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L

PART - B

plocess of disunity of
the
ir
involved
stps
the
1. Explain
1 lune - 20131
zoill
lruay
June
f
prefabricated shuctures? lmav

oov/

Dec - 2013)

or
of prefabricated are assembled
elements
many
in Prefabrication
sh'ucture'
united or joined to form a si[gle
al:ld in this
transportaBcn'
the
is
prefabrication
in
lo into smaller
The problem
is disunited or separates
tl'"
oroblem transportation
'mtttut"
very easv and in the site thev

;e

:i;;;'.;;;

transportau;; becomes

may be united are assernblY'

is called
smaller member or element
This method of separating into
disunity,silucture in prefabrication'
three
rwu or
gtroer' two
or giider,
as beam or'
member
thelarger
using
of
.
lnstead
but
t
togutt'ur a' a sinsle memtler
,r.r,il"r"""*i.
";ud
tn"t'd be equal to lum
siiili"'J"'"'""*Uat
a
ot
the load carilng capa"iry
-''
ot tt'tt" onaller

*;';;;r"irr;

mernbdrs' '

ffiil.*t;iltity-t*'

manY
dohe in a faster rate for
is
prcduction
in
Nonnally in factories
strudures into
leads to disttnity of the
This
elements'
4
small prefabrication
and lbr shiPPing' Thire are
prefabrication
plant
suitaUle
memUers.

'!.o.

fiethods ofdisuniry stsuctures'


I

(a) SYstems

otlinear memberi disuhited at iointst

andassembling'
at facilities in manufactuiing

Advantages:

not necessary'
Scaffoldings or auxili.ary scaffolding$are
siinple'
n"oU"* r". t'O-g method is very

t_
Disadvantdges:

places were
ioinG at the corners that is
the
disadvantages
The main
is very difficult'
So the iormation ofioint
maximum'
are
momelts
the

,.

?he quality of concreting should be very high in these precast


members.
The joinls must be over dinensioned.

This makes additional materials to be used for precast members.

This disadvantage is overcome are rectified by the new rend or


method ofreplacing moment resistance ioints by hinge like structures etc...
In tlis method more maierial is required for beams t}te complicate.d
construction ofrigid corners can be omitted.

L-

[b] system lbr the prefabrication ofdisuniting into entire frames:


ln this method the,entire frames the total structuie are disuniied or
separated,

Advantagesr

.
.
.
.

at

The members ofjointb are fdafuced.


Failures pf loints are minimum.

l'his disfnity method is suitable lor site preFabrication.


Transpoitation cost for many elekrentsio ihe site is reduced.

Disadvantages:

r
.
.
.

The lifting-or hoisfrnfof the entire frqnie ii+oore diffituft


"Transporta'rion ofthe liante Aom the plant is difficult.

Transport cost is high for the Bansport ofentire frame'


The stress diitribution during lifting is a problem.

The stress distribution of straight member during lifting is to be


deteimined. The stress distribution arising in frame during their hoisting is
statically redundant.

tilting of the frame trom the horizontal into the vertjcal positio!
lifted at tlvo points two separated acting hoisting machines are the
methods of lifting tne framd. Ifthese two points are lifted or hoisted at the
The

same dme uniformly, the frame'.vill be affected by torsion'

Connecting to suspension points by the balance or a cable rocker


makes the fi'ame to be lifted at a single poinl In this case also torsion
occurs ifthe rocker is not suspended at exact point.
From this it's clear thit hoisting ola
difficult thar, hoisdng a sraight membr.

flifre

is more iomiilicated and

Similarly hoisting of unsymmetrical frames is atso very dirfrcult. So


this method is advantageous where small member of ioints are required
and where there is possibility ofrapid works.

(c) Srraight members disunited at points of minimum momentsr

The production and placing of arches is more difEcult than tlie


straight members.
AdYantages:

.
r

Less material is required and long span structures its economicai.

Arches may be t\ryo hinged or thr'ee hinged may be fixed at footing


and made up with or without ties.

The arches are usually precast assemblc in the site. The middle hinge
is eliminated after tJre placing finishing. RF bars for both the members are
welded tcgether ioint between the members filled with insitu concretc. The
structure is transformed to ttle two hinged arch rigidity is increased. The
movem,ents or motion
'rnder wind ]oad is reduced. The method is suitable
for eliminating all ttiee hinges. In this case a arch fixed at both ends is
obtained.
Arches can be pracast ia ye$ical and horizontal position. In vertical
position the shuttering made up of member or concrete is rcquired having
the same curyature of the arch prefabrication is larger. Arches in the
horizontal position are more economical.

The construction of arched trusses can be carried out in horizontal


position only.

z. Explain ihe problems ilrvotveit tn' aeiign because of ioint-fl-exibility'


2012) (Nov/Dec
niscuss with regard to various locationi' (May/June - 2013)

variou:,u'"1:::Y."" no'
There are difficulties and problemsrfthe iointi.cif
pccur in the structure' It is
i.oper. ff;oirlts not strong tlliert t}le faiture Wili
brv
,apo*"na,o solve the problems nldesigli and.'construction strucflrre
assembling (iointingJ many precast.inerhbers'

i.
ii.
iii.

easY.

Any joint should be


Srnaiier in accuracies will notinflrience anfproblem'
in design'
Deviations- in joints arealso leiding,to problep

'':

iv.Dimensionaltolerancesshould4otcostmanychangesinthestresses
design and stress disfibution in the structures'
Important requirement of the ioint:
1) The construction ofjornt should be easy'
2l The ioint should require little material'
to be required)'
3) Joint should not consume more labour(less labour is
4) The cost should be minimum'
necessary'
5j Greater control informing and construction ofioints is
6) lnspeciion ofloints is always importanl
construction of the joint should match or harmonize
-Zi fhe aesign antl
material to use.
concrete and RF
8l ttre properties ofstcel and timber are different fion:
concrete.

steel construction
9J So the ioints similar to those used in timber and
are generallY not suitable'

C.hA,rJ- (co''2,.f -

fi,rk

Fig (a) The butt ioint was made with splayed table as used in timber
construction. This is not suitable

if

the nature ofmaterial is R.C.C.

Fig (b) In pin ioints is used which looks like a ioint used is

steel

construetion. So thisjoint is nqt suitable for the design.

Fig (e) The structural parts of welded to the relnforcemenL 'Ihis is not
sumcient for the su;table. connection or joinl Two halves of the steel
structure forming the main joint should be concreted ends of the joil)ted
members..The slightest rotational displacement is sufficient to fit the teeth
ofeach other arld
the aplacing of the pins.
'
fi, . -t.
:,.t
The threaded steavedoiipling ofsicai bars is also a proLrlem in design

ofjoints.
irnpo$ant r&antage of stee[ is thaL in rensile and compressicn
enE{.differ from only ro a small extent. So the joints are relatively
rdJ+sy in stiel'coirstirctibn.'

. ln'c&e o[ ioint

between st4tipa. y redundant sted.llfuc:tures which


reaches the yield point the redistribution ofstresses is hdvantageous which

10

than iilose
steel ccnstructicll the method of joining other

far

R-'C C

sh ucture shouid be used'

after the method of jaint


Shrinkage when dryrng and creep in tin'oer
to a high degree.
it at certain level For
Concrete is also to shrinkage brrt RF reduces

when its place is not


precast structures the shrinkage occurring before
much' The
irnpo*n, and similarly tlat Lke place thereafter is not or grout
to iDsitu concrete
importance ofshrinkage developed in ioint fitted
is greater.
Two importance points to be considered are'

of joints and the


1. The plastic construction used for further concreting
fluid cement mortar cast are pressed into gaps loose'
and mortar continues
2. After settling the shrinkage of the insitu concrete
on RCC permit onlv
t"o two pltases of shrinkage the codes
;;-;;;
of a mortar casting'
reduced stresses tor a subsequent i situ concrete
;;;"t" determined a' a f'nction of vsidth of the ioint or the gap to be
concreIed.
tolerances due
The ioint to execute 6y allowing proper dimensional
.-. to urrfuvou*bte force effect and due to below' the relation displacement of
tolerance is
the ioint rnembers should be impo"sible if 'J'e dimensional
ensured.
of forces
The length of the section dimensioned the transmission
permissible stress'
should be as short as possible and exclude any excess
The joints may be

ti) Risid

(ii) Hinged'

of tensile'
The rigid ioints are adequate in addition to bearing
moments' These
compressive and shear force and for resisting bending
and relative rotation impossible'
ioints make relative displacement

11

The hinge joints are those vr'hich can transmit forces passing through

the hinge itselfallolv sudden motion and rctation.


The rigid joints are generally used for joining individual members to
another but for rigid joint considerable man power is required. The hinged
ioints are executed simply and require iess lime tlan the dgid joint

Shod ioints are joints used rarely are exceptionally in indusfial


consiruction. The shod joins are used for long span only. These are mainly
used in bridge or long span bridge.
Depending on the insitu concrete there are ti!-o types ofjoints.

(i) Dry ioint:


The dry joint is a ioint used for simple placing of two members on
When a rigid joint is form. is difficult to lengthen tle,stee! bars to bg
joined by overlapping or by welding them together, when a discontinuity of
concrete is avoided by as skilled continuous concreting. This kind of ioint
u'hich requires not only a casting witl cement mortar but also a contiruous
or subsequent concreting is called a wet joint,

'

(ii) wet ioint


Wet joint should comply with the character of the material of the
structure to the form. This ioiut avoids discontinuous between the
members structures assembled by using wet ioints have a monolithic
character.

disunited later are usually iointed by dry ioints. The advantage ofthis is the
subsequent to t}le execution of the ioin! the structnre bcomes immediate
load bearing.
Wet ioints are more adequate to bear the forces and are less sensitive
to inaccuracy than by ioint.

In steel construction steel shoes and hinges are used when great
forces are to be transmittcd the hinges of expensive and if possible they
may be omitted in tiis case.
.72

3. Why shoutd we give allowance for ioint deformation? Explain in


detail? (May / lune - 2OO9) (Nov / Dec - 2013)
Various structural elemeuts are macle in the plant or prefabricated
whei these eletnents in their sjtc thcre may be joint deiormation to take it
rvorkout deformation. An allowance is tolerance or
dimensions ofthe pre fab units are given in the design'

the

in
This is the lirniting value ofthe permissible or admissible deviation
shape of the finished prefabricates from the design
size

or

requirements.

ln practice it is not possible to make products lr'hich will have the


accuracies
exact design dimension. Extreme precision is not possible as in
or unavoidable during erection.
The designer should be able to forecast or even to tell the maximum
and
tolerance value or tJIe allowance which will make the correct assembly
functioning of the individual prefabricates The decreasing

efficient

value of
tolerance leads to the increased cost of protection and opt'imum
permissible deviations must be established large admissible deviations
which are normally made positive as a safety factors lead to waste of
material in mass Production.
In making large bleck prefabricates the average volume of concrete'
was on
in their products ivas increased by 1.50/o( the thicl<ness ofthe blocks
per month
the average 0.5cm) with the production of 3O0Om3 of concrete
the excessive month use ofcement is nearly 15 rnetric tonnes'
Deviations in the dimensions of products are important to the
production equipment main the irame work' The materials used in
joint
formwork ancl the manner in which the parts of the forms are
together are the important face because of the deformability alld their
tendency to warp wiiir tlrt,istule, ihe tiii'iber forms can no ensu!'e the
accurary iike steel or concrete forms. Bolted connectlors are not
recommended for formwork because of difficult of thread cleaning' The
best accuracies obtained with selflocking or wedged forms'

in the machine tool industry, degree of precision is important in


prefabricate building industry There is a conventional scale deflning the
As

maximum permissible allowance or tolerance. The small is itl relation io


the theoretical dimensjon of prefabricates.
The following table gives the vaiues degree of precision and basic
tolerallces or allotvances [dimensions and tolerances in mm)'

Degree

of

precision Dimension of 10 m

required

300 to 3000 to Above


Upto Upto
9000
9000
100 100 to 3000
300
4
2
3
7
0.5
6
4
1
2
3
10
4
6
2
3
16
6
10
4
3
10
25
6
10
4
4A
16
6
10

4
5

6
7

or 4th

Dimension of60m

In design it is advisable to design of frame work with an assumed 3d


degree ofprecision noi less than the sth degree.

For non-stl uctural-components 6s degree precision is sufncie,4t


dimensional co0-ordination is not affecd.

ifthe

The following rules are follorved to decide the cverall nominal degree
of precision ofa prefabricate.

From only one dimension is critical, the degree of precision corresponding


to the dimension ofthe component..
When more than one dimension ofthe component are allowed tolerance or

allowance

of

precision corresponding

to the most grilis2l nr

vital

dimensions are calculated.

'fhe degree of precisioo must be shown in the working drawings


which make to know about the type of formwork for the given type of
formwork the following specific ranges ofprecision are assigned.

> Steel or cast iron moulds= 4 to 5


> Concrete moulds= 4 to 6

> Vertical bafiery 'ioulds' steel= 5 tc Ito B


> Vertical ba$ery monkls' concrete=6

)
F

to 8
CollaPsible steel forrns=S

to
Timber forms bolted or welded=7

of formwork
tolerances' the fabricates
design
the
follo'w
to
orCer
In
dimensional
one degree' The admissible
must be accurate by at least
deviation of Prefabricates are
(a) Blocks:
11rg.665s = -0+Smm

width

= -s+Bmm

Length = -15+1omm
@) Panels:
Thickness = -0+smm

Width =-5+10mm
Length =
(c) Beam and column:
Thicloess = '3+5mm
Width= -5+5mm
Length = -15+15mm

or tolei?nces are the


For the forms, ihe maximum allowance

following range-

(i) With $mber forT rs;


Thiclmess= 7'5 to 14mm

Width=65to24mm
Lengtb = 10 to 30mm

15

(ii) Steel forms:


Thickness= 3 to 20m

Width= 11to 22mm

Length=8to28mm
The limiting values of allowance are calculated for the following
formula.

a1=

+bt#j

a2=

-2t#j

a3:

r{#

at = +s ttlo\
- ' t+b '
Where,
I

-r length ofthe edge for which the tolerance is calculated in'mm'.

4, Explain

briefly about principles ofdesign:

In a prefabricated building the structure must be srrmciently rigid in


all directions and the load hearing system must be simple and clear-cut
solution in which t.lie fixity.condition of units are doubtfut, where the load
bearing functions ofindividual elements are dimcult to define or where tie
points ofapplication ofloads are uncertain, should be avoided.

In particular precast ard insitu work forming parts of the load


bearing walls ofa single storey should not be mixed. lffor any functioual or
practical reascns some walls or column must be constructed insitu due
consideration must be given the design to the differential archaeological
deformations which will take place in tle wet and dry work
Examples ofpoorly defined support conditions.

i.
ii.

Wall element partly resting on odd and partly on new concrete.


Load bearing walls oftwo different rnaterial

16

In the irnproved design the palt of the rvall composed solely of


which insitu
pre.est panels is distlnctly seParated from the other half in
join!4g the two halves of the wail make
cast and rvall occur. Slenrter beams
allowance for a small difference in the vertical delormations'

with panels
The spaces betlryeen these floor level beams are filled
of the two
built of smail gas concrete blocks should the relative movement
form in the infill
of the vrall be of any applicable ma8nitude cracks will
bearing capacity of the structure' ln the
ianels they will not atttci the toart
strength of
iriginal design cracks in the insitu girder wall would lo$'er the
the whole wall.
Because

of the shiinkage of fresh concrete with the consequent

formationofcrakes,isalsoinvisibletointroduceinsitustiffeningwallinto
to
iru prefabricated building' lt is perfectly in order; hourever'
ott
second
".rn
"n
tnrra dte stiffening 'core; of the building to which in the
.onr*o
made of prefabricated units
stage of erection, the remainder of tlle building
is conneeted.

part insitu
There are no structural obiections to part precast and
in fresh and
floor construction. The differential shrinkage movement
calculations concerni'ng
nature concrete need only be consideretl in design
with
lr.g" ,prn beams, prefabricated parts of which are ioined together
is sold used in having
insi-itu iorrcrete. This type of construction however
projeLts.
panel walls
Equaily acceptable are monolithic fioors on prefabricated
walls, provided all walls of a given

o. pau.rr, floo, suppo.t"d on insitu


storey are insitu.

units is
The spatial rigidity of a buildini made of prefabricated
walls' which extend
achieved by means of rigid longitudinal and transverse
the full height ofbuilding.
of horizontal

These walls distribute over the foundation two kinds


the external walls and
load, namely, force due to direct wind pressure on

horizontalforceresultingfi.omthenon.verticalornon.symmetricallayout
ofthe load bearing walls.

11

of the presence of the stiifening walls only ver*Jcal load


in a
neerls he considered in the designed the load bearing elemerts
Because

buiidiug.
the
From the stmctural poini of view, it is possible to provide
rigidly
necessary lateral stifftIess by means of beams and columns
connected at the ioints' The results, however in increased consumption
reinforcement and additionai production difficuities, and is tlerefore
admissible only when economically justified.

Foundations:
The foundation of a Luilding may t e insitu or may consist of large
prefabricates. In either case, t}le underground structure must be very rigid
and must ensure an even distribution of loads over the plan area of the
builcling. Building assembled from prefabricates are very prone to the
formation of cracks in construction ioints. The designer must make certain
that the whole building witl settle evenly acting as a thre'dimension rigid
body.
As a role, insitu constxuction below ground level adequately ensures
an even distribution ofload over the plan area.

'"

'lfi Toils of low- compressibilitv large prefabricates can provide a


satisfactory foundation structure. Atlention must be paid however to the
dgidity of connections one way of ensuring this is to block bond the units,
as in masonry walls.

fragment ofthe prefabiicated underg)'ound structure ofa building'

i.
ii.
iii.

Ceiiar floor'level.
lnsiix ring beam.
lnsitu concrete innlling.

Architectural concept:
wide
When the architectural concept \^'alls for a building with very
walls [e g ]
windo\r,rs external walls should be designed as non-structural
certain walling.

it
Although someiimes praciised in long wall and ring wall buildings
selfis not strictly correct to design extel'nal wall as load bearing or even
supporting ifpanels with large window openings are required'
walls
AII chimney flues and ventilation ducts should be grouped in
running paiallel to the span ofthe floor panels'

it is
The walls housing these ducts shquld be self-supporting when
possible to cap them efnciently to the structural walls of the buildiug the
structure
chimney walls may be assumed to have a stiffening effect on the
All lintel btocks below grounti must be 8i1'en generous beating to
ensure the monolithic behaviour ofthe foundation !t'alls'

IlVhen considerable ground moverire[t are anticipated the design of


the underground structure should be insitu monolithic ivith suitable sn)ali
more than
e),?ansion joints. The span ofthe foundation walls should not be
three times and the thickness, not less tltan 1/20 oftheir height'

In skeleton construction the walls dividing tl"e total space in to

individual apartments should also be placed over the beams and not on
floor panels,

Dividing walls silouid not be located in ,the middle floor par,rei:


wail and the
because of the ensuring loss of useful spaie thickness of the
increased consumption ofsteel. [Concentrated Ioad at mid span]'

Before precast foundation bocks are laid lhe soil must be carefully
levelled and compact with the addition of hz'rd'core lf necessary blocks

should be bedded in cement mortar eliminated dry spaces bet',veen them


ilnd the grouiid.

rnonolithic reinforced concrete beam should be constructed

immediately and the foundation block


A similar ring beam should encircle the building at ground floor slab
level.

Correlation of Structure and Architecture:


The structure of a building most reflects the architectural ccncept In
designing tluildings with load bearing walls the normal profile is to utilise

the latter to separate individual apartments load bearing walls as a rule


make adequate acoustic barriers.

lyrite the detail about design of cross section based on effiiciency of


the materials. (Apr / ntlay - 2,011)
5.

Prehbricates are classified as homogenous and composite based on the


number ofdifferent material used in fabrication.
Homogenous prefabricadon:-

The prefabricates which have only one material are called


homogenous prefabrication. 'fhe homogenous limit may be hollow, solid,
ribbcd.
Solid:-

(i)

Ifthe units have plain & ordinary cross sectjon which form a total
mass of structure are cillbd as Soliii C/S.

Hollow:
(ii)

The prefabricates which have hollow (orJ opening (or) cores in

it

are called hollow prefabricates. This openings are used ventilation

for taking any line which may be Elemric line, water line.

Compound wall panels:These are panels made up of many panels called as composite panels.

This is also called semi prefabricates w-hich are joined together during the

erection: Those panels are produced in industry. The production process


is mechanized & easier dran sandwich panel,

The compound wall panels may have two identical waffle section
produced by vibro

rolling. They are ioined together by facing the ribs

invert with mineral wool insulation b1w them.


Compound panel may have semi pre-fabricate which are glued (or)
attached

to tle polystyrene insulated slab. Outer panels are ioined by

means ofsteel cramps.

The erections are done in two stages. The concrete pandls are first

fixed to the structure and the internal part (insulation & lining) is then
erccted fuom inside.

Ribbedr

(iii)

tfthe prefabricate have the ribs irr it they

a:-e calle<i

r!bbed section

(or) ribbed panel section.

Composite prefabricates:

A prefubricate with more tlan one material us called a composite


prefabricates.

2t

Here many materials in difierent layers unit joint together to form


single piefabrication (or) sandwich

unii.

Flere reach and every indi.,'i.iral

layel of *&ese pre-fabricate may take various forms of construction- The


composite prefabricatcs are also classified into ihree qpes.

1. Solid section

2. Cored secrion

3. fubbed section
Here the solid c/s section more than one material with two layers.

tD
(iD

Structural layer

Noir-strueturallayer

Structural layer takes the load on the Structure and safely resist (or]

withstand t}te loads. The Non-structural layers are insulation (orJ finishing

layer. This insulation protects the structxre fiom ihermal radiation (or)
heat.

[b) Cored seciion:Those are the section which have different (orJ cores in

it and nade

up ofmore tJran one material.

(c, Ribbed section:They are prefabricates with ribs in

it thse ribs are the structural

layers and withsiand the load. Here also the non-structural layer (or] the
. qgtqr finishrng layer is used..to proiect tht structure from the heat effect

.ii,i

dn i;oi carry any load.


Here also rnore [han one material is composed in the pre

- fabricate.

Another types of competitive prcfabiicate is skeletal pre-fabricate.

This is the one in which one material forms a frame work filled with
another material which us lighter [or) weaker.

Another type of composite pre-fabricate us one which have ribbed


panels and insulating layers made up of som e [orJ different materials.
22

Here the ribbed panels take ttre load and form thc structural layers of
composite prefabricate. The insulation layer is protective layer.
Design ofcross section based on efficiency of material usedi

Based on the single or more than single material, the member are
classiry as above.

The cross sections of precast reinforced concrete structure are


normally having the followinB steps.

i.
ii.
lll.

Tee section

I sectlon
ll or V secdon

The shape may be solid and their profile can be hollow or divided
(practiced latticed) and vierendeel structures.
Bearns:
The beams have rectangular I, T; V shaped and hollow.

Rectan8ular secuon:

This is the method simple cross section of precast sh'ucture these


sections to be produced ls small number the advantage simple prefabricated. The disadvantage rectangular sections are not economical.

The other section l, T, V shaped V and hollow cross section are


frequently used in pre-fabrkation. The advantages ofthese sections are
Forthe react

c/s,

F'=b.h

Put 2 in 1,

= b.,,k+)

r = .,l6EE
23

----------

Hence

q=;=*

For a reLtangular c/s,

g=

q3

For other section T, l, U and \r shape etc for t}Iis cross section

The smaller the values

of g , the c,/s is more economical.

For ex: in case ofa homogeneous ofbeam I shaped c/s

They are precast RF concrete beams ofequal load bearing capacity.

F=2260

cm.z

b=48crn
k =48500 cm3
The depth of equivalent rectangular

'

c/

s is, h=7

an

Tlie ibrm fattor bf t}re l-Section is,


(n

..,

=-,l6kb
2260
.l OxlgSOOx4O- .

'

= 0.605

:' q

'

0'605

The value of q 0.605 means that in the case of beams made up of


iimber, steel are another homogeneous are same material have the same
tensile strength. fhe apptiiatibn of I section is as shor,rm in aLrove fig.
Instead of a red profile with the same widtl], makes to save in material of
39.9Vo.

This concept is called the design of c/s based on the eificiency of


material used in prefabrication.

Fretted Iatticed and Vierendeel sfucturer


Generatly, there is no difference in construction tretween the solid
beam and a fretted section, The different opehings are provided in the

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fretted beam only to obtain savings in materials and to reduce the dead
load.

This girder or beam has openings to reduce ihe dead load and
in material cost. The fre$ed works or fretted section, latticed Euss,
vierendeel structure are mainly used in prefabrication because_.the dead
load is very much reduced a very high material savings is achieved.i
s?-r,ings

?hese are called as the'design of different c/s based on ttre ifficienry


ofmaterial used in prefabrication structure.

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