

Rh hemolytic disease (erythroblastosis fetalis): Rh- mom w/ 2nd Rh+ baby develops anti-D IgG crosses placenta and attacks fetal RBCs
causes fetal hydrops; Dx Coombs test, PPx RhoGAM, Tx intrauterine blood transfusions
Neonatal care

Neonatal shots: HBV vaccine, vitamin K

Choanal atresia: non-canalized nasal passages difficulty breathing while feeding but normal when crying; Dx nasal catheter or checking
for fog under nares, Tx nasal tubes

Meconium aspiration: suspect w/ meconium staining, low Apgar scores, respiratory distress, can result in systemic hypoxia and
pulmonary hypertension; Tx intubation + tracheal suction + O2 mask

Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN): tachypnea, grunting, possible cyanosis in a c/s infant due to retained fetal lung fluid; Dx CXR
shows pulmonary vascular markings, Tx 100% O2 (will resolve in 3 days)

TTN vs. RDS: TTN improves w/ O2, RDS persists despite O2

Neonatal bloody stool: first get Apt test to differentiate maternal from fetal bleed, then further tests only if blood is fetal

Neonatal hypothermia: risk of hypoglycemia; Tx place under a warmer

Neonatal hypoglycemia: increase feedings if glucose <40, start IV if <20

AGA: Appropriate for Gestational Age, 10th90th percentile

SGA: Small for Gestational Age, <10th percentile; risk of congenital malformations, hypoglycemia (low glycogen/fat stores), future growth

Pediatrics Shelf notes

LGA: Large for Gestational Age, >90th percentile; risk of shoulder dystocia, type 2 DM, future obesity
Hyperviscosity syndrome: fetal hypoxia reactive polycythemia (hct >65%) sludging/clotting of blood in lungs (respiratory distress),
brain (seizures, tremors), kidney (renal vein thrombosis), GI (necrotizing enterocolitis); Tx partial exchange transfusion

Narcosis: lethargic/limp neonate in mom that got intrapartum opioids for pain control; Tx NICU admit + naloxone

Diaphragmatic hernia: bowels herniate into chest cavity respiratory distress in a newborn; first put in a orogastric tube, then Dx CXR
shows bowels in chest cavity, Tx surgical repair (high morbidity/mortality)

Esophageal atresia/TE fistula: presents as drooling and choking on first feed; Dx CXR shows coiled NG tube, Tx surgical correction

Duodenal atresia: presents as bilious vomiting and polyhydramnios, risk w/ Down syndrome; Dx KUB shows double bubble
appearance, Tx surgical repair

Intestinal atresia: aka apple peel atresia; presents like duodenal atresia, due to vascular accidents in utero; Dx KUB shows triple bubble
appearance, Tx surgical repair

Cleft lip/cleft palate: complications include recurrent OM, hearing loss speech defects; Tx surgical repair (CL in 2-3 months, CP in 6 mo)

Pierre-Robin sequence: micrognathia posteriorly displaced tongue (glossoptosis) cleft palate + airway obstruction

Neonatal hypothyroidism : thyroid dysgenesis lack of T4/T3 synthesis subtle, nonspecific sx (constipation distended abdomen
umbilical hernia, bradycardia, hypothermia, large fontanelles, etc.); Dx TSH, Tx Synthroid

Neonatal thyrotoxicosis: maternal TSI crosses placenta hyperthyroidism tachycardia, tachypnea, irritability, diarrhea, vomiting, CHF,
etc.; Dx TSH, Tx propylthiouracil (PTU) for 2-4 months until moms ab disappear

Neural tube defects: anencephaly, spina bifida occulta (tuft of hair), meningocele, myelomeningocele; Dx AFP, PPx folate
supplements before 4th week of gestation

Thumb polydactyly: rare, requires full genetic work-up

Pinky polydactyly: Tx surgical removal, also get echo for white (but not black) kids since white kids have cardiac issues as well

Neonatal tetanus: tetanus toxin (found in dirt) infects umbilical stump rigidity, trismus, opisthotonus, risus sardonicus

Neonatal thrush: acquired from moms vag, does not indicate immunodeficiency; Tx nystatin swish-n-spit

AVM of great vein of Galen: presents w/ cranial bruits + high-output CHF

Colic: unexplained crying for >3 hrs in an infant <3 months, Tx swaddle infant to calm him/her
Premature infants: increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal RDS

Necrotizing enterocolitis: presents as abdominal distention, vomiting, GI bleed, decreased bowel sounds; Dx KUB shows pneumatosis
intestinalis, Tx NPO/IVF/abx if unperforated, surgery if perforated

Intraventricular hemorrhage: progressive hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infant; Tx VP shunt

Neonatal RDS: prematurity or infant of diabetic mother lack of surfactant respiratory distress in a newborn; Dx L:SM ratio <2, PPx 48
hrs of maternal steroids, Tx surfactant + O2 therapy + CPAP

Retinopathy of prematurity: disorganized growth of retinal blood vx in premies scarring and retinal detachment; risk w/ both hypoxia
and oxygen toxicity

Harlequin syndrome: transient erythema on dependent half of body, more common in premies
Cerebral palsy: cerebral anoxia in utero brain damage non-progressive impairment of motor function (hypotonia, hyperactive DTRs, learning
disabilities, low APGAR at birth)
Congenital toxoplasmosis
chorioretinitis + hydrocephalus + intracranial
Tx pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine
Congenital rubella syndrome
cataracts + deafness + PDA
Tx supportive care
Congenital CMV
usually asx, MC sequelae is sensorineural
--hearing loss
CMV inclusion disease
blueberry muffin rash, HSM/jaundice,
Tx IV GCV + supportive care
thrombocytopenia, periventricular calcifications
Neonatal HSV
vesicular rash, HSV pneumonitis, temporal lobe
Tx IV ACV + vidarabine if disseminated/systemic
encephalitis (focal seizures)
Neonatal HIV
suspect w/ thrush, generalized LAD,
Dx HIV PCR (not ELISA since moms ab can cause
hepatomegaly, and FTT
false-positive), requires Bactrim ppx for PCP
pneumonia, give IV ZDV to all neonates of
infected mothers
Early congenital syphilis
maculopapular peeling rash, snuffles (rhinitis w/
Dx screen w/ RPR/VDRL, confirm w/ TPPA or FTAserous, purulent, or bloody discharge), HSM,
ABS, Tx PCN + supportive care
jaundice, generalized LAD
Late congenital syphilis
deafness, saber shins, mulberry molars,
Dx screen w/ RPR/VDRL, confirm w/ TPPA or FTAHutchinson teeth, saddle nose
ABS, Tx PCN + supportive care
Congenital varicella syndrome
limb hypoplasia, clear vesicles cutaneous
Tx VZIG if mom has chickenpox from 5 days prior
scars, chorioretinitis, cortical atrophy
to 2 days after delivery, otherwise reassurance
Neonatal head trauma

Caput succedaneum: soft-tissue swelling of scalp where baby was delivered, crosses midline

Cephalohematoma: bleeding between periosteum and skull squishy feel to scalp that doesnt cross midline

Subgaleal hemorrhage: bleeding under galeal aponeurosis squishy feel to rapidly expanding scalp that crosses midline; Tx NICU admit
for possible hemorrhagic shock

Intraventricular hemorrhage: progressive hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infant; Dx head CT, Tx VP shunt

Epidural hematoma: head trauma to temporal bone torn middle meningeal artery LOC w/ lucid interval uncal herniation death;
Dx head CT shows convex lens, Tx emergent craniotomy

Subdural hematoma: shaken baby syndrome

Pediatrics Shelf notes


Length: 1 at birth 1.5 in 1 yr 2 in 5 yrs

Weight: 1 at birth 0.9 in 1 wk (ECF diuresis) 1 in 2 wks 2 in 6 mo 3 in 1 yr

Adiposity rebound: period of growth where BMI increases faster than height, average 5 yrs
Vision: 20/200 at birth 20/40 at 6 mo 20/20 at 4 yr
Failure to thrive: growth <5th percentile in 2+ of the following height, weight, head circumference; most commonly due to nonorganic causes; Dx
bone age (left wrist X-ray), Tx underlying cause

Constitutional growth delay: bone age < real age, tracks along low percentile on growth chart, good prognosis

Familial short stature: bone age = real age, usually have short parents, poor prognosis

Pathologic short stature: craniopharyngioma, hypothyroidism, GH deficiency, Turner syndrome, renal tubular acidosis
Vitamin A: used to treat cystic acne,
night blindness, dry skin
increased CSF pressure (headache, blurry
measles, and AML (M3 type)
vision), dry skin, teratogenic; found in
animal liver consumption
Vitamin B1 (thiamine): given to kids
dry beriberi (peripheral neuropathy), wet
--before IV D5 to prevent iatrogenic
beriberi (CHF), Wernicke-Korsakoff (ataxia,
amnesia, confabulations, etc.)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
cheilosis (dried cracks along corners of lips),
--corneal vascularization
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)
flushing, pruritus (Tx NSAIDs)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
peripheral neuropathy, seizures,
--sideroblastic anemia; found in INH usage
Vitamin B7 (biotin)
seborrheic dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia;
--found in kids who eat raw eggs (avidin binds
biotin) and biotinidase deficiency
Vitamin B9 (folate): given to sickle cell
megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro sx, neural
--kids to help hematopoiesis
tube defects; found in babies fed goats milk
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
megaloblastic anemia w/ neuro sx; found in
--strict vegan diets and pernicious anemia
Vitamin C
scurvy (bleeding gums)
uric acid stones
Vitamin D: given to breast-fed kids who
rickets (bowed legs, rachitic rosary)
metastatic calcifications, kidney stones
dont get enough sunlight
Vitamin E
hemolytic anemia
hemorrhagic diathesis
Vitamin K: all infants get vitamin K shot
hemorrhagic diathesis
--at birth

ADEK deficiency: malabsorption syndromes (cystic fibrosis, celiac sprue, tropical sprue, Whipple disease, abetalipoproteinemia, pancreatic
insufficiency, lactose intolerance, etc.)
Goat milk: folate megaloblastic anemia
Cow milk: iron microcytic anemia pica, fatigue, pallor; Tx PO iron supplements
Breast milk: vitamin D nutritional rickets
Zinc deficiency: acrodermatitis enteropathica (erythematous desquamating rash on hands/feet, scalp, buttocks, mouth)
Selenium deficiency: CHF
Kwashiorkor: protein malnutrition FTT, anemia, edema, apathy, fatty liver
Marasmus: overall lack of calories FTT, subcutaneous fat loss, muscle atrophy, premature aged look

Serum osmolarity: 2Na + BUN/2.8 + glucose/18

Maintenance fluids: D5NS+20KCl using 100/50/20 rule for daily fluids, 4/2/1 rule for hourly fluids

Resuscitation fluids: 20 mL/kg bolus of NS or LR

Vomiting: hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis

Diarrhea: hypokalemic, metabolic acidosis

Dehydration: diarrhea or vomiting lethargy, HR, BP, delayed capillary refill; Tx PO fluids (mild), 20 mL/kg bolus of NS/LR (severe)

Parkland formula: fluid resuscitation for burn victims; give LR at 4 mL/kg %BSA, over first 8 hrs then over the next 16 hrs

Hyponatremia + pancytopenia: consider RMSF


n/v, malaise, liver damage (LFTs)
wait 4 hrs then get acet levels, determine
need for N-acetylcysteine at that time (no
harm in waiting up to 8 hrs before giving
Aspirin, oil of wintergreen
triad of fever, tinnitus, tachypnea causes
Tx sodium bicarb vs. hemodialysis
mixed respiratory alkalosis + AGMA
Caustic agents, drain cleaner, lye
esophageal erosion, possible perforation
Dx endoscopy to determine extent of
damage, Tx controversial (call poison
headache agitation/confusion seizures
Tx nitrites + hydroxocobalamin +
and metabolic acidosis
usually asx, may have transient gagging and
Dx CXR to r/o aspiration pneumonitis,

Pediatrics Shelf notes


Methanol, ethylene glycol


Phenothiazine, metoclopramide

admit + observe for 24 hrs

Dx iron levels, Tx deferoxamine
Dx blood lead >10 g/dL, Tx CaEDTA +
dimercaprol + dimercaptosuccinic acid

Tx EtOH vs. fomipezole (4-MP)

Tx naloxone
Tx atropine + pralidoxime (2-PAM)

Tx diphenhydramine
Tx supportive care, may need mechanical
Tx sodium bicarb or Fab antibody
Dx PT/PTT, Tx vitamin K + FFP if severe

Teratogens: worst when exposed within first 8 weeks of gestation

ACE inhibitors
renal dysgenesis
fetal alcohol syndrome (MR, abnormal facies, smooth philtrum, IUGR, congenital heart defects)
Alkylating agents
Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity
fetal addiction, IUGR, placental abruption
vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma
Folate antagonists
Maternal diabetes
Retinoic acid
Valproic acid
X-rays, CT scans

upper GI bleed, abd pain, metabolic acidosis,
LEAD Lead lines (basophilic stippling),
Encephalopathy, Anemia and Abdominal pain,
wrist Drop, foot Drop; MC source is paint in
old homes (before 1950)
AMS and AGMA after drinking homemade
alcohol, methanol has optic disc hyperemia,
EG has renal failure (oxalic acid crystals)
miosis, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension
kid playing in garden shed found
salivating/unconscious, blocks ACh-esterase
muscarinic sx (LUSHPADS BBB)
extrapyramidal sx (e.g. torticollis,
opisthotonus, dysphagia)
perioral parasthesias/numbness, generalized
weakness, paralysis
AMS, hypotension, anticholinergic effects
(dilated pupils, etc), widened QRS complex
hemorrhagic diathesis

goiter, hypothyroidism
Ebstein anomaly
fetal macrosomia (risk of shoulder dystocia), caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), CV
CNS defects, hydrocephalus, microtia/anotia, micrognathia, athymia
preterm labor, IUGR, ADHD
tooth discoloration
phocomelia (hands attached to shoulders)
blocks folate absorption NTDs; best management for anticonvulsants is monotherapy at lowest effective
dose w/ careful monitoring
bone deformities, fetal bleeding, abortion
multiple anomalies

Common side-effects
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
Inhaled corticosteroids
Local epinephrine
Sodium nitroprusside
Topical benzocaine (Orajel)

infection, HTN, hyperglycemia, cataracts, osteoporosis, truncal obesity w/ abdominal striae, etc.
hemorrhagic cystitis (Tx mesna)
dilated cardiomyopathy
risk of pyloric stenosis in <1 mo
hyperGLUC hyperGlycemia, hyperLipidemia, hyperUricemia, hyperCalcemia
vasoconstriction (contraindicated in end-organ supply)
methemoglobinemia (Tx IV methylene blue)
platelet dysfxn, renal impairment, peptic ulcers
sympathetic stimulation (tachycardia, hypertension, etc.)
cyanide poisoning
methemoglobinemia (Tx IV methylene blue)
peripheral neuropathy


Triplet expansion syndromes: Fragile X, DMD, Huntington chorea, Friedreich ataxia

Genetic syndromes
Patau syndrome
trisomy 13
MR, cleft lip/Palate, holoProsencephaly, Polydactyly, rocker-bottom
feet, death by 1 y/o
Edward syndrome
trisomy 18
MR, VSD, micrognathia, clenched hands, rocker-bottom feet, death
by 1 y/o
Down syndrome
trisomy 21 (95%),
MR, flat facies, epicanthal folds, simian crease, AVSD (endocardial
cushion defect), GI issues (Hirschsprung dz, duodenal atresia),
translocation (5%)
incidence of ALL, Alzheimer by 40 y/o; high-risk in women >35 y/o
[note: Down syndrome + UMN sx = atlantoaxial instability]

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Fragile X syndrome

trinucleotide repeats)

Williams syndrome

7q (includes elastin)

Cri-du-chat syndrome




Klinefelter syndrome

47, XXY

47, XYY males

Turner syndrome

47, XYY
45, XO

Noonan syndrome


VACTERL syndrome


AngelMan syndrome

Maternal 15q11

Prader-Willi syndrome

Paternal 15q11

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Marfan syndrome

--AD fibrillin (15q)

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

AD type 3 collagen

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome


Holt-Oram syndrome


Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating

thoracic dysplasia)
Crouzon syndrome
Neurofibromatosis I (von
Recklinghausen disease)


Neurofibromatosis II
Tuberous sclerosis


Sturge-Weber syndrome


PHACES syndrome


Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Alport syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome

XR type 4 collagen
AD or associated w/
advanced paternal age
associated w/ advanced
paternal age

--AD NF1


Frohlich syndrome (adiposogenital

Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome


Kartagener syndrome

dynein immotile
AR frataxin (GAA
triplet repeats)

Friedreich ataxia

DSM-V Discontinued chromosomal staining, Shows anticipation,

Males-only, MR, Macrognathia, Macroorchidism, Mitral valve
MR, elfin facies, extreme friendliness, English skills, hypercalcemia,
CV defects (supravalvular aortic stenosis)
MR, high-pitched mewing cry, microcephaly, epicanthal folds, CV
CATCH-22 Cleft palate, Abnormal facies, Thymic aplasia (no T-cells),
CV defects, Hypocalcemia (no PTH), 22q11; Dx intradermal Candida
test, requires irradiated transfusions (prevent GVHD)
female traits on a male (e.g. long legs, small balls, gyno, high-pitched
voice, etc.)
aggressive, antisocial behavior
CLOWNS Coarcted aorta, Lymphedema (knuckle-knuckle-dimpleknuckle), Ovarian dysgenesis, Webbed neck (cystic hygroma), Nipples
spread (shield chest), Short stature; Tx GH replacement + ppx
bilateral gonadectomy
phenotypically similar to Turner syndrome but AD (males = females),
associated w/ pulmonic stenosis rather than aortic coarctation
Verbetral defects, Anal atresia, CV defect, TE fistula, Esophageal
atresia, Renal/Radial defects, Limb defects
happy puppet syndrome MR, ataxia, flailing arms, outbursts of
MR, hypotonia, hyperphagia/obesity, hypogonadism, almond eyes;
Tx GH replacement + dietary caloric restriction
MR, bushy eyebrows + hirsutism, limb defects, self-injurious behavior
elongated body habitus, MVP, aortic aneurysms, aortic dissection,
lens subluxation [note: Marfan + clotting sx = homocystinuria]
thin fragile skin, joint hypermotility/dislocations, MVP, aortic
aneurysms, aortic dissection
generalized overgrowth, large tongue, neonatal hypoglycemia,
certain cancers (Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma (Dx AFP))
upper limb abnormalities (hypoplastic thumb, hypoplastic radii,
missing pectoralis major) + cardiac abnormalities (Heart-Arm
long/narrow thorax hypoplastic lungs, fibrotic liver, death due to
pulmonary causes
craniosynostosis, wide-eyes w/ proptosis, beak nose
caf-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas), optic gliomas, CNS
tumors, pheos [note: NFI + HTN = Dx 24 hr urinary metanephrines to
r/o pheo]
bilateral acoustic neuromas, juvenile cataracts
CNS/retinal hamartomas, sebaceous adenomas, hypopigmented ash
leaf spots, Shagreen patches, renal angiomyolipomas, cardiac
facial port-wine stain w/ ipsilateral AVM (Dx head CT shows
gyriform calcifications)
Sturge-Weber syndrome + other commonly-associated defects;
Posterior fossa tumors, Hemangiomas on face, Arterial abnormalities,
Coarctation of aorta, Eye abnormalities, Sternal defects
bilateral RCC, hemangioblastomas, pheos
nephritic syndrome (hematuria), deafness, ocular defects
wide-eyes, broad nasal bridge, medial hyperplasia of eyebrows, white
forelock (think Rogue), heterochromia, deafness
short limbs but normal-sized torso (think Mini-me)

hypothalamic tumor hyperactive feeding center (childhood

obesity) + GnRH secretion (secondary hypogonadism); similar to
Prader-Willi syndrome
obesity + MR, hypogonadism, polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa
night blindness
situs inversus (right-sided heart), recurrent pulmonary infx, infertility
staggering gait + frequent falls, kyphoscoliosis, pes cavus, hammer
toes; MCC death is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Inborn errors of metabolism: suspect w/ neonatal vomiting + metabolic acidosis, unusual odor of urine/sweat, HSM, MR, hyperammonemia, FHx of

early infant death, seizures


AR phenylalanine

MR, mousy body odor, blue eyes,
blond hair

Maple syrup urine disease


AR branched-chain
amino acid

inability to digest isoleucine, leucine,

valine (I LoVe maple syrup)

Dx Guthrie test, Tx dietary
phe/tyr, can relax dietary
restrictions over time but must
reinstate during pregnancy to
prevent maternal PKU
Tx dietary ile/leu/val

Pediatrics Shelf notes


Hereditary fructose

AR aldolase B

Biotinidase deficiency

AR biotinidase


AR fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase
AR glucose-6phosphatase

Von Gierke disease

AR gal-1P

Pompe disease

AR acid maltase

A1AT deficiency

AR 1-antitrypsin

Mitochondrial diseases


Lysosomal storage diseases


Hurler syndrome

AR -L-iduronidase

OTC deficiency

XR ornithine


AR homogentisate


AR cystathionine synthase

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome


Medium-chain acyl-CoA
deficiency (MCADD)

AR fatty acid oxidase

PKU-like sx w/ sweet-smelling urine

inability to digest galactose
Tx dietary lactose/galactose
profound illness following first
milk/formula feedings, risk of E. coli
inability to digest fructose
Tx dietary sucrose/fructose
profound illness following first fruit
juice feedings
inability to synthesize biotin (vitamin
Tx biotin supplements
B7) seborrheic dermatitis,
enteritis, alopecia
inability to digest tyrosine failure
Tx nitisinone (enzyme that helps
to thrive, hepatomegaly, liver failure
bypass metabolite accumulation)
inability to run glycolysis FTT,
--hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, lactic
acidosis, characteristic appearance
(short w/ fat cheeks, thin arms, big
inability to run glycolysis FTT,
--hypoglycemia, cardiomegaly
inability to export enzyme builds
--up in liver (cirrhosis) + cant break
down proteolytic enzymes in lungs
(early-onset panacinar emphysema)
maternal inheritance w/
--heteroplasmy, affects permanent
cells (heart, skeletal muscle, brain);
diseases include MERFF, MELAS,
LHON, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome
inability to digest cellular debris
Dx urinary mucopolysaccharides, Tx
systemic effects of mucopolybone marrow txp + enzyme
saccharide accumulation (coarse
replacement therapy
facial features, HSM, joint
contractures, MR, etc.)
Fabry disease: XR -galactosidase, bathing trunk angiokeratomas
Gaucher disease: AR -glucosidase, Erlenmeyer-flask appearance of long
bones, wrinkled paper cells
Metachromatic leukodystrophy: AR arylsulfatase A
Niemann-pick disease: AR sphingomyelinase, cherry-red macula w/ HSM
Tay-Sachs disease: AR hexosaminidase A, cherry-red macula w/o HSM,
exaggerated startle response (hyperacusis)
Sandhoff disease: AR hexosaminidase A+B
inability to digest glycosaminoDx urinary dermatan sulfate and
glycans coarse facial features
heparan sulfate
(gargoyle-like), HSM, progressive
developmental delay, death
inability to digest amino acids in
Tx arginine, benzoic acid, or
urea cycle profound illness
phenylacetate to get rid of
following first protein feedings
ammonia; dialysis if unresponsive
accumulation of homogentisate in
--urine and joints urine that turns
brown/black on air exposure, adultonset arthritis
HOMOCysteine Hypercoagulable,
Tx vitamin B6 + cysteine
Optic lens dislocation, MR,
Marfanoid habitus, Osteoporosis,
Cysteine becomes essential in diet
impaired purine metabolism MR,
--hyperuricemia, gout, self-mutilation
cant break down FA for energy
Tx L-carnitine + avoid prolonged
hypoketotic hypoglycemia w/o

Collagen defects

Osteogenesis imperfecta: AD type 1 collagen abnormal bone matrix (multiple fractures) + blue sclera + abnormal dentition + hearing loss;
often mistaken as child abuse

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: AD type 3 collagen thin stretchy skin, joint hypermotility/dislocations, MVP, aortic aneurysms, aortic dissection

Alport syndrome: XR type 4 collagen nephritic syndrome (hematuria), deafness, ocular defects


Antibiotic ppx for dental procedures: give amoxicillin only if prior endocarditis, prosthetic valve, heart txp, or severe or repaired congenital heart
defects (do not give for innocent childhood murmurs)
Cyanosis: normal if peripheral (doesnt involve mucus membranes), diagnostic for R-to-L shunt if central (involves mucus membranes)
Benign murmurs: asymptomatic, <grade II, normal S2, no clicks, normal pulses
Pathologic murmurs: symptomatic, >grade III, diastolic or continuous

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Congenital heart defects: 1% incidence, 2-6% w/ one sibling, 20-30% w/ two siblings

L-to-R shunts: late-onset cyanosis due to Eisenmenger syndrome; includes VSD, ASD, PDA

ASD: presents w/ fixed-split S2 + exercise intolerance

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome (TAR): thrombocytopenia + bilateral absent radii + ASD

VSD: MC CHD overall, presents w/ holosystolic blowing murmur at LLSB, louder is better, most resolve spontaneously

PDA: presents w/ continuous machinery-like murmur + bounding pulses; Tx keep Patent w/ PGE1 and closed w/ indomethacin,
surgical closure if >1 mo (wont close spontaneously)

Eisenmenger syndrome: pulmonary hypertension reverses L-to-R shunts into R-to-L shunts

R-to-L shunts: early-onset cyanosis; includes ToF, TGV, TAPVR, Tricuspid atresia

Tetralogy of Fallot: PROVe Pulmonic stenosis (determines Prognosis), RVH, Overriding aorta, VSD; presents as cyanotic tet
spells and clubbing in a kid who squats for relief; Dx CXR shows boot-shaped heart, Tx shunt placement

Transposition of the great vessels: presents w/ life-threatening cyanosis in a newborn + single loud S2 without murmur; Dx CXR
shows egg on a string w/ RVH, Tx emergent PGE1 then cath lab for atrial septostomy

TAPVR: presents w/ cyanosis + dyspnea; Dx CXR shows diffuse reticular pattern from pulmonary edema

Tricuspid atresia: lack of tricuspid valve + hypoplastic RV cyanosis + LVH; Tx emergent PGE1 to keep PDA open and consult

Aortic coarctation: suspect w/ weak femoral pulse or treatment-resistant HTN at young age, consider Turner syndrome in short women; Dx
CXR shows rib-notching and figure 3 aorta, Tx balloon angioplasty

Ebstein anomaly: RA hypertrophy + atrialized RV + tricuspid valve dilatation; associated w/ antenatal lithium use

Mitral valve prolapse: AD; presents w/ mid-systolic click and late-systolic rumble, does not require abx ppx for dental procedures
Carotid artery dissection: trauma to head/neck/soft palate dissection of internal carotid artery stroke-like presentation, may have delayed onset
relative to traumatic incident; Dx MRI, Tx observation vs. anticoagulation vs. surgical repair
Cardiac diseases

Myocarditis: coxsackie B virus infx inflammation of myocardium results in systolic dysfxn fever + lethargy + CHF sx

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): ventricular dilatation systolic dysfunction CHF sx (dyspnea, orthopnea, PND); Tx diuretics + inotropes,
heart txp if severe

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): AD -myosin heavy chain exertional dyspnea, angina, syncope, sudden death in a young athlete,
systolic murmur enhanced by preload; Dx echo + family hx, Tx -blockers vs. myomectomy vs. pacemaker

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): endocardial fibroelastosis is MCC in kids

Rheumatic fever: strep throat anti-M ab type 2 hypersensitivity carditis, arthritis (MC), erythema marginatum, chorea,
subcutaneous nodules; Dx ASO titer, Tx amoxicillin + PO steroids

Kawasaki disease: CRASH and BURN Conjunctivitis, Rash, Adenopathy, Strawberry tongue, Hand/feet swelling, fever >5 days; Tx IVIG +
high-dose aspirin (watch out for Reye syndrome)

Postpericardiotomy syndrome: pericardial effusion w/ possible tamponade s/p cardiac surgery; presents w/ Beck triad (hypOtension, JVD,
muffled heart sounds)

Premature atrial beats: premature, abnormally-shaped P wave, benign

Premature ventricular beats: premature, wide QRS complex, benign

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): MC symptomatic arrhythmia in kids; re-entrant mechanism HR >200 sx of low cardiac output
(dyspnea, pallor, syncope); Tx vagal maneuvers (carotid massage) or IV adenosine

WPW syndrome: presence of atrioventricular accessory tract SVT + delta wave on EKG; Tx radiofrequency ablation

Congenital heart block: maternal SLE anti-Ro/SSA attacks fetal heart conduction complete (3) heart block

Prolonged QT syndrome: prolonged QT interval uncoordinated repolarization torsades de pointes (Tx IV mag) death

Prolonged QT + deafness: Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome

Widened QRS + ingestion: TCAs (imipramine, amitriptyline, etc.); Tx sodium bicarb

Neurocardiogenic syncope: presents as 6 Ps syncope w/ upright Posture, Precipitating event causing intense emotion, Prodrome of dizziness or
light-headedness, Pallor, no Palpitations, no Postictal sx; Dx tilt table testing, Tx adequate hydration


Acute respiratory failure: hypoxemia (PO2 <50) or hypercapnea (PCO2 >60) cyanosis, tachypnea, grunting, nasal flaring, chest retractions; Tx ABCs,
then adequate oxygenation (may require intubation), then address underlying cause
Wheezing: asthma (MCC), bronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, foreign body aspiration, tracheomalacia
Asthma: reversible airway obstruction wheezing, cough, chest tightness, dyspnea; normal PCO2 is a bad sign (retaining CO2 despite
hyperventilation); Dx reversible FEV1/FVC <70%

Asthma + thrush: due to inhaled corticosteroids; Tx rinse mouth after inhaler use

Asthma + hypokalemia: 2-agonists can cause potassium to go into cells

Triad asthma: asthma + aspirin sensitivity (LT) + nasal polyps

Churg-Strauss syndrome: asthma + eosinophilia + vasculitis

Mild intermittent asthma
<2 times/wk
prn SABA (albuterol)
Mild persistent asthma
2+ times/wk
add low-dose inhaled steroids
Moderate persistent asthma
daily + nighttime sx 1/wk
add LABA (salmeterol)
Severe persistent asthma
continuous + frequent nighttime sx
add high-dose inhaled steroids
Asthma exacerbation
--albuterol nebulizer + PO steroid burst
Status asthmaticus
unresponsive to meds
admit + intubate
Foreign body aspiration: sudden-onset respiratory distress + focal wheezing, can have recurrent PNA in same lobe; Dx/Tx rigid bronchoscopy

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Respiratory infx

Croup: parainfluenza infx barking cough, low-grade fever, respiratory distress; Dx AP neck X-ray shows steeple sign, Tx PO steroids +
O2 therapy > racemic epinephrine > intubation

Bacterial tracheitis: rare complication of croup (superinfection), presents w/ biphasic stridor, spiking fever, respiratory distress;
Tx emergency intubation + IV abx

Epiglottitis: H. flu infx of epiglottis sore throat, fever, inspiratory stridor, drooling, sitting on a table leaning forward; Dx lateral neck
X-ray shows thumbprint sign, Tx emergency intubation + IV abx

Bronchiolitis: RSV infx during wintertime bronchiolar inflammation wheezing, URI sx, respiratory distress, risk of developing
asthma; Tx supportive care w/ monitoring of O2 and hydration status (ribavarin if severe, pavilizumab ppx for high-risk infants)

Typical PNA: Strep pneumo (MCC) infx acute-onset fever, chest pain, productive cough; Dx CXR shows lobar consolidation, Tx ceftriaxone
or respiratory fluoroquinolones

Atypical PNA: Mycoplasma (MCC), Legionella, or Chlamydia infx inflammation of lung interstitium presents w/ fever, malaise,
nonproductive cough; Dx CXR shows interstitial infiltrates, Tx azithromycin

Empyema: Strep/Staph infx of pleural space respiratory distress; Dx CXR shows unilateral white out of lung, Tx vancomycin + chest tube

Tuberculosis: Mycobaterium tuberculosis infx cough/hemoptysis, fever, weight loss; Dx Tb skin test (>15 mm w/o risk factors, >10 mm w/
risk factors, >5 mm w/ immunosppression or known contacts) if positive, get CXR

Latent TB: negative CXR, Tx INH x 9 months

Active TB: positive CXR, Tx RIPE (Pyrazinamide + INH + Rifampin + Ethambutol) x 6 months

TB meningitis: Dx CSF shows lymphocytosis + low glucose; Tx RIPE + steroids

Retropharyngeal abscess: Staph/Strep or oral anaerobe infx of posterior pharyngeal wall fever, sore throat, muffled voice, drooling;
Dx lateral neck X-ray shows bulging mass, Tx emergent I+D

Peritonsillar abscess: Staph/Strep or oral anaerobe infx fever, sore throat, hot potato voice, deviated uvula; Tx emergent I+D

Pertussis: Bordetella pertussis via respiratory droplets whooping cough (short bursts of cough followed by loud inspiratory sound);
Dx CBC (lymphocytosis), confirm w/ nasopharyngeal swab if necessary, Tx azithromycin for pt + all close contacts (regardless of
immunization status)

Subcutaneous emphysema 2/2 cough: get CXR to r/o PTX

Respiratory malformations

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: inadequate repair of acute lung injury in premies arrested lung development chronic respiratory sx,
need for O2 beyond 1 month; Dx abnormal CXR (nonspecific), Tx long-term supplemental O2

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM): improper development of bronchioles cystic mass in lungs asx if small,
respiratory distress w/ mediastinal shift if large; Dx chest U/S, Tx surgical excision

Laryngomalacia: soft, small, underdeveloped larynx inspiratory stridor in neonates; Dx fiberoptic bronchoscopy, Tx reassurance (will
resolve w/ growth), feed child only while upright and keep him upright for 30 min afterwards

Vascular rings: congenital abnormalities of aortic arch or branches rings around airway can compromise ventilation inspiratory
stridor relieved w/ opisthotonic position (crowing respiration); Tx surgery

Esophageal atresia/TE fistula: presents as drooling and choking on first feed; Dx CXR shows coiled NG tube, Tx surgical correction
Neonatal apnea: breath-holding spells >20 seconds (<20 seconds is normal) w/ possible cyanosis or bradycardia, due to immature respiratory center
(central) or airway obstruction

Apparent life-threatening event (ALTE): apnea + color change (cyanosis, pallor), change in muscle tone (limpness), choking/gagging

Central apnea: Tx underlying cause, theophylline or caffeine can help

Obstructive sleep apnea: Dx polysomnography, Tx underlying cause (tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, weight loss, CPAP)
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: unknown etiology bleeding into lungs recurrent PNA w/ hemoptysis, rapid clearing of CXR findings, irondeficiency anemia; Dx BAL shows hemosiderin-laden macrophages, Tx steroids
Tension PTX: PTX + building pressure mediastinal shift, hypOtension, JVD, absent unilateral breath sounds, hyperresonant to percussion; Tx emergent
needle thoracostomy + chest tube
ABG analysis
Respiratory acidosis
pH <7.4, CO2 >40
increase ventilation
Respiratory alkalosis
pH >7.4, CO2 <40
hyperventilation 2/2 pain, fever,
Tx underlying cause
ARDS, sepsis
pH <7.4, CO2 <40, AG 8diarrhea, glue sniffing, RTA,
Tx underlying cause
pH <7.4, CO2 <40, AG >12
Tx underlying cause
Metabolic alkalosis
pH >7.4, CO2 >40
vomiting, antacids,
Tx underlying cause

Anion gap: [Na (Cl + HCO3)], normally 8-12


Cyclical vomiting: idiopathic, recurrent self-limited episodes of n/v in children, no abdominal pain or constipation/diarrhea; Tx antiemetics
Upper GI: proximal to Ligament of Treitz

Infant GERD: common complaint, presents w/ regurgitation of recently ingested food; Dx esophageal pH probe (gold standard but rarely
necessary), Tx thickened feeds + reassurance (will resolve by 1-2 y/o)

Eosinophilic esophagitis: allergic response to food in esophagus GERD-like sx unresponsive to PPIs; Dx EGD + bx shows eosinophils in
esophagus, Tx PO steroids

Esophageal atresia/TE fistula: presents as drooling and choking on first feed; Dx CXR shows coiled NG tube, Tx surgical correction

Bleeding esophageal varices: Tx octreotide, PPx -blockers

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Mallory-Weiss syndrome: forceful emesis small mucosal tears in esophagus streaks of blood in vomitus; Tx reassurance
Boerhaave syndrome: forceful emesis esophageal rupture severe retrosternal pain + acute distress; Tx surgical repair
Caustic ingestion: alkali are worse than acids; Dx endoscopy to determine extent of damage, Tx controversial (call poison control)
Foreign body ingestion: Tx emergent removal of disc batteries stuck in esophagus, other materials can be watched
Pyloric stenosis: presents w/ non-bilious projectile vomiting in first-born boys; Dx palpable epigastric olive + abdominal U/S, Tx

PUD: presents w/ gnawing epigastric pain (can persist at night) + occult GI bleed; Dx EGD, Tx PPIs
Lower GI: distal to Ligament of Treitz

Milk protein intolerance: neonate w/ bloody diarrhea + eosinophils in stool

Volvulus (malrotation): incomplete rotation of GI tract during development bilious vomiting, abdominal pain/distention; Dx barium
enema shows malposition of the cecum, Tx emergent surgical correction (risk of short gut)

Meconium ileus: pathognomonic for CF, presents in newborn w/ bilious vomiting, abdominal pain/distention; Dx KUB shows dilated
megacolon but barium enema shows microcolon from disuse, Tx gastrograffin enema

Acute appendicitis: lymphoid hyperplasia or fecalith impaction obstructed appendix w/ bacterial overgrowth presents w/ fever,
anorexia, n/v, diffuse abdominal pain that localizes to RLQ; Dx WBC + CT scan or U/S, Tx appendectomy

Mesenteric adenitis: Yersinia enterocolitica infx appendicitis-like presentation, associated w/ chitterlings and daycare centers

Intussusception: presents w/ colicky abdominal pain that lasts 1 min then resolves + currant jelly stools, RUQ sausage-like mass on
abdominal exam; Dx/Tx air contrast enema

Hirschsprung disease: neural crest cells fail to migrate lack of nerves in distal colon chronic constipation since birth; Dx screen w/
barium enema, confirm w/ rectal bx, Tx surgical pull-through

Necrotizing enterocolitis: presents as abdominal distention, vomiting, GI bleed, decreased bowel sounds; Dx KUB shows pneumatosis
intestinalis, Tx NPO/IVF/abx if unperforated, surgery if perforated

Anal atresia: Tx surgical repair (low pouch), colostomy then delayed repair (high pouch)

Congenital inguinal hernia: patent processus vaginalis indirect inguinal hernia incarcerated bowel is common; Tx elective
herniorrhaphy prior to d/c

Meckel diverticulum: MCC painless LGIB in a child; Dx technetium uptake for ectopic gastric mucosa, Tx surgery if symptomatic

Neonatal GI bleed: first get Apt test to differentiate maternal from fetal bleed, then further tests only if blood is fetal

Functional constipation: infrequent large/hard stools + normal physical exam; Dx KUB shows stool-filled megacolon, Tx reassurance +
dietary counseling

Encopresis: involuntary defecation >4 y/o, majority due to chronic constipation and overflow incontinence; Dx KUB shows stool-filled
megacolon, Tx bowel catharsis + miralax

Toddler diarrhea: chronic explosive diarrhea in an infant w/ normal physical exam; Tx reassurance
Malabsorption syndromes: present w/ steatorrhea + vitamin ADEK deficiency

Cystic fibrosis: AR CFTR (F508) thick mucus recurrent Pseudomonas pneumonia, bronchiectasis, infertility, chronic pancreatitis
malabsorption/steatorrhea + type 1 diabetes, meconium ileus (uncommon but pathognomonic), focal biliary cirrhosis, nasal polyps; Dx sweat
chloride test x2 (>60), Tx pancreatic enzymes + vitamins ADEK + chest physiotherapy + mucolytics (N-acetylcysteine)

Lactose intolerance: lactase (disaccharidase) deficiency at brush border lactose provides osmotic gradient for water + acts as GI flora
nutrient bloating, flatulence, diarrhea; Dx hydrogen breath test, Tx dietary lactose

Celiac disease: AR MTTP (microsomal TG transfer protein) gluten hypersensitivity chronic non-bloody diarrhea dermatitis
herpetiformis; Dx anti-gliadin or anti-endomysial ab, Tx dietary wheat/gluten

Abetalipoproteinemia: celiac disease-like presentation but normal GI bx; Tx ADEK supplements + low-fat diet

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): presents w/ flare-and-remission pattern of crampy abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss
Crohn disease
Ulcerative colitis
mouth to anus w/ skip lesions, rectal sparing
colorectal, continuous lesion
transmural inflammation, cobblestoning,
mucosal inflammation, crypt abscesses and
noncaseating granulomas
strictures, fistulas, SBO
toxic megacolon, colorectal cancer
+calprotectin, +ASCA, KUB shows terminal ileal
+calprotectin, +p-ANCA, KUB shows lead pipe sign
string sign
steroids + 5-ASA
steroids + 5-ASA + annual colonoscopy
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

Physiologic hyperbilirubinemia: appears after day 2, direct bilirubin <1, total bilirubin <12

Pathologic hyperbilirubinemia: suspect w/ jaundice on day 1, direct bilirubin >2, total bilirubin >20 (risk of kernicterus), rate of rise >5/day;
MCC neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia

Biliary atresia: lack of CBD progressive direct hyperbilirubinemia; Dx abdominal U/S, confirm w/ HIDA scan, Tx hepatoportoenterostomy
(Kasai procedure)

Choledochal cyst: cyst in CBD biliary tree obstruction progressive direct hyperbilirubinemia; Dx abdominal U/S, confirm w/ HIDA scan,
Tx surgery

Breast-feeding jaundice: feeding dehydration retained meconium enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin; Tx feeding frequency

Breast-milk jaundice: d/t glucuronidase and indirect bilirubin in breast milk

Dubin-Johnson syndrome: neonatal direct hyperbilirubinemia + LFTs + black liver

Rotor syndrome: neonatal direct hyperbilirubinemia + LFTs + no black liver


Acute cholecystitis: inflammation of gallbladder Charcot triad (RUQ pain, n/v, fever); Dx RUQ U/S, Tx NPO/IVF/abx then lap chole within
24 hrs

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Acute pancreatitis: I GET SMASHHED (recall acronym) inflammation of pancreas stabbing epigastric pain boring through to the back,
exacerbated w/ eating; Dx screen w/ amylase/lipase, confirm w/ abdominal U/S, Tx NPO/IVF/pain meds
Viral hepatitis: presents w/ jaundice, RUQ pain, n/v, dark-colored urine
HAV (fecal-oral)
asymptomatic, daycare, travel
Dx HAV IgM (acute), HAV IgG (immune or previous
infx); Tx supportive care
HBV (parenteral, sexual)
polyarteritis nodosa, MGN
Dx HBsAg (acute), HBsAb (immune or previous
infx), HBcAb IgM (window), HBeAg (infectious); Tx
HCV (parenteral, sexual)
cryoglobulinemia, chronic infx, carriers,
Dx HCV RNA (acute or chronic); Tx IFN- + ribavarin
cirrhosis, carcinoma, IVDA, MPGN
HDV (parenteral, sexual)
deadly, defective, HBV co-infection
Dx HDV Ab; Tx IFN-
HEV (fecal-oral)
cruise ships, fatal in pregnancy
Dx HEV Ab; Tx supportive care
A1AT deficiency: AR 1-antitrypsin inability to export enzyme builds up in liver (cirrhosis) and cant break down proteolytic enzymes in
lungs (early-onset panacinar emphysema)
Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration): AR ATP7B (copper-transporting ATP-ase) copper overload cirrhosis + movement
disorder + hemolytic anemia + Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings; Dx LFTs/ceruloplasmin/total copper/free copper, Tx D-penicillamine
Reye syndrome: viral infx + ASA = fatty liver/liver failure, vomiting, AMS, 40% mortality rate (due to cerebral edema herniation)
Gilbert syndrome: AD UGT-glucuronyltransferase mild jaundice following stress or starvation; benign



Nephrotic syndrome: loss of negative charge on GBM proteinuria edema, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia; Dx UA shows fatty casts

Asymptomatic proteinuria: repeat dipstick, then quantify w/ 24 hr urine, then refer to nephro if still positive

Nephritic syndrome: inflammation of glomeruli hematuria, oliguria, HTN, azotemia; Dx UA shows RBC casts

Asymptomatic hematuria: repeat UA, then get renal imaging if still positive

Minimal change disease: nephrotic syndrome in kids following a viral URI, MCCOD is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Tx steroids, saltrestriction + diuretics during flares

WAGR syndrome: WT1 on chromosome 11 Wilms tumor (kidney), Aniridia, GU anomalies, mental Retardation, hemihypertrophy

Neuroblastoma: N-myc amplification proliferation of neural crest cells in adrenal gland abdominal mass/pain + opsoclonus-myoclonus
syndrome (muscle jerks + eyelid jerks) bone mets (pancytopenia); Dx urinary HVA/VMA

Goodpasture syndrome: anti-GBM antibodies attack pulmonary and renal basement membranes hemoptysis + hematuria; Dx renal bx +
linear-staining immunofluorescence

Fanconi syndrome: proximal tubule dysfunction defective resorption of amino acids, bicarb, glucose, phosphate polydipsia, polyuria,
glucosuria, aminoaciduria, type 2 RTA, hypophosphatemic rickets, etc.

Type 1 RTA: distal RTA, collecting duct cant excrete H+ metabolic acidosis + urinary alkalosis, hypo-K

Type 2 RTA: proximal RTA, proximal tubule cant resorb bicarb metabolic acidosis + urinary alkalosis, hypo-K

Type 3 RTA: (does not exist)

Type 4 RTA: hyperkalemic RTA, aldosterone or aldosterone-R metabolic acidosis + urinary acidosis, hyper-K

Low implantation of ureter: asx in boys, wet w/ urine all the time in girls b/c ureter drips into vagina instead of bladder; Dx IV pyelo, Tx
surgical correction

Posterior urethral valve: presents w/ oliguria + lower abdominal mass (distended bladder) in a neonate; first catheterize to empty bladder,
then Dx VCUG, Tx resection

Myoglobinuria: rhabdomyolysis (heat, niacin, etc.) myoglobin in urine risk of renal failure; Dx CPK, UA shows heme but no RBC

Alport syndrome: XR type 4 collagen nephritic syndrome (hematuria), deafness, ocular defects

Enuresis: involuntary urination >5 y/o; Tx bed-wetting alarm > desmopressin > imipramine

Idiopathic hypercalciuria: persistent excretion of calcium irritates urinary tract dysuria, risk of kidney stones, microscopic hematuria w/
recurrent episodes of gross hematuria

Kidney stones: presents w/ flank pain radiating to groin + hematuria; Dx U/S or CT scan, Tx hydration (< cm), shockwave lithotripsy (2
cm), surgery (>2 cm)
Dialysis indications: AEIOU Acidosis (severe metabolic acidosis), Electrolytes (severe hyperkalemia), Intoxication, Overload (severe hypervolemia),
Uremia (BUN >150, pericarditis)
Kidney infx

Lower UTI (acute cystitis): presents w/ dysuria, frequency/urgency; risk in uncircumcised males; Dx UA/UCx, Tx Bactrim > Cipro

Upper UTI (acute pyelonephritis): presents w/ dysuria, frequency/urgency, flank pain, fever/chills; Dx UA/UCx, Tx ceftriaxone

VCUG: indicated to r/o VUR in all males w/ UTIs, girls <5 y/o, or girls >5 w/ 2+ UTIs

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): ureters implanted into wrong site on bladder no mechanism for preventing retrograde urine reflux
recurrent UTIs at young age; Dx VCUG, Tx long-term abx until kid grows out of it (low grade), surgical reimplantation of ureter (high grade)

Chronic pyelonephritis: VUR recurrent upper UTI kidney scarring w/ blunted calyces on IV pyelo

Nephronia: halfway between pyelonephritis (dysuria, frequency/urgency, flank pain, fever/chills) and renal abscess; Dx CT scan shows
distinct tissue in kidney, Tx long-term IV abx

Poststreptococcal GN: GAS infx (strep throat, impetigo, cellulitis) ag-ab complexes deposit in GBM nephritic syndrome sx
(hematuria, HTN, oliguria, azotemia, edema); Dx ASO titers, Tx supportive care
Male GU

Inconspicuous penis: normal in fat boys, retract foreskin and measure refer to urology if <2.5 std dev

Micropenis: GH deficiency

Phimosis: inability to retract foreskin, Tx reassurance (normal for <3 y/o), urology consult (>3 y/o)

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Paraphimosis: inability to relocate foreskin after retraction; Tx urology consult

Hypospadias: urethral opening on ventral penis, risk of UTIs; Tx urology consult, do not circumcise
Epispadias: urethral opening on dorsal penis; Tx urology consult
Urethritis: GC or CT infx dysuria, frequency/urgency, urethral discharge; Dx GC/CT tests, Tx azithromycin + ceftriaxone
Testicular torsion: twisting of spermatic cord severe testicular pain and high riding testicle w/ horizontal lie, lacks cremasteric reflex;
first consult surgery, then Dx U/S to r/o epididymitis (similar presentation), Tx emergent surgical detorsion (<6 hrs) + orchiopexy
Epididymitis: presents like testicular torsion but w/ fever and pyuria; Dx U/S, Tx abx (usually for GC/CT)
Varicocele: incompetent valves in spermatic vein dilation of pampiniform plexus bag of worms appearance when standing up but
disappears lying down; Tx reassurance (kids), surgical correction (adults w/ infertility issues)
Hydrocele: accumulation of fluid in tunica vaginalis dilated, fluid-filled sac around testicle; Dx transillumination shines through (vs.
testicular cancers). Tx reassurance (small), surgical correction (large)

Hydrocele vs. scrotal edema: scrotal edema feels like a big scrotum, hydrocele feels like a big nut
Cryptorchidism: undescended testis high risk for testicular torsion and seminoma; Dx U/S of inguinal canal, Tx orchipexy if undescended
by 1 y/o (to avoid sterility and cancer)
Potter sequence: bilateral renal agenesis (or other renal abnormalities) inability to secrete amniotic fluid in utero oligohydramnios
w/ amnion nodosum (granules on amnion) pulmonary hypoplasia (respiratory distress) + constraint deformities (club feet)
Prune belly syndrome: congenital malformation in males that consists of lax abdominal wall marked distention, dilated urinary tract
Potter sequence, bilateral cryptorchidism

Female GU

Labial adhesions: benign fusion of labia minora; Tx estrogen cream

Labial adhesions + electrolyte imbalances: congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Infant menstruation: maternal estrogen withdrawal endometrial sloughing sticky gray discharge (may be blood-tinged) in a 2-week
girl; Tx reassurance (normal phenomenon)

Bubble-bath vaginitis: vaginal irritation in little girls due to chemicals from bubble baths; Tx d/c bubble baths, wear cotton underwear,
wipe front-to-back after potty

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): LH, FSH, E/T anovulation, hirsutism, obesity, polycystic ovaries; Tx OCP + weight loss

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): polymicrobial infx of upper female genital tract (endometritis, salpingitis, peritonitis) nonspecific
lower abdominal pain risk for infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesions, abscesses; Dx STD tests + cervical motion tenderness, Tx
ceftriaxone + doxycycline

PID + pelvic mass: tubo-ovarian abscess; Dx transvaginal U/S, Tx I+D

Umbilical cord

Delayed cord separation: leukocyte adhesion deficiency; Dx flow cytometry (CD11b)

Umbilical granuloma: red nodule on separated umbilical cord; Tx topical silver nitrate

Omphalocele: intestines protrude into umbilical cord w/ peritoneal covering, risk of associated cardiac defects; first sterile wrapping,
then Dx echo to r/o cardiac defects, then Tx closure if small, silo if large

Gastroschisis: intestines tear through abdominal wall w/o peritoneal covering; first sterile wrapping, then Tx closure if small, silo if large

Umbilical hernia: associated w/ neonatal hypothyroidism, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome; Tx reassurance (<2 cm), surgical repair (>2 cm
or persistent into kindergarten)

Patent urachus: failure of urachus to obliterate urination from umbilical cord

Vitelline fistula: failure of vitelline duct to obliterate meconium from umbilical cord

Muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): XR dystrophin muscle cells die off ascending weakness w/ Gowers maneuver, calf
pseudohypertrophy, death by 15 y/o; Dx CPK + muscle bx, no tx available

Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD): XR dystrophin milder form of DMD

Myotonic muscular dystrophy: AD; delayed muscle relaxation (cant release handshake) + distal muscle wasting (older kids), neonatal
respiratory distress (newborn), cataracts, ptosis, baldness, hypogonadism; Dx CPK + muscle bx, no tx available

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: intrinsic foot muscle atrophy (pes cavus), then intrinsic hand muscle atrophy
Muscle weakness/paralysis

Myasthenia gravis: anti-nAChR gradually progressive muscle weakness (initial sx is ptosis, diplopia, blurry vision) that get worse w/
repetitive use; Dx edrophonium test + get chest CT to r/o thymoma, Tx pyridostigmine

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): autoimmune demyelination after viral infx multiple sclerosis-like sx but in kids <10 y/o; Dx
MRI shows white matter demyelination, Tx high-dose corticosteroids

Acute infantile hemiplegia: trauma, infx, hypercoagulable state, arteritis, or metabolic d/o MCA stroke in infant abrupt onset

Guillain-Barre syndrome: rapidly ascending paralysis after viral infx (or other infx), risk of respiratory arrest (Tx mechanical ventilation);
Dx CSF shows protein, Tx IVIG or plasmapheresis

Bell palsy: facial nerve palsy 2 weeks after viral infx; Tx eyedrops (to prevent keratitis), will resolve on its own

Bilateral Bell palsy: 2 Lyme disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome

Phrenic nerve palsy: presents w/ respiratory distress and unilateral decreased breath sounds in neonate (phrenic nerve innervates
hemidiaphragm); Dx chest U/S or fluoroscopy shows seesaw diaphragm

Erb-Duchenne palsy: C5/C6 palsy after difficult delivery waiters tip posture

Klumpke palsy: C7-T1 palsy after difficult delivery total hand paralysis + ipsilateral Horner syndrome

Werdnig-Hoffman disease (SMA type 1): SMN gene (protects neuroblasts from atrophy) progressive degeneration of CNS motor
neurons respiratory distress + tongue fasciculations in newborn; Tx supportive care

Pediatrics Shelf notes


Simple partial seizure: automatisms

Complex partial seizure: automatisms + LOC + postictal confusion
Absence (petit mal) seizure: brief staring spells; Dx EEG shows 3-Hz spike-and-wave pattern, Tx valproic acid > ethosuximide
Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure: LOC + rigidity (tonic phase) + muscular jerking (clonic phase) + postictal confusion
Pseudoseizure: seizure-like activity w/o EEG changes, usually dont have bowel/bladder incontinence or self-injury; Tx psych consult
Febrile seizure: brief seizure in febrile child usually 2/2 bacterial or viral infx, doesnt require extensive work-up, #1 risk factor is rate of temp
change; Tx underlying cause, phenobarbital if necessary

Phenytoin toxicity: gingival hyperplasia; Tx good dental hygiene

Todd paralysis: focal weakness for 1-2 days following grand-mal seizure
Malignant hyperthermia: AD ryanodine receptor T>104 + muscle rigidity + rhabdomyolysis following anesthesia; Dx caffeine contracture test, Tx
dantrolene sodium, 100% O2, cooling blankets
Craniosynostosis: premature fusion of skull sutures abnormal head shape + impaired brain development, 80% sporadic, 20% genetic (e.g. Crouzon
syndrome); Tx surgical correction

Apert syndrome: AD, craniosynostosis + syndactyly of fingers/toes

Crouzon syndrome: craniosynostosis + wide-eyes w/ proptosis, beak nose

Scaphocephaly: isolated craniosynostosis of sagittal suture long, narrow skull


Migraine headache: bifrontal headache w/o aura, or diffuse throbbing headache, atypical presentation in kids (no nausea/vomiting,
photophobia, phonophobia)

Tension headache: bilateral, tight squeezing pain + posterior neck muscle stiffness

Cluster headache: unilateral, episodic burning, stabbing pain behind eye + ipsilateral tearing, flush, rhinorrhea

Factitious headache: recurrent headache on Mon-Fri mornings

Pseudotumor cerebri: fat girl w/ pulsatile headache/tinnitus, high risk of blindness; first get imaging to r/o mass lesion (can have empty
sella), then get LP w/ opening pressure to r/o infx causes, Tx acetazolamide vs. serial LPs
Brain abscess: headache + focal neuro sx + fever, risk w/ congenital heart defects; Dx head CT/MRI, Tx surgery + IV abx (unifocal), IV abx (multifocal)
Brain tumor: headache + focal neuro sx + subacute onset; infratentorial more common <10 y/o, supratentorial more common >10 y/o

Craniopharyngioma: embryological remnant of Rathke pouch in sella turcica headache, bitemporal hemianopsia, papilledema; Dx MRI
shows suprasellar calcified cysts, Tx transsphenoid hypophysectomy

Pinealoma: brain tumor at rostral midbrain vertical gaze paralysis (Parinaud syndrome) + eyelid retraction (Collier sign) + ICP sx

Retinoblastoma: AD Rb on chromosome 13 retinoblastoma (MCC leukocoria in kids) + risk of osteosarcoma later in life
Cushing triad: brain mass lesion ICP HR, BP, irregular RR
Epidural hematoma: head trauma to temporal bone torn middle meningeal artery LOC w/ lucid interval uncal herniation death; Dx head CT
shows convex lens, Tx emergent craniotomy
Infantile botulism: ingestion of C. botulinum bacteria (not toxin) in raw honey bacteria releases toxin in GI tract constipation (initial sx) then
gradual flaccid paralysis; Tx BabyBIG (botulinum immunoglobulin) + ventilator support
Dandy-Walker syndrome: enlargement of 4th ventricle (hydrocephalus) + agenesis of cerebellar vermis
Acute cerebellar ataxia: autoimmune attack on cerebellum after a viral infx cerebellar sx (ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria); Dx of exclusion
Rasmussen encephalitis: autoimmune attack on brain rapid degeneration, initially presents w/ frequent and worsening seizures; Dx MRI, Tx
Pervasive developmental disorders

Autism: characterized by problems w/ social interaction, communication skills, and repetitive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and
activity before 3 y/o; must get hearing test to r/o deafness

Asperger syndrome: mild autism w/ normal language skills and cognitive development

Rett syndrome: MECP in girls normal development for 5 months, then rate of head growth + loss of purposeful hand movements, then
ataxia, language skills, hand wringing

Childhood disintegrative disorder: normal development for >2 years, then loss of previously acquired skills

Learning disability: significant discrepancy between IQ and ability in one of the following math, reading, or writing
Neurocardiogenic syncope: presents as 6 Ps syncope w/ upright Posture, Precipitating event causing intense emotion, Prodrome of dizziness or
light-headedness, Pallor, no Palpitations, no Postictal sx; Dx tilt table testing, Tx adequate hydration
Transient tic disorder of childhood: nonrhythmic, spasmodic, involuntary behaviors (e.g. blinking, throat clearing) that last <1 yr; Tx reassurance
Tourette syndrome: severe tic disorder w/ multiple daily motor/vocal tics, may have echolalia or coprolalia (rare), association w/ OCD and ADHD; Tx
haloperidol > 2-agonists (clonidine, guanfacine)


Ophthalmia neonatorum

Chemical conjunctivitis

day 0-1

Tx reassurance

Gonococcal conjunctivitis
Chlamydia conjunctivitis

day 2-5
day 5-14

Tx topical erythromycin + IV ceftriaxone

Tx PO erythromycin

not seen anymore since silver nitrate
drops are rarely used
can cause corneal ulceration
can cause chlamydial pneumonia
(staccato cough + eosinophilia)


Chlamydia trachomatis

urethritis in men; cervicitis, PID, TOA, often
asx in women

Dx Chlamydia NAAT, Tx
azithromycin (+ ceftriaxone)

Pediatrics Shelf notes


Neisseria gonorrhoeae

urethritis in men; cervicitis, PID, TOA, often

asx in women
thick, white curd-like discharge, severe
itching, satellite lesions

Vaginal candidiasis

Candida albicans


Treponema pallidum


Haemophilus ducreyi

Herpes simplex



Chlamydia trachomatis,
L1-L3 serotypes

Condyloma acuminata
Bacterial vaginosis

Gardnerella vaginalis


Trichomonas vaginalis

green-gray frothy discharge, odor,

strawberry cervix



Crabs (pediculosis pubis)

Phthirus pubis

1 mono-like syndrome w/ maculopapular

asx stage CD4 >500, asx
sx stage CD4 200-500, general LAD,
fungal infx, night sweats, weight loss,
AIDS CD4 <200 or opportunistic infx
severe itching, irritation, burrows, vesicles

1 painless chancre + LAD

2 palmar/plantar rash, condyloma lata,
general LAD
3 neurosyphilis + CV syphilis (luetic heart)
+ gummas
painful chancre + LAD
recurrent, painful oral or genital vesicles
that can rupture
1 transient, painless ulcer
2 painful LAD
3 anogenital syndrome (proctocolitis,
rectal strictures, rectovaginal fistulas,
genital elephantiasis)
genital warts
thin homogenous discharge w/ fishy odor

Dx discharge Gram stain, Tx

ceftriaxone (+ azithromycin)
Dx KOH prep shows
pseudohyphae, Tx diflucan vs.
miconazole cream
Dx screen w/ RPR-VDRL,
confirm w/ FTA-ABS, definitive
dx w/ Darkfield microscopy; Tx
benzathine PCN G
Dx discharge Gram stain, Tx
azithromycin or ceftriaxone
Dx Tzanck smear, Tx ACV/VACV
within 48 hrs
Dx complement fixation, Tx

Tx removal
Dx wet prep (clue cells), Tx
Dx wet prep (motile
trichomonads), Tx
Dx screen w/ ELISA, confirm w/
WB, HIV PCR in infants; Tx

Dx hair under microscope, Tx

permethrin shampoo

Rule-out sepsis: T >100.4 in any neonate (<28 days) gets admitted and the full work-up (UA/UCx, CSF, blood cx, CXR, etc.), MCC viral infx; Tx amp+gent
until cx negative

Neonatal PNA: MCC GBS; presents as respiratory distress, fever/hypothermia, leukocytosis/leukopenia w/ left-shift; Dx CXR, Tx ampicillin +

Neonatal meningitis: MCC GBS; presents as fever, irritability, AMS, bulging fontanelle, and may not have meningeal signs; Tx ABCs then LP
then ceftriaxone + vancomycin (different from adults, where youd get CT then LP)

Meningitis + subdural effusions: common, benign finding

Listeria meningitis: due to maternal ingestion of lunch meats or unpasteurized dairy products

Meningococcal meningitis: Tx penicillin

Acute bacterial sinusitis: Strep pneumo > H. flu > Moraxella catarrhalis superinfx of viral URI sinus tenderness, nasal congestion/discharge,
headache, low-grade fever; Tx amoxicillin

Otitis media: Strep pneumo > H. flu > Moraxella catarrhalis; Tx amoxicillin

Otitis externa: Tx cipro drops

Diphtheria: due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae; presents as mild sore throat that leads to pseudomembranous pharyngitis, LAD with bull
neck appearance, possible respiratory compromise

Shigellosis: watery/bloody diarrhea, fever, tonic-clonic seizures can precede GI sx (Ekiri syndrome); Dx stool cx, Tx IV fluids + ceftriaxone

Strep throat: GAS infx of pharynx sore throat, fever, tonsillar exudates, palatal petechiae; Dx rapid strep test, Tx amoxicillin

Scarlet fever: due to GAS exotoxin; presents w/ sore throat, fever, strawberry tongue, sandpaper rash w/ possible
desquamation of palms/soles; Dx ASO titers or rapid strep test, Tx amoxicillin

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum: strep throat/scarlet fever-like presentation but throat cx grows out Arcanobacterium instead

Toxic shock syndrome: due to S. aureus TSST, often found in tampons; presents w/ septic shock, diffuse maculopapular rash
(desquamation of palms/soles is late finding), strawberry tongue; Tx admit + stabilize + IV nafcillin (prevents recurrence)

Staph food poisoning: ingestion of preformed S. aureus enterotoxin diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps within 6 hrs

Meningococcemia: meningitis, purpura fulminans (petechiae becoming purpura in front of your eyes), death by bilateral adrenal
hemorrhage (W-F syndrome); Dx blood cx x3, Tx IV abx, PPx Rifampin for Roommates

Leptospirosis: due to Leptospira interrogans; presents as fever/chills, sore throat, myalgias, headache, cervical LAD, scleral injection,
photophobia, and can lead to meningitis (but most infx are subclinical)

Weil disease: leptospirosis + renal failure + liver failure

Infx endocarditis: usually due to Strep/Staph; presents as FROM JANE Fever, Roth spots, Osler nodes, Murmurs, Janeway lesions, Anemia,
Nailbed hemorrhage, Embolic phenomena; Dx blood cx x3, Tx IV abx

Osteomyelitis: fever + localized bone pain, due to hematogenous spread or direct inoculation; Dx bone scan (X-ray can be false-neg), Tx
admit + IV abx

Septic arthritis: fever + localized joint pain + limited ROM; Dx joint aspiration, Tx admit + drainage + IV abx

Dacryocystitis: infx of medial canthus of eye; Tx warm compresses + abx drops

Orbital cellulitis: cellulitis around eye, requires emergent ophtho c/s

Pediatrics Shelf notes



Orbital vs. preseptal cellulitis: consider preseptal w/ eyelid discoloration; consider orbital w/ proptosis, limited eye movement,
pain w/ movement, or loss of vision
RMSF: due to Rickettsia rickettsii from Dermacentor ticks; causes fever/chills and rash that starts on hands/feet and moves inward, can result
in pancytopenia + hyponatremia; Tx doxycycline (regardless of age)
Lyme disease: due to Borrelia burgdorferi from Ixodes ticks; 1 Lyme = erythema chronicum migrans, 2 Lyme = bilateral Bell palsy + AV block,
3 Lyme = chronic arthritis; Tx amoxicillin (<9 y/o), doxycycline (>9 y/o)

Lyme disease + hemolytic anemia: due to Babesia microtii also from Ixodes ticks; Dx RBC smear, Tx clindamycin + quinine
Tularemia: rabbit fever due to Francisella tularensis; MC presentation is ulceroglandular syndrome (nonhealing ulcer + ascending LAD); Tx
Pseudomonas: G oxidase+ rod; commonly found in burns, tennis shoe puncture wounds, swimming pools, hot tubs, cystic fibrosis
Peptic ulcer disease: presents as dyspepsia and upper GI bleed; Dx EGD+bx or H. pylori breath test, Tx triple therapy (2 abx + 1 PPI)
HUS: due to EHEC O157:H7; presents w/ bloody diarrhea and possible renal failure (MCCOD) after eating undercooked hamburgers; Dx
stool cx on MacConkey (sorbitol) agar, Tx TPN + peritoneal dialysis (do not use abx)
Lymphadenitis: Staph aureus infx swollen, tender, erythematous LN; Tx dicloxacillin
Cat scratch disease: Bartonella henselae infx from cats (flea vector) Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome (nonpainful conjunctivitis +
preauricular LAD); Tx azithromycin
Typhoid fever: Salmonella typhi infx fever, diarrhea, HSM, abdominal pain w/ rose spot rash; Dx fecal leukocytes + stool cx
Campylobacter gastroenteritis: presents w/ fever, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain; risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome
Yersinia gastroenteritis: presents w/ fever, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain; risk of mesenteric adenitis (appendicitis-like presentation);
associated w/ chitterlings and daycare centers
Pseudomembranous colitis: broad-spectrum abx use C. difficile proliferates in colon profuse watery diarrhea; Dx stool toxins, Tx
metronidazole > PO vancomycin


Sporotrichosis: rose gardner disease due to Sporothrix schenckii; presents as nonhealing ulcer + ascending LAD; Tx potassium iodide
Tinea capitis: due to Trichophyton tonsurans; presents as boggy scalp lesion w/ hair loss; Dx KOH prep, Tx PO griseofulvin
Cryptosporidiosis: chronic diarrhea in HIV+ pts
PCP pneumonia: opportunistic infx that indicates T-cell deficiency (AIDS, SCID, DiGeorge, etc.); Dx BAL, PPx azithromycin, Tx Bactrim
Viral meningitis: due to enterovirus infx (echo, coxsackie); Dx CSF shows lymphocytes + normal glucose, Tx supportive care
Bronchiolitis: due to RSV; presents w/ wheezing, URI sx, respiratory distress; Tx supportive care (ribavarin if severe, pavilizumab ppx for
high-risk infants)
Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease): due to Parvovirus B19; presents w/ fever, URI sx, slapped cheek and lacy rash on extremities, can
cause aplastic anemia in SCD or spherocytosis, hydrops fetalis in pregnant women (rare)
Hand-foot-mouth disease: due to Coxsackie A16; presents w/ sores/blisters on hand, feet, mouth, genitalia; Tx supportive care
Mononucleosis: due to EBV; presents w/ fever/chills, sore throat, myalgia, cervical LAD, HSM after making out w/ someone; Dx Monospot
(heterophile agglutination) test, Tx avoid contact sports
Amoxicillin rash: rash s/p amoxicillin in a misdiagnosed strep throat is pathognomonic for EBV infx
Mumps: parotitis, orchitis, meningitis, pancreatitis
Rabies: commonly found in bats, skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes; give reassurance if pet is sterile, kill animal for bx if unknown, give postexposure ppx for any bat exposure
Rubeola (measles): cough, coryza (head cold), conjunctivitis, Koplik spots, then diffuse maculopapular rash; Tx vitamin A
Rubella: diffuse maculopapular rash (starts on face and migrates down) w/ low-grade fever, marked LAD, sore throat, arthralgias
Roseola: due to HHV-6; high-grade fever for 3 days, then diffuse maculopapular rash
Varicella (chickenpox): due to VZV; dew drops on a rose petal vesicular rash in an ill child
Viral gastroenteritis: rotavirus infx fever, vomiting, severe watery diarrhea during the wintertime; Tx supportive care
Herpes keratoconjunctivitis: HSV infx vesicular lesions on skin + dendritic corneal ulcers, risk of blindness
Cutaneous larva migrans: due to Toxocara canis/cati; presents as itchy lesion on bottom of foot after playing around barefoot; Tx ivermectin
Visceral larva migrans: due to Toxocara canis/cati; presents w/ fever + HSM + eosinophilia; Tx ivermectin
Malaria: due to Plasmodium spp; presents w/ cyclic fever/chills and hemolytic anemia; Dx Giemsa stain of blood smear, Tx mefloquine (+
primaquine for hypnozoites)
Pinworm: due to Enterobius vermicularis; causes perianal pruritus worse at night; Dx scotch tape test, Tx mebendazole
Ascariasis: due to Ascaris lumbricoides; presents w/ eosinophilia + intestinal obstruction
Trichinellosis: found in undercooked pork; triad of periorbital edema, myositis, eosinophilia; may have nonspecific splinter hemorrhages
Giardiasis: due to Giardia lamblii; presents w/ fever, foul-smelling fatty stools, abdominal pain; Tx metronidazole



Urticaria (hives): pruritic wheal and flare rash; Tx PO benadryl + avoid exposure

Erythema multiforme: urticaria + target lesions, <10% BSA (body surface area)

Stevens-Johnson syndrome: EM + mucosal involvement, 10-30% BSA

Toxic epidermal necrolysis: severe SJS, >30% BSA

DRESS syndrome (drug rash, eosinophilia, systemic sx): EM w/ eosinophilia + systemic sx, usually due to anticonvulsants
Maternal ab: IgG via placenta (lasts 3-6 months), IgA via breast milk

Chronic granulmatous disease: XR NADPH oxidase phagocytic defect recurrent abscesses; Dx nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: XR, TIE thrombocytopenia (petechiae), recurrent infx, eczema; Dx CBC (plt), IgM, IgA, IgE
Bruton agammaglobulinemia: XR B-cell defect lack of all Ig types recurrent bacterial infx (OM, PNA, etc.) after 6 months since moms
Ig confers passive immunity; Dx serum Ig levels, Tx repeated IVIG
T-cell defect: likely DiGeorge syndrome (CATCH-22); Dx intradermal Candida test
Combined variable immunodeficiency: acquired B-cell defect (>10 y/o) lack of all Ig types but normal B-cell levels; risk of lymphomas
SCID (bubble boy disease): XR or AR adenosine deaminase lymphocytes cant make DNA to proliferate (both B- and T-cells) severe
infx death at young age; Tx bone marrow txp
Job syndrome: FATED coarse Facies, Abscesses, retained primary Teeth, IgE, Derm issues (eczema)
Asplenia: recurrent encapsulated bacterial infx (SHiN Strep pneumo, H. influenza, Neisseria), common in SCD kids; Dx CBC w/ smear (HowellJolly bodies)
Hereditary angioedema: AD C1 esterase inhibitor random activation of complement pathway recurrent episodes of edema w/ positive
family hx
IgA deficiency: recurrent respiratory infx + diarrhea + anaphylatic transfusion rxns (reacts to donor serum IgA); Dx IgA
Complement deficiency: C5-C9 deficiency predisposes to recurrent Neisseria infx; Dx CH50 test


Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Still disease): RF (anti-IgG Fc domain) type 3 HS; Tx NSAIDs > MTX > PO steroids

Polyarticular JRA: >5 joints

Pauciarticular JRA: 0-4 joints, can present w/ anterior uveitis (iridocyclitis); Dx slit-lamp eye exam, Tx PO/OU steroids

Systemic JRA: systemic sx prior to arthritis, rheumatoid rash, high spiking fevers
Juvenile dermatomyositis: presents w/ progressive muscle weakness, skin rash, fatigue; Dx CPK
Neonatal lupus: skin lesions (maternal ab-ag complexes cross placenta) + 3 heart block (anti-SSA attacks fetal heart conduction)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): type 3 HS flare-and-remission pattern of IM DAMN SHARP IgG, Malar rash, Discoid rash, ANA, Mucositis
(throat ulcers), Neuro sx, Serositis (pleuritis/pericarditis), Hematologic d/o, Arthritis, Renal d/o (wire loops), Photosensitivity; Dx screen w/ ANA, confirm
w/ anti-dsDNA or anti-Smith, Tx low-dose aspirin
ITP: autoantibodies against gpIIb/IIIa platelet sequestration in spleen petechiae, purpura; Dx plt/MKC, Tx RhoGAM (if Rh+), IVIG (if Rh-), steroids
(2nd line), splenectomy (if severe)

Fanconi anemia: AR DNA repair genes aplastic anemia + short stature, hypopigmented areas, eye/ear deformities; Tx androgens +
hematopoietic drugs (EPO, neupogen, etc.)

Anemia of prematurity: MCC anemia in premature and SGA infants; Dx CBC shows profound anemia w/ reticulocytes, Tx iron supplements

Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood: RBC aplasia in children following a viral infx; Dx CBC shows profound anemia w/ no reticulocytes,
Tx supportive care (lasts 1-2 months, may need pRBCs)

Blackfan-Diamond anemia: macrocytic RBC aplasia + short stature, webbed neck, cleft lip, shield chest, triphalangeal thumbs

Sickle cell anemia: Dx Hb electrophoresis shows HbF, Tx folate supplements (for effective hematopoiesis) + hydroxyurea (HbF)

Sickle cell + sepsis: Strep pneumo

Sickle cell + osteomyelitis: Salmonella

Sickle cell + aplastic crisis: Parvo B19

Dactylitis: sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusion vascular necrosis of metacarpals/metatarsals acute onset painful swelling of
hands and feet

Acute chest syndrome: PNA-like presentation; Dx CXR shows infiltrate, Tx azithromycin + ceftriaxone

Sickle cell trait: MC sx is painless gross hematuria; Dx Hb electrophoresis shows HbS of 35-40%
-thalassemia minor
heterozygous -chain mild anemia sx
Dx screen w/ CBC (microcytic anemia + RDW),
confirm w/ HbA2; Tx reassurance
-thalassemia major
homozygous -chain severe anemia sx
Dx screen w/ CBC (microcytic anemia + RDW),
confirm w/ HbF; Tx frequent transfusions
Silent carrier
1-2 -chain deletion asx
--HbH disease
3 -chain deletion severe anemia sx
Dx screen w/ CBC (microcytic anemia + RDW),
confirm w/ HbH; Tx frequent transfusions
Barts disease
4 -chain deletion fetal hydrops
Dx post-mortem autopsy
Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon: large vascular anomalies (kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, tufted angioma) sequester RBCs, platelets, and clotting
factors anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy; Tx steroids + IFN-
G6PD deficiency: XR G6PD in African-American boys RBCs cant make enough NADPH to deal w/ oxidative stress (fava beans, sulfa drugs,
antimalarials, infx) hemolytic anemia following exposure to oxidative stress
ALL: MC cancer in kids <15 y/o; pre-B-cell proliferation (CALLA+/TdT+) infiltration of reticuloendothelial system (LAD, splenomegaly) and bone
marrow (pancytopenia); Dx bone marrow bx shows >25% lymphoblasts, Tx chemotherapy

ALL prognosis: good px w/ age 1-10, hyperdiploidy, WBC <50, and TEL/AML1 on t(12;21); poor px w/ Philadelphia chromosome on t(9;22)
Hodgkin lymphoma: B-cell proliferation into Reed-Sternberg cells B-type sx (fever, weight loss, night sweats); Dx CXR to look for mediastinal mass
then LN bx, Tx chemotherapy
Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Langerhans cell proliferation eosinophilic granuloma painful, solitary lytic bone lesion (MC site is skull)
Hereditary spherocytosis: AR spectrin hemolytic anemia + jaundice in newborn; Dx CBC shows spherocytes + abnormal osmotic fragility test, Tx
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): systemic insult (MCC septic shock) widespread microcoagulation run out of clotting factors
bleeding out; Dx PT/INR + PTT + D-dimer + platelets, Tx underlying cause
Von Willebrand disease: AD vWF MCC hemorrhagic diathesis; Dx vWF levels + activity (ristocetin cofactor activity), Tx DDAVP

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Tumor lysis syndrome: lysis of cancer cells hyperkalemia + hyperuricemia + renal failure; Dx renal panel + uric acid, Tx allopurinol

Sick euthyroid syndrome: bodily stress (trauma, starvation, etc.) cortisol blocks TSH T4/T3, normal TSH, rT3 (deiodinase 3 activated by stress)

Pheochromocytoma: episodic catecholamine 5 Ps Pressure (BP), Pain (HA), Perspiration, Palpitations, Pallor; Dx 24 hr urinary
metanephrines, Tx -blockers (phenoxybenzamine) then -blockers then adrenalectomy

Cushing syndrome: cortisol truncal obesity, abd striae, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, HTN, immunosuppression; Dx
ACTH/cortisol levels + dexamethasone suppression test (pituitary Cushing can be suppressed), Tx underlying cause

Hyperaldosteronism: aldosterone Na, K, H (HTN, metabolic alkalosis)

Addison syndrome: cortisol/aldosterone fatigue, hypoglycemia, HTN, hyperpigmentation, weight loss; Tx prednisone + fludrocortisone

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 21-hydroxylase aldosterone/sex hormones Na, K, H (metabolic acidosis), hirsutism,
virilization; Dx 17-OHP, Tx hydrocortisone + fludrocortisone replacement

Central DI: ADH cant resorb water polyuria, polydipsia, hemoconcentration (Na, K); Tx DDAVP

Nephrogenic DI: end-organ resistance to ADH polyuria, polydipsia, hemoconcentration (Na, K); Tx HCTZ

SIADH: ADH fluid overload hemodilution (Na, K); Tx water restriction


HbA1C: reflects 2-3 months of glucose control, normal <6.5%

DM type 2: presents as polyuria (bedwetting), polydipsia, polyphagia, acanthosis nigricans; Dx fasting glucose >126 x2, random >200 w/ sx,
or HbA1C >6.5%

Factitious hypoglycemia: moms giving baby insulin hypoglycemia + hyperinsulinemia + low C-peptide levels (high C-peptide reflects
insulinoma); Munchhausen by proxy is a form of child abuse

Hypercalcemia sx: stones (kidney, GB), bones (pain, osteitis fibrosa cystica), groans (PUD, pancreatitis), psychic overtones

Hypocalcemia sx: neuromuscular irritability (tingling, tetany), prolonged QT, arrhythmias

Hypercalcemia s/p fracture: due to extensive bone resorption; Dx urine calcium:creatinine ratio >0.2, Tx hydration, calcitonin if severe

Nutritional rickets: dietary vitamin D normal Ca, P decreased bone mineralization; increased risk in exclusively breast-fed babies, lack
of vitamin D supplements, African-Americans, limited sun exposure

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: XD PHEX (renal phosphate resorption gene) urinary P, serum P decreased bone mineralization
resistant to vitamin D supplements

Pseudohypoparathyroidism: renal tubules unresponsive to PTH Ca, P, PTH hypOcalcemia sx + 4th/5th finger bradydactyly (knuckleknuckle-dimple-dimple sign)

Hypoparathyroidism: lack of PTH Ca, P, PTH hypOcalcemia sx

1 hyperparathyroidism: excessive PTH Ca, P, PTH hypercalcemia sx


HEADSSS assessment: Home, Education, Activities, Drugs, Sex, Suicide, Safety

Eating disorders

Anorexia nervosa: fear of being fat <85% ideal body weight, secondary amenorrhea, lanugo, hypothermia, osteoporosis, arrhythmias; Tx
TID sandwiches

Bulimia nervosa: binge-eating + behaviors intended to counteract weight gain (purging, diuretics, exercise, fasting), sialadenosis, dental
caries, Russells sign (dorsal knuckle callouses); Tx SSRIs + CBT

Anorexia vs. bulimia: both can have purging behavior, but anorexia has <85% ideal body weight

Refeeding syndrome: increased nutrition in starving pt synthesis of glycogen, fat, proteins uses up electrolytes (especially K and
Sports contraindications: bleeding d/o (hemophilia), single eye, single kidney, unexplained syncope, infectious mononucleosis (to prevent splenic
Sports concussions
Grade 1 (mild)
no LOC, confusion <15 min
can return to play
Grade 2 (moderate)
no LOC, confusion >15 min
must sit out for a week, go to hospital if >1 hr
Grade 3 (severe)
go to hospital
Tanner (SMR) staging

Tanner 1
Tanner 2
Tanner 3
Tanner 4
Tanner 5

scrotal darkening, thin long pubic hair
dark curly pubic hair
adult pubic hair but w/o full coverage, peak growth velocity

breast buds
breast elevation, peak growth velocity
areolar mound (look 4 big nipples)

Late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 21-hydroxylase deficiency excess of sex steroids precocious puberty in boys

McCune-Albright syndrome: precocious puberty in girls + caf-au-lait spots + polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (bone zits that cause multiple fx)
Teenage pregnancy: complications include poor maternal weight gain, premature delivery, low birth weight, risk of pre-eclampsia
Substance abuse: suspect w/ declining school performance, poor hygiene, exaggerated mood swings, hanging w/ the wrong crowd, frequent hostile

Pediatrics Shelf notes

Cocaine: euphoria, tachycardia, hypertension, nosebleeds, heart attacks, strokes

Marijuana: euphoria, paranoia, injected eyes, munchies

Anabolic steroids: muscles, hirsutism, acne, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, roid rage; consider in football players

MDMA (Ecstasy): euphoria, stimulant, sense of closeness with others, death by hyperthermia or dehydration; consider in clubs/raves

Inhalants: brain damage, arrhythmias, death

Suicide: women attempt more but men are more successful; Tx admit + get full psych eval
Sleeping late w/ puberty: due to melatonin phase-delay in sleep-wake cycle
Acne vulgaris: not associated with food or caffeine intake; Tx topical benzoyl peroxide (1st line), topical retinoids or abx (2nd line), PO abx (3rd line),
isotretinoin (last line, teratogenic)
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding: abnormal menses w/o identifiable cause; Dx of exclusion, Tx OCPs to normalize cycle

= high-yield topics (review these before the shelf)