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# 1.

## MANDER STRESS-STRAIN MODEL FOR CONFINED CONCRETE

Mander et al. (1984) have proposed a unified stress-strain approach for confined concrete applicable
to both circular and rectangular shaped transverse reinforcement. The stress-strain model is
illustrated in Figure below and is based on an equation suggested by Popovics (1973). For a slow
(quasi-static) strain rate and monotonic loading, the longitudinal compressive concrete stress fc is
given by
f cc' xr
r 1 xr
where f cc' compressive strength of confined concrete.
fc

c
cc

## where c longitudinal compressive concrete strain.

f cc'

1
'
f co

cc co 1 5

Fig. Stress-Strain Model Proposed for Monotonic Loading of Confined and Unconfined Concrete

As suggested by Richart et al. (1928), where f co' and co = the unconfined concrete strength and
corresponding strain, respectively (generally co = 0.002 can be assumed), and
Ec
r
Ec Esec
Where
Ec 5000 f co' MPa
is the tangent modulas of elasticity of concrete and
Esec

f cc'

cc

To define the stress-strain behavior of the cover concrete (outside the confined core concrete) the part
of the falling branch in the region where c 2 co is assumed to be a straight line which reaches zero
stress at the spalling strain is assumed to be a straight line which reaches zero stress at the sp .

## 2. Desayi Stress Strain Model

Desayi (1978), based on tests conducted on circular columns with spiral lateral reinforcement
proposed a single equation stress-strain model to represent the pre and post peak behavior of
confined concrete and the equation was found to well represent the behavior of confined concrete.
After a number of trials, it is found that equation (1) could be used to represent satisfactorily both the
ascending and descending branches of the stress-strain curve in compression for unconfined as well
as confined concrete
A
f
(1)
1 B C 2 D 3
where A, B, C and D are parameters to be obtained from the boundary conditions and test results.
Equation (1) was suggested earlier by "Saenz" for plain (unconfined) concrete and it is found
convenient to use it for confined concretes as well.

Referring to figure above, the conditions to be fulfilled by the stress-strain equation are:
df
Ec
d
df
at = c , f f c and
0
d
at = c , f k f c at a point on the falling branch of the curve.
Using these conditions, expressions for A, B, C and D are obtained as,
at =0, f 0 and

A Ec
1 2k k 2 Ec 2 1 1
B

2
Ec '
c3
k ( 1)
2 2(1 k ) Ec 1
C

k( 1) 2 Ec ' c 2

(2)

(1 k ) Ec 1 1
D
3
2
'
k( 1) Ec c
where
Ec ' fc '

(3)

c
The reference point on the following branch has been chosen as the point corresponding to 85 % of
the peak stress. Hence
k 0.85
and

## 0.85 1.8 46.5Ci

(4)
1 23Ci
c

Ci ( Pb Pb )

fy
fc '

where Pb is the ratio of the volume of spiral to the volume of confined concrete, Pb is the value of Pb
when the pitch of spiral is equal to the least lateral dimension of the specimen.
The confinement provided by the spirals is a reaction to the transverse expansion of concrete and so
it becomes effective only after considerable longitudinal deformation takes place. As such, there is
not much difference in the initial portion of the stress-strain curves for confined and unconfined
concrete. Therefore, the value of initial tangent modulus (Ec) for both concretes is the same and for
the tests of this series, Ec obtained is found to be close to the expression used by Hognested.
Ec 1800,000 460 f 'c (in psi)