You are on page 1of 33

Chapter 2

Circuit Analysis Techniques

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Objectives
To formulate the node-voltage equations.
To solve electric circuits using the node voltage
method.
To introduce the mesh current method.
To formulate the mesh-current equations.
To solve electric circuits using the mesh-current
method.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Two Powerful Techniques for Circuit Analysis

Nodal Analysis,

Mesh Analysis,

based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
current law
(KCL

based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
voltage law
(KVL)

we can analyze almost any circuit by obtaining a set of simultaneous equations


that are then solved to obtain the required values of current or voltage.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Nodal Analysis
So far, we have been applying KVL and KCL as
needed to find voltages and currents in a circuit.
Good for developing intuition, finding things quickly
but what if the circuit is complicated? What if you get
stuck?
Systematic way to find all voltages in a circuit by
repeatedly applying KCL: Node Voltage Method
(Nodal Analysis).
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Branches and Nodes

( reminder from last part)

Branch: elements connected end-to-end,


nothing coming off in between (in series)

Node:

place where elements are joinedincludes entire wire

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method :


Step 1
Select a node as the reference
node.

This is the reference Node

The reference node is commonly called the


ground since it is assumed to have zero
potential.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method ( Cont.)


Step 2
Assign voltages v1, v2, . . . , vn1 to
the remaining n 1 nodes. The
voltages are referenced with respect
to the reference node.

Node 0 is the reference node (v = 0), while


nodes 1 and 2 are assigned voltages v1
and v2.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method


( Cont.)

Step 3
Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non
reference nodes

add i1, i2, and i3 as the currents through


resistors R1,R2, and R3, respectively. At
by applying KCL gives
node 1
node 2

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method


( Cont.)

Step 4
Use Ohms law to express the
branch currents in terms of node
voltages.

The key idea to bear in mind is that, since


resistance is a passive element, by the
passive sign convention, current
must always flow from a higher potential to
a lower potential.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method


( Cont.)

Step 5
Solve the resulting simultaneous
equations to obtain the unknown
node voltages.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

10

Node Voltage Equations (Resistors)

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

11

Example:
The voltage drop from node X to a reference node (ground) is
called the node voltage Vx.

The current through resistors can be expressed as


Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Va Vb
Iab =
R

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

12

Example
Calculate the node voltages
Solution

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

13

At node 1

Multiply by 4

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

14

At node 2

Multiply by 12

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

15

Example
Find the voltage at node 1, 2 & 3

Solve this example and handle it to my office on Sunday 5/04/09 at 12:00pm


Extra bonus

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

16

Conclusion for Nodal Analysis


Nodal analysis is simply writing KCL equations in a
systematic way assuming all currents leaving.
Nodes voltages are the circuit variables.
Currents are expressed in terms of nodes voltages.
The number of variables =

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Number of nodes - 1

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

17

Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources


note that:

A current source produces constant current in a


give direction.
Is is leaving Va

Is

Va

Vb

- Is is leaving Vb
Va

A Voltage source maintains the voltage constant


between its terminals. Va = Vs
No need to consider Va a circuit variable.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Vs

+
-

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

18

If a voltage source is
connected between the
reference node and a
non-reference node.

simply set the voltage at the non-reference


node equal to the voltage of the voltage
source
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

v1 = 10 V
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

19

If the voltage source


(dependent or independent) is
connected between two nonreference nodes.
we apply both KCL and KVL to
determine the node voltages.

V1 and v2 are called a super-nodes as they enclose a (dependent or


independent) voltage source connected between them and any elements
connected in parallel.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

20

Steps to Determine Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources.


Step 1
Choose a reference node (ground, node 0)
Step 2
Define unknown node voltages (those not connected to ground by
voltage sources).
Va, Vb,
Step 3
Write KCL equation at each unknown node.
How? Each current involved in the KCL equation will either come
from a current source (giving you the current value) or through a
device like a resistor.
If the current comes through a device, relate the current to the node
voltages using I -V relationship (like Ohms law).
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

21

Step 4
Apply KCL to the supper node

Super-node

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

22

Step 5
Apply KVL to the supper node

Step 6
Solve the set of equations (N linear KCL
equations for N unknown node voltages).

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

23

Example

node voltage set


R1
+
-

V1

Va

R
3

Vb

R2

IS

R4

reference node

Choose a reference node.


Define the node voltages (except reference node and the one set
by the voltage source).
Apply KCL at the nodes Va and Vb with unknown voltage.

Va V1 Va Va Vb
+
+
=0
R1
R2
R3

Vb Va Vb
+
= IS
R3
R4

Solve for Va and Vb in terms of circuit parameters.


Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

24

Example
Find the node voltage

Solution
Apply KCL at the super node

Multiply by 4

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

25

.1
Apply KVL to the loop

.2
From 1 and 2

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

26

Example

Calculate the power absorbed by


the 6 ohm resistor using nodal analysis
Apply nodal KCL at V1

v1
v1 v2
1
=0

2
6
v1 v2
v1
+
1 = 0
6
2
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

1
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

27

At Node V2

v1 v2
v2

4=0
6
7
v2 v1
v2
+
+4=0
6
7
Solve for 1 & 2

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

.2
2
6
6
2
1
2

P =i R

v v
P=
6

144
= 24W
6=
6

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

28

Example

Find Io using the Node-Voltage


At node V1

4 = i1 + i2
v1
v1 v2
4=
+
3
6
v1
v1 v2
4 = 0
+
3
6

..........................................................1
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

29

At node V2

I o = i3 + i4
v1 v2
v2
v2 12
=
+
6
4
6
v2 v1
v2
v2 12
+
+
=0
6
4
6

..2

Solve for 1 and 2


V1 = 10.838 V
V2 = 8.516 V
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

30

Example

Use nodal analysis, find vo

Solution
At Node V1

i1 = i2 + 5
v1 v0
v1
=
+5
1
2
v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

31

v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
Multiply by 2

(80) = (v1 v0 ) + 10
(v1 v0 ) = 70

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif


Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

32

At Node V0

i2 + 5 = i3
v1 v0
v0
v0 ( 20 )
+5 =
+
2
4
8
Multiply by 8

4v1 7v0 = 20
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Solving for v0 and v1


V0 = 30v
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

33