Chapter 2
Circuit Analysis Techniques
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Objectives
To formulate the nodevoltage equations.
To solve electric circuits using the node voltage
method.
To introduce the mesh current method.
To formulate the meshcurrent equations.
To solve electric circuits using the meshcurrent
method.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Two Powerful Techniques for Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis,
Mesh Analysis,
based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
current law
(KCL
based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
voltage law
(KVL)
we can analyze almost any circuit by obtaining a set of simultaneous equations
that are then solved to obtain the required values of current or voltage.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Nodal Analysis
So far, we have been applying KVL and KCL as
needed to find voltages and currents in a circuit.
Good for developing intuition, finding things quickly
but what if the circuit is complicated? What if you get
stuck?
Systematic way to find all voltages in a circuit by
repeatedly applying KCL: Node Voltage Method
(Nodal Analysis).
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Branches and Nodes
( reminder from last part)
Branch: elements connected endtoend,
nothing coming off in between (in series)
Node:
place where elements are joinedincludes entire wire
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method :
Step 1
Select a node as the reference
node.
This is the reference Node
The reference node is commonly called the
ground since it is assumed to have zero
potential.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method ( Cont.)
Step 2
Assign voltages v1, v2, . . . , vn1 to
the remaining n 1 nodes. The
voltages are referenced with respect
to the reference node.
Node 0 is the reference node (v = 0), while
nodes 1 and 2 are assigned voltages v1
and v2.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 3
Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non
reference nodes
add i1, i2, and i3 as the currents through
resistors R1,R2, and R3, respectively. At
by applying KCL gives
node 1
node 2
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 4
Use Ohms law to express the
branch currents in terms of node
voltages.
The key idea to bear in mind is that, since
resistance is a passive element, by the
passive sign convention, current
must always flow from a higher potential to
a lower potential.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method
( Cont.)
Step 5
Solve the resulting simultaneous
equations to obtain the unknown
node voltages.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
10
Node Voltage Equations (Resistors)
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
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Example:
The voltage drop from node X to a reference node (ground) is
called the node voltage Vx.
The current through resistors can be expressed as
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
Va Vb
Iab =
R
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Example
Calculate the node voltages
Solution
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
13
At node 1
Multiply by 4
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
14
At node 2
Multiply by 12
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Example
Find the voltage at node 1, 2 & 3
Solve this example and handle it to my office on Sunday 5/04/09 at 12:00pm
Extra bonus
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
16
Conclusion for Nodal Analysis
Nodal analysis is simply writing KCL equations in a
systematic way assuming all currents leaving.
Nodes voltages are the circuit variables.
Currents are expressed in terms of nodes voltages.
The number of variables =
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
Number of nodes  1
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Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources
note that:
A current source produces constant current in a
give direction.
Is is leaving Va
Is
Va
Vb
 Is is leaving Vb
Va
A Voltage source maintains the voltage constant
between its terminals. Va = Vs
No need to consider Va a circuit variable.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
Vs
+

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If a voltage source is
connected between the
reference node and a
nonreference node.
simply set the voltage at the nonreference
node equal to the voltage of the voltage
source
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
v1 = 10 V
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If the voltage source
(dependent or independent) is
connected between two nonreference nodes.
we apply both KCL and KVL to
determine the node voltages.
V1 and v2 are called a supernodes as they enclose a (dependent or
independent) voltage source connected between them and any elements
connected in parallel.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Steps to Determine Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources.
Step 1
Choose a reference node (ground, node 0)
Step 2
Define unknown node voltages (those not connected to ground by
voltage sources).
Va, Vb,
Step 3
Write KCL equation at each unknown node.
How? Each current involved in the KCL equation will either come
from a current source (giving you the current value) or through a
device like a resistor.
If the current comes through a device, relate the current to the node
voltages using I V relationship (like Ohms law).
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Step 4
Apply KCL to the supper node
Supernode
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
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Step 5
Apply KVL to the supper node
Step 6
Solve the set of equations (N linear KCL
equations for N unknown node voltages).
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Example
node voltage set
R1
+

V1
Va
R
3
Vb
R2
IS
R4
reference node
Choose a reference node.
Define the node voltages (except reference node and the one set
by the voltage source).
Apply KCL at the nodes Va and Vb with unknown voltage.
Va V1 Va Va Vb
+
+
=0
R1
R2
R3
Vb Va Vb
+
= IS
R3
R4
Solve for Va and Vb in terms of circuit parameters.
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Example
Find the node voltage
Solution
Apply KCL at the super node
Multiply by 4
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
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.1
Apply KVL to the loop
.2
From 1 and 2
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Example
Calculate the power absorbed by
the 6 ohm resistor using nodal analysis
Apply nodal KCL at V1
v1
v1 v2
1
=0
2
6
v1 v2
v1
+
1 = 0
6
2
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
1
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At Node V2
v1 v2
v2
4=0
6
7
v2 v1
v2
+
+4=0
6
7
Solve for 1 & 2
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
.2
2
6
6
2
1
2
P =i R
v v
P=
6
144
= 24W
6=
6
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Example
Find Io using the NodeVoltage
At node V1
4 = i1 + i2
v1
v1 v2
4=
+
3
6
v1
v1 v2
4 = 0
+
3
6
..........................................................1
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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At node V2
I o = i3 + i4
v1 v2
v2
v2 12
=
+
6
4
6
v2 v1
v2
v2 12
+
+
=0
6
4
6
..2
Solve for 1 and 2
V1 = 10.838 V
V2 = 8.516 V
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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Example
Use nodal analysis, find vo
Solution
At Node V1
i1 = i2 + 5
v1 v0
v1
=
+5
1
2
v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
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Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
Multiply by 2
(80) = (v1 v0 ) + 10
(v1 v0 ) = 70
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology
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At Node V0
i2 + 5 = i3
v1 v0
v0
v0 ( 20 )
+5 =
+
2
4
8
Multiply by 8
4v1 7v0 = 20
Dr.Eng. Hisham ElSherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department
Solving for v0 and v1
V0 = 30v
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