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# CVIE3400: OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS

REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Write and analyze the basic assumptions used to develop the Saint Venant
equations?
2. Were the Saint-Venant equations developed for movable boundary hydraulics
situations?
3. Are the Saint-Venant equations applicable to a steep slope?
4. Express the differential form of the Saint-Venant equations in term of the water depth
and flow velocity. Compare the differential form of the momentum equation with the
back water equation.
5. What is the dynamic wave equation? From which fundamental principle does it
derive?
6. What is the diffusive wave equation? From which fundamental principle does it
derive?
7. What is the kinematic wave equation? From which fundamental principle does it
derive?
8. What are two basic differences between the dynamic wave equation and backwater
equation?
9. Is the dynamic wave equation applicable to a hydraulic jump?
10. Considering a long horizontal channel with the fluid initially at rest, a small wave is
generated at the origin at t =0 (e.g. by throwing a stone in the channel). What is the wave
location as a function of time for an observer standing on the bank? (consider only the
wave travelling in the positive x-direction) What is the value of (V+2C) along the
forward characteristics for an initial water depth d0 = 1,5 m?
11. Considering a long channel, flow measurements at two gauging stations given at t =0:

Location x (km)
Water depth (m)
Flow velocity (m/s)

Station 1
7,1
2,2
+0,5

Station 2
8,25
2,45
+0,29

In the (x,t) plane, plot the characteristic issuing from each gauging station. (assume
straight lines). Calculate the location, time and flow properties at the intersection of the
characteristics issuing from the two gauging stations. (assume Sf = S0 = 0)
12. The analysis of flow measurements in a river reach gave:
1

Station 1
11,8
0,65
+0,35

Location x (km)
Water depth (m)
Flow velocity (m/s)

Station 2
13,1
0,55
+0,55

at t=1h. assuming a kinematic wave (i.e. S0 = Sf), plot the characteristics issuing from the
measurement stations assuming straight lines. Calculate the flow properties at the
intersection of the characteristics.
13. Considering a supercritical flow (flow direction in the positive x-direction), how
many boundary conditions are needed for t >0 and where?
14. What is the difference between the backwater equation, diffusive wave equation,
dynamic wave equation and kinematic wave equation? Which one(s) does(do) apply to
15. In an irrigation canal, flow measurements at several gauging stations give at t =0:

Location x (km)
Water depth (m)
Flow velocity (m/s)

Gauge 1
1,2
0,97
+0,51

Gauge 2
1,31
0,96
+0,49

Gauge 3
1,52
0,85
+0,46

Gauge 4
1,69
0,78
+0,42

Gauge 5
1,95
0,75
+0,405

The canal has a trapezoidal cross-section with a 1 m base width and 1V:2H sidewalls.
In the (x,t) plane, plot the characteristics issuing from each gauging station. (Assume
straight lines.) Calculate the location, time and flow properties at the intersections of the
characteristics issuing from the gauging stations. Repeat the process for all the domain of
dependence. (Assume Sf =So = 0);
16. Downstream of a hydropower plant, flow measurements in the tailwater channel
indicate at t = 0:
Location x (km)
Water depth (m)
Flow velocity (m/s)

Station 1
95
0,37
+1,55

Station 2
215
0,45
+1,44

Station 3
310
0,48
+1,36

Station 4
605
0,52
+1,10

## The canal has a rectangular cross-section with a 9 m width.

In the (x, t) plane, plot the characteristics issuing from each gauging station. (Assume
straight lines.) Calculate the location, time and flow properties at the intersections of the
characteristics issuing from the gauging stations. Repeat the process for all the domain of
dependence. (Assume Sf = So =0.)

17. A rectangular channel with 80 m width, 5000 m long, has a bed slope of 0,01, and
Mannings roughness factor of 0,035. The inflow hydrograph to channel is given in the
below table:
Using finite difference method with x = 1000 m and
t = 3 min. There is no lateral flow. The initial
condition is a uniform flow of 60 cms along the
channel.
Write the equation to calculate the flow rate Qi j 11 and
calculate Q26 .

Inflow time
(min)

Inflow rate
(cms)

0
12
24
36
48
60

60
60
85
115
145
175

72
84
96
108
120

145
115
85
60
60