You are on page 1of 33

# Chapter 2

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Objectives
To formulate the node-voltage equations.
To solve electric circuits using the node voltage
method.
To introduce the mesh current method.
To formulate the mesh-current equations.
To solve electric circuits using the mesh-current
method.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Nodal Analysis,

Mesh Analysis,

based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
current law
(KCL

based on a
systematic
application of
Kirchhoffs
voltage law
(KVL)

## we can analyze almost any circuit by obtaining a set of simultaneous equations

that are then solved to obtain the required values of current or voltage.

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

Nodal Analysis
So far, we have been applying KVL and KCL as
needed to find voltages and currents in a circuit.
Good for developing intuition, finding things quickly
but what if the circuit is complicated? What if you get
stuck?
Systematic way to find all voltages in a circuit by
repeatedly applying KCL: Node Voltage Method
(Nodal Analysis).
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Branch: elements connected end-to-end,

nothing coming off in between (in series)

Node:

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method :

Step 1
Select a node as the reference
node.

## The reference node is commonly called the

ground since it is assumed to have zero
potential.

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method ( Cont.)

Step 2
Assign voltages v1, v2, . . . , vn1 to
the remaining n 1 nodes. The
voltages are referenced with respect
to the reference node.

## Node 0 is the reference node (v = 0), while

nodes 1 and 2 are assigned voltages v1
and v2.

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method

( Cont.)

Step 3
Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non
reference nodes

## add i1, i2, and i3 as the currents through

resistors R1,R2, and R3, respectively. At
by applying KCL gives
node 1
node 2

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method

( Cont.)

Step 4
Use Ohms law to express the
branch currents in terms of node
voltages.

## The key idea to bear in mind is that, since

resistance is a passive element, by the
passive sign convention, current
must always flow from a higher potential to
a lower potential.

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Steps to Determine Node Voltages Method

( Cont.)

Step 5
Solve the resulting simultaneous
equations to obtain the unknown
node voltages.

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

10

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

11

Example:
The voltage drop from node X to a reference node (ground) is
called the node voltage Vx.

## The current through resistors can be expressed as

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Va Vb
Iab =
R

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

12

Example
Calculate the node voltages
Solution

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

13

At node 1

Multiply by 4

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

14

At node 2

Multiply by 12

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

15

Example
Find the voltage at node 1, 2 & 3

Extra bonus

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

16

## Conclusion for Nodal Analysis

Nodal analysis is simply writing KCL equations in a
systematic way assuming all currents leaving.
Nodes voltages are the circuit variables.
Currents are expressed in terms of nodes voltages.
The number of variables =

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Number of nodes - 1

17

note that:

## A current source produces constant current in a

give direction.
Is is leaving Va

Is

Va

Vb

- Is is leaving Vb
Va

## A Voltage source maintains the voltage constant

between its terminals. Va = Vs
No need to consider Va a circuit variable.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

Vs

+
-

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

18

If a voltage source is
connected between the
reference node and a
non-reference node.

## simply set the voltage at the non-reference

node equal to the voltage of the voltage
source
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

v1 = 10 V
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

19

## If the voltage source

(dependent or independent) is
connected between two nonreference nodes.
we apply both KCL and KVL to
determine the node voltages.

## V1 and v2 are called a super-nodes as they enclose a (dependent or

independent) voltage source connected between them and any elements
connected in parallel.
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

20

## Steps to Determine Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources.

Step 1
Choose a reference node (ground, node 0)
Step 2
Define unknown node voltages (those not connected to ground by
voltage sources).
Va, Vb,
Step 3
Write KCL equation at each unknown node.
How? Each current involved in the KCL equation will either come
from a current source (giving you the current value) or through a
device like a resistor.
If the current comes through a device, relate the current to the node
voltages using I -V relationship (like Ohms law).
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

21

Step 4
Apply KCL to the supper node

Super-node

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

22

Step 5
Apply KVL to the supper node

Step 6
Solve the set of equations (N linear KCL
equations for N unknown node voltages).

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

23

Example

R1
+
-

V1

Va

R
3

Vb

R2

IS

R4

reference node

## Choose a reference node.

Define the node voltages (except reference node and the one set
by the voltage source).
Apply KCL at the nodes Va and Vb with unknown voltage.

Va V1 Va Va Vb
+
+
=0
R1
R2
R3

Vb Va Vb
+
= IS
R3
R4

## Solve for Va and Vb in terms of circuit parameters.

Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

24

Example
Find the node voltage

Solution
Apply KCL at the super node

Multiply by 4

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

25

.1
Apply KVL to the loop

.2
From 1 and 2

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

26

Example

## Calculate the power absorbed by

the 6 ohm resistor using nodal analysis
Apply nodal KCL at V1

v1
v1 v2
1
=0

2
6
v1 v2
v1
+
1 = 0
6
2
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

1
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

27

At Node V2

v1 v2
v2

4=0
6
7
v2 v1
v2
+
+4=0
6
7
Solve for 1 & 2

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

.2
2
6
6
2
1
2

P =i R

v v
P=
6

144
= 24W
6=
6

28

Example

## Find Io using the Node-Voltage

At node V1

4 = i1 + i2
v1
v1 v2
4=
+
3
6
v1
v1 v2
4 = 0
+
3
6

..........................................................1
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

29

At node V2

I o = i3 + i4
v1 v2
v2
v2 12
=
+
6
4
6
v2 v1
v2
v2 12
+
+
=0
6
4
6

..2

## Solve for 1 and 2

V1 = 10.838 V
V2 = 8.516 V
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

30

Example

## Use nodal analysis, find vo

Solution
At Node V1

i1 = i2 + 5
v1 v0
v1
=
+5
1
2
v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

31

v1 v0
40
=
+5
1
2
Multiply by 2

(80) = (v1 v0 ) + 10
(v1 v0 ) = 70

## Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

32

At Node V0

i2 + 5 = i3
v1 v0
v0
v0 ( 20 )
+5 =
+
2
4
8
Multiply by 8

4v1 7v0 = 20
Dr.-Eng. Hisham El-Sherif
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Department

## Solving for v0 and v1

V0 = 30v
ELCT708: Electronics for Biotechnology

33