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# Basic Equilibrium Concepts

1. In the reaction 3 C2H2(g) ↔ C6H6(g) will the ratio of [C2H2] to [C6H6] at equilibrium be 3:1?
2. List conditions that must be true at equilibrium.
3. Ozone (O3) and oxygen gas O2 can exist in equilibrium.
2 O3(g) ↔ 3 O2(g).
If 2 mol of O3 react for every 2 mol of O2 reacting does equilibrium exist in the container?
4. Consider the following reaction:
2 NOCl(g) ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g).
In a closed system, it is found that 2 moles of NOCl react for every 3 moles of product that react. Is
the mixture at equilibrium? Explain.
5. Consider the following reaction:
X(g) ↔ Y(g).
If you start with pure X in the container, and the reaction comes to equilibrium, show a sketch of
rates (forward/reverse) vs. time.
6. Consider the following equilibrium reaction:
2 NH3(g) ↔ N2(g) + 3 H2(g)
Why does the [N2] remain unchanged even though the forward reaction continues to occur and
produce N2?
7. Consider the following reaction
H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g)
If you began with HI in a container only, sketch the RATE vs. time graph as equilibrium is reached.
8. Consider the following reaction:
H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g)
You initially had 3.0 M of H2 and I2 and no HI in the container. The equilibrium concentration of H2
and I2 was found to be 1.4 M. Sketch the concentration vs. time graph for this reaction.
9. Consider the following reaction:
H2(g) + Br2(g) ↔ 2 HBr(g)
You initially had no H2 and Br2 and 3.0 M HBr in the container. The equilibrium [H2] was found to be
1.2 M. Sketch the concentration vs. time graph for this reaction.

General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005)

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10. Consider the following reaction:
H2(g) + F2(g) ↔ 2 HF(g)
You initially had 4.0 MH2 and 2.0 M F2 and no HF in the container. As equilibrium was established, a
total of 1.6 M of H2 was reacted (consumed). Sketch the concentration vs. time graph for this
reaction.
11. Consider the following concentration vs. time graph sketch for a reaction involving chemicals A, B,
and C. The amount reacted for each chemical is indicated by the variable x.

2x

A

[]M
B

C

3x
x
time

a. What were the reactants? Explain.
b. Write the overall reaction with the proper COEFFICIENTS (think)
c. How can you tell on a concentration vs. time graph when equilibrium is established?
d. How can you tell on a rate vs. time graph when equilibrium is established?

General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005)

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Entropy and Enthalpy
NOTE: all reactions are shown as single arrows to prevent you from guessing the answers by looking at
the arrows. Many of the reactions will actually be double arrow reactions!
1. In each of the following pairs of substances, select the one which has the greatest entropy, Explain
b. Cl2 (g) or 2 Cl-(aq)
d. CH3COOH (aq) or CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)

a. H2O(l) or H2O(g)
c. NH3 (l) or NH3 (aq)
2. In each of the following, decide:
i.

Which side is favoured by the tendency to minimum enthalpy.

ii.

Which side is favoured by the tendency to maximum entropy.

iii.

Whether the reaction will be:

A spontaneous reaction which goes to completion or
A non-spontaneous reaction in which NO products are formed or
A spontaneous equilibrium reaction

b.
PE (kJ)

A(g) + B(g)

PE (kJ)

a.

M(g) + N(g)

4Q(g) + 8R(g)
5C(g) + 6D(g)

Reaction Progress

Reaction Progress
c.

d.
PE (kJ)

PE (kJ)

4X(g) + 7Y(g)

5E(g) + 6F(g)

G(g) + H(g)
P(g) + Q(g)

Reaction Progress

Reaction Progress
e. H2SO4 (l) → H2SO4 (aq) + 150 kJ
f. C2H6 (g) → C2H2 (g) + 2 H2 (g)

∆H = + 311 kJ

g. C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq) → CaC2(s) + 2 H2O(l) ∆H = + 183 kJ
h. 2 C(s) + O2 (g) → 2 CO(g) ∆H = - 221 kJ
General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005)

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c. e. they are miscible. The reaction: 3 N2 (g) + Pb (s) → Pb(N3)2 (s) does not occur. 2NOBr(g) → 2NO(g) + Br2(g) H= + 20kJ 4. f. Smoke. some of it decomposes into 2 NO2 (g). b. Entropy increases enthalpy increases iv.are formed when AgBr is mixed with water. very little Ag+ and Br. CaCO3(s) + heat → CaO(s) + CO2(g) c. Water and alcohol mix completely in any proportions. When N2O4 (g) is put in a container. that is. 2NO2(g) → N2O4(g) H= . General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 4 . N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g) + energy d. carbon dioxide and water vapour will not react to make wood and oxygen. d. that is. Entropy decreases enthalpy increases iii. Which direction do minimum enthalpy and maximum entropy favour? a. Solid AgBr is almost insoluble in water. forming an expanding cloud of gases. Liquid nitroglycerine explodes. Entropy increases enthalpy decreases ii.3. Entropy decreases enthalpy decreases a. Which of the following choices show the changes in entropy and enthalpy as the products are made? i.50kJ b.

FeSCN []M SCN 2+ - 3+ Fe t1 time b. 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. H2 []M N2 NH3 t1 time 3. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 5 . the [Cl2] was decreased. Create a concentration vs. the [O2] was increased.92 kJ This reaction is initially at equilibrium with [N2] = 4.6 M NH3.4 M. Consider the following equation: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + 92 kJ From the graph below. the [SO3] was increased. Create concentration vs. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) ∆H = . Consider the following equation. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3(g) + 20 kJ At t1 . describe what happened at t1.Le Chatelier/Rate Theory: Concentration 1. The new equilibrium has a [N2] of 4.2 M. describe what happened at t1. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + 92 kJ At t1 the [H2] was decreased c. At a certain time the equilibrium is disturbed by adding 0. d.5 M and [NH3] = 2. 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . [H2] = 3. b. Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) ↔ FeSCN2+(aq) + 25 kJ From the graph below. a. 2. Assume the reactions are starting at equilibrium.0 M. a.4 kJ At t1 . time graphs for the following reactions. time graph to describe the following situation.

Consider the following reaction: 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. Describe what happens when the [NO] is decreased (using Rate theory). a. b. What (if anything) is incorrect with the concentration vs. time graphs for the following situations? Create the proper graph if necessary. 7. Describe what happens when the [HCl] is decreased (using Le Chateliers’s principle). Show the rates during the initial equilibrium to the new equilibrium that is established. the [NOCl] was decreased. 6. NOCl []M NO Cl2 t1 time b. Describe what happens when the [HCl] is decreased (using Rate theory). N2 []M H2 NH3 t1 time 5.4. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + 92 kJ At t1. the [NH3] was increased.4kJ a. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 6 . Create rate vs. b. time graphs for questions #1 a-d. Consider the following reaction: 2 NOCl(g) +30 kJ ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) Brown a. Describe what happens when the [NO] is decreased (using Le Chateliers’s principle). 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . Identify which line represents the forward and which represents the reverse rate.

2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . time graph to describe the following situation. Explain whether temperature was increased or decreased. ∆H = -92 kJ c.Le Chatelier/Rate Theory: Temperature 1. Create a concentration vs.4 M. Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) ↔ FeSCN2+(aq) + 25 kJ What happened at t1? 3+ Fe SCN - [ ]M FeSCN 2+ t1 time b. 2 NH3(g) + 92 kJ ↔ N2(g) + 3 H2(g) What happened at t1? H2 [ ]M N2 NH3 t1 time 3. [H2 ] = 3. Use the following reactions and graph to answer the questions below. The new [H2] is 2.9 M. Create concentration vs. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) At t1 the temperature was decreased. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3(g) + 20 kJ At t1 . At a certain time the equilibrium is disturbed by changing the temperature.4 kJ At t1 . time graphs for the following reactions. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + heat This reaction is initially at equilibrium with [N2] = 4. a. the temperature was increased. the temperature was increased. 2.0 M. a. b. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 7 . d.5 M and [NH3] = 2. the temperature was decreased. 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. Assume the reactions are starting at equilibrium.

Describe what happens when the temperature is increased (using Rate theory). Create the proper graph if necessary. the solution goes from yellow to blue.4 kJ a. Explain if the forward reaction is endothermic or exothermic. When the temperature is decreased. the temperature was decreased. Show the rates during the initial equilibrium to the new equilibrium that is established. Describe what happens when the temperature is decreased (using Rate theory). Consider the following reaction: 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 8 . b. using Le Chatelier’s Principle 9. a. 8. Identify which line represents the forward and which represents the reverse rate. Consider the following reaction: A + B ↔ C + D yellow blue. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) ∆H = -92 kJ At t1.4. Consider the following reaction: 2 NOCl(g) +30 kJ ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) Brown a. b. 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . 7. What (if anything) is incorrect with the concentration vs. Describe what happens when the temperature is decreased (using Le Chatelier’s principle). using Le Chatelier’s principle. 6. H2 []M N2 NH3 t1 time 5. the temperature was increased. Cl2 NO []M NOCl t1 time b. time graphs for the following situations. Consider the following reaction: A + B ↔ C + D red green When the temperature is increased. the solution goes from red to green. Describe what happens when the temperature is increased (using Le Chatelier’s principle). Explain if the forward reaction is endothermic or exothermic. Create rate vs time graphs for questions #1 a-d.

110 kJ + N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) At t1 the volume was decreased c. a. Use the following reactions and graphs to answer the questions. the volume was decreased. a. time graphs for each of the following reactions. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + heat What happened at t1? NH3 H2 []M N2 t1 time 3. a. time graphs for the following situations? Create the proper graph if necessary. 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. the container volume was increased. What (if anything) is incorrect with the concentration vs. d. 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . the volume was increased. Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) ↔ FeSCN2+(aq) + 25 kJ At t1 . NOCl NO []M Cl2 t1 time General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 9 . Assume the reactions are starting at equilibrium.Le Chatelier/Rate Theory: Volume/Catalysts 1. the volume was increased. e. H2(g) + Br2(g) ↔ 2 HBr(g) + 20 kJ At t1 . 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) What happened at t1? NOCl []M NO Cl2 t1 time b. Create concentration vs. 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) At t1 . b.4 kJ At t1 . 2. the volume was decreased.

Describe what happens when the volume is decreased (using Le Chateliers’s principle). 7. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) + 92 kJ At t1. time graph and a concentration vs.b. NH3 []M H2 N2 t1 time 4.4 kJ a. the volume was decreased. 6. b. time graphs for questions #1 a-d. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 10 . Create rate vs.4 kJ. 5. Show the rates during the initial equilibrium to the new equilibrium that is established. Consider the following reaction: 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. b. Create a rate vs. Identify which line represents the forward and which represents the reverse rate. Describe what happens when the volume is decreased (using Rate theory). Consider the following reaction: 2 NOCl(g) + 30 kJ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g) Brown a. time graph showing what happens when a catalyst is added to the reaction: 4 HCl(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 H2O(g) + 2 Cl2(g) + 111. Describe what happens when the volume is decreased (using Rate theory). Describe what happens when the volume is decreased (using Le Chateliers’s principle).

ii. d. iii. i. The equilibrium is: I2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2 ICl(g). decrease the [N2] decrease the [NO] increasing the volume c. H = + 536 kJ decrease the temperature decrease the [H2] decrease the volume increase the partial pressure of H2 4. H = + 35. iii. ↓ for decrease. increase the [N2] increase the temperature increase the volume add a catalyst 3. ii. increase the temperature increase the [O2] increase the pressure by decreasing the volume d. b. iii. iii. ii. H = + 13 kJ increase the temperature add a catalyst increase the [CO] add Kr at a constant volume add SnO2 General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 11 . decrease the temperature decrease the [Cl2] decreasing the volume For each exercise 2-4. or nc for no change. The equilibrium is : 2 H2(g) + 2 NO(g) ↔ N2(g) + 2H2O(g) i. b. Write ↑ for increase. c. The equilibrium is: N2O3(g) ↔ NO(g) + NO2(g) i. SnO2(s) + 2 CO(g) ↔ Sn(s) + 2 CO2(g) a. increase the [NO] increase the [N2O3] increase the pressure by decreasing the volume add a catalyst b. iv.0 kJ i. c. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) H = . e. describe the effect on the concentration of the bold substance by the following changes. The equilibrium is: 2 CO(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 CO2(g) + 566 kJ. d. ii. c. (Just describe the stress and shift) a.Le Chatelier’s Principle: Summary Problems 1. 2 HF(g) ↔ F2(g) + H2(g) a.92 kJ a. Use Le Chatelier’s Principle to describe the effect of the following changes on the position of the equilibrium. d. b. 2.

HOCl HOCl Cl2O []M []M H2O t1 time General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) Cl2O H2O 12 .41 kJ inject some CO2(g) remove some of the H2O(g) with a very rapidly acting drying agent increase the temperature decrease the pressure by increasing the volume From the graphs. simply place them on the graph so the reactants are separated from the products.5 kJ ↔ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) a. ii. iii. The only thing required here is to show how a substance’s concentration will change. Note: In Exercises I-III the relative positioning of the molecules is not relevant. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3(g) i.5. iv. ii. PCl5 PCl5 []M PCl3 []M Cl2 t1 PCl3 Cl2 time t1 time t1 time 7. determine what change must have been imposed on the equilibrium. PCl5(g) + 92. 6. iii. H = . CO(g) + H2O(g) ↔ CO2(g) + H2(g) i. iv. a. iv. time graphs for each of the following reactions and stresses. increase the temperature inject some H2(g) decrease the volume add a catalyst b. H2O(g) + Cl2O(g) ↔ 2 HOCl(g) + 70 kJ. Construct concentration vs. ii. H = . a. b. b. iii.197 kJ inject some SO2 increase the volume decrease the temperature increase the [SO3] c. H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g) + 52 kJ i.

b.0 for equation (a). 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) ↔ 6 H2O(g) + 4 NO(g) j. Write the equilibrium expressions (Keq) for the following. Keq = [NO2]2/[NO]2[O2] d. Examine the relationship which exists between he Keq expressions for equations (a) and (b) of this question. N2O4(g) ↔ 2NO2(g) b. 2NO2(g) ↔ N2O4(g) c. 2 ICl(g) ↔ I2(g) + Cl2(g) b. CaC2(s) + 2 H2O(l) ↔ C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(s) g. Cu(s) + 2 Ag+(aq) ↔ Cu2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s) i. more CO2(g) is added? CaCO3(s) is powdered? Ca2+(aq) is removed? heat is added? 5. SO2(g) + ½ O2(g) ↔ SO3(g) b. Keq = [N2O4]/[NO2]2 General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) g. Keq = [NH3]2/[N2][H2]3 h. d. C6H6(l) + Br2(l) ↔ C6H5Br(l) + HBr(g) h. a. a. Keq = [PCl3]4/[P4][Cl2]6 14 . N2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 NO(g) c. Examine the relationship between the Keq expressions for equations (a) and (b) of this question. what would be the value of Keq for equation (b)? 4. Keq = [NO2]2/[NO]2[O2] e. Consider the reaction: CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) ↔ Ca2+(aq) + 2 HCO3-(aq) + 40 kJ Which way will the equilibrium shift if: a. If Keq = 3. c. 3 O2(g) ↔2 O3(g) d. CaCO3(s) ↔ CaO(s) + CO2(g) f. H2(g) + ½ O2(g) ↔ H2O(l) 2. Keq = [H3O+][F-]/[HF] b. Write the Keq expression for: a. 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2SO3(g) c. Keq = [NH3]2/[N2][H2]3 f. Rearrange the following equations to solve in terms of the concentrations indicated in bold.0 for equation a then what would be the value for Keq for equation (b)? 3. Write the Keq expression for: a. Keq = [H3O+][F-]/[HF] c. 2 Bi3+(aq) + 3 H2S(g) ↔ Bi2S3(s) + 6 H+(aq) e. If Keq = 10.Equilibrium Expression Keq 1.

what happens to the value of Keq if the temperature is increased? Explain using Le Chatelier’s Principle.6. If the value of Keq decreases when the temperature decreases. In the reaction P(g) + Q(g) + 150 kJ ↔ Y(g) + Z(g). A(aq) + 2 B(g) ↔ 2 C(aq) + 2 D(aq) has a Keq value of 0. iii. ii. iv. Which equilibrium favours products to the greatest extent? b. 2 NO2(g) ↔ N2O4(g) Cu2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s) ↔ Cu(s) + 2 Ag+(aq) Pb2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq) ↔ PbCl2(s) SO2(g) + 2 ½ O2(g) ↔ SO3(g) Keq = 2.15 at 200oC. which way will the equilibrium shift and what is the effect on the value of Keq when: a. Examine the following graphs for the equilibrium 3 O2 (g) ↔ 2 O3 (g) o T = 50 C O2 [ ] (M) O3 Time T = 250 oC [ ] (M) O3 O2 Time Is the forward reaction endothermic or exothermic. 8.3 x 104 Keq = 110 a. If the value of Keq increases when the temperature decreases is the reaction exothermic or endothermic. Consider the following equilibrium reactions. 13. Which equilibrium favours reactants to the greatest extent? 7.25 at 100oC and a Keq value of 0. the temperature is decreased? c. In the equilibrium reaction : AgCl(s) + 17 kJ ↔ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq). Explain using Le Chatelier’s Principle. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 15 .2 Keq = 1 x 10-15 Keq = 6. i. AgNO3 is added? b. is the forward reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain using Le Chatelier’s Principle. 11. In the reaction A(g) + B(g) ↔ C(g) + D(g) + 100 kJ. Is the forward reaction endothermic or exothermic? Explain using Le Chatelier’s Principle. more AgCl(s) is added? 12. 9. as written? Use the graphs and Le Chatelier’s Princple to explain. what happens to the value of Keq if the [Y] is increased? 10.

and [NH3] = 3.0 mol of SO2. Calculate the value of Keq? 3.02 M. [H2] = 0. 2. Calculate the value of Keq.316 ? Moles Cd2+ 0. What concentration of SO3 was originally placed in the vessel? 2.0 mol of NH3 were introduced into a 10. At equilibrium 2. what is the equilibrium concentration of Cl2? 3.020 M.0345 M.34 x 10-3 M and [PCl3] = 0.00 L Moles Tl+ 0.0 mol of SO3.0225 M.339 Calculate the number of moles of Tl+ present in the second data set.50 M.275 mol of H2O. Calculate Keq for the reaction. Consider the following reaction: CO(g) + H2O(g) ↔ CO2(g) + H2(g) At equilibrium at a certain temperature.30 mol of O2. At a different temperature.0 L reaction vessel was initially filled with 6. Keq = 5.0 mol of SO3. it is found that the [N2] = 0. it is found that the [CO] =1. Consider the following reaction: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) At equilibrium at a certain temperature.0 mol of H2 are put into a 5.750 mol of CO and 0. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 16 . When 0.75 M. [CO2] =2.0 L container. What is Keq for the reaction: 2 NOCl(g) ↔ 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g)? Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations 1. At equilibrium the vessel contained 0.0 L container.0 mol of NH3 were left. A 5.250 mol of CO2 present at equilibrium. Calculate Keq for the reaction. the vessel was found to contain 3. At equilibrium the concentration of NH3 is 0. equilibrium is reached according to the equation CO(g) + H2O(g) ↔ CO2(g) + H2(g). A student obtained the following data at 25oC while studying the equilibrium. What is Keq for the reaction? 5. 6. [H2O] =1. After one hour. At a certain temperature 3.414 0.0 mol of N2 and 2.00 L 5. 2 Tl+(aq) + Cd(s) ↔ 2 Tl(s) + Cd2+(aq) Volume 1.0 L reaction vessel. 6.25 M.0 L flask and allowed to come to equilibrium. After equilibrium was established according to the equation SO2(g) + NO2(g) ↔ SO3(g) + NO(g).Equilibrium Calculations Set 1 Calculating Keq 1. A certain amount of SO3 was placed in a 2. Keq = 35.0 at a certain temperature for the reaction 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3(g). What is Keq for the reaction? 4. 2.10 mol of Cl2 was found.50 mol of NOCl was put into a 1. Analysis shows 0.5 mol of NO2 and 1.0 L reaction vessel contains 0. b. Consider the equilibrium N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔2 NH3(g) a.205 M in a certain vessel.0 for the reaction PCl5(g) ↔ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g). A 1. and [H2] =1. 0. At equilibrium. [PCl5] = 1.22 M.

3. 2 NO(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 NO2(g).0 L flask and allowed to come to equilibrium. Some CH4 and H2S were introduced into a 1.250 mol of H2O were introduced into a 1.30 mol of H2S were found. what concentration of N2O2 was present at equilibrium? EIRE Calculations 1. calculate the [CO] which will exist when equilibrium is regained. (Nasty!) Keq = 100 at a certain temperature for CH4(g) + 2 H2S(g) ↔ CS2(g) + 4 H2(g). 1. At equilibrium. How many moles of O2 had to be added to the mixture to increase the number of moles of NO2 to 1. 1. 0. If 0. How many moles of ICl would have to be removed in order to reduce the [HCl] to 0.00 L bulb. 2.150 mole of N2O and 0. A reaction mixture at equilibrium.28 when equilibrium was re-established? 5. 2 ICl(g) + H2(g) ↔ I2(g) + 2 HCl(g). contained 0. A reaction mixture at equilibrium.00 mol of H2. The equilibrium constant for the reaction N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) is 3.0 at a certain temperature.800 mol of HCl at equilibrium in a 1.00 mol of H2 is added to the system. If 1. A reaction mixture.072 mol of H2 was found.250 mol of H2 and 0.5 mol of N2. What was [CS2] at equilibrium? General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 17 .00 mol of CO and 2. Keq = 1. contains 1.0 L container such that at equilibrium the container was found to contain 2.00 L bulb. 0.50 mol of H2.150 mole of I2 and 0.240 mol of NO.250 mol of I2 are placed in a 10.0 L vessel and permitted to react.10 mol of CH4 and 0. CO2(g) + H2(g) ↔ CO(g) + H2O(g). Keq = 7.50 mol? 3. If 0. How many moles of H2S were originally added to the flask? 5.00 L bulb. contains 0. How many mole of CO2 would have to be removed from the system in order to reduce the amount of CO to 2.0 L vessel. what will be the new concentrations of H2. A reaction mixture. H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g). Keq = 49. what will be the concentration of each substance at equilibrium? 6.5 for H2(g) + I2(g) ↔ 2 HI(g) at a certain temperature.00 mol of CO and 2. A reaction mixture at equilibrium. If 0.0 L container. 0. and HI? 4.00 for N2O2(g) + H2(g) ↔ N2O(g) + H2O(g). I2. 2. Enough NH3 was added to a 5.20 mol of NO2 when at equilibrium in a 2. 2.500 mol of ICl. was found to contain 0.50 mol of H2O in a 5. CO(g) + H2O(g) ↔ CO2(g) + H2(g).00 mol of CO2.4. 0.870 mol of HI in a 10.150 mol of H2.0560 mol of H2.0860 mol of O2 and 1.680 M when equilibrium is re-established? 6. contained 4.00 mol of CO2.5 for 2 H2(g) + S2(g) ↔ 2 H2S(g).0 L bulb and at equilibrium 0. How many moles of NH3 were put into the container? 7.400 mol of HI is added to this system and the system is allowed to come to equilibrium again.00 mol of H2O in a 2. A certain amount of H2S was added to a 2.00 L bulb and allowed to come to equilibrium.360 mol of I2 and 0.

Consider the following reaction: SO2(g) + NO2(g) ↔ NO(g) + SO3(g) Keq= 85. and 0. Consider the following reaction: NO2(g) + NO(g) ↔ N2O(g)+ O2(g) Keq= 0.914 A mixture was prepared initially by adding 0. [CH4] = 0.0 L container.060 mol NO. 2.15 M.050 M.80 mol NO2. Consider the following reaction Keq= 2.5 x 103. [H2] = 0. Consider the following reaction: H2O(g) + CH4(g) ↔ CO(g) + 3 H2(g) Keq= 4.0 L vessel is filled with 0.In which direction does the reaction proceed to establish equilibrium? 3. What will the equilibrium concentration of all species be? 5.0 Initially 0.0 mol O2 and 0. 0. What will the equilibrium concentrations be? What changes will occur in pressure as equilibrium is established? General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 18 . which direction will it shift in order to establish equilibrium.9 x 105 A 5.0 mol H2S.20 M. 1. 0.0800 mol SO3 are placed in a 10. [CO] = 0.100 mol NO2.Q calculations 1.200 mol of each gas into a 5.7 The [H2O] = 0. and if not.00 L container. 3. CH4(g) + 2 H2S(g) ↔ CS2(g) + 4 H2(g) A 10.0 mol CH4.100 mol SO2.0 L reaction vessel contains 2.035 M.0 mol H2 and 4. Is the mixture at equilibrium. Consider the following reaction: 2 NO(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 NO2(g) Keq= 6. Is the reaction mixture at equilibrium.0800 mol NO. and if not which direction will it proceed to get to equilibrium? Will the pressure of the vessel increase or decrease? 4.0 mol CS2. 3.

Equilibrium Calculations Set 2 Calculating Keq 1. FeSCN2+ Keq = 12. 50. For the reaction: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ↔ 2 SO3 (g) 10.. 3. (Careful this involves a dilution. For the reaction: 2 C(s) + O2(g) ↔ 2 CO(g) 21. Watch the significant figures in the quadratic equation (. 2.06 1..) break up the steps. Calculate Keq. 2. Calculate Keq. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations. At equilibrium.50 M.0 mL 0. b.402 M.50 M of H2 exists. a. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 19 . For the reaction: N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ↔ 2 NH3(g) 5.0 g of O2 in a 3.0 4.0 mol of SO3 is added to a 2.836 g of Fe(NO3)3 and 2.20 M SCN-. Calculate Keq. Calculate the mass of CO that exists at equilibrium. For the reaction: Fe3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) ↔ FeSCN2+(aq) Initially. the concentration of FeSCN2+ is found to be 0.00 M of N2 are added to a 5. Calculate Keq. At equilibrium [CO] is 0.00 L container.20 M Fe3+ is added to 30.00 M of CO and H2O are placed in a 10. At equilibrium 1.050 M.0 g of carbon is mixed with 52.0 L flask and establish equilibrium.00 L container. For the reaction: Fe3+ + SCN. Calculate the final mass of carbon.) Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations 1. For the reaction: CO(g) + H2O(g)  CO2(g) + H2(g) Keq = 4.50 L container and at equilibrium [SO2] is 0.0 mL of 0.916 g of KSCN are added to 200 mL of water. 4.00 M of NH3 and 6.

215 M and [SO2Cl] = 0.00 L container to increase the [SO2Cl] to 0.EIRE Problems 1.0 Initially 8. 2.150 M H2.00 L flask.0817 M.3 x 10-2 M Br2 and 1.5000 M NO are added to a container. 0.00 If 0. How many moles of ICl would have to be removed in order to reduce the concentration of HCl to 0. . [Cl2] = 0.20 g of O2.50 L flask contains 9.250 M H2O are introduced into a 1.00 mol of CO. Is this reaction at equilibrium? If not explain in what direction this reaction must shift to establish equilibrium. 4. 5.525 M? 2. 0.26 M.00 0.00 mol H2 are added to a 2. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 20 . Calculate the equilibrium concentrations. How many moles of PCl5 must be removed from a 10. 2 ICl(g) + H2(g) ↔ I2(g) + 2 HCl(g) The above reaction was found to contain 1.00 L flask and allowed to establish equilibrium then calculate the equilibrium concentrations of N2O2 and H2O. Br2(g)  2 Br(g) Keq = 0. 2 SO2Cl(g) ↔ 2 SO2(g) + Cl2(g) Keq = 2. 8.0 g SbCl5.0515 M? 4.0 L container to decrease the [Cl2] to 0. 0.0234 3.25 M. S(s) + O2(g)  SO2 (g) Keq = 0.2000 M N2.4000 M O2 and 0.00 mol H2O.750 M and [PCl5] = 2. CO(g) + H2O(g)  CO2(g) + H2(g) Keq = 10. What concentration of SbCl3 must be removed to decrease the concentration of SbCl5 to 0. N2O2(g) + H2(g)  N2O(g) + H2O (g) Keq = 1. SbCl3(g) + Cl2(g) ↔ SbCl5(g) At equilibrium an 8. 0.05 g Cl2.62 g of SO2 are added to a 500 mL container. What mass of Cl2 must be added to a 6. 2 NO(g)  N2(g) + O2(g) Keq = 20.150 M N2O2. 23.0 g S and 9. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations.00 mol of ICl.103 M? 3.680 M when equilibrium is reestablished? Q Problems 1. PCl5(g) ↔ PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) At equilibrium this reaction is found to contain [PCl3] = 1. .69 g SbCl3 and 140.0011 Initially 6.55 At equilibrium this reaction contains [SO2] = 0.250 M N2O and 0. 12. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations.60 mol HCl at equilibrium in a 2.1120 mol H2. 5. 3. 2.00 mol CO2 and 5.2 x 10-2 M Br are added to a container.720 mol I2 and 1.000 L container.

BaCO3 v.00 L of water General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 21 . HNO3 vi. Calculate the concentration of each ion. NaCl iv. Use the above definitions to classify the following solutions as: a. electrolyte c. CuCl2 f. supersaturated solution h. CH3COOH iii. 0. 5. a. ionic solution e. molecular solution 2. b. 10. Consider the dissociation equations from question 5. Review and Applications of Equilibrium Definitions: 1. solvent j. What substances make up an ionic compound? 4.42 M Fe2(SO4)3 b. Fe3(PO4)2 g. a. Sr(OH)2 Cr(OH)3 6. What substances make up a molecular compound? 5. a strong electrolyte. saturated solution f.Solutions: Definitions. (NH4)2CO3 b. PbS h. unsaturated solution g. CH3CH2OH Review: 3. Au(NO3)3 d. solubility b.0 g of K2CO3 is added to 500 mL of water c. Define the following: a. weak electrolyte or non-electrolyte b. solute i.500 mol of Mg(OH)2 is dissolved in 1. Pb(NO3)2 ii. non-electrolyte d. Write dissociation reactions for the following solutions: a. How do you think we will calculate the concentration for the other reactions? 7. c. an ionic or molecular solution i. K2SO4 e. For which of the above reactions can we simply use the mole ratio to calculate the ion concentrations? Explain.

Ag+. Cl-. Ba(NO3)2.and CO3210. A mixture may contain one or more of the ions: S2-. Solid lead (II) nitrate is dissolved in water and mixed with a solution of strontium bromide. what is the direction of equilibrium shift? Explain using rate theory.↔ Fe(OH)3(s) + heat a. Explain why this reaction is able to establish equilibrium. SO42. b. Ba2+. Solutions of strontium hydroxide and iron (III) sulphate are mixed together. S2-. When heat is added. CO32-. A solution of ammonium phosphate reacts with a solution of barium chloride c. Cu(NO3)2 and Sr(NO3)2? Applications of Equilibrium: 12. Experimentally how would you determine what is present using only the reagents: AgNO3. full ionic (complete) and net ionic reactions for the following: a. Experimentally how would you determine what is present? 11. d. Outline an experiment to separate a mixture of: a. Cu2+ and Pb2+ b. When HNO3 added to the above equilibrium. what happens to the mass of solid? Explain using Le Chatelier's Principle. Write balanced. When Fe(NO3)3 is added. General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 22 . b. OH-. c. d. Consider the equilibrium: Fe3+ + 3 OH. what happens to the solubility of Fe(OH)3? Explain using Le Chatelier's Principle.0 M calcium sulphide reacts with 1.0 M sodium hydroxide. A mixture may contain: Al3+.8. 1. 9. Sr2+ or Mg2+.

2 g/mol Use this data to calculate Ksp for the ionic compound X2Y3 13. What [S2-] is required to just start precipitation of copper (II) sulphide from a 0.75 g Mass of beaker and X2Y3 after 2nd heating 292. After all the water is removed 1.3 x 10-15 8. The solubility of barium sulphate is 0.Solubility Problems Set 1 Calculating Solubility 1. Calculate the solubility of strontium fluoride in g/mL. Ksp = 3.63 g st Mass of beaker and X2Y3 after 1 heating 292. What mass of calcium fluoride dissolves in 250 mL of water? Ksp = 1.7 x 10-15 7. Calculate the solubility of lead (II) iodate.64 g 124.64 g rd Mass of beaker and X2Y3 after 3 heating Molecular mass of X2Y3 292.00250 M calculate the concentration of hydroxide ions.7 x 10-10 3.0981 g of lead (II) fluoride was dissolved in 200 mL of saturated lead (II) fluoride solution. What is the Ksp for lead (II) fluoride? General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 23 .5 x 10-10 Calculating Ksp 10. A student determined that 0. The following data is collected: Solubilty data for X2Y3 Volume of saturated solution 2000 mL Mass of beaker 285. A 200 ml saturated solution of silver acetate is evaporated.0 x 10-3 M solution of calcium nitrate before a calcium fluoride precipitate forms? Ksp =1. Calculate the concentration of silver ions in a 500 mL solution of Ag2CrO4. 0. Calculate Ksp. 2.60 g of solid remains. 6. What is the [OH-] and [Zn2+] ions in a saturated solution of zinc hydroxide? Ksp= 5. What is the maximum [F-] that can be added to a 3.500 g of silver carbonate is added to 800 mL of water. 11. 12. 2000 mL of a saturated solution containing X2Y3 is evaporated to remove all the water. An experiment is performed to find the solubility product constant of an unknown compound with the general formula X2Y3. 4.20 M solution of copper (II) chloride? 9. A saturated solution of aluminum hydroxide has a [Al3+] = 0. Calculate Ksp. What mass of solid remains undissolved? 5.0091 g/L.

Will a precipitate form? 15. Calculate the solubility of cobalt (II) hydroxide (Ksp = 2. 21. A 500 mL portion of 0. Calculate the solubility of lead (II) chloride in 0. 23. What is the solubility of silver chloride (in g/L) in 6. Will a precipitate form? Common Ion Effect Problems 19.7 x 10-6 24.050 M zinc nitrate. Will a precipitate form? 17.0412 M sodium bromide are mixed together. 0. What is the Ksp for magnesium oxalate? General Equilibrium (Kailley/Baverstock 2005) 24 . Equal volumes of 0. If the Ksp value is 2.020 M aluminum chloride.5 x 10-16) in 0.10 x 10-4 M strontium hydroxide is mixed with 200 mL of 1.0020 M sodium oxalate solution is able to dissolve 0.48 x 10-14 M.0032 M solution of strontium hydroxide.TIP Problems 14.23 x 10-2 M magnesium nitrate.85 x 10-15 M and [S2-] = 1.0216 M lead (II) nitrate and 0. Calculate the number of grams of zinc sulphide that will dissolve in 300 mL of 0.5 x 10-3 M silver nitrate solution? 20.0681 g of strontium hydroxide and 0. 22.8 x 10-4 M? Ksp = 1.00 L of 0. Will a precipitate form? 18.015 M calcium nitrate is mixed with 3.00 L of solution to reduce the solubility of barium fluoride to 6.00 L of 0.0431 g of sodium fluoride are dissolved in 500 mL of water. A solution contains [Bi3+] = 9.93 x 10-70 for bismuth (III) sulphide then does a precipitate form? 16. How many grams of sodium fluoride must be added to 1. 50 mL of 5.045 M sodium oxalate.47 g of magnesium oxalate. 2.