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FogHorn

UniversityofNewHampshire
UndergraduateOceanResearchProject20082009
4/26/2009

TeamMembers:
MathieuFeraud
DanFournier
WyattO'Day
MarcOuellette

Advisors:
KennethBaldwin,Ph.D.
AlanDrake,Ph.D.

Tableofcontents
Sections

Acknowledgments

Page3

I.Abstract

Page4

II.Introduction

Page5

III.Background

Page6

IV.Methods

Page7

V.Discussion

Page9

Page9

b.CaseDesign

Page9

c.AmplifierCircuitDesign

Page11

d.MicrocontrollerDesign

Page12

e.FogHornTesting

Page13

a.Drivers

Page15

VII.Conclusion

Page19

Page21

B.MicrocontrollerCode

Page22

VI.Results

Appendices

A.References

C.Test,Measurement,andDiagnosticEquipment

Page26

D.CaseSchematics

Page27

E.AmplifierCircuitLayout

Page33

F.BillofMaterials

Page35

Page36

G.FogSignalDesignCriteria

Acknowledgements
Thisworkistheresultofresearchsponsoredinpart,bytheNationalSeaGrantCollegeProgram,
NOAA,DepartmentofCommerce,undergrant#NA06OAR4170109throughtheNewHampshireSea
GrantCollegeProgram.
Thefoghorndesignteamwouldliketoacknowledgethefollowingpersonsandentities,whose
contributionsandguidancemadethesuccessfulcompletionoftheprojectpossible.

KennethBaldwin,Ph.D.
AlanDrake,Ph.D.
JenniferBedsole
PaulGoodwin
WatermarkNavigationSystems,LLC

I. Abstract

Audible warning signals are necessary for ensuring the safety of nautical vessels in inclement

weather conditions where a visible navigation beacon may become obscured. An engineering challenge
exists in designing a commercially viable fog horn which is simultaneously lightweight, low profile,
weather resistant, has low power consumption, and yet is powerful enough to produce an audible signal
over a great distance.
This design team has endeavored to design a fog horn prototype which meets or exceeds the
specifications set forth by the customer, while keeping the design flexible enough that the customer
may implement design changes in the future.

II.Introduction

Warningsignalshavebeenusedforcenturiesasamethodforwarningnauticalvesselsofthe

presenceofhazardsandobstaclesinopenwater.Suchsignalsbecomenecessarywhenvisibility
conditionsaresuchthatawarningbeaconcannotbeseenintimefortheshiptochangecourse.Thus,
thenauticalwarningsignalorfoghorn,asitismorecommonlyknownisaninvaluabletoolfor
navigation.Theprevalenceofoffshoreoilplatformsmakesthemodernfoghornespeciallyimportant
tomodernseafarers.

WatermarkNavigationSystems,LLCisthemanufactureranddistributorofawiderangeof

nauticalaids,includingmarkerbuoysandsignalbeacons.Watermarkfoundthatacommoncomplaint
amongsttheircustomerbasewasthelackofaninexpensive,lightweight,andlowmaintenancefoghorn.
Seeingthisopportunitytomeetamarketneedwhileexpandingtheirproductbase,Watermark
approachedtheUniversityofNewHampshirewiththeproposaltosponsoranundergraduateproject
teaminthedesignofsuchafoghorn.

Thoughitisrelativelysimpleinconcept,aviablefoghornpresentsuniquechallengestoateam

ofengineers.Onemustconsidertheenvironmentinwhichthehornistooperate.Thefoghornwill
constantlybeexposedtomoistureandsaltfromseawater.Itmustbeabletowithstandwindandheavy
rainsaswellasawiderangeoftemperatures.Itmustbesmallandlightenoughtomaketransportation
outtoitsinstallationsiteeconomicallyviable.Incontrast,itmustberuggedenoughtoremain
unaffectedbyaharshoutdoorenvironment.Mostimportantly,itmustproduceasignalwhichis
audibletoavesselatdistancesfarenoughtoavoidtheobstacle.Theproductionofsuchapowerful
audiblesignalcarrieswithititsownengineeringchallengesintermsofthepowerrequiredtoproduce
it.

Thus,theaimofthisprojectteamwastoapproachthisuniqueandveryrealengineering

challengeanddeviseafoghornwhichwouldmeetthespecifiedcriteriaandserveastheprototypefor
Watermarksownlineoffoghorns.Theteamconsistedofasmall,interdisciplinarygroupofengineers
whosawinthisprojecttheopportunitynotonlytoinnovatebuttoalsogaintheexperienceofhaving
guidedanideathroughthestagesofdesigntoemergewithamarketableproduct.

III.Background

WhenPaulGoodwinofWatermarkproposedthefoghornprojecttotheUniversity,heincluded

intheprojectdescriptionseveralfeaturesthatheexpectedthefinalfoghorntopossess.Obviously,the
designconstraintsmentionedearlierwerementioned.Thesespecificdesigngoalscanbeseenin
AppendixG:FogSignalDesignCriteria.
Principalamongtheseconstraintswastheproductionofanaudiblesignalofspecificduration
andloudenoughandtomeettheCoastGuardspecification.Theprimarycriteriaofthisspecification
arethatthesignalmustbeapproximately120decibelsat1meterandthatitpersistsfor2secondsover
a20secondinterval.

IV. Methods

The exact approach that the design team would take to meet this benchmark was not

immediately clear. Many methods exist by which sound can be created. A historical investigation of
foghorns revealed that the earliest fog signals were bells. At the turn of the century, compressed air
horns such as diaphones were widely used. Most commercially available modern foghorns use
compression drivers or other electromagnetic loudspeakers to produce sound. Other methods also
exist, such as vibrating plates and piezoelectric speakers, which can produce audible signals.
The design team began by performing a feasibility study into each of these methods in order to
determine if some viable method of sound production existed beyond loudspeakers that could meet the
design criteria. The team examined four such approaches: a mechanical bell, a piezoelectric speaker, a
compressed air horn, and a method utilizing vibrating plates.
The mechanical bell idea was quickly discarded after the realization that the size of the bell
necessary to produce sound pressure levels exceeding 120 dB would be prohibitively large. The
mechanical apparatus necessary to strike the bell at the specified 20 second interval would necessitate
the use of a motor or other such electro-mechanical device which would decrease the maintenance
interval of the signal as well as significantly add to its weight and overall power consumption.
The piezoelectric speaker also proved to be an intractable approach. Though piezoelectric speakers are
small and consume very little power, the amount of sound pressure they are capable of producing is
likewise small. Suitable for applications such as hearing aids and earphones, where they can directly
stimulate the eardrum, the piezoelectric driver cannot come close to providing sound pressure levels
appropriate to our application.
Compressed air offered the team the first viable approach to meeting the audible signal criteria.
Many compressed air systems, such as the ones used on tractor trailers and locomotives, exist which
meet or exceed the 120 dB sound pressure level needed for the horn. A compressed air system
activated by a solenoid could be electronically controlled and would be well protected from moisture.
The major factor that diminishes the viability of the compressed air system is the necessity to include a
compressor on-site. Though a compressed air bottle would power the horn for a short time, the
frequency with which it would need to be recharged makes this approach prohibitive as technicians
would have to travel back and forth to the horn to replace these bottles. A compressor on site is the
only approach which makes any sense; however, a compressor is expensive, heavy, is susceptible to

moisture, consumes a great deal of power, and necessitates routine maintenance. For these numerous
reasons, the compressed air approach was deemed to lie outside of the possible design approaches for
the foghorn.
The vibrating plate approach was lastly considered. A relatively obscure technology, it utilizes
rods affixed to a series of thin plates which are made to vibrate by quick back-and-forth movements of
the rods themselves. Few vibrating plate loudspeakers exist, and the ones that do are marketed as
high-frequency loudspeakers for audiophiles. Though they consume less power and offer a frequency
response better than that of a traditional loudspeaker, the unavailability of these devices coupled with
the complexity of manufacturing one made this an approach which the team was reluctant to explore
due to the constraints of time and budget.
Thus, the design team decided that for the factors of small size and weight, coupled with
commercial availability and ease of implementation, the use of electromagnetic compression drivers
made the most sense.

V.Discussion

Afterchoosingthecompressiondriversasthemethodtomakesound,wethenbeganbreaking

theproblemofmakingaworkingfoghornprototypeintoapproachablepieces.

a. CompressionDrivers

Awidearrayofloudspeakersarecommerciallyavailable,andthusitbecamenecessaryto

narrowthefieldfordriverswhichwouldbeappropriatetothefoghornapplication.Thefirstcriterion
whichthedriverhadtomeetwastheabilitytoprovideatleastthespecifiedsoundpressurelevelgiven
areasonablepowersignal.Secondly,thedrivermustoperatewellwithintheregionofthehornssignal
frequency.AccordingtotheCoastGuardspecification,thisincludestonesaslowas400Hzandashigh
as1.2kHz.Acriterionwhichbecameapparentafterattemptingtoorderseveraldriverswastheactual
commercialavailabilityofthedriveritself.Somedriverswerediscoveredwhichcouldmeetthe
demandsofourhorn,butwhichturnedouttobemanufacturedbyacompanythathadgoneoutof
businessorhadceasedcarryingtheproduct.

ThedriversonwhichthedesignteameventuallysettledweretheElectroVoiceID60DTheavy

dutycompressiondrivers.Thesehighpowerindustrialdriversfeaturedaruggedizeddesign,asealed
wiringcompartment,tropicalizedmetalpartsforresistancetohumidity,andweatherproofpaint.The
readyavailabilityanditsweatherresistantfeaturesmadeitideallysuitedforimplementationintothe
horndesign.Thethreaded13/8throatofthedriverprovideduswithaneasywaytomatethedriver
tothehornchannel,anengineeringdifficultywewerethankfullyabletobypass.

b. CaseDesign

Thedesignofthefoghornmustmeetcertaincriteria,themostimportantofwhichistheCoast

Guardspecificationforsoundpressurelevelatonemeter.Thisaudiblesignalwouldideallybeprojected
inahorizontalpattern,360degreesaroundthehorn.Thesecondcriterion,forcommercialpurposes,is
providingafoghornthatislightweightenoughtobeeasilytransportedbyhelicopterorsmallboatout

totheinstallationsite.Thefoghorndriversandelectronicsmustbeprotectedfromtheelementsand
thehornitselfmustbeweatherproofandresistanttosaltwater.

WheninspectingthestructureofaBogennauticalloudspeaker,theteamnoticedthatthesound

traveledinthreedifferentdirectionsbeforeleavingthespeaker.Theloudspeakeritselfhadthree
differentsections,eachshapinganddirectingtheaudiblesignal.Inthefirstsection,thesoundtravels
fromthedriverupthroughatunedchannel.Inthesecond,acapencirclingtheinitialtubeprojects
soundbackdownandaroundtheinitialtube.Thelastsectionfeaturesanothercap,whichdirectsand
projectsthesoundbackupwardandout.Thisparticulardesignofferedamethodbywhichthedrivers,
orsourceofthesound,couldbeisolatedfromdirectexposuretotheenvironment.

Indesigningtheactualhorn,theteamwentthroughseveraldifferentapproaches.Theinitial

designswereunnecessarilycomplex,inthattheydemandedthreedifferentpartstobemadeinconical
shapesandwereofextremelyprecisedimensions.Inmostofthesesuggesteddesigns,therewereonly
threepartsthatwereacousticallyessential:theinnerhorn,thecapandthewaveguide.Initially,allthree
weredesignedinconicalshape,withthewaveguideatasignificantangle.Thewaveguidewasdesigned
astwopiecessothatitcouldbeclaspedonthehornwhileallowingforaccesstothedrivers.Thisdesign
requiredaprecisefittotheinnerhornwhosewidthvariedaccordingtoheightandtothebase.This
approachwasabandonedinthefinaldesign,aswasthecapwhichnowrestedataperpendicularangle
tothetop.

ThedesignsubmittedtoWatermarkhadonlytwocomplexparts.Duetothedifficultyof

fabricatingtheseparts,Watermarkmadeseveralalterationstothedesign,whichtheyfeltwould
simplifyfabrication.

Thefinaldesignisdividedintofivesegments,eachwithspecificacousticandstructuralroles

withinthefoghorn.

Thehornchannel,asshowninAppendixDfigure1,servesasthebaseandcentralcolumnofthe

horn.Itsupportsbothdriversfromthethreadedinsertsonitssides.Thethreadedrodrunsvertically
throughitscenterandlocksintoplacewithbolts.Thetuningplugispositionedinsidethechannel
betweenthedrivers,withthetopedgeperpendiculartothedrivers.Theinnerhornisthreadedtothe
topofthechannel.

Theinnerhorn(AppendixDfigure2),isusedtodirectthesoundtothetopofthecapandmatch

theacousticimpedanceofthechanneltothecap.Intheprototype,italsosupportsthewaveguide.Itis
attachedtothechannelbythreadsatitsmouth.

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Thewaveguide(AppendixDfigure3),isusedtofurtherdirectsoundreflectedfromthecap.It

convertstheverticalsoundwaveswhichreflectfromthecap,tohorizontalonesthatpropagatefrom
thehorn.Itisweldedtotheinnerhorn.

Thecap(AppendixDfigure4)directsthesoundfromtheinnerhorntothewaveguide.Itis

suspendedfromthethreadedrodbybolts.Itslargetopsurfaceallowsforthemountingofsignal
beaconsonbuoyswherespaceislimited.Itslongsidesfurtherredirectsoundenergy,whileprotecting
thehornchannelfromencroachmentofwater.

Thetuningplug(AppendixDfigure5)isusedtoredirectthesoundofthetwodriversupthe

hornchannel.Itsmainpurposeistoavoidhavingthedriversdirectingsoundonlyintoeachother.Itis
placedinsidethehornchannelwithitstopedgeperpendiculartothedrivers.Thetuningplugismade
outofPVC.
Theprototypewasmadecompletelyoutofaluminumwiththeexceptionofthetuningplug.The
totalweightofthehornis59.2poundsanditis34.5high(excessbaris12)and20wide.

c. AmplifierCircuitDesign

Thefoghornpoweramplifiercircuitisamultifunctional,lowpowercircuitusedtodrivethetwo

60wattcompressiondrivers.Theprincipalconsiderationinthedesignoftheamplifierwasmaximum
efficiency,sincethefoghornwouldbeoperatedbybattery.Themoreefficienttheamplifiercircuit,the
lessoftenthesebatterieswouldneedtobereplaced.

Anelectromagneticdriverworksbyfeedingcurrentthroughitinaforwardorreversedirection

togetthediaphragmtomoveinthecorrespondingdirectionbyanamountproportionaltothecurrent
itself.Thelimitationourdesignteamfacedisthatasingle12voltDCbatteryonlyproducesapolarized
voltage.ThisledustotheideaofincorporatinganintegratedcircuitcalledanHbridgeintoourcircuit
design.TheHbridge,inabasicsense,worksbysensingaPWM(pulsewidthmodulation)inputwith
multipletransistorstoenableasequenceofswitchingtotakeplace.Theswitchingpatterndetermines
atwhattimesthecurrentflowisforwardorreversedattheoutputsoftheHbridge.Reversingthe
directionofcurrentflowallowstheamplifiertousetheentirerangeofmotionoftheloudspeaker
driver,overcomingthelimitationofthepolarizedbattery.Tocontrolthecircuit,ourteamdetermined
thatthebestmethodforproducingthePWMcontrolvoltagewastouseamicrocontroller.Throughthe

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utilizationoftheHbridgeandmicrocontrollerourteamwasabletodesignandfabricateaproperly
functioningcircuitthatmaximizestheoverallefficiencyofthefoghorn.

Referringtothecircuitschematic,(AppendixE)themicrocontroller(Q2)requiresasupply

voltageof5voltsDC.Toprovidethis,a5voltvoltageregulator(Q1)isused.CapacitorsC1,C2,C3,and
C4actascouplingcapacitorswhichkeepACnoiseoffoftheDCvoltagescomingoutofthebatteryand
voltageregulator.CapacitorsC5andC6areusedaspartofthebootstrapcircuitryoftheHbridge.This
featurespeedsuptheriseandfalltimesoftheoutputsignal.
ThemicrocontrollerisprogrammedtooutputaTTLsquarewavewitha20secondperiod,a10%
dutycycle,andaburstfrequencyof950Hz.Pin6ofthemicrocontrollerconnectstoswitchS1andis
heldlowduringnormalfoghornoperation.ClosingtheswitchS1assertsthispinhighandsignalsthe
microcontrollertoshutthecircuitdownfortwohours.Thisfeatureisincludedforthebenefitof
maintenancepersonnelwhomaybeworkinginthevicinityofthefoghornwithoutthebenefitof
hearingprotection.Themicrocontrollerwillthenautomaticallyresumenormaloperationafter2hours
haveelapsed.

d. MicrocontrollerDesign

ThemicrocontrolleristhebrainoftheFogHorn.Itgeneratesthe950Hzsoundwave,shutsoff

theHBridgeduringidletimes,andimplementsthekillswitch.
Wechosean8bitmicrocontrollerfromFreescalefromtheHCS08familyofmicrocontrollers
units(MCUs).WechosetheFreescaleMC9S08QD4microcontrollerforitslowprice,highavailability,
andeasyprogrammability.Inparticular,theMC9S08QD4microcontrollercomeswithtimerfunctionality
andkeyboardinterruptsthatallowsustoimplementallofthefeaturesnecessarytobothsatisfythe
coastguardspecificationsandthebusinessrequirementsofWatermarkNavigationSystems.
WeprogrammedthemicrocontrollerusingtheCprogramminglanguage.Wealsomadeuseof
theheaderfilesthatreferenceparticularmemoryaddresslocations.Theseheaderfilesarefreely
availablefromFreescale.SeeAppendixBforthefullcodelisting.
Thefirstfeatureofnoteistheconfigurabletimeroverflowinterrupt.Weconfiguredthis
overflowsuchthattheinterruptfunctionwouldexecuteatarateof950.5Hz.Withinthisinterrupt
functionwecouldtoggletheoutputfrom0Vto5Vonapinofthemicrocontroller.This0Vto5Vtoggling

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actedasthesquarewaveinputtotheHBridgecircuit,whichconvertedthissignaltoa12Vto12V
squarewave.
Thenextproblemwehadtosolvewasthe10%dutycycle;thatis,generatingatonefor2
seconds,quietfor18seconds.WeaccomplishedthisusingtheRTI(RealTimeInterrupt)configuredto
executeevery8ms.Thus,theRTIfunctionexecutes250timesforevery2seconds.Thisallowsusto
controlboththesignalgenerationalongwithcountingthenumberofminutesthattheFogHornshould
remaindeadafterthekillswitchhasbeenpressed.
Thekillswitchfunctionalityisimplementedusingthekeyboardinterrupt.Thiskeyboard
interruptfunctionistriggeredwhentheresarisingedge(0to5V)ontheinputpin.Withintheinterrupt
functionweimmediatelystopanycurrentlyplayingsoundandsetacountertoresumenormal
functionalityafter2hours.
TheMCUwechosehasover2KofextraROMspaceandnearly2KofextraRAMmemory.Plus3
freepinsareavailableforadditionalinputsandoutputs.Thisallowsforadditionalexpansionbasedon
marketrequirements.

e. FogHornTesting

Uponcompletionofthehornitselfandtheinstallationofthesignalamplifierandcompression

drivers,itbecamenecessarytoperformtestingonthefullyrealizedfoghornprototype.Toisolateour
testingfromoutsideinterference,andtoeliminateanynuisancecausedbyourfoghorn,testingwas
performedintheUNHanechoicchamber,locatedbehindChaseOceanEngineering.Ourtestswould
consistofsoundpressurelevelmeasurementsatspecificpowerlevels,frequencies,andpositions
relativetothehorn.AdetailedlistoftheequipmentusedinthesetestscanbefoundinAppendixC.

Ourfirstgoalwastoadjustthepositionofcapsectionandtuningplugsoastoproducethe

maximumpossiblesoundoutput.ByadjustingthePAamplifiertomimictheoutputpowerofthesignal
amplifier,thetestcouldbeperformedcontinuouslyasadjustmentsweremadetotherelativelengthof
thehornchannelthedistancebetweenthetuningplugandcap.Similarly,wewereabletovarythe
frequencyintotheamplifierfromthewaveformgenerator.Thisallowedustozeroinontheideal
combinationofhornchanneldimensionandoperatingfrequency.

Thepurposeofthecap/waveguideapproachwastoproduceaconsistenthorizontalsoundwave

360aroundthefoghorn.However,ourtestingrevealedthatthesoundpressurelevelwasnot
consistentwithpositionrelativetothehorn.Thiswasverifiedbytakingthesoundlevelmeasurement

13

in10incrementsrelativetothepositionoftheoriginalmeasurement,whilemaintainingaconstant1
meterdistancefromthehorn.

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VI.Results

Ourtestingrevealedthattheidealsetupforthefoghornoccurredwhentheedgeofthecap

sectionwasapproximately9.0abovethesurfaceofthewaveguidesection,andthesignaltonewas
tunedto950.5Hz.Thisproducedasoundpressurelevelof120dBat1meterforaninputpowerof
23.76Wattsduringthe2secondburstofsound,and0.13Wattsduringthe18secondidletime.
Belowarethemeasurementsoftheprototypefoghornmeasuredat1meterwithaSPLMeter
withanaccuracyof2dB:
Table1:Directivitytestoffoghornat1m
Degrees
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

SPL(dB)
120
119
118
120
120
120
119
119
120

Degrees
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

SPL(dB)
120
117
118
119
117
117
120
117
119

Degrees
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260

SPL(dB)
118
118
118
118
119
118
117
117
118

Degrees
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350

SPL(dB)
120
120
120
119
118
120
118
118
119

15

Figure1
Measured Omni-directional SPL Output of Fog horn
vs. Coast Guard Specification
90

SPL (dB)
150
100
50
180

Degrees
from Center

270
Coast Guard Specified SPL (119.3 dB)
Measured Foghorn SPL

16

Figure2
Measured Operation Cycle of Foghorn Amplifier
Duration = 20s; Duty Cycle = 10%
Burst Frequency = 950 Hz
15

12

Amplitude (Volts)

-3

-6

-9

-12

-15

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Time (S)

Testingtheoutputofthevoltageregulator,microprocessor,andHbridgeofourcircuitrevealed

thatthecircuitwasworkingasdesigned.Referringtotable2,onecanobservethatourfoghorns
quiescentpowerconsumptionis.2812wattswhilethehornisnottransmitting.Duringsignaling,the
foghornconsumesof23.76wattsfortheperiodof2seconds.Thetotalcalculatedpowerconsumption
perhouris4.29KW/h.Testingrevealsthatduringbroadcast,theamplifierdraws23.76wattsfromthe
supplyanddelivers22.2wattsofpowertothedrivers.Thisrepresentsanoverallelectricalefficiency
ratingof93.4%.

17

Table2:Foghornpowerconsumption

Current(Amps) Voltage(Volts) PowerConsumed(Watts)


2sBurstPeriod
1.98
12
23.76
18sQuiescentPeriod
0.027
12
0.2812
Full20speriod
1.85
12
22.2

Efficiency=93.4%
TotalPowerConsumption=4.29kW/h

18

VII. Conclusion

In this project we attempted to design, for commercial use, a viable fog warning signal. This

foghorn would be of a rugged, weatherproof design, would be light and low profile enough to permit
transportation in a helicopter or small boat, and would produce an audible signal meeting or exceeding
the standards of the US Coast Guard.
Our specific design approach attempted to produce such an audible signal in every direction
relative to the horn. We further endeavored to transmit this signal in a horizontal pattern that would
deliver the maximum amount of power to vessels traveling on the water. Furthermore, our design
attempts to protect and insulate the horn channel from the incursion of rainwater, while providing a
stable platform for signal beacons or other equipment which may need to share space on a marker
buoy.
The results of the omnidirectional testing reveals that though the horn does exceed the Coast
Guard specification in certain directions, it is not within specification for others. This shortcoming is
most likely a combination of factors involving the horn bell section. Unable to fabricate the steep taper
of the bell in aluminum, Watermark was forced to use a thinner material and beat the shape by
hand. A large weld running up the side of the bell changes the acoustic properties of the horn on that
side. Lastly, the waveguide, having been fused to the horn bell, is not perfectly centered with respect to
the horn channel. Though the precise effect of each of these factors is unknown, it can be assumed that
a molded approach to mass production of the fog horn would alleviate losses from these prototype
inconsistencies.
In terms of the horns resistance to weather, it was realized that particularly heavy rain driven
by strong winds could encroach into the horn channel. Though the installation of a drain plug in the
channel was discussed, it soon became apparent that even with this precaution moisture could
accumulate in the throats of the drivers. A far better approach would be to direct the driver throats
vertically down, rather than horizontally as our design has done. This would also reduce the physical
strain which the drivers place on the sides of the channel. An improved design may feature a curved
horn channel, permitting the driver to be oriented in this way.
Though the foghorn meets Coast Guard specifications, it was realized through testing that the
cap section was absorbing a great deal of sound energy before reflecting it to the waveguide. This may
have been a function of a distance between cap and waveguide which was much larger than we had

19

anticipated. The original design kept this gap very small, but at some point in the fabrication process it
became impossibility. The cap reflection approach may still be feasible, but based on testing results the
team concluded that the flat shape of the prototypes cap and its distance from the waveguide cause
unnecessary losses to the signal strength.
One of the great successes of the project was the implementation of the amplifier circuit. With
the exception of some non-ideal crackling in the signal output, the tone produced by the circuit was
very clear. The microcontroller performed flawlessly. The modular and waterproof design of the circuit
allows it to be plug-and-play for a technician servicing the fog horn. We believe this design with a
mind to maintenance will be a key selling point for this fog horn when it finally goes to market.
Overall, the project was a success in that it provides a stable and easily modified framework for
the design of a commercial fog horn. Subsequent ideas and features which Watermark wishes to
implement into their product can be quickly and easily realized by using the prototype as a standard or
platform for their implementation.

20

AppendixA:References
Baldwin,KennethC.;Ph.D.Personalinterview.27November2008.
Drake,Allen;Ph.D.Personalinterview.9April2009.
Goodwin,PaulW.Personalinterviews.November2008April2009.
Kolbrek,Bjrn."HornTheory:AnIntroduction,Part1"
audioXpress2008.14November2008
<http://www.audioxpress.com/magsdirx/ax/addenda/media/kolbrek2884.pdf>.

UnitedStates.CoastGuard.DepartmentofHomelandSecurity.Title33Navigationand
NavigableWaters67.1010:OperatingRequirements.Washington:CoastGuard,2008.
UnitedStates.CoastGuard.DepartmentofHomelandSecurity.Title33Navigationand
NavigableWaters67.1020:SoundSignalTests.Washington:CoastGuard,2008.

21

Appendix B: Microcontroller Code

As discussed in section V-d (Microcontroller Design), the code is in the C programming language

and uses standard headers provided free of charge from Freescale.

22

main.c

Thursday, April 23, 2009

/********************************************************************
* FogHornOS
*
*
* Filename:
main.c
* Author:
Wyatt O'Day
* Contact:
wyattoday@gmail.com
* Revision:
1.4
*
*
* Last Modified: April 22, 2009
*
* Description: Generates a 950.5 Hz square wave, 10% duty cycle
*
(on 2 secs off 18 secs) and has a kill switch.
*
*
Also, to reduce power consumption, the H-Bridge
*
will be switched off when the sound wave isn't
*
being generated.
*
********************************************************************/
#include <hidef.h> /* for EnableInterrupts macro */
#include "derivative.h" /* include peripheral declarations */
#define BKGD_DISABLED
#define MODE_PULSE_ON 0
#define MODE_PULSE_OFF 1
#define MODE_DEAD 2
volatile byte CurrentMode;
// the amount of time the fog horn remains
// dead after the kill switch has been hit
#define MAX_DEAD_MINUTES 120

#define CHUNKS_IN_2SEC 250


volatile byte Minutes, PulseSeconds, PulseChunks;
void SetMode(byte mode)
{
//Stop and reset the timer
TPMSC_CLKSx = 0x00;
TPMSC_TOF = 0;
CurrentMode = mode;
Minutes = 0;
PulseChunks = 0;
PulseSeconds = 0;
if(mode != MODE_PULSE_ON)
{
// switch pin to low
PTAD_PTAD4 = 0;
// turn off the H-Bridge (5 V)
PTAD_PTAD3 = 1;
return;
}
else
{
// turn on the H-Bridge (0V)
PTAD_PTAD3 = 0;

23
-1-

main.c

Thursday, April 23, 2009

// Select Bus clock and Start the timer


TPMSC_CLKSx = 0x01;

void main(void)
{
EnableInterrupts;
#ifdef BKGD_DISABLED
SOPT1_BKGDPE = 0;
#endif
//Set bus divide to divide by 8 ( 8 MHz / 8 = 1 Mhz Bus freq)
ICSC2_BDIV = 3;
// Output pin (for sound wave)
PTAD_PTAD4 = 0;
PTADD_PTADD4 = 1;
// Output pin (for H-Bridge enable/disable)
PTAD_PTAD3 = 0;
PTADD_PTADD3 = 1;
// KBI Set Up for SW1 (pin 2 PTAD_PTAD2)
PTAPE_PTAPE2 = 1; /* Enable Pullup for Keyboard pin */
KBIPE_KBIPE2 =1; /* Enable Keyboard Pin */
KBISC_KBIE = 1;
KBISC_KBACK = 1;

/*

/* Enable Keyboard Interrupts */


/* Clear Pending Keyboard Interrupts */

To calculate frequency the interrupt is called:


Frequency =

Bus Freq
-----------------TPMMOD * Prescaler

With the bus divide set to 8 (ICSC2_BDIV = 3), the


bus freq = clock freq / 8 = 8 MHz / 8 = 1 Mhz
The prescaler is in the form of 2^N where N can be 0 to 7.
(Setting TPMSC_PS = 7, means prescaler = 2^7 = 128)
Lastly the TPMMOD can be any number from 1 to 65535.
*/
// set for freq = 950.5 Hz
// timer_setup
TPMMOD = 526;
TPMSC_PS = 0; //Set Div 1 prescaler
TPMSC_TOIE = 1; // Enable Timer Overflow Interrupt
SetMode(MODE_PULSE_ON);

//enable the RTI for 8ms intervals (see pg 66 of MC9S08QD4)


SRTISC = 0b00010001;
-2-

24

main.c

Thursday, April 23, 2009

// please make sure that you never leave this function


for(;;) { __RESET_WATCHDOG(); }

// Keyboard interrupt subroutine


interrupt VectorNumber_Vkeyboard1 void KBI_ISR(void)
{
// kill switch was pressed
SetMode(MODE_DEAD);

// Clear Pending Keyboard Interrupts


KBISC_KBACK = 1;

// TIM1OVFL_ISR - ISR that provides the timebase.


interrupt VectorNumber_Vtpm1ovf void TIM1OVFL_ISR(void)
{
// toggle Port
PTAD_PTAD4 = ~PTAD_PTAD4;

// clear TOF
TPMSC_TOF = 0;

// Real time interrupt - executed every 8ms


void interrupt VectorNumber_Vrti RTI_ISR(void)
{
// clear RTIF
SRTISC_RTIACK = 1;
if(++PulseChunks == CHUNKS_IN_2SEC)
{
PulseChunks = 0;
PulseSeconds += 2;
if(CurrentMode == MODE_PULSE_ON)
SetMode(MODE_PULSE_OFF);
else if(CurrentMode == MODE_DEAD)
{
if(PulseSeconds == 60)
{
PulseSeconds = 0;
if(++Minutes == MAX_DEAD_MINUTES)
{
// switch back to the live mode
SetMode(MODE_PULSE_ON);
}

}
}
else if (PulseSeconds == 18) // currently in MODE_PULSE_OFF
SetMode(MODE_PULSE_ON);

25
-3-

Appendix C: Test, Measurement, and


Diagnostic Equipment
Model Number
4050D
15
45
3020
MPA-101
33-2055

Manufacturer
Power Designs
Fluke
Fluke
BK Precision
Radio Shack
Radio Shack

Nomenclature
DC Power Supply
Handheld Multimeter
Auto-ranging Multimeter
Sweep/Function Generator
P.A. Amplifier
Digital Sound Level Meter

SK0404

SKMI

Oscilloscope/Function Generator

Specification
0-40 V, 0-5 A
0-1000 VDC, 0-750 VAC, 0-10 A
0-1000 VDC, 0-750 VAC, 0-10 A
0.2 Hz 2.0 MHz
100W maximum power
50-126 dB SPL
2 dB @ 114 dB
40 MHz Scope, 5MHz Function
Generator

Table 3: Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment

26

AppendixD:CaseSchematics

27

15.65
10.00

.15

.49

.15

.75
5.00

.75

1.35

.25

.65

Fog Horn

2.50

Horn channel
Figure 1

1.50

4.30

4.70
8.00

0.200

View: Wireframe
SCALE

1.35

4/24/2009

28

13.25

DETAIL A
SCALE 0.360

4.60

.20

4.30

SEE DETAIL

.20

Inner
horn
Figure 2

Fog Horn

109.2

70.8

0.180

View: Wireframe
SCALE

4/24/2009

.15

29

20.00

Fog Horn

8.50

Wave guide
Figure 3

7.50

.15

5.75

0.150

View: Wireframe
SCALE

45.0

.15

4/24/2009

30

.75

Cap
Figure 4

Fog Horn

18.38

7.50

0.150

View: Wireframe
SCALE

.25

4/24/2009

31

4.00

.25
56.3

3.25

1.00

1.39

Tuning
plug
Figure 5

Fog Horn

.70

SCALE

0.500
View: Wireframe

4/24/2009

32

Appendix E: Amplifier Circuit Layout


Fog Horn Power Circuit PCB Parts

Component
Resistor

Reference
Designator Value

Part Number

R1

2.4K Ohms
+/-5%

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6

2200uF/16V
1uF/12V
10uF/16V
.1uF
10nF
10nF

Description

Capacitor
Coupling Capacitor
Coupling Capacitor
Coupling Capacitor
Coupling Capacitor
Bootstrap Capacitor
Bootstrap Capacitor

IC
Q1
Q2
Q3

LM7805C
MC9SO8QD4CPC
LMD 18200

Votage Regulator
Micro Controller
H-Bridge

Terminals
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6

Positive 12 Volts
GND
5 Volts to Switch
5 Volts From Switch When Closed
Output to Driver
Output to Driver
Off Board Connections

Switch
S1

Push Button

Drivers
D1

38109-855

D2

38109-855

Heavy Duty 60 W Compression


Driver
Heavy Duty 60 W Compression
Driver

Power
Supply
12 Volt DC Battery

33

+
_

T5
T6

ON PCB
BOARD

C1

SIZE

4/21/2009

DATE:

C2

Q3

C5

+12V

H-Bridge
LMD18200

Voltage Regulator
LM7805
3
+5V

2
Q1

4
GND

DWG NO

8
SHEET

C3

10
C4

11
C6

1 OF 1

REV

R1

GND

34

D1

D2

T1

T2
T3
T4

11x8.5

OFF PCB
BOARD

12V DC
Power
Supply

Marc Ouellette

Fog Horn Power Circuit

S1

DRAWN
By:

A
ISSUED

Freescale MC9S08QD4

Q2

AppendixF:BillofMaterials
Fog Horn Bill of Materials
Item
#
Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
10
11

Support Rod
Cap
Horn Channel
Inner Horn
Wave Guide
Compression
Driver ID6ODT
Switch
Water Proof
Junction Box

Part Number

Source

Qty

Paul
Goodwin

38109-855
164TZ

Cost
1
1
1
1
1

Mouser

Newmar PX-1

Total

$1,873.00

$1,873.00

2
1

$187.86
$0.11

$375.72
$0.11

$12.99

$12.99

Subtotal

$2,261.82

Printed Circuit Board


Item
#
Description

Resistor 2.4K
ohms
Capacitor
2200uF/16V
Capacitor
1uF/12V
Capacitor
10uF/12V
Capacitor
.1uF/12V

5
6
7
8
9

Capacitor 10nF
H-Bridge
Voltage Regulator
Microcontroller
Terminal Board

1
2
3
4

Part Number

Source

Qty

Cost
Ext.

Cost

mouser

$0.14

$0.14

SLPX223M035H4P3

mouser

$4.34

$0.55

311-1253-6-ND

Digi-Key

$9.26

$9.26

UWX1C100MCL1GB

Mouser

$0.16

$0.16

UWX1H0R1MCL1GB
81DA103M025JC2DE
3
LMD18200
LM7805
MC9S08QD4CPC
158-P02ELK508V11

Mouser

$0.17

$0.17

Mouser
Digi-Key
Digi-Key
Freescale
Mouser

2
1
1
1
3

$2.54
$14.14
$0.66
$0.69
$3.98

$5.08
$14.14
$0.66
$0.69
$11.94

Subtotal
Total Fog
Horn Cost

$42.79
$2,304.61

35

AppendixG:FogSignalDesignCriteria

1. USCGapproval33CFR67.10(1/2mileand2mileoutput),for2secondONand18secondOFF
(seeCFRsoundchartforfrequenciesandpressure),

2. Permanentlabelstating;dateofUSCGapproval,manufacturer,modelname,approvedrange,
powerinputtotheemitterrequiredtomeetapprovedoutput,andthepowerinputtothe
entireunitrequiredtomeetapprovedoutput,

3. Solarpowersupplyrelativelylowpowerconsumptionoperatingat12voltsDCasunitwill
includesolarpanelsand12Vbatterybank(sizedbasedonpowerinputrequirementsTBD),
lesspowerusedthebetter,

4. Relativelylightweightandsizedtofitintoahelicopterforoffshoreservice.Manyunitsare
offshoreandaccessedonlyviahelicoptersuchthatsizeandweightwillbeasellingfactorover
unitswhichrequireaworkboatorsupplyvessel(actualdesignweight,etc.TBD),lighter/smaller
thebetter,

5. Waterprooforpermanentlysealedelectronicsforlonglifeinasaltwaterenvironment.Manyof
thecompetitorsunits,onceopened,seemtosufferfromcorrosionissuesafterinitialservice.
Perhapsamoduledesignwherebynoworkwouldoccurinthefield,butcomponentscouldbe
swappedoutandservicedonshoreoratthefactory,tougherthebetter,

6. Temporaryshutdowncircuitwithwaterproofswitchtoallowtechnicianstheabilityto
temporarilydisablethesignaltoperformworkonthestructure,however,thefogsignalwill
automaticallydefaulttoONstatusafteraperiodofXXminutesOFF(TBD),perhapsincludinga
lesspowerfulsignaltoprovidenoticethehornwillcommencenormaloperationin5minutes,

7. FieldtestabletocertifypowerinputsandoutputsuchthataNavaidTechniciancancheckthe
unit,inplace,andverifyoperationtoapprovedstandardsandcompleteMMS/USCG90day
reportingrequirements,

8. Simpleoperationandconnectivitytoexistingpowersupply/solarinstallations.Ifanenduser
alreadyhasbatteriesandsolarpanelsavailable,oursolutionshouldsimplyreplacetheageingor
inoperativeFogSignal,

OTHERCONSIDERATIONS:

1.PossibleGSMCellPhone/Satelliteconnectivityforreportingcapability,
2.Possibleuserprogrammableforvarioussoundpatterns,
3.PossibleGPSsynch.timingcircuittosynchronizewithotherfogsignals,

36