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1. Anaerobic respiration (fermentation):

- respiration takes place in the absence of O2
- occurs only in the cytoplasm.
- produces: pyruvate, 2 NADH + 2 mol ATP
- pyruvate + NADH accumulate in cytoplasm

2. - pyruvate + NADH accumulate in cytoplasm

--> causes tissues to run out of H acceptor (NAD+) - limited supply.
--> glycolysis may not occur.
--> need for an alternative H acceptor.
--> pyruvate or acetaldehyde becomes the H acceptor.
--> pyruvate can undergo both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
3. In plants:
- pyruvate undergoes alcohol fermentation --> produce ethanol,
- occurs in roots of the plants (water logged conditions).

4. In animals:
- pyruvate undergoes lactic acid fermentation --> produce lactic acid
- occurs in the muscles during vigorous activity + strenuous exercise.

5. Fermentation products are used commercially.

- Wine, methanol and formic acid are formed by alcohol fermentation.
- Yogurt, cheese and soy sauce are formed by lactic acid fermentation.


1. Electron transport system = chain of e- acceptors (embedded in the inner membrane of the

2. e- transferred from NADH + FADH2 via several e- acceptors --> final e- acceptor (molecular O2).
3. energy produced = ATP (thru oxidative phophorylation).
4. inhibitors = cyanide + CO - inhibit the function of ETC.
5. Cyanide + CO --> block activity of cytochrome oxidase --> inhibit the ETS --> noproduction of H2O -> no activation of ATP synthase --> no ATP production.

6. ETS:

accepts e- from energy carriers (NADH + FADH2) from glycolysis + Krebs cycle.

consists of mostly cytochromes (proteins with prosthetic groups).

produces H2O from O2 at the end

1 NADH produces 3 ATP

1 FADH2 produces 2 ATP.

net energy gain = 34 ATP molecules.


1. Krebs cycle:
- biochemical reactions occurring in all living cells,
- in the inner membrane of mitochondria.
- involves a metabolic pathway (pyruvate --> CO2 + H2O) to generate energy.
- also called citric acid cycle or trycarboxilic acid (TCA) cycle.
2. Acetyl CoA initiates the Krebs cycle (by combining with oxaloacetate (4C) --> citrate).
3. Citrate is decarboxilated and dehydrogenated.
4. Energy stored = NADH, FADH2 and GTP.
5. 2 mol of CO2 are released (as waste product).
6. NAD + FAD = H acceptors.
7. 1 mol of ATP is gained.
8. provides H for use in ETC (as energy for formation of ATP).


Aerobic respiration is a process:
1. which sugars are broken down - to release energy - in the presence of O2.
2. occurs in three stages: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system.

1. takes place in cytoplasm of a living cell,
2. glucose --> 2 mol of pyruvate.
3. series of reactions catalysed by specific enzymes
4. involves two phases: energy investment phase and energy pay off phase.
5. Energy investment phase:

glucose is broken down into 2 mol of PGAL

2 mol of ATP are utilized in this phase.

6. Energy pay off phase:

2 mol of PGAL --> 2 mol of pyruvate.

4 ATP is formed by substrate level phosphorylation.

The net = 2 ATP + 2 NADH.