You are on page 1of 20

Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2011.40:87-102. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.

org
by University of California - Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. For personal use only.

Phenomenological
Approaches in Anthropology∗
Robert Desjarlais1 and C. Jason Throop2
1

Department of Anthropology, Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville,
New York 10708-5999; email: rdesjarl@slc.edu
2

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles,
California 90095-1553; email: jthroop@ucla.edu

Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2011. 40:87–102

Keywords

First published online as a Review in Advance on
June 29, 2011

discourse, embodiment, lifeworld, phenomenology, subjectivity,
intersubjectivity, Anthropology of Mind

The Annual Review of Anthropology is online at
anthro.annualreviews.org
This article’s doi:
10.1146/annurev-anthro-092010-153345
c 2011 by Annual Reviews.
Copyright 
All rights reserved
0084-6570/11/1021-0087$20.00
This article is part of a special theme on
Anthropology of Mind. For a list of other articles
in this theme, see http://www.annualreviews.
org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-an40#h1.

Abstract
This review explores the most significant dimensions and findings of
phenomenological approaches in anthropology. We spell out the motives and implications inherent in such approaches, chronicle their historical dimensions and precursors, and address the ways in which they
have contributed to analytic perspectives employed in anthropology.
This article canvasses phenomenologically oriented research in anthropology on a number of topics, including political relations and violence;
language and discourse; neurophenomenology; emotion; embodiment
and bodiliness; illness and healing; pain and suffering; aging, dying,
and death; sensory perception and experience; subjectivity; intersubjectivity and sociality; empathy; morality; religious experience; art, aesthetics, and creativity; narrative and storytelling; time and temporality;
and senses of place. We examine, and propose salient responses to, the
main critiques of phenomenological approaches in anthropology, and
we also take note of some of the most pressing and generative avenues
of research and thought in phenomenologically oriented anthropology.

87

INTRODUCTION

Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 2011.40:87-102. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org
by University of California - Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. For personal use only.

Phenomenology: the
study of phenomena as
they appear to the
consciousnesses of an
individual or a group
of people; the study of
things as they appear
in our lived
experiences
Intersubjectivity:
the existential
organization,
recognition, and
constitution of
relations between
subjects

Phenomenological approaches have become increasingly important in anthropology throughout the past 25 years. They have contributed
greatly to how anthropologists think of lived
experience, illness and healing, suffering, violence, morality, bodiliness, sensory perception, communicative practices, mind and consciousness, creativity and aesthetic efforts, and
subjectivity and intersubjectivity, among other
themes and topics. More generally, they have
helped anthropologists to reconfigure what it
means to be human, to have a body, to suffer
and to heal, and to live among others.

ANALYTIC PERSPECTIVES AND
HISTORICAL PRECURSORS

Phenomenological
modification: acts by
which social actors
take on differing
attitudes, and more or
less reflective or
engaged stances, when
relating to objects of
experience or life more
generally
Bracketing
(phenomenological
epoche):
´ the act of
suspending judgment
about the natural
world that precedes
phenomenological
analysis
Natural attitude:
that attitude in which
we assume there to be
a world that exists
independently of our
experience of it

88

The field of phenomenological anthropology
has a number of diverse influences that run
from American pragmatism and the writings
of William James and John Dewey to the phenomenological and existentialist approaches of
Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul
Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Alfred Schutz,
Hannah Arendt, Edith Stein, and Emmanuel
Levinas to the hermeneutic phenomenology
of Wilhelm Dilthey, Hans-Georg Gadamer,
and Paul Ricoeur to the ethnomethodological
perspectives of Harold Garfinkel and Harvey
Sacks to the deconstructivist phenomenology
of Jacques Derrida. Although each of these perspectives can be understood as involving distinct applications of phenomenology, they all
share a number of thematic and methodological orientations that are variously taken up in
the work of contemporary anthropologists.
How does consciousness proceed for human
beings? How do social relations, modes of perception, or life more generally take form in people’s lives? To examine experience from a phenomenological perspective is to recognize the
necessary emplacement of modalities of human
existence within ever-shifting horizons of temporality. Our existence as humans is temporally
structured in such a way that our past experience
is always retained in a present moment that is
feeding forward to anticipate future horizons
of experience. This includes the dynamic ways
Desjarlais

·

Throop

that individual actors shift between differing attitudes in the context of their engagements with
their social and physical worlds. According to
Husserl, it is by means of acts of phenomenological modification (Duranti 2009, 2010, 2011;
Throop 2009b, 2010b,c) that social actors come
to take on differing attitudes that evidence more
or less reflective or engaged stances when relating to objects of experience, be those objects
deemed to be of the mind or of the world. Particularly significant here are phenomenological insights into a distinction between modes of
existence predicated on our immediate prereflexive (what Schutz termed “prephenomenal”
and Merleau-Ponty termed “preobjective”) experience and more reflective modes of existence
that arise when we take up theoretical attitudes
toward our own and others’ actions (Csordas
1994b, Duranti 2010, Jackson 1996, Throop
2003).
Indeed, a central goal of phenomenological description is to destabilize those unexamined assumptions that organize our prepreflective engagements with reality. “Bracketing” is
Husserl’s term for the act by which such a shift
in our orientation to the taken-for-granted occurs. Husserl (1962) termed the method by
which an individual is able to distance or disconnect him- or herself from such assumptions
the “phenomenological epoch´e” (pp. 91–100).
According to Husserl, the first methodological
postulate of phenomenology entails our efforts
at bracketing the “natural attitude”: that attitude in which we assume there to be a world
that exists independently of our experience of it.
Although originally discussed primarily in reference to the attitude of so-called natural scientists, as Duranti (2010) notes, Husserl’s rendering of the natural attitude closely resonates
with what anthropologists understand to be the
cultural configuration of reality. To this extent,
as Duranti (2010) suggests, the “natural attitude” might just as well be termed the “cultural
attitude” (p. 18).
Accordingly, one of the main aims of anthropologists drawing from phenomenological
methods has been to bracket the assumptions that come from their own cultural and

These efforts have led to more fine-tuned depictions of the modalities of engagement. 2006. theoretical heritages in trying to understand more accurately and more fully a diverse number of cultural and experiential phenomena. epistemological. sensations. Desjarlais 2003). natural occurrences. Throop (2010c) has suggested. who used a Schutz-inspired discussion of various culturally constituted perspectives to distinguish among commonsensical. The literature on the body and embodiment in anthropology is vast. One of the first thinkers to apply such phenomenological insights anthropologically was Clifford Geertz (1973). and forms of appreciation. Jackson 1995).Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. on the other (Throop 2009b). Stoller 2008). More recently. Kleinman 2006.40:87-102.org by University of California . Howes 2003). Sharp 2000. death and dying (Desjarlais 2003. Throop 2010c). Anthropol. Hollan & Wellenkamp 1994. judgments. or aesthetic terms (K¨orper). images. 2010c.annualreviews. The body is not only an object that is available for scrutiny.b. The body is not only a corpse. space and place (Feld & Basso 1996). animals. Zigon 2007. 1994a. Throop 2003. celestial phenomena. From a phenomenological perspective.Annu. assumptions. inspected. bracketing in the context of the anthropological encounter is most often a thoroughly intersubjective affair. or experience itself (Desjarlais 1997. with anthropologists contributing important perspectives and findings. Jackson 1983. Mattingly 1998. are shaped by the attitude that a social actor takes up toward the world. It is also a locus from which our experience of the world is arrayed. and properties of physical objects.or text-like entity that can be examined. addiction (Garcia 2010. sociality (Helliwell 1996. home and displacement (Desjarlais 1997. involve complex imbrications of subject and object. Kapferer 1997). Much work in phenomenology in the twentieth century had been geared toward rectifying this conception. and through which. www. scientific. DelVecchio Good et al. feelings. Mimica 1996). Desjarlais 1992. it is a living entity by which. Geurts 2002. distinctions between subjective and objective aspects of reality. aesthetic. 2009a) has taken this work further in exploring the ways in which a number of intersubjective engagements. measured. etc. 2011. 1997). From a phenomenological perspective. 2010c). spirits. Rev. and religious orientations to reality. as well as by the historical and cultural conditions that inform the values. self and other. with scholars subscribing to various theoretical and ethnographic approaches (Csordas 1999b. 2005. morality (Kleinman 1999. For personal use only. and norms embedded within it. consciousness. then. however. pain and suffering (Das 2007. interpreted. we actively experience the world (Leib) (Csordas 1990. liminality ( Jackson 2009a. sentiments. perceptions. 2008. following Bidney (1973). between what is of the mind and of the world. For this reason.. eventful. social exclusion (Willen 2007a. 2010a.b). 1997. As Throop has argued. Schull 2005). be they questions of illness and madness (Good 1994. on the one hand. that we term this form of bracketing an ethnographic (rather than strictly phenomenological) epoch´e. 1994. Downloaded from www. with the misunderstandings that arise from such encounters at times evoking generative forms of self-estrangement in which ethnographers confront otherwise unrecognized aspects of their own assumptive worlds (Throop 2010c).annualreviews. and evaluated in moral. or physical—are transacted. Ingold 2000. and sensory perception in particular arrangements known to people. Taylor 2005). the living body is considered the existential null point from which our various engagements with the world—whether social. ideals. sensory perception (Csordas 1994b. Jenkins & Barrett 2004). There is no strict line demarcating the subjective and objective because both are necessarily articulated by attitudes toward experience that may render certain aspects of experience as thoughts. Jackson 2005). moods. from play and fetishes to violence and religiosity. persons. Stoller 1995. Jackson 1998. Jackson (1998. Perhaps one of the most influential contributions of phenomenology to contemporary phenomenological anthropology is evident in the tradition’s focus on embodiment.b). Good 1994. Throop 2009b. medical knowledge and healing (Csordas 1994b. play (Desjarlais 2011.org • Phenomenological Anthropology Embodiment: the bodily aspects of human beings and subjectivity 89 . bodies.

Uncertainty. Anthropol. touching it. A morethan is always woven into the fabric of existence that constantly shifts as we attend to particular aspects of reality. smell.. and indeterminacy are the norm here. Lock 1993. For personal use only. It is not possible for us to experience the world in its entirety. and from one moment to the next. and sax player fade imperceptibly into the background horizon of our experience of the music. Following Franz Brentano. and qualities. ambiguity. an aspect. Throop 2010c). phrases.b.annualreviews. anthropologists and other scholars have drawn on phenomenological perspectives to consider the ways in which political. Downloaded from www. and by particular existential modalities that range from imagination to memory to dreams to perception to various other sensory registers (e. action. Our modes of engaging with reality are further defined not only by the dynamic flux of our embodied attention from one aspect to another. a side yet to see. 2005.40:87-102. or activities. by grounding their theorizing. Rev.org by University of California . Phenomenological anthropologists have contributed most significantly to anthropological interest in the body. 90 Desjarlais · Throop As we focus closely on one aspect of reality. social. and practice. If we then shift to listen to the chord progressions played by the pianist. It is precisely because of our necessarily situated emplacement in the world that the world is given to us as an indeterminate phenomenon (Csordas 1994b). while ignoring others. forms of knowledge. to wakefully imagine a chair is phenomenologically distinct from dreaming of a chair. 1999a. Duranti 2009). kinesthesia. movements.Annu. drummer. there are always distinctive intentional act-phases (noesis) mediating particular intentional objects (noema). or interaction yet to experience. we are continually shifting the focus of our attention among particular objects. enjoying a piece of music (Berger 1999. And the acts of either imaging or dreaming of a chair are each distinct from the acts of perceiving it. then the sound of the bass guitar shifts from foreground to background. and analysis in close examinations of concrete bodily experiences. French 1994. Goodwin 1994. description. Helliwell 1996). Howes . in complex and ever-shifting negotiations of attention. For instance. An ever-shifting horizon to our experience suggests a beyond from which we have come and a toward to which we could be headed. we are always oriented or positioned toward aspects of an ever-broader potential world of experience. is always directed or oriented toward particular objects of experience. Mattingly 1998). For instance. from one activity to another. economic. The emerging field of sensorial anthropology (Classen 1993. audition. More broadly. 2011. Husserl termed the “toward-which” orientation of our being “intentionality” (compare Duranti 1993. Csordas 1994a. from one perspective to another. other potentially experienciable aspects of reality are relegated to the fringe of our awareness as a now yet still potential horizon of future experience. that each afford some distinctive possibilities for experience. Our consciousness. It means instead that we are never able to exhaust our experience of the world in which we are emplaced because there is always something more yet to come. Throop 2010b). They are further patterned both by ongoing engagements with others. Scheper-Hughes 1993. As Husserl taught. Central to the temporal and embodied structure of human experience is the existential fact that we are emplaced in a world that always outstrips the expanse of our being. 2009. 2011). while foreclosing others. or playing a game of chess (Desjarlais 2011. Desjarlais 2003. phenomenologists argue. all the while remaining potentially available for once again returning to the focus of our attention (Berger 1999. As beings.g. quality. the sounds produced by the pianist. Geurts 2002. and taste). This does not mean that the world is structureless or a mere incoherent flux of sensations. Desjarlais 2003. however. listening to a conversation (Duranti 2009. tactility. We must always focus on particular aspects of it. and discursive formations intersect with the operations and felt immediacies of bodies in a number of sociocultural settings (Cohen 1998. Pinto 2008. Whether we are simply moving through the space of a house (Bourdieu 1977. or sitting on it. Duranti 2009).Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. however. as we foreground the sound of a bass in a jazz quartet. instruments.

morality and ethics (Garcia 2010. Kleinman 2006. Throop 2010b. historically conditioned. religious experience (Csordas 1994b. Hollan 2008. Jackson 1998). Throop 2010b. Phenomenologists argue that even our most basic experiences of physical objects both evidence and entail a foundational intersubjectivity. Jackson 2009a. 2010. objective entity. 2003. 1994a. 2006. and personhood in an attempt to demonstrate the limits of purely subjectivist approaches in the social sciences ( Jackson 1998. The facts that the world before us is held to be the same sharable world that we mutually inhabit. empathic. They have also inspired a growing number of thinkers to argue for the merits of approaching intersubjectivity as a core foundational theoretical construct for anthropology and the human sciences more broadly defined (Csordas 1990. Desjarlais 2003.annualreviews. Seeman 2009. that others are recognized as experiencing beings who orient to and abide by the same sharable world as we do. Hollan 2001. in anthropological studies of subjectivity. Along similar lines. Jackson 1998. 2010. 1991. and successors. Husserl defined the lifeworld as the unquestioned. pain. Lurhmann 2004. Downloaded from www. Duranti 2009. Throop 2010c). and familiar world of our everyday lives. Husserl 1962. shifting. these insights have often informed critical reflections on the nature of subjectivity. 2008. With that said.” Closely associated with the natural attitude. Rev. Desjarlais 1992.org by University of California . Frykman & Gilje 2003.b). and intersubjectively constituted existential reality www. 1998). Kleinman 1999). In the context of his later writings. Jackson 1998. and suffering (Desjarlais 1992. Geurts 2002. pretheoretical. 2010a. Throop 2010c. Synnott 1993. In anthropology. the best work has detailed the ways in which subjectivity itself is deeply intersubjective in nature (Biehl et al. Frank 2000. and familiar world of people’s everyday lives 91 . Jackson 1998. consociates. To focus on sensorial aspects of experience from a phenomenological perspective is not to focus myopically on subjective experience. Kleinman 1999. phenomenologists argue that it is not to be mistaken for a static. historically conditioned.org • Phenomenological Anthropology Lifeworld: the unquestioned. Although the lifeworld is always necessarily structured in particular ways. Kirmayer 2008. Given this finding.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Jackson 1996. Anthropol. 2011. compare Geertz (1973)]. contemporaries. Kleinman 2006. in one sense. Gieser 2008. and intimate of intersubjective encounters (Desjarlais 2011. Husserl (1970) “radicalized” his earlier analysis of intersubjectivity in his articulation of the notion of Lebenswelt or “lifeworld. some phenomenological anthropologists have given priority to the concept of intersubjectivity over that of subjectivity in trying to make sense of the lives and concerns of people (Desjarlais 2003. Stoller 2008). 2007. and the ethnographic encounter itself (Benson & O’Neill 2007.40:87-102. phenomenologists hold that there is always an irreducible asymmetry and instability of perspectives and experiences assumed in even the most mutually attuned.Annu. self-experience.c). are often the zero point of their experiential fields and vice versa. empathy (Briggs 2008. Ingold 2000. that the bodies of others. Hollan & Throop 2008. 2002. For personal use only.annualreviews. It is instead a dynamic. Phenomenologically influenced orientations to intersubjectivity have also been generatively employed in the context of recent ethnographic studies of violence. Porcello et al. however. Throop 2010c). Zigon 2007. In yet another sense. Stoller 1997. Throop 2010b). which are objects and subjects for us. pretheoretical. practical. 2008. are all deemed by phenomenologists to be necessary intersubjective building blocks to the very possibility and constitution of social life (Csordas 2008. 2006. this concept is reflected in the fact that our lifeworld or Lebenswelt (see below) is variously populated by other experiencing beings with whom we coexist in differing and shifting degrees of temporal and spatial intimacy [what Schutz (1967) distinguished by means of his distinctions between predecessors. Throop 2010c) is a generative site in which the cultural and historical patterning of these various modalities of experience is currently being explored. Heidegger 1996. phenomenologists recognize that intersubjectively constituted possibilities for orienting to a sharable world are not ever based simply on isomorphic interpersonal experiences. Throop 2010b). practical. 1997.c). 2011. Duranti 2010. For instance. 1970. DelVecchio Good et al.

several anthropologists inspired by such work began to advocate for an anthropology of experience. Several distinct orientations to phenomenological thought and inquiry have emerged out of these considerations. Biehl et al. categorical. and Turner (1982. temporally informed engagements in the world: These and other orientations have offered fruitful avenues of thought and analysis. At the 92 Desjarlais · Throop same time. an attention to the indeterminate and ambiguous character of everyday life. anthropologists have tended to shy away from the more general. preferring instead to couch their findings within specific cultural and historical settings ( Jackson 1998. the lifeworld is never reducible simply to theoretical efforts at fixation and typification. psychological considerations of selfhood. and physicians. For personal use only. the call for a “radical empiricism” ( James 1996. on the other. p. The focus on “life as lived” and human consciousness in all of its lived realities. the concept of the lifeworld has become a largely taken-for-granted construct in social theory. Watson (1976). 2011. discourse. that results from the ways that we are geared into the world by means of our particular situatedness as existential. medical students. and the object of.” anthropologists have worked to introduce more fully the historical. social relations. and political economy to the neglect of the everyday experiences. 2). practical. scientific scrutiny. Downloaded from www. Bidney (1973). Despite Geertz’s occasional (and often ambivalent) forays into phenomenology.40:87-102. anthropological considerations of cultural discourses. In a prescient passage Geertz (1973) prefaced his famous application of Schutzian social phenomenology to Balinese lifeworlds with a call for anthropologists to develop a “scientific phenomenology of culture” (p. 1986) we find attempts to critically import insights from phenomenology into anthropology. ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND ARTICULATIONS Many anthropologists have found great utility in phenomenological methods in anthropological inquiry. Desjarlais’s (2011) portrait of the lifeworlds of chess players. finding that anthropology had come to focus unduly on questions of meaning. a number of thinkers have sought to employ the term in a more explicitly phenomenological and rigorous way (Bidney 1973).annualreviews. Jackson 1998). anthropologist to attempt to apply phenomenology to ethnographic concerns. the cultural. and historical beings. They have also given priority. and a priority given to embodied. while necessarily serving as both the basis for.Annu. in pioneering writings of Hallowell (1955). Anthropologists have also rooted much of their research less in philosophical reasoning than in ethnographic research and so in effect have undertaken “fieldwork in philosophy” (Bourdieu 1990) to get at more precise. a mistrust of overly theoretical thought and “ideological trappings” ( Jackson 1996. Indeed. 1) and the bracketing of cultural and natural attitudes. p. Accordingly. Anthropol. or even the first. These perspectives have enabled anthropologists to step beyond. 2007. structural relations. culture-free pronouncements often sounded by phenomenological philosophers. and Duranti’s (2009) work on issues of aesthetics and improvisation in the context of language socialization and the performance of jazz music. intersubjective.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. in attending to William James’s (1996) call for a “radical empiricism. to people’s own formulations of the world and their place within it as they have sought to detail the contours of “local phenomenologies” (Halliburton 2002). In phenomenological anthropology. Rev. and the relative into phenomenology. and subjectivity (Abu-Lughod 1991.org by University of California . the variable. 2009b). Jackson 1996. however. psychodynamics. he was not the only. Bourdieu (1977). 364). In effect. on the one hand. contingencies. This literature includes Good’s (1994) studies of the lifeworlds of chronic pain sufferers. and dilemmas that weigh so heavily on people’s . and political economy alone and. empirically grounded understandings of human existence in its many formations. at times. Over the past few decades. Starting in the mid-1980s.

” that in its presumed features more fully reflects those doing the cleaving than it is in any real way in the world itself. 2010b). culture and experience. tie into social and cultural formations in specific sociocultural settings and lifeworlds (Csordas 1990. Indeed. agency. On the other hand. Jackson 2005. Mattingly 1998. Jackson 2005.annualreviews. Desjarlais 1997. subjectivity. Kapferer 1997. a particular domain. while attending to particular www. selfhood. Pinto 2008. phenomenological anthropologists have often explicitly relied on the concept of experience as a way to orient their research generatively to the complexly temporal. 2007. Scheper-Hughes 1993. Weiner 1992. the category itself at times presumes and promotes unexamined cultural assumptions concerning articulations of self. highly needed in anthropological thought and deeply charged. Desjarlais 2003. At times inspired by. When it comes to ideas of an anthropology of experience. Throop 2003. and deeply ambivalent realities of human existence. 1994a. dilemmas. among others.b. Turner & Bruner 1986. pain. discordant phenomenology. embodiment. 2001. Willen 2007b). Kleinman 1995. genealogical. and manifold in their features. 2010a–c). political. x) that figure into what it means to be human (Dalsgaard 2004. known as “experience” or “subjectivity. “hermeneutic phenomenological approaches” in anthropology have sought to unpack the dynamic and complex practical. Along with efforts toward an anthropology of experience. lives (Desjarlais 1992. In general. the danger is that any work along these lines may cleave out. Much of this ambiguity relates to the difficulties and challenges posed by the language we use and on which we have come to rely. p. Zigon 2007. and moves us beyond. experience and political economy.Annu. 2010b). Lucht 2008. Stoller 1997. in which ethnographic and phenomenological methods attuned toward a radical empiricism have offered compelling insights into the existential demands. at once. fluid. Other anthropologists have worked toward an “existential anthropology” ( Jackson 2005). social.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Throop 2009b. leading to the somewhat paradoxical understanding that the category of experience is. ontological. potentialities. one that steers clear of. Wikan 1990). conceptually as well as ethnographically.40:87-102. and epistemological dimensions of the concept of “experience” itself. subjective and objective. and discursive forces that contribute to life in particular settings (Biehl et al. and yet often critical of. for instance. and culturally constituted (Desjarlais 1997. on the one hand. Rev. a number of orientations have emerged out of interest to map out how phenomenal processes take form in particular cultural and historical settings. It is important to avoid creating or reaffirming any false dichotomies or problematically conventional ways of categorizing the world. and the “struggle for being” ( Jackson 2005. subjectivity. For personal use only. conventional notions of consciousness. 1999. 1993. and morality. Subsequent inquiries along these lines have offered reflections on the cultural. Good 1994. There is a need for a more apersonal. have stressed the need to attend to the many. Kleinman 2006. when in fact they are words we use to categorize situations that are terrifically complicated. and experience. Geertz’s (1973) pioneering writings. for instance. interiority and exteriority. temporality. 2010c). or a theory of subjectivity. and social action that may blind us to other possible forms of life and ways of being. subjectivity and intersubjectivity. Geurts 2002. Anthropol. Advocates of a critical phenomenology. and cultural forces influencing the interpretative efforts and intersubjective engagements of anthropologists and the people they work with and learn from in the field (Crapanzano 1992. and often highly charged. Seeman 2009. or the phenomenal and the psychological runs the risk of suggesting that these elements are quite distinct in life. Desjarlais 2011. Using terms that invoke clear and rigid differences between.org by University of California . sociality. when used in an unreflexive way. Good 1994.org • Phenomenological Anthropology 93 . Mattingly 1998. In undertaking inquiries along the lines of a “cultural phenomenology. this work. overdetermined. constraints.annualreviews. at times ambiguous.” anthropologists have examined how questions of selfhood. in turn. Downloaded from www. 2011. historical. the particular and the general. uncertainties. 2009a.

Mattingly 1998. and will (Duranti 2011. Helliwell 1996. Stoller 2008). CRITIQUES. 2010. Laughlin et al. Laughlin & McManus 1995. has also emerged as a growing field of inquiry (Downey 2010. memory (Csordas 1996. death. illness and healing (Desjarlais 1992. Garcia 2010. Parish 1994. Duranti 2009. aesthetics. morality (Kleinman 1999. anthropologists draw explicitly from phenomenological concepts and methods. Lurhmann 2004. Jackson 1998. and creativity (Desjarlais 2011.annualreviews. political relations and violence (French 1994. and globalization. AND FUTURE HORIZONS Several important critiques have been raised against phenomenological approaches in anthropology. music (Berger 1999. Saris 1995). Frank 2000. Anthropologists and other scholars in the human sciences have drawn on phenomenological modes of analysis in personand subject-centered approaches (Briggs 1998. and discourse (Duranti 2009. even cynical phenomenology. Geurts 2002. Mittermaier 2010). art. Hage 2003. in practice-oriented approaches (Bourdieu 1977. Zigon 2008. Anthropologists and other scholars have also drawn on phenomenological methods in attending to a diverse range of topics of perennial and recent interest to anthropologists. 1996. psychopathology ( Jenkins & Barrett 2004. At other times.40:87-102. narrative and storytelling (Garro & Mattingly 2000. 2003. Jackson 1999. Desjarlais 2003). Wacquant 2003). Helmreich 2009). religious experience (Crapanzano 2004. Lester 2005. Mattingly 2010a. Desjarlais 1992. relations. aging. RESPONSES. Munn 1990). Halliburton 2002). 1995). Throop 2010c).org by University of California . Feld & Basso 1996. volition. Throop 2010c. language.b). Anthropol. Each of these critiques highlights . Feld 1996). 2008. Throop 2009a). embodiment and bodiliness (Csordas 1990.c). they are like Barthes’s (1981) “borrowing” of “phenomenology’s project and something of its language” in Camera Lucida. Willen 2007a. 2000. in discoursecentered approaches (Desjarlais 2003. situations faced by people in specific sociopolitical settings. Weiner 1992. migration. 2000. time and temporality (Bourdieu 1977. 1995). 1994. Csordas 1994b. Hollan 2009. Rev. Throop 2010a). At still other times. 20). and in ethnographic and interpretive approaches (Benson & O’Neill 2007. including studies of social life. Hanks 1990. Winkelman 2000). Munn 1990. 2010b). Neurophenomenology. scientific practices and explorations (Fischer 2003. Throop 2010b. McNeal 1999. Garcia 2010. Throop & Murphy 2002. senses of place (Casey 2009. technology (Ingold 2001). 2011. 1990. digital gambling (Schull 2005) and virtual reality (Csordas 2000).Annu. Hollan & Wellenkamp 1994. 2009. semiotics. 2006. Persson 2007. Wikan 1990.b). Mimica 1996). and intersubjectivity (Benson & O’Neill 2007. imagination (Crapanzano 2004. Katz & Csordas 2003). Laughlin & Throop 2009. Weiner 2001). Jackson 2002. 2010. Murphy 2004. 1997. Zigon 2010a. dreams (Groark 2010. Gell 1992. Lindquist 2000. Duranti 1993. agency. Murphy & Throop 2010b.b). emotion (Desjarlais 1992. so readily did it agree to distort or to evade its principles according to the whims of my analysis” (p. Desjarlais 2003.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Hanks 1990. dance (Downey 2005. Hollan & Wellenkamp 1994. the analyses are implicitly phenomenological and are often conjoined with other forms of anthropological inquiry. Stoller 2008). Gell 1998). 2005). Desjarlais 2003. The more general orientations noted above have weaved their way into a number of conceptual and topical inquiries in anthropology. Jackson 2002). and dying (Cohen 1998. resulting in “a vague. and illegality ( Jackson 2008. At times. Reyna 2002. 1993). Mittermaier 2010. 1992. Lucht 2008. Feld 1990. pain and suffering (DelVecchio 94 Desjarlais · Throop Good et al. Good 1994. 1994a. Kapferer 1997. Goodwin 1994. gesture. Mittermaier 2010. For personal use only. Csordas 1994b. 1997. 2010a. Lurhmann 2004. Seeman 2009. 2006. an approach that seeks to productively combine phenomenological and ethnographic insights into the human condition with neuroscientific investigations into the workings of the brain. casual. Jackson 2009a. often inquires into ostensibly universal dimensions of human experience. Downloaded from www.

and theoretical perspectives in the social sciences.40:87-102. structural. especially when that person lives in www. In fact. including discourse analysis.annualreviews. psychological. and the psychological in people’s lives. Anthropol. Such critiques also often fail to recognize the impact that phenomenology has had on the reflexive turn in anthropology that emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. that there are as many phenomenologies as there are phenomenologists. however. critiques of phenomenology assume a far too simplistic and homogenizing view of the tradition. these efforts highlight the fact that analytic approaches that do not consider the place of the subjective or intersubjective. economic. and considerations of psychophysiology.org by University of California . the cultural. in its very design. Phenomenology. not one of explaining or analyzing. For personal use only. and phenomenological approaches in anthropology. one critique ventures. from the political to the psychological. 21).Annu. the epiphenomenal. Rev. ignores the political and socioeconomic determinants of life and people’s living conditions—that. for some. and intent of phenomenological approaches in the discipline. holds that phenomenology as a whole. mischaracterize the scope. A phenomenological approach risks missing the big picture when it comes to anthropological insights. the discursive. modes of analysis.annualreviews. while often further failing to recognize the generative ways that phenomenology has contributed to the development of anthropological theorizing and practice. 2011. important potential shortcomings of phenomenology. it is quite possible to argue. in themselves. or of experience or consciousness. while proffering potentially new avenues for theorizing. phenomenology attends merely to the qualia of the subjective and the experiential and.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. many phenomenological approaches work in tandem with other approaches. Also. in cultural or political realities are missing out on something. Phenomenology focuses on the realm of mere appearance and sensation without serious consideration of the broader political. and complex to allow adequate access to so-called broader historical. All too often. political economic analysis. and political processes. This mindset may come about because the descriptive mandate of phenomenology may seem. for example. These include perspectives that range from Derrida’s deconstructionism to Foucault’s genealogical historicism to Bourdieu’s practice theory. however. as “the apotheosis of bourgeois individualism” (Moran 2000. These statements are. social. and social forces really at work in people’s lives. Downloaded from www. They attend to the intricate. semiotic and linguistic perspectives. as Marxist thinkers have cast it. or so the thinking goes. Equally troubling in this regard is the fact that many anthropological critiques of subjectivism in phenomenology fail to acknowledge the direct influence that phenomenological approaches have had on the development of a range of so-called poststructuralist perspectives in philosophy and social theory. or considerations of political economy. p. focus. Can we ever really know what another person is thinking or feeling. And yet it is precisely just such attention to descriptive and analytic detail that makes phenomenology such a powerful approach that may be generatively extended to other methods. misguided ways of thinking about it. palpable force of the political. research. gives undue and na¨ıve priority to considerations of consciousness and subjectivity. And they do so in trying to account for the complicated constructions and processes of consciousness and subjectivity in careful. and engagement in phenomenological anthropology. Given that Husserl viewed phenomenology as a philosophy of continual beginnings. and psychodynamic theories. to be too detailed. Epistemological concerns have also often been raised by thinkers critical of the phenomenological tradition. In fact. Phenomenological approaches include within their orbit a number of empirical considerations. neuroscientific. Many critiques. it is a method of describing. informed ways. dynamic. such as cultural analyses. Another critique claims that phenomenology offers a limited methodology: It is good only for understanding people’s subjective experiences of life at a surface level. as it were. however.org • Phenomenological Anthropology 95 . One of the most pressing critiques.

Although investigating the existential richness of people’s lives is a delicate and forever challenging endeavor. and communities are often passed over or at times missed altogether. within their horizons of thought. runs dangerously close to forms of Othering that anthropologists have been combating for decades as ethically. Whether such tensions reveal unbridgeable epistemological aporias or whether there are still possibilities for integrating phenomenology with what are otherwise considered to be competing and antithetical approaches will continue to be centrally problematic in the development of anthropological theorizing and practice in the years to come. conflicted and deeply ambivalent orientations to their worlds of experience. For personal use only. one of the main questions facing the development of phenomenological approaches in anthropology (in this case. unless. This strategy often has the effect of neglecting important aspects of people’s lives. epistemologically. tendencies toward abstraction. Many critiques of phenomenological anthropology fail to recognize the ways in which . Moreover. a cultural reality distinct from one’s own? Anthropologists have often responded to this key epistemological question by skirting considerations of personal experience altogether. political. making any anthropological method that attends to such experience problematic at the least. are individuals’ existential possibilities for taking up complexly textured. Rev. or in some more radical cases even outright denied. he is particularly interested in critical phenomenology) concerns how one can “recognize the presence of the social and historical within human consciousness. It is not unrecognized biases that phenomenological anthropologists are critical of. 42). they have found it better. ideas of phenomenological inquiry and awareness. Yet it is clear that many non-Western cultural heritages include. kinship structures. ossification. families. It is. economic.org by University of California . recognize forms of self-deception and distortion. cultural histories. symbolic meanings—that have the air of being capable of being known in clearer. to focus on aspects of social life—political systems. and. Rather than engage with the difficulties of reconciling their theoretical assumptions with the complexities and vicissitudes of experience. of course. and cultural influences from the concrete engagements. 2011.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12.” 96 Desjarlais · Throop no matter how theoretically nuanced and historically contextualized the argument may be. and more secure ways (Geertz 1973.annualreviews. compare Wikan 1990). Somewhat ironically. however. and ontologically problematic. As a result. such processes are examined in concrete moments of interaction and engagement. more overt. and experiences of particular social actors acting in particular places and spaces in particular times. Anthropol. the most compelling cares and concerns of individuals. without devaluing local claims to knowledge?” (p. at times. and safer. We hope that phenomenological anthropologists will continue to engage such tensions seriously and productively contribute to these debates and conversations. concerns. What is at stake for phenomenologically inclined anthropologists are precisely the limits of approaches that seek to disarticulate unrecognized historical. this should not stop anthropologists from trying to do so. what ends up getting overlooked. In such cases.40:87-102. no matter how historically or culturally determined the concept of subjective experience might be. and totalization that are held to be problematic. while claiming them for “ourselves. rather. As Good (1994) contends.Annu. The religious and philosophical thoughts associated with Buddhism and Hinduism are two such examples (Halliburton 2002). Downloaded from www. Yet another line of argument is that notions of subjective experience are themselves the product of a distinct genealogy of thought in the modern West. any simple rejection of subjective experience as a relevant site of inquiry for anthropology also entails with it a deeply troubling inattention to individuals’ lives as lived. the denial of such existential possibilities for others. Such concerns evidence some of the main points of tension between phenomenological and sociopolitical approaches (and also discursive/semiotic/linguistic and psychodynamic approaches) in anthropology. variegated.

Anthropol. political. Good’s efforts at advancing a critical phenomenology and his recent turn to psychodynamic and political perspectives (Delvecchio Good et al. biological. 2009. Significantly. aesthetic and rhetorical forms. each views life as inescapably intertwined with discursive forms. as well as critical reflections on the concept of experience (Desjarlais 1997. and environmental dimensions of those realities.Annu.org by University of California . memory. Downloaded from www. Finally. and communicative practices more generally on the other hand? www.org • Phenomenological Anthropology 97 . Rev. and sensate perception. economic. or semiotic forces. 7). and Jackson’s (2009b) ethnographically grounded critique of phenomenology and philosophy. concerns. sophisticated phenomenological approaches in anthropology. when they are referred back to ordinary life-experiences and their predicaments. Desjarlais 2003. render them more significant. Mattingly 1998. psychological. experience. if ever. they add significantly to our understanding of what constitutes the human. Good 1994. realized through ethnographic field research methods. Csordas’ (1990. and make our dealings with them more fruitful?” (p. and engagements in direct and incisive terms. What is most called for are careful. Throop 2010c). This phenomenology would rebut conventional ideas of self. more luminous to us. critiques. theorizing. 2011. 1994a. Phenomenologically inclined efforts in anthropology have clearly passed this test. phenomenological approaches to language have been taken up productively by linguistic anthropologists (Duranti 1993. narrative practice. that is. FUTURE DIRECTIONS 1. Within phenomenological anthropology. critical phenomenology. Phenomenological approaches. anthropologists inspired by phenomenology have themselves set out to reflect critically on the limits and shortcomings of the phenomenological tradition. 2010c). For personal use only. Csordas 1994b. discursive. Throop 2003. What is the relation between the phenomenal and the discursive—between. consciousness.annualreviews.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. And with the ongoing development of cultural phenomenology. Although each of these approaches is distinct. Key contributors to such critical reflections include Crapanzano’s (2004) efforts to highlight the linguistic and cultural biases evident in phenomenological writings. John Dewey (1958) once proposed that “a first-rate test” of the value of any philosophy is. that attend at once to the tangible realities of people’s lives and to the often interrelated social. sensorial. Mattingly 1998. 2008). and extensions await us. Phenomenology as a tradition is seldom. while attending to the potential asymmetries between those forms and nondiscursive ways of being. “[d]oes it end in conclusions which. however. society. while still working to extend its scope and applicability. and semiotics seriously (Crapanzano 2004. This anthropology would be attuned to both particular situations and the common threads of existence that weave through all our lives. unproblematically incorporated into anthropological research.b) use of Bourdieu (1977) and Hallowell (1955) to extend Merleau-Ponty’s (1962) phenomenology of perception and embodiment. Hanks 1990. cultural. a number of scholars have critically charged that phenomenological approaches in anthropology do not adequately address linguistic. corporeal. 1995). and the human more generally. and existential anthropology. discursive.annualreviews. and language. still further refinements. and analysis. CONCLUSION Phenomenologically inclined inquiries in anthropology have offered a wealth of informed and compelling accounts of particular lived realities. broadly conceived. can get at the richness of people’s lives. being. Goodwin 1994. there have also been a number of attempts to take discourse. 2010. on the one hand. Combined.40:87-102.

Press Csordas T. H Haber. Rock. Anthropol.2. Press Crapanzano V. Facing risk: Levinas. and often overly generalized. 18:29–55 Berger H. 1977. Jazz: Perception and Phenomenology of Musical Experience. and Giroux Benson P. 2nd ed. and life itself? Annu. ed. Imaginal performance and memory in ritual healing. ed. In The Performance of Healing. 1998. MA: Harvard Univ. Classen C. Cambridge. NM: Sch. how embodiment can serve as “the existential ground of culture. 1981. An article that decisively demonstrates. 143–162. pp. UK: Cambridge Univ. Hanover. Calif. and Other Modern Things. Camera Lucida. In Phenomenology and the Social Sciences. Cambridge. 1973. NH: Wesleyan Univ. Press Briggs J. Berkeley: Univ. 1993. 2007. 1990. NH: Wesleyan Univ. Am. CT: Yale Univ. Straus. language. C Laderman. Writing against culture. London: Routledge Csordas T. The Book of Touch. Metal. No Aging in India: Alzheimer’s. and Meaning for the Study of Expressive Culture.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Rev. Subjectivity: Ethnographic Investigations. 2009. The Sacred Self: A Cultural Phenomenology of Charismatic Healing. Stance: Ideas About Emotion. Press Barthes R. UK: Polity Briggs J. memberships. Downloaded from www. 137–62. 1999a. 2005. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Calif.40:87-102. and ethics. Cambridge. pp. Press Bourdieu P. Getting Back into Place: Toward a Renewed Understanding of the Place-World. CA: Stanford Univ. the Bad Family. 2011. Press Bidney D. intersubjectivity. 1996. 1994b. Consc. perception. G Weiss. UK: Cambridge Univ. 1992. ethnography. Calif. R Fox. New York: Farrar. Phenomenological method and the anthropological science of the cultural life-world. 1994a.” 98 Abu-Lughod L. pp. 109–43. Kleinman A. ed. funding. M. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Oxford: Berg Cohen L. Daughter and pawn: one ethnographer’s routes to understanding. Press Crapanzano V. Ethos 36:449–56 Casey E. Press Berger H.annualreviews. Natansan. Imaginative Horizons: An Essay in Literary-Philosophical Anthropology. Cambridge. 2008. How should anthropologists and other social scientists attend to the relation between the particulars of individual lives and settings and more general observations of strands of existence that weave through all people’s lives? 3. 1999. through cultural phenomenology. Res. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The authors are not aware of any affiliations. 2004. understandings of experience. London: Routledge Classen C. New York: Routledge Desjarlais · Throop . Chicago Press Csordas T. Berkeley: Univ. Press Csordas T. or financial holdings that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review. Pascalian Meditations. In Other Word: Essays Toward a Reflexive Anthropology.org by University of California . Press Bourdieu P. 2000. 2007. Chicago: Univ. Stanford. Embodiment as a paradigm for anthropology. Press Biehl J. eds. New Haven. In Perspectives on Embodiment. 1991. subjectivity. Style. ed. Hanover. Ethos 18:5–47 Csordas T. In Recapturing Anthropology: Working in the Present. 1998. M Roseman. Santa Fe. ed. Inuit Morality Play. LITERATURE CITED A pioneering review of the history of phenomenology and its relevance for anthropology. Press Bourdieu P. Worlds of Sense: Exploring the Senses in History and Across Cultures. Anthropol. O’Neill KL. How do we draw on phenomenological methods and analysis to go beyond conventional. pp. 91–114. Evanston: Northwest. Berkeley: Univ. Univ. Embodiment and cultural phenomenology. 1990. 2009. Embodiment and Experience: The Existential Ground of Culture and Self. For personal use only. Hermes Dilemma and Hamlet’s Desire: On the Epistemology of Interpretation. Press. Good B. ed.

In Biotechnology. The relevance of Husserl’s theory to language socialization. 2010. Intersubjectivity and intercorporeality. 2003. intersubjectivity. Calif. Biography and Being Female in America. 2005. See Murphy & Throop 2010a. Embodiment. 19:205–26 Duranti A. Anthropol. Anthropol. ed. Tusculanum Press Das V. Professional vision. 2002. Oxford: Berg Gell A. 1994. 1997. and empathy: a phenomenological approach to apprenticeship learning. and Song in Kaluli Expression.annualreviews. Counterplay: An Anthropologist at the Chessboard. Inst. Calif. Rationality. 2000. this is one of the first attempts to outline a “critical phenomenology. 2011. Press Downey G. UK: Polity Csordas T. Durham.org by University of California . Press Desjarlais R. 2010. pp. 1994. Culture and the Senses: Bodily Ways of Knowing in an African Community. P Brodwin. LC Garro. 1992. Good B. Narrative as construct and construction. pp. C Baraldi.40:87-102. eds. 1994. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. New York: Basic Books Gell A. 172–205. Penn. Res. and Experience: An Anthropological Perspective. 2003. Calif. Cambridge. Differences. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Calif. The political economy of injury and compassion: amputees on the Thai-Cambodia border. 2000. 1996. 8:214–45 Duranti A. Cult. Being There: New Perspectives on Phenomenology and Cultural Analysis. Truth and intentionality: towards an ethnographic critique. 2000. Berkeley: Univ. H Moore.annualreviews. Hyde S. Santa Fe. Art and Agency: An Anthropological Theory. In Hybrids. and anthropology. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. R. Press Desjarlais R. emotion. 96(3):606–33 Groark K. Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary. See Csordas 1994a. Press Garcia A. C Mattingly. pp. 2011. 1973. In Anthropological Theory Today. Anthropol. ed. Experience and Nature. 2008. Csordas T. Downloaded from www. Press French L.” 99 . 1–49. Press Gieser T. The Pastoral Clinic: Addiction and Dispossession along the Rio Grande. Calif. Calif. pp. Philadelphia: Univ. Postcolonial Disorders. Press Geertz C. 2007. Sound and Sentiment: Birds. 2003. Anthropol. Venus on Wheels: Two Decades of Dialogue on Disability. Sensory Biographies: Lives and Deaths Among Nepal’s Yolmo Buddhists. Penn. Press Desjarlais R. 2009. and the Body. Good B. Press Feld S. ed. CO: Davies Group Feld S. 69–99 Frykman J. Ethnopragmatics and beyond: intentionality and agency across languages and cultures. 1999b. Learning Capoeira: Lessons in Cunning from an Afro-Brazilian Art. eds. Calif. NM: Sch. Ling. ed. 1990. Body and Emotion: The Aesthetics of Healing in the Nepal Himalayas. Fischer M. Basso K. A Borsari. Copenhagen: Mus.Annu. 16:22–40 Duranti A. Press Geurts K. Gilje N. Poetics. Calif. Press DelVecchio Good MJ. Anthropol. eds. Mattingly C. eds. Weeping. Press Csordas T. Theory 10:1–20 Duranti A. Am. 1992. 2004. The Interpretation of Cultures. Senses of Place. Am. Press Dewey J. 1998. Berkeley: Univ. Shelter Blues: Sanity and Selfhood among the Homeless. Rev. Anthropol. pp. New York: Dover Downey G. 1958. J. 2010. Medicine. Subjectivity 22:110–21 Dalsgaard AL. 1993. The Anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Press Garro L. 101–22 www. 2010. Berkeley: Univ. Mexico. Berkeley: Univ. Philadelphia: Univ. Berkeley: Univ. Culture. Press DelVecchio Good MJ. Oxford: Oxford Univ. J. Computerized cadavers: shades of representation and being in virtual reality. Matters of Life and Longing: Female Sterilisation in Northeast Brazil. Press Goodwin C. Willful souls: dreaming and the dialectics of self-experience among the Tzotzil Highland Maya of Chiapas. Press Frank G. Press Desjarlais R. Pain as Human Experience: An Anthropological Perspective. 2008. Visions: On the Study of Culture.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Oxford: Oxford Univ. 2011. NC: Duke Univ. Philadelphia: Univ. 1994. Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice. For personal use only. The body’s career in anthropology. Husserl. Brodwin P.org • Phenomenological Anthropology Drawing from Schutzian phenomenology and hermeneutic insights into narrative. Berkeley: Univ. In Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing. Berkeley: Univ. Pinto S. Lund: Nordisk Acad. Penn. Berkeley: Univ. Aurora. Theory 8:299–318 Good B. Kleinman A. 173–92. “Practice without theory”: a neuroanthropological perspective on embodied learning. Anthropol. 2008.

The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. 2004. Thinking through the body: an essay on understanding metaphor. Developments in person-centered ethnography. 1970. Rev. For personal use only. Cult. Cambridge. Throop CJ. Downloaded from www. Ethos 36:475–89 Hollan D. 2008. 2005. Mich. Press Jackson M. 1962. and Intersubjectivity. 1955. Wellenkamp J. Press Hanks WF. The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood. 2008. 1990. 2011. 2002. Essays in Radical Empiricism. Berkeley: Univ. and Subjectivity: The Edge of Experience. Philadelphia: Univ. Press Jackson J. Space and sociality in a Dayak longhouse. 2001. Albuquerque: Univ. 2008. Philadelphia: Univ. Chicago: Univ. Copenhagen: Mus. UK: Cambridge Univ. Oxford: Berghahn Jackson M. M. In The Psychology of Cultural Experience. Chicago Press Katz J. A significant. The Politics of Story Telling: Violence.Annu. Calif. Contentment and Suffering: Culture and Experience in Toraja. The shock of the new: on migrant imaginaries and critical transitions. Dwelling. 1995. Press Jackson M. Language and Communicative Practices. Phenomenological ethnography in sociology and anthropology. Culture and Experience. Toronto: Univ. Theory 9:1–17 James W. Durham. Boulder. H Mathews. 2003. Jackson M. Press Kapferer 1997. Chicago: Univ. Whatever happened to empathy? Ethos 36:385–401 Hollan D. 100 Hage G. Chicago Press Jackson M. ed. 1996. Calif. Press Hollan D. Anthropol. Albany: SUNY Press Helliwell C. Univ. Press Ingold T. Press Jackson M. Referential Practice: Language and Lived Space Among the Maya. 2008. Csordas T. 128–48 Helmreich S. The influence of culture on the experience and interpretation of disturbing dreams. Tor. NC: Duke Univ. Anthropol. ed. Anthropol. Transgression. VA: Pluto Halliburton M. 2003. Nebraska Press Jenkins JH. At Home in the World. 2001. Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas. Being and Time. C Moore. In Jackson 1996. Psychiatry 33:313–22 Hollan D. 1994. Anal. Chicago Press Hanks WF. 2009. Cambridge. Press Desjarlais · Throop .40:87-102. Camp Pain: Talking with Chronic Pain Patients. Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. MB Schiffer. Things as They Are: New Directions in Phenomenological Anthropology. 1995. Med. Penn. Press Hollan D. Evanston: Northwest. An influential articulation of some key phenomenological insights from an anthropological perspective. Against Paranoid Nationalism: Searching for Hope in a Shrinking Society. 17–31. Where thought belongs: an anthropological critique of the project of philosophy. Univ. and Events. 2003. attempt to bring Merleau-Ponty’s notions of embodiment in conversation with Bourdieu’s practice theory. An important collection of essays that draws on phenomenological perspectives in defining the field of sensorial anthropology. Lincoln NE: Univ. Beyond art and technology: the anthropology of skill. eds. 2002. Soc. Ethnos 73:57–72 Jackson M. Barrett RJ. Press Howes D.org by University of California . pp. 2000. Berkeley: Univ. ed. if often overlooked. 1983. London: Routledge Ingold T. New York: Columbia Univ. Annandale. and Skill. 1996. The Varieties of Sensory Experience. Schizophrenia. 1996. 2009b. 1991.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Culture. UK: Cambridge Univ. Existential Anthropology: Events. 14:127– 48 Jackson M. Ethnography 4:275– 88 Kirmayer L. 104:1123–34 Hallowell I.annualreviews. CO: Westview Heidegger M. pp. 48–67. 1998. An influential collection of articles oriented to redefining the field of phenomenological anthropology. Durham. Ethos 34:457–74 Kleinman A. Press Howes D. Am. 2009a. Ann Arbor: Univ. Tusculanum Press. N. Rethinking anthropological studies of the body: manas and Bodham in Kerala. Press Husserl E. Being there: on the imaginative aspects of understanding others and being understood. Cph. 1999. 1995. pp. ed. Writing at the Margins: Discourse Between Anthropology and Medicine. 2009. Empathy and alterity in cultural psychiatry. Exigencies. Press Jackson M. In Anthropological Perspectives on Technology. Minima Ethnographica: Intersubjectivity and the Anthropological Project. 1996. The Palm at the End of the Mind. New York: Collier Husserl E. Sensual Relations: Engaging the Senses in Culture and Social Theory. Chicago: Univ. Penn. NC: Duke Univ.

human conditions. Am. Kleinman A. 597:65–81 www. Introduction to Phenomenology. Husserlian meditations and anthropological reflections: toward a neurophenomenology of experience and reality. Press Laughlin CD. 39:51–66 Reyna S. Berkeley: Univ. and disorder. Ethnolog. 2011. Consc. Anthropol. For personal use only. ed. Healing Dramas and Clinical Plots: The Narrative Structure of Experience. Press Lindquist G. The reorganization of the sensory world. London: Routledge Saris AJ. Ochoa AM. Where There is No Midwife: Birth and Loss in Rural India. McManus J. pp. 1992. UK: Cambridge Univ. Act. 1962. illness narratives. 1990. Dreams that Matter: Egyptian Landscapes of the Imagination. Mind Cult. 2008. 50–67 Mattingly C. Anthropol. Press Moran D. 213–37 Mittermaier A. Press Laughlin CD. Berkeley: Univ. experience. PhD thesis. The Paradox of Hope: Journeys Through a Clinical Borderland. Rev. 2005. Metakinesis: how god becomes intimate in contemporary US christianity. Polit. Experience and its moral modes: culture. 2010a. Cambridge. D’Aquili E. Press Persson A. 2010. Copenhagen Lurhmann T. and institutional landscapes. Soc. Mind. pragmatist. See Jackson 1996. Intimate immensity: phenomenology of place and space in an Australian yoga community. and graphic representation in architectural practice. Sci. Am. 1993. Affecting experience: toward a biocultural model of human emotion. talk. GB Peterson. Anthropol. 2005. Rev. Brain. 357–420. Consc.org by University of California . pp. Collaborative imagining: the interactive use of gestures. Willing contours: locating volition in anthropological theory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Mimica J. Cambridge. Ann. ed. 29:315–57 Lock M. See Murphy & Throop 2010a. Anthropol. Digital gambling: the coincidence of desire and design. Semiotica 156:113–45 Murphy KM. 22:133–55 Lucht H. Press Merleau-Ponty M. 1999. Urban Anthropol. In The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Phenomenology of Perception. pp. Death Without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil. 2004.40:87-102. 101 . Calif. Stanford. Oxford: Oxford Univ. 2004. Cult.. 6:34–46 Laughlin CD. Annu. 2006. Connections: Brain. Anthropol. McManus J. 215–55. A Hinton. Calif. Constructing regional worlds in experience: Kula exchange. An excellent example of a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to the structure of narrative. 1996. Theory 6:345–61 Mattingly C. Calif. and Experience: Towards a Neurophenomenology of Human Consciousness. Univ. See Murphy & Throop 2010a. Anthropol. Cultivating the body: anthropology and epistemologies of bodily practice and knowledge. Oxford: Berghahn Porcello T.annualreviews. Anthropol. 11:267–78 Murphy KM. Psychiatry 19:39–72 Scheper-Hughes N.annualreviews. 2006. 2010a. Throop CJ. In search of magical flow: magic and markets in contemporary Russia. Throop CJ. 2009. Berkeley: Univ. Annu. Press Schull ND. 1995. Berkeley: Univ. London: Routledge Munn N. 1995. Rev. Press Murphy KM.org • Phenomenological Anthropology A definitive statement of Kleinman’s existential. Symbol. Dep. and phenomenologically inspired approach to moral experience and practice. What Really Matters: Living a Moral Life Amidst Uncertainty and Danger. Subjectivity. Imagination as joint activity: the case of architectural interaction. New York: Columbia Univ. 20:130–70 Lester R.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Samuels DW. Meintjes L. UK: Cambridge Univ. The relevance of the radical empiricism of William James to the anthropology of consciousness. 2010b. Acad. eds. CA: Stanford Univ. 106:518–28 Lurhmann T. Am. Press Mattingly C. and everyday life. 20. 1999. 1994. Throop CJ. Calif. Press McNeal K. On dying and suffering in Iqwaye existence. Vol. In Biocultural Approaches to the Emotions. 2007. Darkness before daybreak existential reciprocity in the lives and livelihoods of migrant West African fishermen. Telling stories: life histories. 1–27 Parish S. Med. Jesus in Our Wombs: Embodying Modernity in a Mexican Convent. Moral willing as narrative re-envisioning. Moral Knowing in a Hindu Sacred City. Utah Press Kleinman A. 34:44–56 Pinto S. pp. witchcraft and Gawan local events. New York: Columbia Univ.Annu. 1998. Toward an Anthropology of the Will. 2010b. and Culture in Social Anthropology. Man 25:1–17 Murphy KM. 2000. 1993. Downloaded from www. 2008. 2000. pp. 2005. 2002. Anthropol. Salt Lake City: Univ. 2010.

Anthropol. Calif. Penn. Chicago: Univ. Press Wacquant L. Crit. A collection of essays devoted to developing an anthropology of experience. 2010b. Theory 3:219–41 Throop CJ. Turner V. Ethnos 74:535–58 Throop CJ. Bruner E.40:87-102. Hang on to your self: of bodies. Embodying Colonial Memories: Spirit Possession. Suffering and Sentiment: Exploring the Vicissitudes of Experience and Pain in Yap. 1:6–41 Van Wolputte S. 2011. and Society. Anthropol. Int. 2009a. Berkeley: Univ. 2010c. Annu. Tree. Lock M. and ideals. criminalization. Univ. 2002. Leiden/Boston: Brill RELATED RESOURCES Kultgen J. part II: the limit of relationship. 2007b. Chicago Press Synnott A. Making the New Post-Soviet Person: Moral Experience in Contemporary Moscow. 1997. Oceania 79:179–201 Throop CJ. Am. CA: Stanford Univ.Annu. Articulating experience. Bourdieu and phenomenology: a critical assessment. federated states of Micronesia. Anthropol. Rev. The Anthropology of Experience. Theory 7:131–50 Zigon J. Press Throop CJ. The Body Social: Symbolism. ed. HIV is God’s Blessing: Rehabilitating Morality in Neoliberal Russia. One People. pp. Westport. New York: Perform. Chicago Press Willen S. NJ: Rutgers Univ. Surfacing the body interior. For personal use only. values. In Honor of Fadime: Murder and Shame. and selves. Anthropol. 2003. Body and Soul: Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer. eds. 1987. 1982. Latitudes of loss: on the vicissitudes of empathy. Evanston: Northwest. 2007a. 2010a. Toward a critical phenomenology of “illegality”: state power. Oxford: Berg Zigon J. Arts J. CT: Bergin and Garvey Zigon J. Murphy KM. transl. 1976. Oxford: Oxford Univ. 2008. Stanford. 13:285–301 Weiner JF. Migr. Q. Anthropol. 29:287–328 Stoller P. Theory 2:185– 207 Turner V. 33:251–69 102 Desjarlais · Throop . 34:741–56 Throop CJ. Leaf. Annu. G Walsh. 1992. From Ritual to Theater: The Human Seriousness of Play. Crit. Intermediary varieties of experience. 1986. Philadelphia: Univ.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. A Sarat. 2009. and the Hauka in West Africa. Schutz A. A significant effort to examine how the existential cares and concerns of individuals mediate orientations to received cultural forms. 2003. In Trauma and Memory: Reading. 4:371–87 Scheper-Hughes N. Anthropol. The mindful body: a prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Turner V. 2008. Anthropology contra Heidegger. 2000. Shamanism: The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing. Rev. Moral breakdown and ethical demand. New York: Perform. New York: Routledge Stoller P. F Lehnert. Press Watson L. Press Stoller P. M Alberstein. Ethos 4:95–131 Weiner JF. Sensuous Scholarship. 1995. Arts J. Med. N Davidovitch. 168–203. and abjectivity among undocumented migrant workers in Tel Aviv. Anthropology contra Heidegger. Self. The commodification of the body and its parts.org by University of California . Press Zigon J. 28–49 Throop CJ. 1993. Berkeley: Univ. Chicago: Univ. Anthropol. 1975. Morality: An Anthropological Perspective. 2008. Healing. Ill. Press Seeman D.” mass deportation and the threat of violent arrest: structural violence and social suffering in the lives of undocumented migrant workers in Israel. Oxford: Berg Wikan U. Understanding a life history as a subjective document: hermeneutical and phenomenological perspectives. The Phenomenology of the Social World. Phenomenology and Structuralism. Urbana: Univ. 1990. New York: Routledge Taylor JS. 1993. 2000. Rev. 2001. “Becoming beautiful in the dance”: on the formation of ethical modalities of being in Yap (Waqab). part I: anthropology’s nihilism. Anthropol. Talk. See Murphy & Throop 2010a. 45:8–36 Winkelman M. embodiment. The Anthropology of Performance. “Illegality. The Power of the Between: An Anthropological Odyssey. Anthropol. 1967. Annu. 1986. 2005. Managing Turbulent Hearts: A Balinese Formula for Living. Ethnol. Israel. Press Willen S. Chicago: Univ. Piscataway. Rev. Press Sharp L.annualreviews. One Blood: Ethiopian Israelis and the Return to Judaism. Power. Anthropol. Anthropol. 2004. Chicago Press Wikan U. 2009b. 2010a. 37:771–82 Throop CJ. Downloaded from www. Rev. 12:75–90 Weiner JF. Annu. pp. and Making Law. 2010b. Calif. 2007. In the midst of action.

Melby and Michelle Lampl ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣53 Ethnic Groups as Migrant Groups: Improving Understanding of Links Between Ethnicity/Race and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Conditions Tessa M. Smith ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 415 A Century of Feasting Studies Brian Hayden and Suzanne Villeneuve ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 433 Biological Anthropology Menopause. For personal use only.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12.40:87-102. Mullins ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 133 Migration Concepts in Central Eurasian Archaeology Michael D. 2011. Downloaded from www. 2011 Prefatory Chapter Anthropological Relocations and the Limits of Design Lucy Suchman ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 1 Archaeology The Archaeology of Consumption Paul R. Rev. Pollard ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 145 From Mirror Neurons to Complex Imitation in the Evolution of Language and Tool Use Michael A. Volume 40.org by University of California . Anthropol. A Biocultural Perspective Melissa K. Arbib ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 257 vi . Frachetti ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 195 Archaeologists and Indigenous People: A Maturing Relationship? Tim Murray ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 363 Archaeological Ethnography: A Multitemporal Meeting Ground for Archaeology and Anthropology Yannis Hamilakis ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 399 Archaeologies of Sovereignty Adam T.annualreviews.Annual Review of Anthropology Contents Annu.

40:87-102. 2011. Liu ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 115 The Ethnographic Arriving of Palestine Khaled Furani and Dan Rabinowitz ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 475 Sociocultural Anthropology Substance and Relationality: Blood in Contexts Janet Carsten ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣19 Hallucinations and Sensory Overrides T. Luhrmann ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣71 Phenomenological Approaches in Anthropology Robert Desjarlais and C. Friedman ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 275 International Anthropology and Regional Studies Central Asia in the Post–Cold War World Morgan Y.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12.org by University of California .M. Linguistics and Communicative Practices Publics and Politics Francis Cody ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣37 Ritual and Oratory Revisited: The Semiotics of Effective Action Rupert Stasch ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 159 Language and Migration to the United States Hilary Parsons Dick ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 227 The Balkan Languages and Balkan Linguistics Victor A. and Household Strategies Jeffrey H. Rev. Cohen ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 103 Climate and Culture: Anthropology in the Era of Contemporary Climate Change Susan A. For personal use only. Crate ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 175 Policing Borders.annualreviews. Producing Boundaries. The Governmentality of Immigration in Dark Times Didier Fassin ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 213 Contents vii . Remittances.From Hominoid to Hominid Mind: What Changed and Why? Brian Hare ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 293 The Human Microbiota as a Marker for Migrations of Individuals and Populations Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello and Martin J. Blaser ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 451 Annu. Anthropol. Downloaded from www. Jason Throop ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣87 Migration.

Transnational Migration and Global Health: The Production and Management of Risk.annualreviews. and Access to Care Carolyn Sargent and St´ephanie Larchanch´e ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 345 Concepts and Folk Theories Susan A.The Cultural Politics of Nation and Migration Steven Vertovec ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 241 Migrations and Schooling Marcelo M. and Household Strategies Jeffrey H. Remittances. Tasha Darbes. Arbib ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 257 From Hominoid to Hominid Mind: What Changed and Why? Brian Hare ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 293 Concepts and Folk Theories Susan A. Legare ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 379 Theme II: Migration Migration.org by University of California .M.40:87-102. Rev. Sandra Isabel Dias. 2011.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12. Gelman and Cristine H. Cohen ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 103 Ethnic Groups as Migrant Groups: Improving Understanding of Links Between Ethnicity/Race and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Associated Conditions Tessa M. Anthropol. Su´arez-Orozco. Illness. For personal use only. Pollard ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 145 Migration Concepts in Central Eurasian Archaeology Michael D. Downloaded from www. Luhrmann ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣71 Phenomenological Approaches in Anthropology Robert Desjarlais and C. Frachetti ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 195 viii Contents . Jason Throop ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣87 From Mirror Neurons to Complex Imitation in the Evolution of Language and Tool Use Michael A. Gelman and Cristine H. and Matt Sutin ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 311 Tobacco Matthew Kohrman and Peter Benson ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 329 Annu. Legare ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 379 Migration-Religion Studies in France: Evolving Toward a Religious Anthropology of Movement Sophie Bava ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 493 Theme I: Anthropology of Mind Hallucinations and Sensory Overrides T.

Anthropol. Su´arez-Orozco. The Cultural Politics of Nation and Migration Steven Vertovec ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 241 Migrations and Schooling Marcelo M. Downloaded from www. Volumes 31–40 ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 512 Errata An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Anthropology articles may be found at http://anthro. The Governmentality of Immigration in Dark Times Didier Fassin ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 213 Language and Migration to the United States Hilary Parsons Dick ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 227 Annu.annualreviews. For personal use only. Volumes 31–40 ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 509 Cumulative Index of Chapter Titles.Policing Borders. 2011. Tasha Darbes. and Matt Sutin ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 311 Transnational Migration and Global Health: The Production and Management of Risk. Illness.shtml Contents ix . Blaser ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 451 Migration-Religion Studies in France: Evolving Toward a Religious Anthropology of Movement Sophie Bava ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 493 Indexes Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors.Los Angeles (Young Research Library) on 01/05/12.org/errata. Producing Boundaries.40:87-102. and Access to Care Carolyn Sargent and St´ephanie Larchanch´e ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ 345 The Human Microbiota as a Marker for Migrations of Individuals and Populations Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello and Martin J. Sandra Isabel Dias.annualreviews.org by University of California . Rev.