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BUTTON BUTTON

(Richard Matheson)
Q1.Why did Norma consider the tone and attitude of Mr. Steward offensive?
Ans. Norma considered Mr. Stewards tone and attitude offensive because he had not paid any
attention to her indifferent attitude especially when he said, It would prove very valuable,
Monetarily.
Q2. Why did Arthur disagrees with his wife?
Ans. Arthur opposed his wifes idea/ scheme and he considered it assassination to get someone killed,
which would be a crime against humanity.
Q3. Why did Norma persuade her husband to agree with her?
Ans. Norma persuaded her husband to accept the offer of fifty thousand dollars solely because she
saw the possibility of taking trip to Europe, a chance to buy a cottage on the Island and an opportunity
to have a nicer apartment, nicer furniture, nicer clothes, a car etc.
Q4. What were the reasons Norma gave to her husband to accept the offer?
Ans. She gave the following reasons for accepting the offer:a. Some eccentric millionaire might be playing the games with people.
b. An international organization probably doing it for a research project and they wanted to
know what average people would do under such a circumstance.
c. That the concerned group was just saying someone would die so that its member would
study reactions i.e. if there would be guilt or anxiety.
Q5. Why did Mr. Steward continue persuading Norma?
Ans. When Mr. Steward observed that Arthur was not yielding to his offer, he began persuading
Norma because she had a weak character and had shown keen interest in the offer.
Q6. What was the message Norma received on pushing the button?
Ans. After she pushed the button, she received the tragic news of her husbands death in a subway
accident as he was pushed by the shoving crowed from the platform in front of the train.
Q7. What is the significance of Arthurs life insurance policy?
Ans. Ironically, Arthurs life insurance policy for $25,000 dollar, with double indemnity
(compensation) in case of sudden/ accidental death was equal to the money ($50,000) that she desired
to get from the offer given by Mr. Steward. In other words, she had to pay a very high cost for the
execution of her desire.
Q8. Did Norma remain normal on hearing the news of the accident of her husband?
Ans. On hearing the news of her husbands accident/death, her whole existence shook with this
unbearable loss and she started reacting hysterically, she was extremely distressed and her life lost its
significance.

Q1. Draw character sketch of Arthur?


Ans. In this poem, Arthur has been portrayed as a simple, humane and celebrated citizen. He is
strong-minded person, who was greatly shocked by his wifes wistful wish for radical prosperity at

the cost of humanity. Arthur insists strongly that he hates the idea of having someone killed for
money. He considers the idea of killing a great waste and heinous crime against humanity. Norma,
despite, husbands objection and rejection of the idea, she was ambitious to execute it and was not
ready to give up at any cost. It appears that Arthur got himself killed to Give Norma an opportunity to
fulfill her alluring prospect. i.e. an amount of ($50,000) in the form of insurance money.
Q2. Why didnt Norma remain true to her husband?
Ans. Norma has been presented as a woman of frail soul and character. She belongs to a working
class with a passionate desire to uplift the standard of living, in no time. She desires to visit the
fascinating sites /places all over Europe and to have a cottage on an island. The button device acts as a
possible scheme of getting rich, which results in an unbearable loss and everlasting misery i.e. i.e. the
death of her husband. Mr. Steward rightly says that she did not know her own husband and failed to
understand him. She conflicted herself between materialism and morality i.e. money and her husband.
Though she got her desire fulfilled, but she had to wear a golden sorrow.
Q3. Do you agree with Normas assertion that the death of someone you have never seen is not
important?
Ans. Murder or killing anyone, belonging to any land or religion, is a great crime against humanity.
Murder of a single person is the murder of whole humanity. It is a cruel concept that the death of an
unknown person is not important to us. Norma advocates the idea of radical prosperity. She has
blinded herself in the greed of $ 50,000. Mr. Steward incites her to use the button device as a short cut
to wealth and prosperity. Ironically, she gets the insurance money as reward but at the cost of
unbearable loss.
Q4. What is the moral /theme of the story Button Button?
Ans. This tragic story highlights the theme of weakness of human character in the face of worldly
desires and temptation Normas flaw is that she considers the button device as a source of taking trip
to Europe, a chance to buy a cottage on the Island and an opportunity to have a nicer apartment, nicer
furniture, nicer clothes, a car etc. The moral behind this story is also that man must be grateful to God
for whatever He has bestowed him in both prosperity and adversity. It is matter of fact that when man
is satisfied he becomes unbeliever and prays to God only when he is in trouble. Moreover man must
not run after the temporary worldly desires and ambitions which are nothing as compared to the
blessing of the world hereafter. In this story, Norma does not mind causing death of unknown person,
in order to become prosper. Though she gets her desire fulfilled, but she had to wear a golden sorrow.
Before this tragic event and the offer made by Steward she has known no modesty. It is better to be
lowly born and be humble rather than perked by a glistening grief as it is remarked by Shakespeare: It
is better to be lowly born, And range with humble livers content, Than to be perked up in a glistening
grief, And wear a golden sorrow
CLEARING IN THE SKY BY JESSE STUART
Q1. Why didnt the old man follow the advice of the doctors?
Ans. The old man didnt act upon the advice of the doctors because he had a large family to support
and he was the only earning member in his family. He took a bold step and selected a small patch of

land on the hill top, which he visited daily. All this exercise helped him in regaining his lost
power/energy. It is well said: He conquers who endures.
Q2. What did the doctors tell the old man?
Ans. All the doctors, whom the old man visited, advised him to spend the rest of his days with his
family and told him not to take long walks. Some of them also suggested him to sit still, but he paid
no heed.
Q3. Had the son ever been there before?
Ans. The son visited the clearing in the sky frequently with his mother and father, when he was six
years old. His father also made a wooden plough, which the son lost in the furrow. He visited it
regularly with the exception of the last three years.
Q4. Why did the old man take the steep path?
Ans. The old man selected the steep path to regain and enhance his lost energies, which proved very
profitable as he got rid of all the diseases and live a happy health life by defeating death. It is
inevitable that some defeat will enter even the most victorious life. The human spirit is never finished
when it is defeated...it is finished when it surrenders. Similarly the old man was not ready to
surrender.
Q5. What were the feelings of the old man at the age ?
Ans. At the age of seventy, the old man enjoyed the life full of warmth and real achievement as he
defeated death many time by not following the warnings of the doctors. To prove the doctors wrong,
he established a farm on the top of the hills and kept on visiting it. He considered the farm as the fruit
of his labour. He loved to touch and smell soil that he prepared. He also showed his ardent desire to
taste the fruit of his form. As Isaac remarked, Happiness does not come from doing easy work but
from the afterglow of satisfaction that comes after the achievement of a difficult task that demanded
our best.
Q6. Describe the physical appearance of the old man?
Ans. The old man is seventy years old with wrinkled red face and blue eyes. He has a stick in his hand
and a blue bandana on his shoulder, which he used for wiping sweat. Despite his old age, he is still
active and healthy. He has strong will power to act.
Q7. What is the theme of the story Clearing in the sky?
Ans. The story Clearing in the Sky reveals that man is not made for defeat, a man can be destroyed
but not defeated. In this simple story, the son reflects his fathers determination, deep love for nature
and the strength of human spirit. For 40 years, the doctors warned him not to work, but he proved the
doctors wrong through the strength of his spirit and defeated death many times.
Dark They Were Golden Eyed
Q1. Why did Harry want to go back to the earth?
Ans. Harry wanted to go back to the earth because he felt that his body tissues had been drawn tight
due to vacuum. He also felt himself to be submerged in a chemical that would dissolve his intellect

and disintegrate his past. He realized himself like a salt of crystal in mountain stream, which would
dissolve anyway.
Q2. Why did Mr. Bittering want to stay at mars?
Ans. He wanted to stay at Mars sue to the fear of atomic war going on the earth. Moreover, the atom
bomb had destroyed all the spaceship stations and rockets in New York and he hoped someday, rocket
would come to the Mars to take them back to the earth.
Q3. What sort of Climate did the Bittering Family face at Mars?
Ans. The Martian Climate was dangerous and replete with chemical. Mr. Bittering felt himself to be
in the center of a vacuum, which would draw his soul from his body. The climate had completely
changed their appearance, they became dark coloured and golden eyed. Everything on Mars was
disintegrating gradually in the chemical climate.
Q4. What was the condition of the Bittering Family on hearing the news of war on the earth?
Ans. Bittering family was extremely dejected on hearing the news of war on the earth. Their hopes to
return to the earth were shattered. They could hardly believe that they had to live rest of their life on
Mars with little chances of existence.
Q5. What was the condition of the house constructed by the Bittering family?
Ans. The house built by the Bittering family, underwent disintegration because of chemical in air and
Martian virus. At night, everything was covered by fog. The boards had been warped out of shape. It
was not an earths man atmosphere and everything was losing its identity.
Q6.How social were the people of Mars?
Ans. The lieutenant told the Captain that Martians were friendly, dark people with golden eyes. They
were capable to learn English fast. He also reflected that they could be made friends easily. Ironically,
the Martian people were the same, who migrated from the Earth to Mars to live in peace and whose
physical appearance underwent mutation, so the Captain and Lieutenant could not identify them.
Thank you, Maam By Langston Hughes
Q1. What was the time when Roger tried to snatch the purse of the women?
Ans. It was about 11 O Clock, dark, when the boy came across her to snatch her purse.
Q2. What did happen to the boy when he tried to snatch the purse?
Ans. When the boy (Roger) tried to snatch the womans purse, the strap of the purse was broken with
the single tug, but Roger was not able to run away because his weight and the weight of the purse
combined caused him to lose his balance. Instead of, moving away successfully he fell on his back on
the sidewalk (Foot path).
Q3. What was the reaction of the woman?
Ans. After the incident, the woman simply turned around and kicked the boy right square in his blue
jeaned sitter. She bended down, picked up the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth
rattled. But later, she became as polite and kind as a mother.

Q4. What was the conduct/reaction of the people who saw the incident?
Ans. The passer by or the people had not shown any particular reaction or attitude. They just stopped
for a moment to know the matter.
Q5. How did the boy look physically?
Ans. He seems to be of fourteen or fifteen years, weak and was wearing tennis shoes and blue jeans.
Q6. What was the condition of the boy when the woman gave him few jerks?
Ans. He was nervous and frightened. Sweat popped out on the boys face and he began to struggle. He
was sure that the woman would certainly send him to jail.
Q7. Why did the woman ask the boy to wash his face?
Ans . She wanted to make him clean and wanted to reform him as if he were her son
Q8. Why didnt the boy run from the house of the woman?
Ans. The boy did not run away because he didnt want to be mistrusted again as the behaviour of the
lady became polite and motherly.
Q9.Why didnt the woman watch the boy while preparing dish?
Ans. She was sure that the boy must have been reformed by her polite treatment, would not betray her
again, thats why she didnt pay any attention to the boy while preparing dish.
Q10.What was the nature of the womans job?
Ans. Mrs. Jones worked in a hotel beauty shop, which stayed open late and was often visited by
blondes, red-heads, and Spanish women.
THE PIECE OF STRING by Guy De Maupassant
Q1.Why did Manana accuse Hubert of picking the lost pocket-book?
Ans. Manana accused Hubert because he saw him picking something on the way to the market place
and kept on insisting that Hubert should be held responsible for the loss of the pocket book.
Q2.What did the people think of Hubert when they heard of the return of the pocket-book by some
other persons?
Ans. They held the same view as that of Manana. Although Hubert was innocent, yet the villagers still
held the view that he was to be blamed for picking up the pocket book and they also held the view that
Hubert sent it later to the Mayor just to save his own skin.
Q3.Why did George give the pocket-book to his employer?
Ans. George handed it over to his employer solely because he desired it to be restored to its owner,
whose address he could not read as he was uneducated.
Q4. What did make Hubert shameful?

Ans. The gilt of being called a liar, made him ashamed. He considered better to die with honour than
to live without it.
Q5.Why did the people make fun of his innocence? Ans. The people made fun of his innocence
because they were habitual in fabricating, such cock and bull stories. Another fact that he was poor
and they also considered that he would not be able to defend himself in the face of allegations.
Q6.Why did he keep claiming his innocence before his death?
Ans. He kept on claiming his innocence and tried his best to prove it. He hated to be called a liar, even
after his death. He did not want to live a life of dishonour and he considered his character as his
destiny. It is well remarked by Thomas Hardy: Character is destiny; And destiny is fate. It is really a
curse to live a life of disgrace and being abused. But still they cannot escape any punishment as James
Russell Lowell remarked; Truth forever on the scaffold Wrong forever on the thorn Yet that scaffold
sways the future And behind the dim unknown Standeth God within the Shadow Keeping watch
above His own.
THE REWARD
Q1. What discussion was going on at the club?
Ans. The topic under discussion at the club was the determination versus opportunity and their interrelationship. Jorkens emphasized the importance of determination for practical success in life,
however, Terbut supported opportunity. He was of the view that without opportunity, determination is
fruitless.
Q2. What did Terbut think of Jorkens argument?
Ans. Terbut opposed Jorkens argument and said that opportunity is far more important than
determination. He gave the example of a person, who desired to be the a Skating Champion of the
Sahara but he might fail to achieve his target only due to lack of money.
Q3. How did Jorkens convinced Terbut that a man can become a skating Champion of the Sahara?
Ans. Jorkens convinced Terbut that a man could become a skating Champion of the Sahara and could
make money by building a skating-ring in the Sahara and would organize a competition there.
Q4. How did Gorgios persuade his people to make his country strong?
Ans. In order to convince his people, Gorgios joined politics and made fine speeches preaching his
ambition. He persuaded that the glory of their country would be multiplied and they could win their
rights from their enemies, if the seat of the court acrobat was formally created.
Q5. What was the point of view of the parents of Gorgios?
Ans. The parents of Gorgios emphasized the importance of time and achievement of ambitions in the
early age. However, Gorgios always tried to prove them wrong like other boys of his age. Later, he
realized the importance of his parent advice while he was striving for accomplishment of his ambition
of creating the seat of court acrobat.
Q6.What is the theme of the story?

Ans. The theme of the story is When there is a will, there is a way and man is not made defeat. A
person can achieve anything in his life if he trusts in his faculties and has faith in hard work in as
Emerson said: Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string! Nothing is impossible in the
world if a person has decided to achieve anything as every king was once a helpless baby and every
great building was once only a sketch.
Q7. Describe the scene of inauguration?
Ans. For inauguration ceremony, the court hall was converted into a gymnasium. The lights and a
band in pale green and gold played softly. All the courtiers, including member of the royal family,
were sitting on one side. Gorgios entered in a golden acrobatic dress made of red velvet under the
flood of golden light.
I Have a Dream By Martin Luther King
Q1. Write a note on the struggle of Martin Luther King Junior?
Ans. Martin Luther King was a priest as well as a well-honoured political leader of the Black Race
during the Civil Rights Movements dating from 1950s to 1960s in America. He was awarded Nobel
Prize for Peace in 1964. He took steps and raised voice against racial prejudice and injustice. He lead
the freedom moments in the Southern States of America for the Black Race /Negroes. During these
moments, he and his supporters underwent torture and suffering but nothing could stop them from
preaching sanctity of freedom, fraternity, faith in equality and human rights. In the early 1960s, he
was jailed in Birmingham, where he wrote a letter to a local newspaper titled The Letter from a
Birmingham Jail regarding brutality of police to citizens. He won the freedom struggle and rights for
the Negroes. He was shot dead during a protest on 4th April, 1968 in Memphis.
Q2.What was the condition of Negroes in his days?
Ans. In 1950s when the movement for Civil Liberty was at its peak; the Negroes in America were
living a pitiable and pathetic life. They were not only hated but also but also treated worse than
animals. They had to face tough trials and tribulations. They were kept in narrow jail cells. They had
to undergo the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. They were
wallowing in the valley of despair in search of freedom and justice. They were neither considered for
well-paid jobs nor higher education. To uplift the life of Negroes Martin Luther King sacrificed his
own life.
Q3. What was the subject matter or theme of Martin Luthers speech, I Have a Dream?
Ans. Martin Luther King was a strong supporter of the rights and freedom of the Negroes in America.
In his speech, I Have a Dream, he emphasized that education and awareness would gradually
change the thinking of the people. He wanted to preach the fact that hate cant drive out hate only love
can do that. He wanted to preach peace, love for humanity and fraternity throughout the world. In the
Southern part of America, the Black race was considered to be inferior to White Race. Martin Luther
stressed that only love, freedom, fraternity and equality of human rights could bridge up the gap
between the white and black race in America. Peace is never possible without freedom of speech and
liberty from poverty and injustice. Freedom never means to maintain ones own freedom and seize the
freedom of others as Nelson Mandela remarks: For to be free is not merely to cast off ones chains,
but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. We cannot separate peace from
freedom because no one can be at peace unless one has ones freedom. Martin Luther King wanted the

people to give practical shape to his dreams, which was the dream of the whole humanity. Our
religion Islam is also a great supporter of universal brotherhood, sanctity of human life and rights
regardless of race, caste, colour and religion. Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also preached that no
white man is superior to a black man.
THE GIFT OF MAGI
Q1. What is the central idea of The Gift Of Magi?
Ans. Love, generosity, and the various definitions of wealth and poverty are central themes in "The
Gift of the Magi," in which a poor, loving young couple sell the only valuable things they own to give
each other special Christmas gifts. Della Young sells her beautiful hair to buy Jim a gold watch chain,
and Jim sells his heirloom watch to buy Della some hair combs. These gifts are useless, in one sense;
Della cannot wear her combs without her hair, and Jim, without his watch, cannot use his watch chain.
However, Jims remark, is also a comment on the value of the gifts. They are too nice not only
because of the money they represent but also because of the sacrificial love they represent. Selfsacrifice in the name of love is the wisest gift.
Q2. How much did she save for Christmas?
Ans. Della saved one dollar and eighty seven cents through bargaining while buying meat and food.
She saved money through careful buying only because she wanted to purchase Christmas gift for Jim.
Q3. Why did Della sell her hair?
Ans. When Della found no other way to get money for Jims gift, she started weeping desperately.
During the same moment, the idea of selling hair came to her mind, thus she rushed to Sofronies
Shop; who was a large, white and cold-eyed woman and bought Dellas hair for twenty dollars.
Q4. Why Della did selected gold chain for Jim?
Ans. Della chose gold watch chain for Jim because it had both quietness and value like Jim, and was
made of pure material. Moreover, Jims watch had never a good chain and he always avoided to take
out watch from his pocket in public places.
Q5. Why did they want to present gifts to each other?
Ans. Jim and Della had sacrificial love for each other and they did not want to celebrate Christmas
without presenting gifts. Thus, both sold their most valuable gifts for each other.
Q6. What was the wisdom in selling the most valuable things?
Ans. In "The Gift of the Magi," O. Henry tells the story of Jim and Delia Young, a poor young couple
who wanted to buy each other special Christmas gifts, which ironically cancel each other out because
Della sold her hair to buy Jim a chain for his watch, which he in turn had sold to buy her a fine set of
combs for her hair. Despite the fact that these gifts are now useless, Jim and Delia have given each
other the greatest gift of all, which the narrator compares to the gifts given to the Christ child by the
wise men, or magi: selfless love. Their love for each other is unlimited.
A MILD ATTACK OF LOCUSTS By Doris Lessing
Q1. How did the farmers try to prevent the main swarm of the locusts from lading on their fields?

Ans. The farmers were used to such calamities and knew how to handle them. They took every
possible preventative or safety measures to prevent the main swarm of the locusts from lading on their
fields; especially they prepared piles of wood and grass and set it on fire. When the smoke started
rising from the myriads of fire, they constantly added wet leaves to make it more acrid (acidic) and
black because the locusts were allergic to smoke. This preventive kept the locusts from the field for a
longer time. Moreover, they also made rattling sound with the help of tins and other metallic things to
stop them from settling.
Q2. Why even after all the crops were destroyed, did the men continue to fight the swarm?
Ans. Although the locusts devastated the green fields and crops, yet the villagers kept on fighting
because they knew that the attack of locusts might turn out like a bad weather. Once the swarm of
locusts settled on their lands/fields, they would start breeding and they might go on for the next two to
three years. The farmers also knew that the locusts would definitely eat up all the new crops too, so
they kept on fighting desperately to avert this calamity.
Q3. What was the condition of the land when the locusts had moved to the south?
Ans. After the attack of locusts, the land gave the view of wilderness, as all the greenery especially
the crops were eaten up by the locusts, leaving behind only the patches of barren land. Everything was
to be replanted and the fields seemed to be in ruins. All the trees, buildings, bushes and earth were
completely covered was gone under the moving brown masses. The villagers were expecting rain,
which might spring some new grass, because the cattle would die otherwise. For Margaret, it was a
great calamity and she felt like a survivor after war.
Q4. What are the measures the farmers should have taken to save their crops?
Ans. Disaster or calamities are mostly remembered for the number of people that they have killed, the
property consumed by their ferocity, and the social and psychological trauma (shock) that they leave
in their wake. Calamities as these effects are, disaster also bring out all the stupidities, mistakes,
wrong decisions, , frailties and the ultimate incapability of human beings in conquering- or even
defending against- the forces of nature beside the best that human nature has to offer. Moreover,
calamities always come as an unpleasant surprise, for which no nation is pre-planned or ready to face.
In this story, the attack of locusts is also like an unpredictable calamity, which can neither be
predicted and nor easily averted. Although the farmers were used to this kind of attacks and they
knew the precautions as well, yet they could not avert it. If it had been possible for them to avert
them, they would have taken all the measures, however, they should have taken the following
measures:
a. They should have sprayed the insecticides in time.
b. They would have known the symptoms of such attacks must have some precautions beforehand.
c. They must have got help from Agricultural Department to control this kind of attack.
d. They should have used bio- pesticides like fungus, which spread disease among the locusts and
result in their ultimate death.
Q5. Write a note on the character of Margaret.

Ans. Margaret is a young girl, belonging to the village being attacked by the locusts. It was her first
experience of life to be under attack of locusts and she was greatly shocked. She could not understand
what to do and she felt herself like a saviour from a war. But at the same time she could not
understand the happiness of the farmers after the disappearance of the locusts from that area.
The Gulistan of Saadi By Sheikh Saadi
Q1. What do you know about Sheikh Saadi?
Ans. Ab Muslih-ud-Din bin Abdullah Shrz (died 691 AH), better known by his penname as
Sheikh Saad Shirazi , was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is recognized
not only for the quality of his writing, but also for the depth of his social thoughts. His best known
works are Bostan ("The Orchard") completed in 1257 and Gulistan ("The Rose Garden") in 1258,
which are a description of Saadi's travels and analysis of human psychology and wisdom.
Q2. How did Nushirvan advise to his people?
Ans. Nushirvan-the great Persian King, who was known for his justice and kindness, warned his
subject/people against destruction by cruelty and injustice. He advised them, A tyrant does not
remain in the world; but the curse on him abides forever, mean an unjust and cruel is cursed forever
and there are no sound existence of such a king. On another occasion Sheikh Saadi remarked about an
unjust king in the following words:A tyrant cannot be a Sultan, As a wolf cant be a shepherd, A
king who establishes oppression, Destroys the basis of the wall of his own reign.
Q3. What remedy was suggested by the physician for the disease of the king?
Ans. The physician prescribed the king that his disease could only be cured with the bile of a person
having certain qualities. His servants searched for such person and at last a farmers son was found to
have the required qualities. The king also got the consent of the boys parents by presenting them
handsome sum.
Q4. Why did the boy look towards the sky and smile?
Ans. The boy looked towards the sky to seek justice from Almighty Allah against the brutality of the
king and smiled at the foolishness and lust of his parents for the trash of the world that for a little sum
they forgot the parents-son relationship. The boy also said that if the king failed to get agreement of
his parents, they would seek justice from Qazi. On the contrary, the parents agreed for his bloodshed
and the Qazi who was to do justice also passed the decree for his assassination.
Q5. What should be the role of Qazi?
Ans. A Qazi should be a paragon of justice having considerable knowledge and understanding of
social and moral laws. He should be impartial and not to be influenced by the Rulers and Kings of any
state. His decision should be on merit regardless of social status and position.
Q6. Why did the king weep?
Ans. The king when listened to the words of helpless boy. He considered himself to be cruel and
unjust, who is going to kill an innocent boy for his health. He also though about his foolishness that he
was dependent upon the worldly provisions while the little boy was seeking justice from Allah. With
these feeling, he started weeping and released the boy with wealth and affection.

THE FOOLISH QUACK


Q1. What is the clump of trees?
Ans. A clump of trees means a group or a groove or a furrow of trees grown close to each other.
Q2. What was stuck in the camels throat?
Ans. A water-melon was stuck in the camels throat while grazing in the field.
Q3. What did the quack pretend to cure?
Ans. The quack pretended emphatically to cure goiter i.e. the swollen throat.
Q4. What did the quack do with the old woman?
Ans. He wrapped a blanket around the old womans throat and hit it hard with mallet i.e. he repeated
the same practice, which he did with the camel.
Q5. What was the result of the cure?
Ans. The cure resulted into the instant death of the poor old woman.
Q6. What was the punishment inflicted on the quack by the villagers?
Ans. The punishment inflicted or imposed on the quack by the villagers was to dig the grave for the
burial of the old woman and a beating in addition to digging.
Q7. For whom did the quack dig the grave?
Ans. He dug the grave for the old woman, whom he killed with his notorious and abortive practice of
curing goiter.
Q8. What did the quack do in the next village?
Ans. The quack again pretended to be expert in curing goiter.
Q9. Why didnt the villagers let the old man get cured?
Ans. They did not let the old man cure because the quack warned them that in case of old mans
death, he should not be held responsible. Hearing this, the villagers said that they had nothing to do
with a doctor, who talked of death before curing.
Q10. Why did the quack come back to the camel-men?
Ans. He came back to the camel-men to taunt him for misguiding or misleading him regarding the
cure of goiter.
Q11. How did the camel-men cure their camel?
Ans. They cured their camel by tying a blanket round the neck of their camel and hit it hard with a
mallet. The water-melon stuck in the throat of the camel was crushed with the blow and the camel
swallowed the food instantly. It was a natural way meant for animals based on common sense, but
was not for human beings.

THE USE OF FORCE By William Carlos Williams


Q1.What was the condition of the parents on the arrival of the doctor?
Ans. The parents especially the mother was disturbed about the health of her daughter, she was spick
and span and apologetic lady. On the arrival of the doctor, the father tried to move for the doctor but
the doctor rushed not to bother him. Both the father and the mother of the little girl were nervous and
they were eyeing the doctor up and down distrustfully.
Q2. How did the child behave with the doctor?
Ans. The child behaved adamantly and was ready for her medical checkup. She was inwardly quiet
and healthy in appearance with expressionless face. She also reacted strongly, when the doctor tried to
open her mouth for throat examination.
Q3. Why did the doctor call her by her first name?
Ans. The doctor called the child by her first name Matilda to make her sure that he is intimate and
friendly. He also wanted to make her realize that he was their family doctor and had already known
them. Q4. Why did the parents rebuke the little girl?
Ans. The parents rebuked the little girl for her misbehavior and partly because she knocked away the
glasses of the doctor as he lovingly approached her to examine, which fell a few yards away on the
kitchen floor.
Q5. How did the doctor threaten the sick child?
Ans. Considering the children lying on the death bed due to ignorance, the doctor indirectly
threatened the little girl by saying that if she did not cooperate for her throat examination he would
open it by force for her.
Q6. How did the child look by appearance?
Ans. The child was as strong as heifer in appearance but her face was flushed due to high fever and
she was breathing rapidly. She was inwardly quiet and was eyeing the doctor furiously with
expressionless face. In short, she was as cute as the children, who appear in the photogravure section
of the Sunday magazines.
Q7. Why did the parents keep the child in the kitchen?
Ans. The parents kept the sick child in the kitchen to keep warm, where she was resting in her fathers
lap. They kept her there also because the house was very damp sometimes.
Q8. How did the doctor succeed in examining the sick child?
Ans. When the doctor failed to convince the sick child to open her mouth for examination, as a last
resort he grasped head of the girl and tried to put the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth.
When he succeeded in doing so, the girl crushed the wooden depressor with her teeth into splinters.
Then he asked for a metallic spoon and pushed it her mouth until she gagged showing the tonsils
covered with membrane.
Q9.Under what circumstances the use of force can be justified?

Ans. The use of force cannot be justified in general, however, in cases where danger to life is
imminent; the use of force becomes inevitable. In the lesson, The Use of Force, the doctor and the
parents tried their level best in politely and kindly but as a last resort they had to use force at the risk
of her life to examine her throat.
OVERCOAT
Q1. How did the young man look physically?
Ans. The young man was well groomed having sleek and shinning hair and wore side burns. He had
tin mustache as if drawn with a pencil. He was wearing brown overcoat according to fashion of that
day, a green flat hat and white silk scarf knotted at his neck. The coat was well cut and its material
was good. The lapels of the coat were stiff and the sleeves were well creased. Indeed he was very
happy in that dress.
Q2. Why were the people doing on the mall?
ns. The people were enjoying themselves and had fun in variety of hotels, restaurants, cafes and snack
bars according to their means.
Q3. Why did a tongawala and a taxi driver approach the young man?
Ans. They mistook him as a rich man and thought he might be needed a vehicle to move through the
bazaar. However, both were turned away in a peculiar style especially the taxi driver with No thank
you.
Q4. Why did not the young man buy the carpet?
Ans. The young man could not buy the carpet because he was not well off. He praised the carpet as
being fine but a little bit costly. He further said to him that he would come again after some days. He
said so to conceal his poverty.
Q5. Why did the driver of the truck escaped away?
Ans. The truck driver sped away after the young man ran over by his truck because he imagined that
the young man would have been critically injured. He thought that if he stopped there, he would
definitely be arrested for this mishap.
Q6. Narrate the scene of removing the overcoat from the body of the young man?
Ans. After being taken to the hospital, the overcoat was removed from the body of the young man, it
was found that under the coat he was wearing only a tattered sweater. Under the sweater, he was
wearing a dirty vest which was reflecting that he has not taken bath for many days.
Q7. Give the list of the articles, which were found from the coat of the young man?
Ans. The articles recovered from various pockets of the young man were a small black comb, a
handkerchief, six annas, a few pies, a half smoked cigarette, a little diary and a few handbills, which
the shopkeepers thrust upon him on that night.
Q8. What is the central idea of the story Overcoat? Ans. The basic theme or central idea of this
story is that most of the people pretend to be rich and tries to hide their poverty and miseries because
they are looked upon by the elite class, who has merely made the physical appearance to be final

yardstick of measuring character and status in the society. But we should judge people around us
morally not materially as Our true beauty is defined by our soul; our appearance is just a camouflage
we use to hide our true beauty, our true identity...
THE ANGEL AND THE AUTHOR AND OTHERS By Jerome K Jerome
Q1. At what point of the journey in his dream did the author hear the throbbing sound of wings?
Ans. One night, in his dream the author felt that he was flying up towards the sky. While he was
moving up and up he could observe the little luminosity down on the earth. At this moment, he heard
the throbbing sound of the wings behind him. When he turned around, he saw that it was the
recording angel.
Q2.What time of the year was it?
Ans. It was about a fortnight (two weeks) after Christmas, when the writer had a worrisome dream.
The author dreamt that he was moving up towards the sky.
Q3. What does the author like about Christmas?
Ans. The author tells the angel that he likes Christmas, because it makes everybody good especially
the lovely sentiments and the noble deeds that people keep on repeating from a little before Christmas
up to the end of January. There is also an ironic element in the writers opinion that usually people do
good deeds only for a limited time each years just to show off especially during the religious days.
Q4. Write down the good deeds the author has admitted are a great joy on Christmas?
Ans. The good deeds that the author has done are as follow:1 He submitted ten shillings subscription to the daily telegraphs six penny fund for the unemployed.
1 He attended four charity dinners, later he had to suffer from stomach problem.
1 He sent his twelve self-signed photographs to a charity bazaar to be sold to raise funds.
1 He also performed in Talbot Chimneys and helped to raise funds for the destitute (poor) British in
Johannesburg.
1 Moreover, he sent his old clothes along with a useable coat to rummage sale and bought a raffle to
help the poor.
Q5. Why noble deeds are always a great joy for the author?
Ans. Good deeds bring spiritual satisfaction to everyone. Similarly for the author good deeds are of
great joy, he tries to recall all his good deeds that he has done during his lifetime. In his dream, he is
dead and realizes that he has lost all opportunities for good deeds. He also tells the angel that noble
deeds are always a great joy to him and he loves to think of all the good deeds he himself has done.
He often thought of keeping a diary--noting them down each day as it would be so nice for one's
children. Noble deeds not only satisfy ones conscience but also a true way to win Gods love. A tree
is known by its fruit; a man by his deeds. A good deed is never lost; he who sows courtesy reaps
friendship, and he who plants kindness gathers love.

Q6. What is the central idea of the story The Angel and The Author and The Others? Ans. Man
does not become conscious of the escaping time and opportunity that has been bestowed to him by
Almighty Allah. Here in this story, the author realizes that he is no more alive and has lost all the
opportunities to perform good deeds. Thus he recalls his good deeds with the ironic vein that majority
of us start doing good during the specific religious occasions. In other words, in order to protect
himself from damnation he starts mentioning his trivial deeds which are of no significance. The idea
of death, the fear of it, haunts the human like nothing else; it is a mainspring of human activity and
this fear can only be overthrown or defeated through good deeds and following the ways prescribed
by Almighty Allah.
HEAT LIGHTENING
Q1. What did the girl cant describe the killer?
Ans. The girl couldnt describe the killer because she was extremely frightened and nervous. She
completely lost her senses, when she saw the killer dragging the dead body of the woman. Later, she
was also chased by the killer and she was certain that she would also be murdered. In this anxiety, she
was not able to muster up her courage to give details regarding the murderer/ killer.
Q2. Why did the girl leave her on the side of the road?
Ans. She left her car solely because her car ran short of f fuel/gas. It was a stormy night with heavy
rain and she banked her car along the road side. As a last resort, she came out of her car with the hope
to get help or any other assistance from the passers-by. As she was strolling along the road, she was
horror-stricken by the terrible scene.
Q3. Why did the girl consider the first man her helper?
Ans. The girl extremely nervous saw a horrible and act, which made her disturbed. The uncountable f
ear and threat of being chase and murdered kept on haunting her mind. In alarmed state, she reached
the bus stop; where she came across the first man, whose compassionate and kind words made her
trust him. He posed as if he were her well wisher as he positively suggested her first also the man
positively second man trusted him as inquired to pretended murder inform to the hide/save case and
police. The her, when arrived. The frightened girl blindly her well-wisher and she was far away from
considering the first man, the murderer.
THE OYSTER AND THE PEARL
Q1. Do you think that it is right to allow Clay to believe that there is a pearl in the oyster? Elaborate.
Ans. Clay wants 300 dollars to get his father back home and desires to buy some present f or his
mother. He wishes to see family united and regain the lost happiness, as his father left them f or
unknown place, owing to everyday disputes. Clay plans to search f or his father but he lacks money f
or this purpose. He has associated all of his hopes with the oyster and the pearl. The oyster, however,
symbolizes the obstacles and the pearl is hope. Moreover, when he comes by an oyster on the sea
shore he becomes happy and optimistic. He is confident to find pearl in the oyster, even there was
none. Everyone except Harry tells him that there is nothing inside of the oyster. Harry agrees with
Clay only because he wants to make him happy. The writer understands the circumstances, pays 300
dollars to Clay to help him and saves him from being disappointed and disillusioned. However, it is
wise decision on the part of the Harry Van Dusen and the writer not to disappoint the innocent boys,
who is living in the world of harmless dreams through self-sacrifice.

Q2. Why does the writer willing to buy the pearl? What does he mean by saying: As far as I am
concerned the whole thing is a pearls?
Ans. During the discussion regarding, the oyster and the pearl, the writer was present in Harrys shop
f or hair cut. Like other people of the town, he knew that there was no pearl in the oyster and that one
out thousand carried the pearl, it was few and far between. Though he was certain that he would not
be getting anything from the worthless /ordinary oyster, yet he bought it f or 300 dollars to help the
poor Clay indirectly. Moreover, he did not want to shatter the innocent boys dreams and hopes of
bringing in happiness.
Q3.What was Harrys philosophy? What is your opinion about it?
Ans. Life is a pendulum between smiles and tears. To love e and to be loved is the greatest existence
of human life. Cheerful life is always based on self-sacrifice, humanity, patience, tolerance and
fraternity. Harrys philosophy is to take it easy and relax; consequently, the life will be happy and e
serene. He tries to propagate his philosophy by talking to people, when he is cutting hair. It is almost
as if the haircuts were just a way of getting people in his shop to talk. The name of the town is O.K.by-the-sea, which symbolizes that life isnt perfect but by taking it easy, it can be more fun. He knows
that the people are living a very miserable and hectic life without any sympathy or helping hand. All
the town people are preoccupied by the cares of chaotic life There is no way out f e. or them, they can
neither laugh nor weep. However, Harrys philosophy makes them hopeful and happy. He tries to free
the town people from their worries, particularly in the case of Clay, who wants money to get his father
back home and to buy gifts f or his mother.
A VISIT TO A SMALL PLANET By Gore Vidal
Q1. How does Kreton prove his extraordinary powers? Ans. Kreton, an alien visitor from outer space,
who is fascinated by human beings and determined to make his visit everlasting and memorable. He
possesses extraordinary powers, which are being displayed at the time of threat from the army or
personnel of General Powers. The prominent traits of his power are as below:invisible fortification (defence wall), surrounding his spaceship, when General Powers orders his

hi
behaviour of the people before revelation. He is strong and advanced enough to take the control of the
whole world.
Q2. What do you know about Kreton and what is the purpose of his visit to the earth?
Ans. Kreton is a visitor from other planet. He is forty years old, mild, pleasant looking man with side
whiskers, dressed in the fashion of 1860. He is cool-minded. He possesses high intellectual and has
the ability to read the mind dressed. He self-dependent and represents an ideal civilization. He is the
man of extraordinary powers and above human ill-will and malice. On General Power inquiry
regarding the purpose of his arrival, he reflects his interest in the human beings and their behaviour.
He also says to Speldings, You are my hobby and I am going native. He means to say that he has
come to earth for everlasting visit. When General Powers questions him regarding his intention to
capture America, he replies that he will take the charge of the whole world including America and
intends to reform it.
Q3. What is the theme of the play A Visit to a Small Planet?

Ans. Using Kreton as a satiric personification of Americans ugly underbelly (cunningness), Vidals
play employs a common science-fiction scenario to explore not alien but Americans life and directly
the hollow and materialistic nature of all the human beings, who are uncivilized and good at nothing
except wars. The writer has aptly employed the character of Kreton to expose the real face of human
beings i.e. hypocrisy, selfishness, callousness, cruelty, violence and war crime against humanity.
Here, Kreton also acts as writers mouthpiece and through his satirical remarks like Here civilization
is just beginning and You fragile butterflies, Vidal has put forward the idea that the people on the
earth are inferior in civilization and technology to the other inhabitants of other planets. Moreover the
elements of violence, hatred and the fever to expand ones territories are the characteristics of ancient
civilizations. Kreton says that the people of earth seek satisfaction by hurting others even in 20th
Century and consider themselves more civilized than other nations or their enemies. Kreton, who is
the representative of both an alien nation and the future man, is free of human emotions of hatred,
hostility and prejudice including all other evil emotions. He plans to live on earth for ever to reform
the human civilization, which has gone worse.
THE RAIN W.H. Davies
I HEAR leaves drinking rain; I hear rich leaves on top Giving the poor beneath Drop after drop; 'This
is a sweet noise to hear These green leaves drinking near. Reference: These verses have been taken
from the poem The Rain, written by W H Davies Context: In this poem, the poet has portrayed the
scenery of a rainy day. The rain beautifies the entire atmosphere and f alls drop after drop on lush
green leaves of the tree. But this romantic and natural scene is not to be enjoyed by the poor, who are
shelter less , thus cannot admire and enjoy the beauty and music of rain. Rain appears as a hindrance
in their daily routines and gives them a tough time as and they have no alternative except to suffer in
the wet cold weather. To escape from the coming deluge, he seeks shelter under trees, which doesnt
serve as a perfect shelter. However, the scene of the sunshine after the rain symbolizes hope and
happiness f or poor. Explanation:-In this stanza, the poet portrays the fresh serene and musical
atmosphere created by rain. When it rains, the poet observes the tree leaves sipping / drinking rain
water and giving a fascinating melody. The leaves after rain can be seen fresh and full of water. This
natural music is sweet, pleasant and worth of listening. Despite its pleasantness, it is not fruitful or
enjoyable f or poor and the penniless. The poor man has no other choice or shelter except the tree. In
this cold wet world, the sufferings of poor are as countless or limitless as the rain drops, which f drop
all after drop. As Shakespeare remarked: When sorrows come, they, Come not single spies, But in
battalions. THE greatest enemy to the man, who has to carry on his body his entire wardrobe, is rain.
As long as the sun shines he is indifferent, but if he is caught in a wet condition after sunset, he is to
be pitied. He does not f ear any ill consequences to health from being wet; however, he does not like
the uncomfortable sensation of shivering and not being able to keep warm. This unsettled feeling is
often made worse by an empty stomach. In f act a full stomach is his one safeguard against the cold,
and he cares not then, if the rain and the wind penetrate his clothes.
Stanza 2. And when the Sun comes out, After this Rain shall stop, A wondrous Light will fill Each
dark, round drop; I hope the Sun shines bright; 'Twill be a lovely sight. Explanation: -In these verses,
the poet remarks that sunlight will brighten the whole atmosphere after the rain is stopped. The sun
shines with full glamour and gives a new look to all the things. The other side of the gloomy picture is
always bright. As every dark cloud has a silver lining and after rain there are always roses. Here in the
verses, sunshine is the symbol and ray of hope f or the poor in the dead, dark and cold world of
uncountable suffering. The sufferings may stay a little longer, yet not forever. Human life is a
pendulum between smiles and e tears; he has to endure sufferings and dejection, without any excuse.
The poet encourages the poor to keep up hope and happiness through the imagery of bright sunshine,

which injects a new spirit and life in every creature. In this regard Henry Wardsworth Longfellow has
beautifully remarked in his poem- An April Day :Be still, sad heart, and cease repining; Behind the
clouds the sun is shining; Thy f ate is the common f ate of all, Into each life some rain must f e all,
Some days must be dark and dreary. NIGHT MAIL Night Mail is a simple poem written by W. H.
Auden. In this poem, the travels poet describes whole night journey bring mail of a coach containing
that letters, postal orders and cheques f or people living in different parts of the country. The journey
is not always the same. Sometimes the Night Mail coach has to climb upwards and sometimes it
crosses the plains but it always reaches its destination through on time. grasslands, During the journey
cotton fields, the coach moorland, etc. passes The poet mentions the attitude of the birds as it
approaches, they become active to peep at it through bushes. The sheepdogs are not at disturbed by
the noise of the train as they are lost in their slumber (deep sleep). The poet minutely mentions all the
details that when the night mail passes through the f arm the people are not disturbed. They continue
to sleep. Only a jug placed in a bedroom shakes gently with the vibration of the passing train.
LOVELIEST OF TREES -THE CHERRY NOW
STANZA -1 Loveliest of trees, the cherry now Is hung with bloom along the bough, And stands about
the woodland ride Wearing white for Eastertide.
Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem Loveliest of the Cherry Now written by
A.H Housman. Context:- In this poem, the poet has beautifully portrayed and mirrored the beauty of
cherry tree in bloom. The poets joy mirth, birth and happiness lie in the splendor of cherry trees,
which are embellished colourful flowers, adding to the splendid herald of spring. Moreover; the
melodious rhythm of the verses lends majesty and grandeur to the influence of the poem. The poet
sketches the shortness of his life by making an apt comparison e of the spring season with the period
of life Here the approaching e. spring is portrayed through fascinating colours of flowers and magical
glimpse of nature. Explanation:- In these verses, the poet shows his deep and unbounded love and
fascination f or the cherry tree. He holds that cherry is the loveliest tree, which is in full bloom and
splendor, and its branches are laden with the attractive flowers. To poet, it appears that the cherry tree
is standing along the way to forest /woods, wearing the white shining overcoat of snow to welcome
the eve of Easter. The poets praise f or cherry garden and its fascinating surroundings reflects his
love f or nature. The cherry tree here also symbolizes the tree of life with its own spring and autumn
i.e. life and death, mirth and dirge (Funeral song). The poet keeps up his hope of life through the e
inspiration of cherry tree, as it is said by Abignale: Every endless night has a shinning day Every
darkest sky. Has a shinning rain (Abignale) It is universal truth that every withered plant or thing
has its hope preserved which comes to life through e tragedy, but bringing life and a brand new day
with the blossoming cherry in the wood world, creates a new sense and scene of cheerful life. In the
winter season all the vegetation seems to be dead the tree are bare, the grass is brown, and all the
flowers have disappeared. In March the climate changes often suddenly. The warm, moisture laden
west wind prevails and the air becomes warm and mild. The flowers come out, the tree put forth new
leaves and the grass becomes green.
STANZA- 2. Now, of my three score years and ten, Twenty will not come again, And take from
seventy springs a score, It only leaves me fifty more
Explanation: In these verses, the poet laments about his past life and its golden moments, and
associates it with the spring season. The white glory of the cherry tree in bloom, reminds him of the
springs of his lovely life which has now become a history e, (past) f or him. At the same moment, the
cherry tree also symbolizes the shortness and uncertainty of human life in the e form of spring and

autumn season. Human life is as limited as that e of a flower. The more it is beautiful and sweet
smelling the sooner it is withered. Here in these verses, the poet also grieves that the early twenty
years of his life will not bounce back. These early twenty years of poets life were the years of
youthful and tension free life.
STANZA -3. And since to look at things in bloom Fifty springs are little room, About the woodlands I
will go To see the cherry hung with snow.
Explanation :-In this stanza, the poet reflects the shortness and uncertainty of human life, which is not
long enough to enjoy the beauties of nature. Thats why he says in brooding pessimism that fifty years
are a little time to enjoy life in the recesses of nature. Like Wordsworth, the e poet desires to take
refuge in the beautiful and charming world of cherry and want to escape from the gloomy and short
world. He longs f or an everlasting tour to woodland to enjoy the splendour of the blooming cherry
trees. *************************
O WHERE ARE YOU GOING?
"O where are you going?" said reader to rider, "That valley is fatal when furnaces burn, Yonder's the
midden whose odours will madden, That gap is the grave where the tall return." Reference: These
verses have been taken from the W. H. Audens poem O Where Are You Going? Context: This
poem is a dialogue between two imaginary persons, personified as Reader and Rider. The Reader,
whose life is based on theoretical concepts and nothing practical, is e a timid and terrified person. On
the other hand, the Rider is a brave, courageous and practical man. Although his journey is replete
with innumerable dangers, yet he is determined to accomplish it through thick and thin or whatever
sufferings and sorrows come in his way. Through the dialogue between two opposite force i.e. the
Reader and Rider the poet has tried to preach the philosophy of life that man is not made e for defeat
and one must be determined and confident to achieve the goals of life without losing courage and
hope. The Reader in this poem is the representative of all those cowards, who die ten times before
death. The valley is the symbol of hardships and mysteries of life. Explanation: In these verses, the
Reader, who is coward, full of awe and astonishment, discourages the Rider from continuing his
tough task of travelling. He says that the valley where the Rider is going is replete with heaps of dung
/waste material, whose nasty smell may sicken him or madden his mind. To strike further horror in the
heart and mind of the Rider, the Rider adds that there is also a grave in the form of a gap f or those,
who try to cross it. At the very outset, the Reader tries discourage the reader from accomplishing
reader is impractical, unrealistic and far so he cant overcome obstacle of life as e remarked: to
frighten and his journey. The more frightened, Shakespeare has Extreme fear can neither flight nor fly
"O do you imagine," said fearer to farer, "That dusk will delay on your path to the pass, Your diligent
looking discover the lacking Your footsteps feel from granite to grass?" Explanation:- In the above
mentioned verses, the Reader warns the Rider regarding the risks and tragedies, which may be all
during his journey. He says that although the Rider is undertaking his journey during the day time, yet
at dusk it will become dark and deadly, where his intelligence and vigilance will display his ignorance
regarding mysteries of life. The Reader also warns him that the footsteps on granite are different from
those on grass. In other words, he means to say that the path that the Rider has chosen is tortuous and
twisted. The fearer tries to discourage the rider so that he may withdraw from his ambition to cross
and conquer the valley replete with dangers, failures, sorrows and sufferings. Its true that bad time
never plays trumpet, however, one must be ready to f ace it courageously. In spite of the Readers
predictions and discouragement, the Rider is not ready to give f or him. To him, the will power
matters not the path / journey, which is either tough or straightforward and a determined person never
complains about such things, as it is well said by Tom Wilson: You can complain because roses have

thorns, or you can rejoice because thorns have roses. No doubt God created us, but He gave us the
power of choice to shape our own lives and fortunes. It is depends upon a person, how he reacts
during happy moments or in tough times. "O what was that bird," said horror to hearer, "Did you see
that shape in the twisted trees? Behind you swiftly the figure comes softly, The spot on your skin is a
shocking disease." Explanation: In the above mentioned verses, the Horror/Reader terrifies the Hearer
/Rider regarding mysterious event or phenomenon, which may bef all during his journey. Supernatural
creatures, having terrible f aces, may appear in his way. The trees, in that valley, are the dwelling
place f or such ghostly creatures, which may chase him to death. The Horror points out that the tiny
spot on his f ace and body are the symptoms of deadly disease. From the very outset, the main
objective of the Reader is to frighten the Rider, who is determined to cross the land of terror and
dismay. The Rider believes in deeds not the baseless words, because deeds are fruits; words are but
leaves. Shakespeare has rightly remarked about will power that our bodies are gardens to which our
wills are gardeners. "Out of this house," said rider to reader, "Yours never will," said farer to fearer,
"They're looking for you," said hearer to horror, As he left them there, as he left them there.
Explanation: - The concluding stanza of the poem indicates that the Rider doesnt get frightened of
the Readers pseudo warnings. He bears the iron will power to cross the valley. The traveler says to the
reader that the brave and courageous people are not afraid of the hardships of life and always struggle
till death. They trust in their capabilities and live on the principal of Do or Die. Regarding will
power and self-reliance, Emerson has rightly quoted: Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron
string! Such people never wait f or opportunities or the dangers to be over, because deciding today is
less risky than waiting till all the risks are removed and when there is a will there is a way The Rider
further remarks that Readers world is limited and cant come over the barrier of the shortcoming of
his own character. Ironically, the doubts and f ears that the Reader has been trying to create in the
mind and heart of the Rider, are waiting f or him; he will definitely become prey of his f ears and
doubts. Saying this, the Rider left the Reader and assumed his journey.
IN THE STREET OF FRUIT STALLS
Wicks balance flame, a dark dew falls In the street of fruit stalls Melon, guava, mandarin, Pyramidpiled like cannon balls, Glow red-hot, gold-hot from within Reference: These verses have been taken
from the poem In the Street of Fruit Stalls By Jan Stallworthy. Context: In this Poem, the Jan
Stallworthy has reflected dark and harsh reality of life through death and destruction e caused by war,
poverty and miseries of life. But all these sufferings have failed to crush mans love f or pleasure. He
still searches f or delight in the short sweetness of life just e like the children, who enjoy the sweet
spray of juice forgetting all about the misery of life they live in. These e children are too innocent to
comprehend the dark and harsh reality of life. Explanation: In this first stanza, the poet has used the
dark imagery dark dew f . He has portrayed evening time alls with dark and grim future inflicted by
war in the street of fruit stalls, where various fruits are piled up in a conical form like pyramid. The
imagery of fruits is symbolizing both pleasure and misery. Pleasure in the sense that they are in
variety, having sweet taste and colour yet at the same time symbolizing the cannon balls likely to be
used in war. They reflect hot, red and golden colours, which in dim light appear like bombs. The
whole world is engulfed in the darkness of war, misery and poverty. The same darkness is found in
the fruit street. War and its horrors have shattered the human psychology to such an extent that
different kinds of fruits look like bombs. In the dim light of lanterns they glow red hot or appear gold
hot. Dark Children with a coin to spend Enter the lanterns orbit; find Melon, guava, mandarin The
moon compacted to a rind The sun in a pitted skin Explanation :Here in this stanza, the poet has used
the word Dark Children, which reflect that the poor children with innocent hopes and dark future
find pleasure in these fruits like melon, guava and other fruits. They innocently hold a coin standing in

the light lanterns. F or them this is the only hope and pleasure of life to buy and enjoy the taste e of
various fruits. Dark children symbolize insignificant of human life in the eyes e of those who wage
war and bring about misery to fellow humans. The situation is so grim that the moon and the sun have
failed to perform their normal functions as a result of which darkness and gloom have enveloped the
world. In spite of all this man s love f or pleasure is still an integral part of his nature. The children
are oblivious of their miserable living conditions. They buy different fruits and eat with relish. The
juices wet all parts of their f aces. The condition of the poet is, however, different. He f eels sad at the
present situation and has serious concern about the future. They take it, break it open, let A gold or
silver fountain wet Mouth, fingers, cheek, nose, chin: Radiant as lanterns, they forget The dark street I
am standing in. Explanation: They buy the fruit and break it open they tasty juice runs down their
cheeks lips and stick to their hands. F or them the pleasure is cheap and they are unaware of the war
going on, harsh realities of life and grim future, where man is mans enemy and which is also
disturbing the poet.
A SINDHI WOMAN
Barefoot through the bazaar, And with the same undulant grace As the cloth blown back from her
face, She glides with a stone jar High on her head And not a ripple in her tread. Explanation : In these
verses, the poet draws a realistic sketch of a Sindhi woman, who is passing through the bazaar leading
towards Karachi slums, in a harmonious and peaceful manner. Although the cloth, with which she has
covered her f ace, is blown back from f ace but still she is walking gracefully with a stone jar on her
head way and there is no wavering in her walk. In this stanza, the poet is paying tribute to a Sindhi
woman, who has firm faith in hard work and holding the burden of life in the form of stone jar high
on her head. She is confident thats why she has no repentance or despair regarding the tough time
that her life has given her as e Sophocles has remarked Despair often breeds disease. Watching her
cross erect Stones, garbage, excrement, and crumbs Of glass in the Karachi slums, I, with my stoop,
reflect... They stand most straight Who learn to walk beneath a weight Explanation : In this stanza, the
poet observes that the way , the Sindhi woman holding the stone jar on her head, reflects as if her
body is a cross. In other words, it appears to the poet as if the Sindhi woman is hanged on the cross by
the cruel life but still she f e aces these troubles courageously and does not bow before brutal life
Even the e. garbage, filth and small pieces of glass in Karachi slums cannot stop her from her
destination i.e. she has no f ear that her feet will be injured or spoiled despite barefooted. She is selfreliant and self sufficient thats not does not bow before anyone or extend her hand to anyone to
receive sympathies. In the last three verses, the poet with his bent back thinks that he could not learn
to walk beneath the weight i.e. does not know how to shoulder the troubles of daily life and says that
those who know how to remain steadfast in the f ace of troubles and miseries are great and
triumphant.
TIMES
The poem Time is an ecclesiastical poem, which highlights the importance of time in organizing the
phenomenon and cycles in the universe. The anonymous poet reflects that everything in this world is
systematic and every process /phenomenon takes place at the stipulated or specified time i.e. the
change of season, the cycle of life from birth to death, the time of marry making, the e moment of
victory and rejoicing, time to worship and time to go to bed, season to sow and time to reap. Time f or
mirth and time f or dirge (lament). In short all our activities are interwoven in the net of time and it is
indispensable entity in human life. Q1. Explain the message in the first eight lines of the poem
Time? Ans. The first eight lines of the poem emphasizes the importance of time and reflect that
every process /phenomenon occur in this world at stipulated time prescribed by the nature. A time to

sow the crops and the time season to reap. Everything in this world is time oriented. Time of birth and
moment of death i.e. both happy and sad moments are intermingled in human life as it is well e
said:Human life is a pendulum between smiles and tears e In human life the moments of marry
making and moments of mourning over the funeral are also specified. Those people never succeed,
who keep on waiting f or good time and hesitate to work and to take risk. Deciding today is less risky
than waiting till all the risks opportunity are removed, and chance man in must his take life, full
because advantage chance of and opportunities never repeat. THE FEED Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi
Holding a grain of millet in her beak The mother sparrow has come to feed. The young ones are so
tiny and small Form head to toe they are beaks. Reference: These verses have been taken from the
THE FEED, which is written by Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi. poem Context: In this simple and
expressive poem, the poet, through his keen observation, portrays the unfathomable/ boundless love
and kindness of a mother f or her young ones, who are very small and only few days old, which
cannot stand to their feet. The new born are in the nest and the mother sparrow goes out and brings a
grain of millet in her beak to be divided among ten chicks / fledglings. The poet marvels at the way
the mother sparrow distributes one grain among ten chicks judiciously. A mother is she, who can take
the place of all others, but whose place no one else can take. Explanation: In these verses, Ahmed
Nadeem Qasimi demonstrates the way the mother sparrow feeds her chicks. She is holding a grain of
cereal and comes to the nest of her young ones, who are tiny, featherless and cannot fly in search of
food, so they are entirely dependent on their mother, as a mother understands what a chick does not
say. All the young ones are crying with hunger and the mother sparrow has to feed them. In this
stanza, the poet Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi illustrates the love of mother f or her children as she tries her
best to provide food to her children or young ones in time. The mother is the symbol of love and
blessing on the lips and in hearts of children. It is the courage of a mother who looks after her children
throughout the day, until they are mature. In other words, mother is a bank, where we deposit all our
hurts and worries. To whom the mother sparrow should feed? Conjoining beak with beak, With whom
should she solace? Fissuring the atom, You have learnt to weep and wail in a loud tone, Splitting the
grain, You have learnt to set life on foot. Could you split the grain? One grain to be fed to the ten
young ones. Explanation: - When she returns to the nest with grain in her beak , she is perplexed as to
whom she should feed first, as all the chicks are joining their beaks with the beak of mother sparrow.
They are crying with hunger and impatient to be feed first, and giving tough time to their mother to
decide. Her love f or every chick is equal and judicious. F or her everyone is equally loving and
deserving. As a last resort, she splits the grain into smaller pieces and feed all of them at a time. She
does not want to reject any one of them. The mother sparrow has also keen observation, whether her
chicks have learnt to splits the grain or whether they can stand on their feet. As it is the responsibility
of the mother sparrow to train and polish her young ones f or practical life. In this stanza the poet
illustrate the justice of a mother f or her children or young ones. He has portrayed the unique and ideal
personality of a mother and highlights the problems which are to be resolved by the mother single
handedly. As it is well said: Hundreds of dewdrops to greet dawn; Hundreds of lamps in the purple
clover; Hundreds of butterflies in the lawn; But only one mother the world wide over. It is the
universal hallmark of the great and unique personality of mother that in this entire cold and hollow
world no one possesses deep, strong and deathless love except mother.
THE HOLLOW MEN T.S. ELIOT
We are the hollow men, we are the stuffed men. The first verses of the poem indicate a contradiction
that surprises us. Hollow means having a cavity within, implying the idea of `emptiness. It also has
a figurative meaning, that of lacking real value or significance. Stuffed, however, means filled by
packing things in (to the point of overflowing). So now we appreciate the difference between the

ideas of lack and abundance. But what do the hollow/stuffed men lack and what do they have in great
quantities? If we look at line 4 (Headpiece filled with straw) well notice the author highlights this
part of the body as the one `stuff , and considering the headpiece as the representation of the mind,
well assume that these two verses have a symbolic, figurative meaning: the hollow men who the
speaker belongs to ( We are)- are fulfilled with absurd, non-sense ideas and thoughts, causing them to
be in a contradiction in terms- empty and futile (lets look back at the second meaning of hollow).
Leaning together (line 3) works in the text as an adjective because of the absence of the verb `to be .
`To lean means to incline or bend from a vertical position. This indicates submission or even
surrender (Alas!, line 4, expressing unhappiness and pity), and it might also mean that the hollow men
are praying in their knees. This idea is supported by the following description of their voices: Our
dried voices, when we whisper together are quiet and meaningless. Their voices are not dry but dried,
connoting that theyve been dried by something or someone, but what or who? Thats something we
still ignore. When the hollow men in their leaning praying- whisper together, in group, their voices
have no sense, they dont even exist another contradiction, can a voice be quiet?-, they re hollow,
like the men themselves. In lines 8-10 the voices are compared with wind in dry grass or rats feet
over broken glass in our dry cellar. In both cases, we could argue that wind `doesnt affect dry grass
if it were humid, the wind would dry it anyway- and rats feet `aren`t affected by broken glass,
because of their size. Whats more, a cellar a basement- is supposed to possess humidity, but it is
dry, like the grass and the voices. This comparison greatly accentuates the `meaninglessness of the
voices, which is, by generalization, applicable to the men as well. The next stanza is configured by
two verses. The first one is Shape without form, shade without color. What may it mean? At first
glance, we could say that, f or instance, shape and form are synonyms and shape without form is
another contradiction that confirms the previous ideas about the poem. But the truth is that theyve got
a slight difference in meaning: a shape is the visible, external form of something, whereas a form is
the shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material or content. So, were dealing
with an element that can be distinguished by its external configuration but not by its inside. Shade
without color has a similar meaning. A shade is a partial darkness caused when something covers the
light, but its without color, that is, it doesnt cause any visual sensation, it cannot be perceived. The
whole verse gives us the idea of vanity and futility, as things can only be perceived indirectly through
their external appearance. The second verse in this stanza is Paralyzed force, gesture without motion.
Now were not in front of a f act of perception, but of movement. Its supposed that a force is a
mobile energy or power, but here its paralyzed, and a gesture, which can be static or not, is obviously
motionless. This verses emphasizes the concept of paralysis and stasis: everything is hollow and the
situation wont change. Furthermore, if we take into account both verses together, we obtain the
image of a `dead corpse: its just something material, static, completely soul-lacking and absent of
life. The last stanza makes reference to people apart from the hollow men (Those who have crossed
with direct eyes, to deaths other kingdom remember us). In this sentence, the use of the present
perfect instead of the present simple used so far gives us the idea of a past action recent in time, or
even a remote action with a present consequence. Its said that theyve crossed indicating
movement- with direct eyes, to deaths other kingdom. Direct eyes do not hesitate, move or close,
theyre always staring at the same point without blinking. Deaths other kingdom implies the
existence of another reality belonging to death. So those either knew where they were going or they
have simply not crossed to the beyond itself on their own, it seems that theyve had some kind of
guidance to one of its `parallel worlds; theyve been led. Those have a strong connection with us (the
hollow men), as they remember them, they knew who they were, but if at all (line 16) -without
necessity or just as a simple anecdote the hollow, stuffed men are remembered by those as such, and
not as lost, violent souls.

LEISURE William Henry Davies


What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. No time to stand beneath the
boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows. Reference: These verses have been taken from the poem
Leisure, which is written by William Davies. Context: In this poem, the poet has criticized the very
fast and busy style of life of the modern people. Being awfully busy in their worldly affairs, they do
not enjoy the beauty of the various animate and inanimate objects of Nature. He urges upon them to
spare some moments to stop, watch and enjoy the beauty of the living and lifeless objects of nature.
According to William Davies, life full of worries and troubles is worthless to live. Explanation: In
these verses the poet tells us that our life is full of worries and cares in modern times. And the
situation has become worse by the f act that we have no time left spare in our daily routine to stand f
or a while and see all around us the beauty of nature. We should have spare time t o see and observe
the nature all around us, standing under the green shady branches /trees like cows and sheep. Leisure
is to be got and nature to be enjoyed in that leisure, otherwise our life will always e be full of worries,
troubles and tensions. No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at night. Explanation: The poet feels
sorry f or the modern man, who is o busy in his material life that he has completely ignored his mental
e and spiritual life. When we pass through a green forest, we are unable to see the pretty and sweet
squirrels that are hiding their walnut in the grass. When we pass near by a stream, we ignore and do
not watch and enjoy its twinkling water waves, which are shinning as brightly on the earth as the sky
shines due to the twinkling stars at night. No time And watch No time Enrich to turn at Beauty's
glance, her feet, how they can dance. to wait till her mouth can that smile her eyes began.
Explanation: In these verses, the poet regrets that the modern man , being awfully busy in their
worldly affairs has no spare time to stop and turn to watch and enjoy :a. the beauty of Nature, b. how
beautifully her feet can dance; c. how her beautiful talk can add to that smile which her looks spread
and scatter later on. Here the poet has personified the beauty of Nature as a goddess of beauty, i.e. a
fair maiden, always smiling and dancing around us. A poor life this if, full of care, We have no time
to stand and stare. Explanation: In this concluding verse of the poem. In this verse, the poet has
expressed his opinion that our life, if it is always full of cares and worries, is very miserable. In f act,
he wants to say that we may be materially rich but, mentally and spiritually, our life becomes very
miserable and e poor if we do not have any spare time to stop, watch and enjoy the beauty of the
various objects of nature. ************ Describe the poem Leisure as a criticism on the time
worship? In this poem, Leisure worship of time and William the fast Davies moving has criticized
the life in the western e society .Modern man is missing the beauty of nature and the charm of
innumerable animate and inanimate objects. The poet repents that the modern people have become
materialistic and are sunken in their worldly and material pursuits. Moreover they are spiritually and
morally hollow. While moving through the forest they have no spare time to stop and observe the
beautiful squirrels, which are a part of the beauty of nature, are hiding the walnuts, in the grass. In
addition to it, they pass beside the streams; they do not observe the silvery bright waves, glittering just
like the stars which twinkle in the sky in the night. So they are neglecting and missing the beauty and
blessings of nature. At the same time they have no time to amuse themselves with the beauty f or lady
or the glance of goddess of beauty who also contributes to the beautiful nature. They have no time to
watch how marvelously her feet are moving and how her talk can enhance that magical smile which
her looks sprinkles later on. In this poem the poet personifies nature as a goddess of nature, which
the beauty of is always charming and fascinating So, those who have no spare time to enjoy the
beautiful images are unfortunate. The main theme of this poem is that the modern has totally
neglected the importance and beauty of nature and it is crystal clear that the modern man is more
sensitive towards the woes and anxieties of this modern and materialistic life.

RUBAIYAT
Allama Iqbal was a great thinker, philosopher and eminent poet of Sub-continent. His poetry is the
magnificent and melodious blend of mysticism and self-reliance. Allama Iqbal used poetry as a
platform to preach gospel that most people already believed in, yet none had the courage to stand up f
or. Like a weapon, saved f or the time of need, yet never actually taken out, f or the fear of hurting one
s own self. He used his poetry mainly to stir the slumbering oblivious masses of Muslim world
through thought provoking and deep rooted philosophy of life and religion. In other words, he used
poetry as a weapon of words to evoke the spirit of self-reliance and firm faith in the Muslims of
Subcontinent. He also wanted them to keep up their own trends and tradition. After loss of freedom, it
was his earnest desire that the Muslims must regain their glory and gravity as a nation. Iqbals poetry
did, in f act, arouse a whole nation.
Stanza 1. Faith is like Abraham at the stake to be Self-honouring and God-drunk is faith. Hear me,
You whom this ages way so captivate! To have no faith is worse than slavery. Reference: These
verses are taken from the Rubaiyat, which is written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal. poem Context: In
this short and thought provoking poem, Allama Iqbal has criticized and condemned the moral
hollowness and materialistic attitude of the modern society. He laments over the loss of faith, which
in f act maps out the direction of human soul. He is of the opinion that in this modern age of
materialism and fascination, faith strong like that of Hazrat Abraham (A.S) is needed. He also
emphasizes that Muslim harmony depends upon true faith in Islam. The Europeans lack faith and
spirituality that is why there is no harmony and fraternity among them. Muslims have become mad in
pursuit of foreign (Western) music and materialism, and have lost their identity and dignity as a
nation. Explanation: In this stanza, Iqbal has illustrated the power or force of faith by narrating the
example of Hazrat Abraham (A.S), Who was thrown into fire by His enemies, however, by dint of his
firm and unflinching faith, the fire was miraculously turned into a garden. It is only because of His
love f or religion and steadfastness. He (A.S) was God fearing and God loving, thats why Allah
blessed him and saved him from sufferings. It is owing to the hallmark of his unflinching faith in
religion that he was unmoved by the treats of His enemies. Later Iqbal addresses the whole Muslim
Nation and says that they have become a victim of the materialistic European or Western civilization
and captivated by the its glamour. He also holds the view that faithless person is the prisoner of
foreign trends and tradition, and faithlessness is worse than slavery. Faith is very basic to the
foundations of Islam. Iqbal wanted the Muslims to regain their lost prestige and vigour. He said on
another occasion: O Slumbering Muslim, arouse, you be dynamic too Lo! The Horizon is aglow, you
spur into action. Faith and freedom are part and parcel with each other. Freedom is not descended
upon a nation; a nation must raise itself to it. In this stanza, Iqbal regrets that the Muslims of his time,
have become a slave to modern materialistic world and have lost their faith in the healing power of
Islam.
Stanza 2. Music of strange lands with Islams fire blends, On which the nations harmony depends;
Empty concord is the soul of Europe, Whose civilization to no Mecca bends. Explanation : In theses
verses, Iqbal presents his analysis that the European /Western Culture and civilization lack harmony,
fraternity and good-will. They are materialistic and are fighting with one another f or baseless things.
Religious guideless have no appeal f or them. Here Iqbal also criticizes the Muslims f or bring
captivated and allured by the modern cult of music and glamour of European civilization. He holds
the view that Islam is torch-bearer in the blind alleys of European world of ignorance and materialism.
Islam is the only religion which brings harmony, uncountable blessings and fraternity in the human
society. The soul of Europeans lacks humanity, harmony and vigour; it has no light to guide or bless
Western people. They have no model like Islam to follow and their civilization stands alienated and

divided. Their civilization has no dignity and direction to lead its followers. However, the Muslims
have a great center i.e. Mecca which keeps all the Muslims united throughout the world . They gather
there with one aim, raise praise to Allah in one language (Arabic) and in one uniform (Ahram).
About faith and believers Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, A believer to another believer is like a building
whose different parts enforce each other. The Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) then clasped his hands
with the fingers interlaced (while saying that). This greatness is not found in European Civilization.
Stanza 3. Loves madness has departed: in The Muslims veins the blood runs thin; Ranks broken,
hearts perplexed, prayers cold, No feeling deeper than the skin. Explanation: Here is this stanza the
poet narrates in a pensive mood that the Muslims have lost fraternity and love f or Religion (Islam).
Their blood has become thin .i.e. they have become weak and their faith is frail. They lack unity,
discipline and dignity. They are leading astray by following the modern materialistic European
civilization, thats why they do not tolerate one another, their ranks are broken i.e. their fortification is
frail. They lost the glory, which was achieved by their ancestors. They are away from religion;
consequently their hearts are depressed and dejected. Moreover, their supplications are not effective
and are unsanctioned.
THE TALE OF TWO CITIES
Q2. Under what circumstances the victims have to pass through?
Ans. The victims had to pass through the worse experience of human history. It was a heart rending
and terrible spectacle of destruction and human misery, which turned the beautiful smiling Cities of
Nagasaki and Hiroshima into deep dark valley of tears, taking away the loving one, depriving mother
of their loving sons, women of their husbands bringing to them unbearable misery and unrealizable
loss. It was an acute agony as the cries of the grieved and bereaved mother and injured citizens lying
in the open fields, were echoing everywhere. There was no flesh on the arms and legs of the dead
persons or victims of this disaster as the edges of their white bones were visible under their charred
skin. However, the poet pays tribute to the brave and courageous people of these two devastated cities
as they bore the miseries and pains with immense dignity.
Q3. Describe the scene of devastation?
Ans. It was a heart rending and terrible spectacle of death and destruction of human life and property.
The environment of both the cities was woeful, which were turned into wilderness in few seconds.
Moreover, the intensity of the radiations so severe that the all the victims turned into ashes. The
concrete houses and buildings were reduced to rubble. The hills were presenting a horrible bald
structure. The dead bodies were lying everywhere, with no one to dispose off. There was neither any
help f or the injured nor coffin f or the dead. After this tragedy, Nagasaki was presenting the sketch of
hell and a deadly vale of tears and suffering. Such suffering could not be borne by anyone even by a
brute.
Q4. What is the theme of the poem?
Ans. Man has been fighting wars since time immemorial, but in the ancient time war was not f ought
on a large scale making use of highly destructive weapons. The invention these weapons have turned
this f airy land into a sphere of suffering and misery, where clouds of unprecedented death are
prevailing. If at all weapons should be retained and developed then these should be for defence
purpose and for marinating freedom only. But it will be far better if these weapons are destroyed
internationally and all the nations must enter a treaty or pact that they will not be violating the law of
abandoning and destroying the law of highly destructive weapons. Through this poem, the poet wants

to preach the idea that war is not the end of all the human problems. Man is the Crown of Creation; he
must maintain the sanctity of human life and freedom. However, the courageous and determined e
nations are never threatened by death and destruction, they even possess the ability to grow gardens
out of ashes. This is proved by the Japanese and they have uplifted themselves as a great nation. It is
being said by the world bodies like UNO and its allies that they will use the modern technology f or
the well being of the humanity as a whole, but most of the scientists belonging to highly advanced
counties have failed to follow their faith in the well being of humanity. The modern scientists
ironically are not serving their nation or humanity but they are the creator of troubles who have the
license to invent devastating weapons, highly dangerous gases and chemicals in order to become
famous and pioneer in extermination of their enemys race. The scientific and technological progress
of man has pushed mankind into a hopeless abyss and a dark vale of tears. After observing and
suffering through two world wars and the violence against two great cities of Japan, man has not
rejected the invention of highly explosive chemicals and weapons of mass destruction and all the
nations are working on Darwin s principle i.e. Survival of the fittest. Man should not celebrate at the
death of his enemy because his own lif is also uncertain as it is well remarked e by the Mian
Muhammad Bukhsh, Dont rejoice on the death of your enemy as your friend too has to die.
############## CRITICAL SUMMARY MY NEIGHBOUR FRIEND BREATHING HIS LAST
Bullah Shah was a great saint and mystic poet. In this poem, he highlights the harsh reality of death
and love of Allah. He also advises others to f ear God and keep themselves ready f or death. moments
comes The of poet life. across This the is witnessing death scene wretched neighbours his terrifies
reality of the life i.e. last poet. death He and cant be averted by even thousand laments. Every person
in this world is like a traveler in the train of life, who is to depart sooner or later. Death brings end to
everything and is a door to the world of eternity. The dead person passes away but leaves behind
mourners. They cry and mourn over his death but to no avail as death is a dark camel, which kneels at
every mans gate. Life is an uncertain there ready is f or realizes voyage; no it. escape It is a that yet
death from f act is death a is certain Thus must get death. that reality and by witnessing death that we
all have one to experience. It is never desirable to lose a loved one. Death is never a charming sight.
The poet world f eels appears the to be pangs of his insignificant friend s after the departure;
departure the of the loved-one. The poet thinks that a man can def eat death only by gaining the love
of God in this world as well as the world hereafter. Thus man is at a loss if he doesnt love Allah and
lead his life in the ways prescribed by religion. The poet emphasizes the temporary stay of man in
this world. According to him the only valuable and everlasting thing and relation in this world is the
love of Allah. HE CAME TO KNOW HIMSELF The poem He Came to Know Himself is written by
Schal Sarmast. The poet wants to acknowledge his love f or the Creator-the Almighty. Allah is the
Creator of everything including man and love of Allah is the everlasting relation in this universe. The
poet stresses that man has come to this world with a quest and mission. He must make efforts to know
himself and in these efforts he stumbles upon the love of God. Mans love f or God helps him to
meditate (think/ponder) and worship with keen interest. Man is on a journey to self-discovery and in
this process he discovers Gods love. He comes closer and closer to God. The poet wants man to
know God by knowing himself. Once man realizes creation that created he by is God, a he wonderful
starts thing/ crown appreciating God of and developing a strong bond with him. The poet uses the
famous personalities from religion and history to interpret his point of view. If man moves on the
ways prescribed by the Creator, definitely He also showers a cascade of blessing on man. The poet
gives the example of Mansur, who was a sufi dervaish and was so deeply sunken in the love of God
that he even didnt stepped back from having his head cut off f or the love of Lord. Mansur happily
went to the gallows because he has discovered himself and thus discovered God. It was this love of
God which brought Hazrat Yousaf (A.S) to the slave market of Egypt to be sold as a slave only f or

the love of God. In the end, the poet says that he speaks the bare truth i.e. the temporary stay of man
in this world and nothing is everlasting except the love of the Lord. ************************
GODs ATTRIBUTES
STANZA- I God calls Himself Seeing to the end that His eye may scare you from sinning. God
calls Himself Hearing to the end that You may close your lips against foul discourse. God calls
Himself Knowing to the end that You may be afraid of Him to plot an evil. Reference: These
Jalaluddin Rumis verses have Poem Gods been taken Attributes, form which is translated into
English by Dr. Nicholson. Context: In this short poem, Rumi has sung the praises of God and His
attributes. He says that God is Omnipresent (Present everywhere), Omniscient (all knowing and all
seeing) and Omnipotent (Almighty/Supreme). How clear of sight is He and keen of hearing! (Al-Kahf
(The Cave) - Roukh 4). Rumi also believes that all these attributes of God are so blessed and
commanding that human beings refrain from committing sins and avoid forbidden attributes of things.
God are He not further mere says vain that titles these but meaningful and effective f or character &
soul building to be successful in this world as well as in the area and life hereafter. These names also
prevent us from conspiracy and any kind of loathsome (immoral) discourse/ discussion. Explanation:
In these verses, the poet describes that God calls himself All Seeing, All Hearing, All Knowing
i.e. , Omniscient and Omnipresent. The poet says that these unique attributes create f ear in our hearts
and we step back from sin and crime. The knowledge that God has a keen eye on all of his creatures,
prevents us from sinning. The f act that He is hearing everything, even the whispers in our hearts and
the thought process in our minds make us fearful of loathsome and immoral conversation. As it
appears in the Holy Quran, "Nothing is like Him; and He is The Hearer, The Seer." (ash-Shura 42/11)
The truth that God is All Knowing i.e. Omniscient even the secrets of hearts, creates a terror in human
being and refrain them from conspiracy (plotting) and backbiting. Allah is the omniscient, Whose
knowledge comprehends in the most perfect manner all things, hidden or open, the small and the
great. Nothing is absent from His knowledge, nor anything is hidden from Him even if it be the
weight of the smallest ant. Whether at rest or in motion, the state of things is known to Him prior to
and during its occurrence. He is neither heedless nor is He errant. Gods attribute of Omnipresence
is beautifully narrated in the Holy Quran in the following words: "There is no secret conference of
three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less or more but He is with them
wherever they be: And afterward, on the Day of Resurrection, He will inform them of what they did.
Indeed, Allah is Knower of All Things." (al-Mujadalah 58/7) STANZA II These are not mere
accidental names of God As a Negro may be called camphor; So are these names derived from Gods
attributes, And not mere vain titles of the First Cause. Explanation: attributes are In these verses,
Rumi believes that Gods not illogical or vain /futile, but have an important effect and significance f
or the character building, and salvation of human beings. These names/ attributes have a distilling
effect and purify our intentions and reform the soul. Human being may be dignified and distinguished
by their specific titles, but no one has unique qualities and beautiful & blessed attributes like that of
God. Comparing Gods attributes to Human titles will be just like comparing a Negro with white
aromatic camphor. However, Gods attributes are His real qualities and are genuine, absolutes &
significant. **********************
LOVE AN ESSENCE OF ALL RELIGIONS BY Jalaluddin Rumi
Stanza1: Through love thorns becomes roses and Through love vinegar becomes sweet wine, Through
love the stake becomes a throne, Through love misfortune becomes good fortune, Through love
burning fire becomes pleasing light, Through love stone becomes soft as butter. Reference: These
verses have been taken from the poem, Love An Essence of All Religions written by an eminent

Persian poet -Jalaluddin Rumi. Context: In this poem, the poet has drawn our attention to the power
and hallmark of love, which is the soul and spirit of all the religions. Love is an act of endless
forgiveness, a tender look, which turns adversities into pleasure, for instance, thorns become roses,
vinegar becomes sweet wine, burning fire becomes a bright pleasing light, sickness becomes health
and a king becomes a humble slave. Love is a light, which brightens the dark alley of hate and spreads
its warm tender feelings and hopes. Love is spontaneous and craves expression through joy, through
beauty, through truth, even through tearsLove is like a moment; which is neither lost in yesteryears
nor does it crave for tomorrow. The sole reason of war, hate and suffering in the world, is religious
differences, if all the religions give vent to love, this world can become a safer place f or the future
generations. In other words, life friendships. To is to love, be and fortified to be by many loved, is the
greatest happiness of existence. Explanation: In this stanza or verses the poet Jalaluddin Rumi reflects
that love is a great force in human life which , brings radical changes. Although, life is the bed of
thorns, e replete with dread and destruction, yet according to Rumi, it can become a bed of roses with
sweet fragrance and warm smiles, if it (life) is mingled with love. Love can change pain into pleasure
through its miraculous and supernatural effect. It is love, which alters a post to which a person is tired
f or execution to throne and inspires him f or the execution of his goals/ ambitions. Rumi further
illustrates that love is the force which mould the detestable (hateful) passions into everlasting warm
feeling. Through love a stones-hearted and stubborn (inflexible) becomes gentle, humble and flexible
to compassionate feeling. With sword and hate one cannot bring the whole world to
subjugation/subjection, it is only love, which conquers the undefeatable and paves all the hurdles, as it
is well remarked by Martin Luther King: Hate cannot drive out hate Only love can do that. Stanza
2. Through love grief becomes a joy, Through love lion becomes harmless Through love sickness
become health Through love the wrath seems to be a mercy, Through love the dead rise to life,
Through love the king becomes a slave. Explanation: In these verses, Jalaluddin Rumi soothing
consoles and healing power of love. It highlights the poor grieved people and makes life worth of
enjoying. It reforms the callous man to humble and celebrated citizen. According to Rumi even the
harmless and humble. ferocious beast i.e. lion can become as It is love, which helps man to get rid of
physical and spiritual sickness. It brings a deprived and dejected man to life Love derives away all
human worries, as it is well said by Sophocles: One word Frees us all the weight and pain of life; That
word is love, Love has also civilizing effect, which can make a proud, cruel and obstinate (unyielding)
king as humble as slave. In this poem, the poet Jalaluddin Rumi is of the view that love is a great
force in private and public life It draws the map of human emotion towards affection and kindness. It
is like a feeling that emanates from the heart and extends through the blood to every cell of the body.
Hate ca not deed forgive bring off and the world to subjection man, according to Hazrat forget. Love
is greater and the best Ali(R.A), is to than illusions and as strong as death. Love is like a lamp, which
needs to be fed out of oil of anothers heart; otherwise its flame burns low.
*****************************
IN THE BROKEN IMAGES
He is quick, thinking in clear images; I am slow, thinking in broken images. Reference: These verses
have been taken from the poem In Broken Images by Robert Graves. Context: In this poem, the
poet has highlighted two kinds of persons having different and quite opposite ways of thinking. The
first type of person sees everything in clear images and trusts them without questioning. Soon he
comes up with f acts that later prove to be wrong. Thus all his efforts go waste and he is conf used.
Whereas the other types of person sees life is broken images and he does not trust them. He questions
everything and when the f acts f ail him, he is not confused. He appreciates his senses and develops a
new understanding from his failures. So life should not be taken at its f ace value because our

inquisitive nature helps us to grow and find new meaning in different realities of life As life is 10%
what happens to you and 90% how you react to it. Explanation: A person perceives life in simple and
clear images. He has pre-conceived notions about everything in life. He trusts everything that he sees.
He is quick in making decisions based on his previous knowledge. He doesnt question the f acts
while there is another person who sees life like a broken and scattered glass painting or jigsaw puzzle.
He contemplates a lost and keeps thinking about problems and f acts of life He questions his senses
and the. f acts of life When he is faced with failure he is not confused because he learns through his
failure and trails. Life is the art of drawing without an eraser. Life isn't about finding yourself. Life is
about creating yourself. He becomes dull, trusting to his clear images; I become sharp, mistrusting my
broken images. Explanation:- The person, who is overconfident about his abilities and clear images,
becomes dull and dead. His faculties are not sharp because he doesnt believe in practice and its
potential. All this makes him idle, which is the beginning of all vices. The other person does not trust
anything. He does not believe in whatever he sees. All the images are broken f or him.
Disappointment and failure help him to make more alert and sharp. Success depends upon previous
preparation, and without such preparation there is sure to be failure. Trusting his images, he assumes
their relevance; Mistrusting my images, I question their relevance. Explanation :- The person, who
trusts his images is also quick to assume their truth and clarity. He becomes so used to trusting
everything that he becomes ignorant. He believes his f acts without questioning that he becomes
ignorant. He believes in his f acts without questioning and this leads him towards confusion and
failure. The other kind of person never believes in his images. He questions the truth of every matter.
He is never satisfied. He keeps questioning his findings and as a result keeps growing. Such a person
has potential to develop. Assuming their relevance, he assumes the fact; Questioning their relevance, I
question their fact. Explanation: - The ignorant man assumes everything based on his previous
knowledge. He considers all his findings as relevant, important and truthful. Soon he draws f acts and
conclusions from his images which all bound to disappoint him later on. The other man questions
everything as he does not trust his broken images. He can never be satisfied with his knowledge. Even
if he finds a f act reaches a sound conclusion, it is incomplete f or him. When the fact fails him, he
questions his senses; when the fact fails me, I approve my senses. Explanation :-The ignorant man is
not ready to accept failure. When his f acts prove him wrong, he loses control and questions his
understanding and his senses. He loses hope and becomes disappointed as the outcome wad against
his expectations. The confused person, when f aced with failure is least bothered by it. As he was
already expecting it, failure is no shock f or him. He approves of his senses and inquisitive nature. The
questioning of his broken images has given him a sense of confidence. As it is well remarked that our
greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we f all. He continues quick and dull in
his clear images; I continue slow and sharp in my broken images. Explanation: The person, who sees
life in clear images is at a loss. The whole process has turned him into a dull and doubtful person. He
trusted too much on his previous knowledge. This affected his understanding of f acts in an adverse
manner. The person, who sees life in broken images, becomes sharp in intellect and reasoning.
Although he has already mistrusted everything yet his failure enriches his thoughts. He in a new
confusion of his understanding; I in a new understanding of my confusion Explanation: The man, who
has a clear view of life in the beginning of the poem, is all confused when it ends. He thinks that he
knows everything, which is great mistake on his part. He does not question f acts and happenings,
thus takes them relevant. This results in his failure and he starts doubting his understanding and his
senses. The man, who is conf used about his broken images in the beginning of the poem, has gained
a new insight into the reality of life His questioning of the acts helps him to see everything in a
different light. His inquisitive nature opens up a new avenue of thoughts f or him. He has emerged as
a strong and intelligent person from his confusion.

IN BROKEN IMAGES
The poem In Broken Images by Robert Graves is a philosophical poem depicting a moral lesson.
Life is a mixture e of confusion and understanding. The poet tells us that the broken images clear his
confusion and give him an understanding of the reality of life is full of twists and turns; its never
simple and straightforward. The road of life twists and turns and no two directions are ever the same.
Yet our lessons come from the journey, not the destination. The poet stresses that a man should
remain inquisitive (inquiring) about the images of life whether they e are broken or clear. A person
who trusts his clear images without proof becomes dull in life and his all capabilities are e rusted due
to idleness. He questions his senses after the failure of f acts but mistakes. He continues confused. On
the does other to not be hand, learn dull a and there is lesson in the form end another his he man is
who mistrusts his broken images. He thinks, observes, verifies the f acts and concludes result using
the scientific method. He questions his f acts and is not disappointed when his f acts f him. Instead he
develops confidence in his senses. In this ail way, he acquires deep insight of a scientist and a
philosopher. His sharpness and intelligence are polished. Thus we should always remain thoughtful
and considerate about the f acts of life A clear and definite way of thinking e. can lead us to the
ground realities of life. As life is the art e of drawing without an eraser.